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  1. (Un)informed Consent:
  2. Studying GDPR Consent Notices in the Field
  3. Christine Utz Martin Degeling Sascha Fahl
  4. Ruhr-Universitit Bochum Ruhr-Universitit Bochum Ruhr-Universitit Bochum
  5. Bochum, Germany Bochum, Germany Bochum, Germany
  6. christine.utz@rub.de martin.degeling@rub.de sascha. fahl@rub.de
  7. Florian Schaub Thorsten Holz
  8. University of Michigan Ruhr-Universitit Bochum
  9. Ann Arbor, Michigan Bochum, Germany
  10. fschaub@umich.edu thorsten.holz@rub.de
  11.  
  12. ABSTRACT ‘These new laws uphold the idea of informational self-determination
  13. After theadoption of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) by increasing transparency requirements for companies’ data col-
  14. in May 2018, more than 60 % of popular websites in Europe were ~ lection practices and strengthening individuals’ rights regarding
  15. found to display a cookie consent notice. This has quickly led to their personal data. In the European Union, the GDPR's impact
  16. users becoming fatigued with privacy notifications and contributed ~ Was twofold. While the number of third-party services on web-
  17. to the rise of both browser extensions that block these banners ~ sites barely changed [37], they instead now ask users for consent
  18. and demands for a solution that bundles consent across multiple ~ Prior to setting cookies in their browser. An increasing number of
  19. websites or in the browser. In this work, we identify common prop-  Websites now display (cookie) consent notics, often referred to as
  20. erties of the graphical user interface of consent notices and conduct cookie banners”. Their design and complexity greatly vary - the
  21. three studies with more than 50,000 unique users on a German  Simplest notices merely state that the website uses cookies without
  22. website to investigate their influence on consent. We find thatusers ~ any details or options, while the most complex allow visitors to
  23. are more likely to interact with a notice shown in the lower (left) individually (de)select cach third-party service used by the website.
  24. part of the sereen. Given a binary choice, more users are willing 1 mid-2018, about 627 of popular websites in the EU were found
  25. to accept tracking compared to mechanisms that require them to 1o display a consent notice, an increase of up to 45 percentage
  26. allow cookie use for cach category or company individually, We ~ Points in some countries [10]. Paired with the fact that consent
  27. also show that the practice of nudging is widely uscd and hasalarge ~ otices often cover parts of the website’s main content, this high
  28. effect on the choices users make. Our studics have implications for  Prevalence hasled website visitors to become fatigued with consent
  29. future regulations and the design of consent notices that encourage ~ mechanisms [6]. Consequently, tools have emerged that provide
  30. users ta actively make an informed choice. pragmatic workarounds - one example is the ‘I don't care about
  31. ACM Reference Format cookies” browser extension [19]. But oftentimes this only leads to
  32. Christine Utz, Martin Degeling, Sascha Fahl, Florian Schaub, and Thorsten dateollection taldng place withutcansent sinde the de fuult i
  33. Holz. 2019. (Un)informed Consent: Studying GDPR Consent Notices in the manyweblites 15 {6, employ user Hacking unless the'visitor has
  34. Field. In 2019 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications ~ ©Pted out [16], and 80% of popular EU websites do not offer any
  35. Security (CCS’19), November 11-15, 2019, London, United Kingdom. ACM, type of opt out at all [10].
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