Hayton- Historical Flowers of the Oriental World - 1400-1410
- Hayton , Fleur des estoires de la terre d'Orient - 1400-1410 BCE.
- Introduction from the Translator: I have begin translating this very old book with a gothic style middle to old French which is the first hand account of Hayton, a monk tasked to travel into Asia to learn of the people in the East. In my historical research into Tartaria, I have been hard pressed to find primary sources of people who went there, and reported what they saw. Thankfully, I came across this book while searching for something completely different, and I would have passed it over had I not landed on just the right page where I saw the words Tartar, Emperor, and "Cangis Can" AKA Genghis Kahn! I've only just started delving into this document, but for those of you interested in first hand account of the great Tartarain Empire, enjoy the read!
- P.S. I skipped the first three books to get the meat of Tartaria.
- Hayton - La Fleur des Estoires de la Terre d’Orient
- Book One
- Chapter One
- From the kingdom of Cathay
- The kingdom of Cathay is considered to be the noblest kingdom and the richest in the world, it is on the shore of the Occan Sea. All the islands there is in the sea that man could not easily know the number. The people who live in this kingdom are called, Cathars. And they are found between (half-colored/meints ? ) waters of men and women, their nations are united, but all have oils (moult n peliz ?), and are bearded. These people have letters that look like Latin letters and speak a language that is different from other languages of the world.
- Book 3
- Chapter 1
- Here begins the third part of that book, which tells of the nation of the Tartars.
- The land and the region where the Tartars were predominant is beyond the great mountains of Belgian. Of these mountains the stories of Alexander's speak of, where he mentions the wild men he found. In this region, moreover, the Tartars, if like bestial men, who had no faith or royalty, from place to place were [known *] mighty beasts, and were visibly held to other nations to which it served. Several nations of Tatars, who were named Mongols, assemble, and ordained knights and governors between the waters. And so it was believed of one who departs in this country, and until today those of these nations are held more noble than the others. The first of these regions are called Tartar, the second Tangot, the third (?), the fourth Jalairs, the fifth Sonit, the sixth inaugli (mangli ?), the seventh Tibet.
- In denials that those seen nations demonstrated in the subjection of the neighbors, if as said above, it happened that an old man, maybe a feverish man, who had the name Canguis (Genghis), saw in a dream a vision; for he saw an armed knight on a white horse who called him by name, and said to him “ Canguis (Genghis), the will of the immortal God is such that you must be a governor and Lord over the VII nations of the Tartars who say Mongols, and that if they are delivered from savages that have been there for a long time, and will have dominion over their neighbors.” Genghis rose joyfully, hearing the word of God and told everyone the vision he had seen.
- The gentlemen and the Majors don't want to believe, so they make fun of the old man. But it came to pass that at night, the head of one of the Nations, saw the white knight, and thus one, just as Genghis had counted. And asked from immortal God that all obey Genghis and make everyone keep his commands. Of which it came to pass that the said chiefs above would assemble the people of the Tartars, and made obedience and reverence to Genghis, and did this as their natural lord.
- Chapter 2
- How the Tartars first made and elevated their lord, and named him kahn.
- After this the Tatars established a seat in between the waters, and spread a black felt there on earth and Genghis sat upon it, and the chieftains of the nations lifted it up against the felt, and put it on the seat, and named him Kahn, and in welcoming him, all honor and reverence are given, as to their lord. Of the solemnity that the Tartars were to their lord in that time no one should wonder: because by adventure they knew how to gain fame, or they no longer had a beautiful sheet on which he pretended to be their lord. But of those who did not wish to change their first custom, provide themselves with the marvels which have conquered so much land and kingdoms, and still today they have their first custom. Whoever they want is their lord. And I've been to the selection of the Tartar Emperor two times. They gathered in a large field, and whoever was to be their lord they made him sit down on black felt, and his seat was placed in the middle of the waters. After the venerating the higher men, only lineage is then raised high, and sits on the seat and then makes him revere and honor as to their natural lord, not for lordship nor for all that they have conquered not wanting to change their first custom. After when Genghis Khan was made emperor by will and consent of all the Tartars. All before Genghis Kahn did anything else, he wanted to know that all of them would be obedient so he ordered three commandments. The first commandment was that all doubt and confess to immortal God by whom he was made emperor. And those that ever treat these Tartar commandments to doubt and confess and to name the name of God throughout their works. The second commandment was that they make count all those arms that could be carried. And ordered that the domain be divided by tenths of each chieftain, and of these ten Chieftains, there are ten thousand to be gathered by each chieftain. And was hence called the country of ten thousand leaders.
- More to come!
- Here is the Original book in the Middle and Old French if you would like to see how challenging it is translating these texts. The link starts at the beginning of the 3rd Book:
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