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converting_numbers_from_one_base_to_another.c

Nov 26th, 2019
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  1. /*
  2.     Unfinished...
  3.     It will be continued...
  4.  
  5.     converting_numbers_from_one_base_to_another.c   by Dragan Milicev
  6.  
  7.  
  8.     There are 4 bases of numbers that we work with: 2, 8, 10, 16.
  9.  
  10.     2
  11.     Binary number system is a base 2 number system.
  12.     It uses only two symbols i.e. 0 and 1 to represent all numbers.
  13.  
  14.     8
  15.     Octal number system is a base 8 number system.
  16.     It uses 8 symbols to represent all its numbers i.e. 01234567
  17.  
  18.     10
  19.     Decimal number system is a base 10 number system.
  20.     It uses 10 symbols to represent all its numbers i.e. 0123456789
  21.  
  22.     16
  23.     Hexadecimal number system is a base 16 number system.
  24.     It uses 16 symbols to represent all numbers i.e. 0123456789ABCDEF
  25.  
  26.     There 12 functions for conversions:
  27.  
  28.     2-8     2-10    2-16
  29.     8-10    8-16
  30.     10-16
  31.  
  32.     16-10   16-8    16-2
  33.     10-8    10-2
  34.     8-2
  35.  
  36.     In case you want to work with long binary numbers like 20 bits or 30 bit,
  37.     you can use string variable to store the binary numbers.
  38.  
  39.     Functions convert string numbers to string numbers or
  40.     numbers to numbers, so there are 12 * 2 = 24 functions.
  41.  
  42. //  1. 2-8, (strings)
  43. //  2. 2-8, (numbers), DONE
  44. //  3. 2-10, (strings) DONE
  45. //  4. 2-10, (numbers) DONE
  46. //  5. 2-16, (strings)
  47. //  6. 2-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  48.  
  49. //  7. 8-10, (strings)
  50. //  8. 8-10, (numbers)
  51. //  9. 8-16, (strings)
  52. // 10. 8-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  53.  
  54. // 11. 10-16, (strings) DONE
  55. // 12. 10-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  56.  
  57. // 13. 16-10, (strings) DONE
  58. // 14. 16-10, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  59. // 15. 16-8, (strings)
  60. // 16. 16-8, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  61. // 17. 16-2, (strings)
  62. // 18. 16-2, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  63.  
  64. // 19. 10-8, (strings)
  65. // 20. 10-8, (numbers)
  66. // 21. 10-2, (strings), DONE
  67. // 22. 10-2, (numbers), DONE
  68.  
  69. // 23. 8-2, (strings), DONE
  70. // 24. 8-2, (numbers), DONE
  71.  
  72.  
  73.     You can find all my C programs at Dragan Milicev's pastebin:
  74.  
  75.     https://pastebin.com/u/dmilicev
  76.  
  77. */
  78.  
  79. #include <stdio.h>
  80. #include <string.h>
  81. #include <math.h>           // for function pow()
  82.  
  83. #define MAX_SIZE 100
  84.  
  85.  
  86.  
  87. // 1. 2-8, (strings), binary to octal
  88. // Function to convert string of a Binary Number to an string of Octal Number
  89. // https://www.knowprogram.com/c-programming/convert-octal-to-binary-and-binary-to-octal/
  90. // With decimal point:
  91. // https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/convert-binary-number-octal/
  92. char *BinToOct_Strings( char *binNumS, char *octNumS )
  93. {
  94. // ... add code ...
  95.     return octNumS;
  96. } // BinToOct_Strings()
  97.  
  98.  
  99. // 2. 2-8, (numbers), binary to octal
  100. // Function to convert an Binary Number to Octal Number
  101. // https://www.programiz.com/c-programming/examples/octal-binary-convert
  102. // https://codeforwin.org/2015/08/c-program-to-convert-binary-to-octal-number-system.html
  103. // https://www.sanfoundry.com/c-program-convert-binary-octal/
  104. int BinToOct( long long binaryNumber, long long* octalNumber )
  105. {
  106.     int decimalNumber = 0, i = 0;
  107.     //long long octalNumber = 0;
  108.  
  109.     *octalNumber = 0;                       // reset octalNumber
  110.  
  111.     while(binaryNumber != 0)
  112.     {
  113.         decimalNumber += (binaryNumber%10) * pow(2,i);
  114.         i++;
  115.         binaryNumber/=10;
  116.     }
  117.  
  118.     i = 1;
  119.  
  120.     while (decimalNumber != 0)
  121.     {
  122.         *octalNumber += (decimalNumber % 8) * i;
  123.         decimalNumber /= 8;
  124.         i *= 10;
  125.     }
  126.  
  127.     return *octalNumber;
  128. } // BinToOct()
  129.  
  130.  
  131. // 3. 2-10, (strings), binary to decade
  132. // Function to convert string of a Binary Number to a string of Decade Number
  133. char *BinToDec_Strings( char *binNumS, char *convertedNumS )
  134. {
  135.     int i;
  136.     int dec_value = 0;
  137.     int base = 1;                   // Initializing base value to 1, i.e 2^0
  138.     int len = strlen(binNumS);
  139.  
  140.     strcpy(convertedNumS,"");       // empty string convertedNumS
  141.  
  142.     for ( i=len-1; i>=0; i--) {
  143.  
  144.         if ( *(binNumS+i) == '1' )
  145.             dec_value += base;
  146.  
  147.         base = base * 2;
  148.     }
  149.  
  150.     sprintf(convertedNumS,"%d",dec_value);  // convert dec_value to string
  151.  
  152.     return convertedNumS;
  153. } // BinToDec_Strings
  154.  
  155.  
  156. // 4. 2-10, (numbers), binary to decade
  157. // Function to convert Binary Number to Decade Number
  158. long long BinToDec( long long binNum, long long* decNum )
  159. {
  160.     int base = 1;       // Initializing base value to 1, i.e 2^0
  161.     int last_digit;
  162.  
  163.     *decNum = 0;    // reset decNum
  164.  
  165.     while( binNum ) {
  166.         last_digit = binNum % 10;
  167.  
  168.         binNum = binNum / 10;
  169.  
  170.         *decNum += last_digit * base;
  171.  
  172.         base = base * 2;
  173.     }
  174.  
  175.     return *decNum;
  176. } // BinToDec
  177.  
  178.  
  179. // 5. 2-16, (strings)
  180. // 6. 2-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  181.  
  182. // 7. 8-10, (strings)
  183. // 8. 8-10, (numbers)
  184. // 9. 8-16, (strings)
  185. // 10. 8-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  186.  
  187.  
  188. // 11. 10-16, (strings), decade to hexadecimal
  189. // Function to convert string of a Decade Number to a string of a Hexadecimal Number
  190. // https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/program-decimal-hexadecimal-conversion/
  191. char *DecToHex_Strings( char *decNumS, char *convertedNumS )
  192. {
  193.     int temp;                   // temp is temporary variable to store remainder
  194.     int i=0;                    // i is counter for string decNumS
  195.     int j;                      // j is counter for reverse order
  196.     int k=0;                    // k is counter for convertedNumS
  197.     int dec_num = atoi(decNumS);// convert string decNumS to integer dec_num
  198.     int len;                    // lenght of convertedNumS
  199.     char mem_char;
  200.  
  201.     strcpy(convertedNumS,"");   // empty string convertedNumS
  202.  
  203.     while( dec_num != 0 )
  204.     {
  205.         temp  = 0;              // temporary variable to store remainder
  206.  
  207.         temp = dec_num % 16;    // storing remainder in temp variable
  208.  
  209.         if( temp < 10 )         // check if temp < 10
  210.             *(convertedNumS + (i++) ) = temp + 48;
  211.         else
  212.             *(convertedNumS + (i++) ) = temp + 55;
  213.  
  214.         dec_num = dec_num / 16;
  215.     }
  216.  
  217.     *(convertedNumS+i) = '\0';  // terminate the string convertedNumS
  218.  
  219.     len = strlen(convertedNumS);
  220.  
  221.     for( i=0,j=len-1; i<len/2; i++,j-- )    // reverse string convertedNumS
  222.     {
  223.         mem_char = *(convertedNumS+i);
  224.         *(convertedNumS+i) = *(convertedNumS+j);
  225.         *(convertedNumS+j) = mem_char;
  226.     }
  227.  
  228.     return convertedNumS;
  229. } // DecToHex_Strings
  230.  
  231.  
  232. // 12. 10-16, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  233.  
  234.  
  235. // 13. 16-10, (strings), hexadecimal to decade
  236. // Function to convert string of a Hexadecimal Number to a string of Decade Number
  237. // https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/program-hexadecimal-decimal/
  238. char *HexToDec_Strings( char *hexNumS, char *convertedNumS )
  239. {
  240.     int base = 1;               // Initializing base value to 1, i.e 16^0
  241.     int i, dec_val = 0;
  242.     int len=strlen(hexNumS);
  243.  
  244.     strcpy(convertedNumS,"");   // empty string convertedNumS
  245.  
  246.     for( i=len-1; i>=0; i-- )   // Extracting characters as digits from last character
  247.     {
  248.         // if character lies in '0'-'9', converting it to integral 0-9
  249.         // by subtracting 48 from ASCII value.
  250.         if( *(hexNumS+i)>='0' && *(hexNumS+i)<='9' )
  251.         {
  252.             dec_val += (*(hexNumS+i) - 48) * base;
  253.             base = base * 16;   // incrementing base by power
  254.         }
  255.  
  256.         // if character lies in 'A'-'F' , converting it to integral 10-15
  257.         // by subtracting 55 from ASCII value
  258.         else if( *(hexNumS+i)>='A' && *(hexNumS+i)<='F' )
  259.         {
  260.             dec_val += ( *(hexNumS+i) - 55) * base;
  261.             base = base * 16;   // incrementing base by power
  262.         }
  263.     }
  264.  
  265.     sprintf(convertedNumS, "%d", dec_val ); // convert dec_val to string
  266.  
  267.     return convertedNumS;
  268. } // BinToDec_Strings
  269.  
  270.  
  271. // 14. 16-10, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  272. // 15. 16-8, (strings)
  273. // 16. 16-8, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  274. // 17. 16-2, (strings)
  275. // 18. 16-2, (numbers), impossible because hexadecimal letters cannot be represented by integer
  276.  
  277. // 19. 10-8, (strings)
  278. // 20. 10-8, (numbers)
  279.  
  280.  
  281. // 21. 10-2, (strings), decade to binary
  282. // Function to convert string of a Decade Number to a string of Binary Number
  283. // https://www.includehelp.com/c-programs/c-program-to-convert-number-from-decimal-to-binary.aspx
  284. // https://codereview.stackexchange.com/questions/192390/convert-binary-string-to-decimal-number
  285. char *DecToBin_Strings( char *decNumS, char *convertedNumS )
  286. {
  287.     int number, i, j=0, r ;     // i for bin[], j for convertedNumS, r for reverse order
  288.     int bin[MAX_SIZE];
  289.  
  290.     strcpy(convertedNumS,"");   // empty string convertedNumS
  291.  
  292.     number = atoi(decNumS);     // convert string to integer
  293.  
  294.     i=0;                        // initialize index to zero
  295.  
  296.     while( number>0 )
  297.     {
  298.         bin[i] = number % 2;
  299.         number = number / 2;
  300.         i++;
  301.     }
  302.  
  303.     // print values of bin[r] in reverse order to convertedNumS
  304.     for( r=i-1; r>=0; r-- )
  305.         sprintf( convertedNumS + (j++), "%d", bin[r] );
  306.  
  307.     *(convertedNumS+j) = '\0';  // terminate the string convertedNumS
  308.  
  309.     return convertedNumS;
  310. } // BinToDec_Strings
  311.  
  312.  
  313. // 22. 10-2, (numbers), decade to binary
  314. // Function to convert Decade Number to Binary Number
  315. // https://www.programiz.com/c-programming/examples/binary-decimal-convert
  316. // https://www.w3resource.com/c-programming-exercises/for-loop/c-for-loop-exercises-41.php
  317. long long DecToBin( long long decNum, long long* binNum )
  318. {
  319.     int remainder, i=1, step=1;
  320.  
  321.     *binNum = 0;        // reset binNum
  322.  
  323.     while (decNum!=0)
  324.     {
  325.         remainder = decNum % 2;
  326.         decNum /= 2;
  327.         *binNum += remainder * i;
  328.         i *= 10;
  329.     }
  330.     return *binNum;
  331. } // BinToDec
  332.  
  333.  
  334. // 23. 8-2, (strings) octal to binary
  335. // Function to convert string of an Octal Number to Binary Number string
  336. // https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/program-to-convert-octal-number-to-*binary-number/
  337. char *OctToBin_Strings( char *octNumS, char *convertedNumS )
  338. {
  339.     int i = 0;
  340.  
  341.     strcpy(convertedNumS,"");       // empty string convertedNumS
  342.  
  343.     while (octNumS[i]) {
  344.         switch (octNumS[i]) {
  345.         case '0':
  346.             strcat(convertedNumS,"000");
  347.             break;
  348.         case '1':
  349.             strcat(convertedNumS,"001");
  350.             break;
  351.         case '2':
  352.             strcat(convertedNumS,"010");
  353.             break;
  354.         case '3':
  355.             strcat(convertedNumS,"011");
  356.             break;
  357.         case '4':
  358.             strcat(convertedNumS,"100");
  359.             break;
  360.         case '5':
  361.             strcat(convertedNumS,"101");
  362.             break;switch (octNumS[i])
  363.         case '6':
  364.             strcat(convertedNumS,"110");
  365.             break;
  366.         case '7':
  367.             strcat(convertedNumS,"111");
  368.             break;
  369.         default:
  370.             printf("\n Invalid Octal Digit %c \n", octNumS[i] );
  371.             strcpy(convertedNumS,"");
  372.             return(convertedNumS);          // on error return empty string
  373.             break;
  374.         } // switch (octNumS[i])
  375.  
  376.         i++;
  377.  
  378.     } // while (octNumS[i])
  379.  
  380.     return convertedNumS;
  381. } // OctToBin_Strings()
  382.  
  383.  
  384. // 24. 8-2, (numbers), octal to binary
  385. // Function to convert an Octal Number to Binary Number
  386. // https://www.programiz.com/c-programming/examples/octal-binary-convert
  387. // https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/program-to-convert-octal-number-to-binary-number/
  388. // another way:
  389. // https://codeforwin.org/2015/08/c-program-to-convert-octal-to-binary-number-system.html
  390. long long OctToBin(long long octalNumber, long long* binaryNumber )
  391. {
  392.     int decimalNumber = 0, i = 0;
  393.     //long long binaryNumber = 0;
  394.  
  395.     *binaryNumber = 0;                      // reset binaryNumber
  396.  
  397.     while(octalNumber != 0)
  398.     {
  399.         decimalNumber += (octalNumber%10) * pow(8,i);
  400.         ++i;
  401.         octalNumber/=10;
  402.     }
  403.     i = 1;
  404.     while (decimalNumber != 0)
  405.     {
  406.         *binaryNumber += (decimalNumber % 2) * i;
  407.         decimalNumber /= 2;
  408.         i *= 10;
  409.     }
  410.     return *binaryNumber;
  411. } // OctToBin()
  412.  
  413.  
  414.  
  415. int main(void)
  416. {
  417.     // numbers in the form of a string, string numbers
  418.     char binNumS[MAX_SIZE] = "1010";// binary      number can have  2 digits 01
  419.     char octNumS[MAX_SIZE] = "70";  // octal       number can have  8 digits 01234567
  420.     char decNumS[MAX_SIZE] = "26";  // decimal     number can have 10 digits 0123456789
  421.     char hexNumS[MAX_SIZE] = "1A";  // hexadecimal number can have 16 digits 0123456789ABCDEF
  422.     char convertedNumS[MAX_SIZE] = "";
  423.  
  424.     // numbers
  425.     long long binNum = 1011;
  426.     long long octNum = 71;
  427.     long long decNum = 12;
  428.     long long LongLongNum = 11;
  429.  
  430.  
  431. /*
  432.     // 1. 2-8, binary to octal (strings)
  433.     printf("\n\t 1. 2-8, binary to octal (strings) \n");
  434.     BinToOct_Strings( binNumS, convertedNumS );
  435.     printf("\n binary %s = %s octal (strings) \n", binNumS, convertedNumS );
  436.     printf("\n binary %s = %s octal (strings) \n\n", binNumS, BinToOct_Strings(binNumS,convertedNumS) );
  437. */
  438.  
  439.     // 2. 2-8, binary to octal (numbers)
  440.     printf("\n\t 2. 2-8, binary to octal (numbers) \n");
  441.     octNum = BinToOct( binNum, &octNum );
  442.     printf("\n binary %lld = %lld octal \n", binNum, octNum );
  443.     printf("\n binary %lld = %lld octal \n\n", binNum, BinToOct(binNum,&octNum) );
  444.  
  445.     // 3. 2-10, binary to decade (strings)
  446.     printf("\n\t 3. 2-10, binary to decade (strings) \n");
  447.     BinToDec_Strings( binNumS, convertedNumS );
  448.     printf("\n binary %s = %s decade \n", binNumS, convertedNumS );
  449.     printf("\n binary %s = %s decade \n\n", binNumS, BinToDec_Strings(binNumS,convertedNumS) );
  450.  
  451.     // 4. 2-10, binary to decade (numbers)
  452.     printf("\n\t 4. 2-10, binary to decade (numbers) \n");
  453.     LongLongNum = BinToDec( binNum, &LongLongNum );
  454.     printf("\n binary %lld = %lld decade \n", binNum, LongLongNum );
  455.     printf("\n binary %lld = %lld decade \n\n", binNum, BinToDec(binNum,&LongLongNum) );
  456.  
  457.  
  458.     // 11. 10-16, decade to hexadecimal (strings)
  459.     printf("\n\t 11. 10-16, decade to hexadecimal (strings) \n");
  460.     DecToHex_Strings( decNumS, convertedNumS );
  461.     printf("\n decade %s = %s hexadecimal \n", decNumS, convertedNumS );
  462.     printf("\n decade %s = %s hexadecimal \n\n", decNumS, DecToHex_Strings(decNumS,convertedNumS) );
  463.  
  464.     // 13. 16-10, hexadecimal to decade (strings)
  465.     printf("\n\t 13. 16-10, hexadecimal to decade (strings) \n");
  466.     HexToDec_Strings( hexNumS, convertedNumS );
  467.     printf("\n hexadecimal %s = %s decade \n", hexNumS, convertedNumS );
  468.     printf("\n hexadecimal %s = %s decade \n\n", hexNumS, HexToDec_Strings(hexNumS,convertedNumS) );
  469.  
  470.  
  471.     // 21. 10-2, decade to binary (strings)
  472.     printf("\n\t 21. 10-2, decade to binary (strings) \n");
  473.     DecToBin_Strings( decNumS, convertedNumS );
  474.     printf("\n decade %s = %s binary \n", decNumS, convertedNumS );
  475.     printf("\n decade %s = %s binary \n\n", decNumS, DecToBin_Strings(decNumS,convertedNumS) );
  476.  
  477.     // 22. 10-2, decade to binary (numbers)
  478.     printf("\n\t 22. 10-2, decade to binary (numbers) \n");
  479.     LongLongNum = DecToBin( decNum, &LongLongNum );
  480.     printf("\n decade %lld = %lld binary \n", decNum, LongLongNum );
  481.     printf("\n decade %lld = %lld binary \n\n", decNum, DecToBin(decNum,&LongLongNum) );
  482.  
  483.     // 23. 8-2, octal to binary (strings)
  484.     printf("\n\t 23. 8-2, octal to binary (strings) \n");
  485.     OctToBin_Strings( octNumS, convertedNumS );
  486.     printf("\n octal %s = %s binary (strings) \n", octNumS, convertedNumS );
  487.     printf("\n octal %s = %s binary (strings) \n\n", octNumS, OctToBin_Strings(octNumS,convertedNumS) );
  488.  
  489.     // 24. 8-2, octal to binary (numbers)
  490.     printf("\n\t 24. 8-2, octal to binary (numbers) \n");
  491.     LongLongNum = OctToBin(octNum, &LongLongNum);
  492.     printf("\n octal %lld = %lld binary \n", octNum, LongLongNum );
  493.     printf("\n octal %lld = %lld binary \n\n", octNum, OctToBin(octNum,&LongLongNum) );
  494.  
  495.  
  496.     return 0;
  497. }
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