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soedori

Basics 1

Sep 9th, 2017
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  1. ###**To Be**
  2.  
  3. In this lesson we're going to learn how to make some sentences using the verb ~이다, corresponding to the English verb "to be." Let's get started!
  4.  
  5. ####**Nouns**
  6.  
  7. Korean nouns do not decline for number, case, or gender. The noun is the noun. Period. Simpler than English.
  8.  
  9. However, Korean is an **agglutinating** or **agglutinative** language. Rather than changing the base noun depending on its use in a sentences, extra pieces called *particles* are added to introduce more meaning. In general these pieces are added to the end of the word.
  10.  
  11. While that may seem scary, agglutinating languages usually have very clear rules so that people don't get confused when a basic word becomes buried inside a larger piece. The same is true for Korean. This means that you don't have to worry about memorizing exceptions to the rules, like we do in English!
  12.  
  13. ####**THE**
  14.  
  15. Korean does not have articles, and only context tells you whether you would need a "the" if said in English.
  16.  
  17. ####**And**
  18.  
  19. One common piece is **and**. Unlike in English where there is one word for "and" that can function in all situations, Korean has several. We introduce two here; both of which are used with nouns.
  20.  
  21. | Korean | Example | Usage |
  22. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  23. | ~하고 | 남자하고 | Common in speaking |
  24. | ~와 | 남자와 | Common in writing, after a vowel |
  25. | ~과 | 소년과 | Common in writing, after a consonant |
  26.  
  27. #####**Topic and Subject**
  28.  
  29. The most common, and trickiest, particles represent the topic and the subject of a sentences. These two particles represent two different, but overlapping, ideas.
  30.  
  31. * The **subject** marker shows who is doing the action.
  32.  
  33. | Korean | Example | Usage |
  34. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  35. | ~이 | 소년이 | After a consonant |
  36. | ~가 | 남자가 | After a vowel |
  37.  
  38. * The **topic** marker shows what the speaker is talking about.
  39.  
  40. | Korean | Example | Usage |
  41. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  42. | ~은 | 소년은 | After a consonant |
  43. | ~는 | 남자는 | After a vowel |
  44.  
  45. The topic marker adds emphasis, contrast, or limits what is being talked about. 저 (meaning "I") becomes 제 before the subject particle 가.
  46.  
  47. | Usage | Example | Explanation |
  48. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  49. | Limited topic | 저**는** 여자입니다. (I am a woman.) | Irrelevant of anyone else, **I** am a woman. (May imply that someone else might be as well.) |
  50. | Contrasting topic | 저**는** 여자입니다. (I am a woman.) | Unlike the others, I am a woman. |
  51. | Subject | 제**가** 여자입니다. (I am a woman.) | I am a woman. (May imply that out of the given options, I am the one who is a woman.) |
  52.  
  53. 은/는 can be used with general statements as well because you only want to talk about the notion as a group, and nothing else.
  54.  
  55. | Usage | Example | Explanation |
  56. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  57. | General topic | 빵**은** 음식입니다. (Bread is food.) | Bread, for one, is food. |
  58. | General subject | 빵**이** 음식입니다. (Bread is food.) | Out of the given choices, it is bread that is food. |
  59.  
  60. A sentence may have several topics. Why a topic is not considered as a special case of a subject will be explained later.
  61.  
  62. ####**Copula**
  63.  
  64. The verb ~이다 is the only verb that is agglutinative.
  65.  
  66. | English | Korean |
  67. | ------------- |-------------|
  68. | It is X. | X입니다. |
  69. | Y is X. | Y가/는 X입니다. |
  70.  
  71. In the speech level (more about that later) we're using at this point in the course, this verb always be realized as ~입니다 for a statement.
  72.  
  73. ####**To Not Be**
  74.  
  75. Korean has a separate verb, 아니다, that means "to not be." This verb is not agglutinative, and it comes after the thing that the subject is not, or a **complement**. The complement particle is also 이/가. At this point, this will always be realized as 아닙니다.
  76.  
  77. | English | Korean |
  78. | ------------- |-------------|
  79. | It is not X. | X가 아닙니다. |
  80. | Y is not X. | Y가/는 X가 아닙니다. |
  81.  
  82. ####**PLURAL MARKER 들**
  83.  
  84. There is a plural suffix, **들**, but using **들** is often optional. It can be omitted if plurality is implied within the sentence, and is otherwise necessary for animate nouns/people but uncommon with inanimate nouns.
  85.  
  86. 들 is not used when making a general statement.
  87.  
  88. | Korean | English | Usage |
  89. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  90. | 남자는 사람입니다. | Men are people. | General statement |
  91. | 남자들은 사람입니다. | The men are people. | Referring to actual, specific men |
  92.  
  93. ####**의**
  94.  
  95. As an exception, 의 as a particle (meaning "of") can be also pronounced 에.
  96.  
  97. ####**Roots**
  98.  
  99. As we go through the course we'll point out some of the common word roots, which will hopefully help you reach a deeper understanding of the vocabulary. Many of these roots are Sino-Korean, so we'll sometimes include the characters.
  100.  
  101. **Note** some of us learn this way, but if this isn't for you, go ahead and ignore the Roots sections. :)
  102.  
  103. | Korean | English | Character |
  104. | ------------- |-------------| -----|
  105. | 여/녀 | woman/female | 女 |
  106. | 남 | man/male | 男 |
  107. | 소 | small | 小 |
  108. | 학 | study/school | 学 |
  109. | 식 | food | 食 |
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