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BA Philippine Arts Thesis

gonzales_mikaela Mar 31st, 2011 1,066 Never
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  1. A Study on the Management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  2. By Mikaela N. Gonzales
  3.  
  4. Chapter I
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6.  
  7. Las Piñas is known as one of the cleanest and greenest cities in Metro Manila. Aside from this, it takes pride in having the Bamboo Organ, which was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines in 2003. A trip to the St. Joseph’s Parish Church, which houses the Bamboo Organ, is a popular activity for both local and foreign tourists. Since the popularity of the Bamboo Organ is able to bring in tourists to Las Piñas, the local government realized that the city can develop further its tourism potential by conserving its historical and cultural sites through the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project.
  8.  
  9. The vision that has been laid down by the city, in cooperation with the Congressional district office, is to transform a 3.4 kilometer stretch of road in Las Piñas into a Historical Corridor showcasing its Spanish colonial heritage. This covers the old district of Fr. Diego Cera Avenue, stretching from Barangay Manuyo, Daniel Fajardo, E. Aldana, Ilaya, Pulang Lupa, to Zapote. Under the project's unified architectural theme in building structures, public historical buildings will be conserved while private structures will be given prescriptions by the local government to build in the style of the Spanish colonial period. The architectural theme provides specifications not only for the design of buildings but also for the design of sidewalks, lamp posts, street signs, walls, waiting sheds, park benches, pot planters, and garbage bins.
  10.  
  11. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project kicked off when Republic Act (RA) 8003, authored by then Rep. Manny Villar (now senator) became a law on April 22, 1995, declaring the following sites in Las Piñas as tourist spots: the Asinan Area, the Las Piñas Church and Bamboo Organ, the Las Piñas Bridge, the Father Diego Cera Bridge, and the Old District Hospital.
  12.  
  13. In March 5, 1997, City Ordinance No. 275-96 entitled An Ordinance Regulating Construction, Renovation, Alteration or Repair of Properties and Establishments or Infrastructure Works Undertaken Within the Tourism Development Zone of Las Piñas, Requiring the Conformity of Whatever Works in Zone With the Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design was enacted, including other structures not covered under RA 8003 as worthy of preservation and/or restoration because of their historical importance to Las Piñas: Plaza Quezon, Zapote Hall, Public Library, Fire Station, and the Gabaldon Hall in the Las Piñas Elementary School. The ordinance also recognizes the New Las Piñas District Hospital and the Manpower Building as significant structures that will enhance the Philippine-Spanish colonial ambiance of the Historical Corridor.
  14.  
  15. As a resident of Las Piñas, the researcher recognizes the value of having the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, which is aimed at the conservation of the cultural heritage of the city. Meanwhile, as a BA Philippine Arts (Arts Management) student, the researcher knows that a good project management is vital for any project to attain success. Thus, the researcher examines the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, most especially its management process, in this study.
  16.  
  17.  
  18. Statement of the Problem
  19.        
  20.         The study seeks the answer to this question: How was the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project managed?
  21.  
  22.  
  23.  
  24.  
  25.  
  26. Objectives of the Study
  27.        
  28. The primary objective of the study is to determine how the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was managed. The study also has the following secondary objectives that aid in the achievement of this goal:
  29.        
  30.      To describe the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  31.      To document and examine the various processes involved in the management of the project
  32.      To assess the impact of the project
  33.  
  34.  
  35. Scope and Delimitation
  36.  
  37.         The study focuses on the management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. It looks into the two fundamental aspects of project management, which are planning and implementation. It presents a brief history of Las Piñas, the history and background of the project (the people behind it and the four public historical and cultural buildings along the Historical Corridor including their significance as well as the physical description of their exterior before and after a conservation process), in order to fully discuss the management of the project. The study also assesses the impact of the project if, indeed, it was able to fulfill its objectives to attract more tourists to visit Las Piñas and to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents.
  38.  
  39.         The project is still ongoing. Due to time constraints, the researcher has limited the study of the project to its beginnings in 1994 until 2008. Also, the study does not deal with the detailed conservation processes of the public historical buildings along the Historical Corridor since it is primarily concerned with the management aspect of the project.
  40.  
  41.  
  42. Significance of the Study
  43.  
  44.         The Las Piñas Historical Corridor highlights sites of historical significance in the city of Las Piñas. Las Piñas was involved in the Philippine Revolution as early as the events following the uprising in General Trias, Cavite, on August 31, 1896. More importantly, located in the Historical Corridor is the Zapote Bridge. The Battle of Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897 is considered as one of the turning points of the Revolution because the Zapote Bridge served as a venue where Filipinos, headed by Generals Emilio Aguinaldo, Pio del Pilar, Mariano Noriel, and Edilberto Evangelista, fought the strong and massive Spanish forces. Even though the Filipinos were defeated, this battle had already paved the way for more Filipinos to join in the pursuit for independence because of their heightened awareness of the nationalistic cause.
  45.  
  46.         The study is significant because it showcases how the city of Las Piñas is able to conserve its cultural heritage through the establishment of a Historical Corridor—a move which was motivated by Vigan’s example of preserving and restoring its Spanish heritage. The historic town of Vigan has been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999 as the best preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. The said UNESCO citation is made apparent in promotions of Vigan’s tourism industry.  On the internet, for example, various write-ups on Vigan mention the site’s inscription in the World Heritage List. Cultural heritage conservation is vital because it gives people the opportunity to remember, understand, and appreciate their history and from this be able to move forward into the future equipped with valuable lessons from the past. In a time of rapid urbanization, Las Piñeros tend to forget the richness of their cultural heritage resulting in a loss of identity. They fail to recognize how their forefathers have largely contributed in the Philippine Revolution. Thus, the Historical Corridor serves as a tangible reminder of the city’s past, highlighting the nationalism of the Las Piñeros during the Revolution.  
  47.  
  48.         The study is also significant because of its discussion of the impact of the project on Las Piñas. It assesses if the establishment of a Historical Corridor was able to attract more tourists to visit Las Piñas and provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents.
  49.  
  50.  
  51. Methodology
  52.  
  53.         The study employs the qualitative research method. In this type of research, information is gathered by means of: (1) interviews and (2) analysis of documents and materials.
  54.  
  55. The researcher collected data, which are both primary and secondary. Primary data included interviews with the key informant, Engr. Dexter Gonzales, who has been the Project Officer of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project from 1998 until the present. Important documents on the project were gathered. Pictures of structures along the Historical Corridor, such as public historical and cultural buildings as well as street furniture that adhere to the Philippine-Spanish colonial design, were taken. Secondary data included written literature on the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. The researcher also reviewed books and electronic journals which discuss cultural heritage conservation and project management as well as attended a lecture on heritage conservation organized by the Heritage Conservation Society.
  56.  
  57.  
  58. Definition of Terms
  59.        
  60.         The terms to be used in this study, as defined in the Laws and Jurisprudence on Built Heritage, The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS charter for the conservation of places of cultural significance, A Project Management Primer, Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, and Engr. Dexter Gonzales are as follows:
  61.  
  62. Conservation    All the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its cultural significance —may, according to circumstance, include the processes of: retention or reintroduction of a use; retention of associations and meanings; maintenance, preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, reconstruction, adaptation and interpretation; and will commonly include a combination of more than one of these
  63.  
  64. Cultural heritage       Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view
  65.  
  66. Maintenance     The continuous protective care of the fabric and setting of a place, and is to be distinguished from repair (Repair involves restoration or reconstruction)
  67.  
  68. Management      A process consisting of distinct yet overlapping major activities or functions: planning, organizing, motivation, directing, controlling
  69.  
  70. Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design      In architecture, pertains to the combination of native Filipino and Spanish influences—indigenous materials are used along with materials commonly used in Spanish architecture in order to strengthen the structures
  71.  
  72. Place   Site, area, land, landscape, building or other work, group of buildings or other works, and may include components, contents, spaces and views
  73.  
  74. Preservation    Maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding deterioration
  75.  
  76. Project management      A series of activities embodied in a process of getting things done on a project by working with members of the project team and with other people in order to reach the project schedule, cost, and technical performance objectives
  77.  
  78. Reconstruction  Returning a place to a known earlier state and is distinguished from restoration by the introduction of new material into the fabric
  79.  
  80. Re-development  Demolition of old buildings and the creation of new buildings on the same site
  81.  
  82. Rehabilitation  Returning a building to a state of utility, through repair, or alteration, which makes possible a contemporary use while preserving those portions and features of the building which are significant to its historic and architectural merits
  83.  
  84. Restoration     Returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components without the introduction of new material
  85.  
  86. Synthetic adobe Construction material that is made out of a mixture of adobe, cement, and sand
  87.  
  88.  
  89. Organization of Data
  90.  
  91.         The study is composed of four chapters. The first chapter introduces the subject of the thesis—the management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. It presents a brief introduction to the project and the researcher’s interest in the subject, the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the scope and delimitation of the study, the significance of the study, the research methodology employed, and the definition of important terminologies used.
  92.  
  93.         The second chapter contains the review of related literature and framework of the study. The chapter reviews written material, which discuss Las Piñas’ cultural heritage, heritage conservation, and project management, in order to determine how these materials can contribute to the study. The chapter also supplies the Scope Triangle as a framework for the study.
  94.  
  95.         The third chapter holds the presentation of data and analysis. Data is organized under three headings—History of Las Piñas, History and Background of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, and The Management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. The study has three subheadings under The Management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project—Planning, The Las Piñas Historical Corridor, and Implementation. Meanwhile, the analysis answers the problem of the study: How was the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project managed? The chapter analyzes the issues that surfaced during the planning and implementation stages of the project by using the Scope Triangle as a framework.
  96.  
  97.         Lastly, the fourth chapter states the conclusions of the study as well as presents the recommendations for further research.
  98.  
  99.  
  100.  
  101.  
  102. Chapter II
  103. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
  104.  
  105. Review of Related Literature
  106.        
  107.         The purpose of the study is to determine how the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was managed. This review of related literature presents the various sources of information that has contributed to the study. For the purpose of clarity, the reviewed literature are grouped into the following categories: Las Piñas’ Cultural Heritage, Heritage Conservation, and Project Management.
  108.  
  109. Las Piñas’ Cultural Heritage
  110.  
  111.         200 Years of Las Piñas  covers the historical events and personages in Las Piñas, beginning with its conversion from a barrio into a town of Parañaque in 1762 until 1913. This text was helpful for it contains accounts of the Battle of Zapote Bridge in 1897 and the invaluable contributions of Fr. Diego Cera to Las Piñas.  
  112.  
  113.         The Bamboo Organ of Las Piñas  not only looks into the famous Bamboo Organ found in the St. Joseph’s Parish Church but also highlights the important historical events that took place in Las Piñas. This book aided in supplying a concise survey of Las Piñas’ past.
  114.  
  115.         Aguinaldo and the Revolution of 1896: a documentary history  discusses the Battle of Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897, considered as one of the turning points of the Philippine Revolution. This reference was useful in learning about the Zapote Bridge, which is one of the highlights of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor.
  116.  
  117. Las Piñas: A City with Heritage  talks about the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project in its chapter entitled “Old Town Las Piñas.” The various structures that can be found along the Historical Corridor are mentioned here. It also acknowledges the efforts undertaken by former Las Piñas Representative now Senator Manny Villar in laying the foundation for the said project as well as the avid participation of the Villar Foundation in the implementation of the project. This particular text was helpful in providing a brief background on the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project.
  118.  
  119.         Kulturang Dokumentasyon Tungo sa Pagpapakilala ng Kakanyahan ng Las Piñas  deals with the various cultural offerings in the city of Las Piñas: (1) Salt Beds, (2) “Sabong” (Cock fighting), (2) St. Joseph’s Parish Church and Bamboo Organ, (3) Zapote Bridge, (4) Sarao and Francisco Motors, (5) Nature Church, and (6) Las Piñas Historical Corridor. This undergraduate thesis was useful not only in discovering what Las Piñas has to offer culturally, but also in determining what information has already been gathered on the Las Piñas Historical Corridor by a BA Philippine Arts graduate.
  120.  
  121. Heritage Conservation
  122.  
  123. A Study on the Reconstruction of the Nature Church  documents the history and architectural features of the Nature Church and its reconstruction, examines the planning and implementation of the reconstruction project, presents and assesses the cultural significance of the Nature Church to the Las Piñas community, and studies the impact of the reconstruction project on its constituents. This undergraduate thesis served as a guide in conducting A Study on the Management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project since both of the studies deal with heritage conservation in the city of Las Piñas.
  124.  
  125. Report on the Implementation of the Action Plan of Vigan, Philippines  presents the historic town of Vigan, which was established in the 16th century and has been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999 because of being the best preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. There are 39 barangays in Vigan, only 9 of which form the historic town of Vigan, while the remaining 30 surround Vigan, supporting the historic town with traditional industries, such as rice and corn cultivation, pottery, handloom weaving, metal-craft, sausage and rice cake making and other traditional handicrafts. The historic town of Vigan possesses a Vigan Master Plan, which is a comprehensive plan that includes cultural management and tourism development in Vigan. The goals of this plan are: (1) to optimize the contribution of tourism to the social and economic development of Vigan giving special consideration to its rich architectural heritage and the traditional skills of its inhabitants in craft making, and (2) to enhance the existing natural and cultural tourism resources as well as expand Vigan’s product image by offering new tourism products, facilities and services in a sustainable manner geared at heritage appreciation. The report also discusses four issues that arose during the implementation of the Vigan Master Plan, which is a comprehensive plan that includes cultural management and tourism development in Vigan: (1) The need for an information material that will promote cultural awareness among residents and tourists, (2) The lack of a facility to showcase the arts and culture of the city, (3) Traffic pressure in the City Center resulting in noise and air pollution, and (4) Conserving Vigan’s Architectural Heritage. Moreover, it looks into the actions taken in response to the issues mentioned. This report was useful in examining the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project for it presents a local case of heritage conservation, but on a much larger scale.
  126.  
  127.         Laws and Jurisprudence on Built Heritage  is a compilation of laws and jurisprudence on Philippine historic preservation. It expresses the need to protect the country's historical sites, landmarks, shrines and monuments. This pioneering work also includes a copy of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage), which is an international treaty that promotes the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world. This compilation was useful in understanding the various laws and jurisprudence that govern the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project.
  128.  
  129.         National Historical Institute’s (NHI) National Registry of Historic Structures  identifies the national shrines, monuments, landmarks, and other important historic edifices in the Philippines. The Historic Preservation Division of the NHI is mandated to undertake the conservation of the identified structures. This text was helpful in determining if there are structures in Las Piñas, most especially in the Historical Corridor, that are included in the National Registry of Historic Structures.
  130.         Primer on the Preservation and Restoration of Historic Monuments and Sites in the Philippines  is aimed at providing basic information on the preservation and restoration of the country’s monuments and sites in order to save them from further destruction and deterioration. This text aided in learning about the basic conservation principles, the causes and signs of the deterioration of monuments, the means of assessing the condition of a monument/structure and the possible first-aid measures to take, the procedures to follow in restoration which are not needed in ordinary repair and/or constructions, and the existing laws on historic preservation in the Philippines.
  131.  
  132.         Balangkas: A Resource Book on the Care of Built Heritage in the Philippines  was written in response to the growing interest in heritage concerns in the Philippines. This resource book was helpful since its format consists of questions and answers in order to facilitate a simpler discussion for the benefit of the readers who belong neither to the fields of architecture nor engineering.  
  133.  
  134. The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance  is an internationally accepted document that defines the basic principles and procedures to be followed in the conservation of heritage places. This Charter recognizes the dire need for conserving places of cultural significance because these places are concrete reminders of a people’s history. A cautious approach to change is promoted by the Charter. According to it, change to a place should be as little as possible in order to preserve its cultural significance. The Charter served as a guide in assessing the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project’s observance of heritage conservation principles.
  135.  
  136. Project Management
  137.  
  138.         A Project Management Primer  covers the fundamental aspects of project management – scope, planning, execution, and implementation. Also, it cites ten basic principles that would help in attaining the success of a project: (1) Know your goal, (2) Know your team, (3) Know your stakeholders, (4) Spend time on planning and design, (5) Promise low and deliver high, (6) Iterate! Increment! Evolve!, (7) Stay on track, (8) Manage change, (9) Test early, test often, and (10) Keep an open mind!.
  139.  
  140. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation  provides an overview of the discipline of project management. It portrays the project management process in terms of its five major functions: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) motivation, (4) directing, and (5) controlling. It also looks into the four project phases: (1) conceptual, (2) planning, (3) execution, and (4) termination.
  141.        
  142. Both of these literature may be considered as basic texts on how best to manage projects thus were useful in studying the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project using project management principles.
  143.  
  144. Evaluations of Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project and its Contributions to the Tourism Industry of Baranggays Manuyo-Zapote for the year 2000-2001  is an assessment of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project that was accomplished by conducting a survey of 100 respondents, both residents and non-residents of Las Piñas, through the use of questionnaires. It utilizes graphs in presenting the answers to open-ended questions and tables for multiple choice questions. These graphs and tables are also supported with texts for purposes of clarity. This undergraduate thesis was very helpful for it identified the project’s impact on Las Piñas’ tourism. Statistics show that there was an increase in the number of tourists who visit Las Piñas—from 1,500 in 1999 to 2,300 in 2001—thus accomplishing the project’s objective to bring in more tourists to Las Piñas. The objective to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents was also achieved because it was able to increase the employment rate of Las Piñas from 59.55% in 1995 to 67.33% in 2000. This increase in employment rate is primarily brought about by the construction of various business establishments along Fr. Diego Cera Avenue ever since it was transformed into a Historical Corridor.
  145.  
  146. City Growth and Development of Las Piñas  provides graphs and tables on the number of business establishments in Las Piñas from 1995 to 2000. This master thesis aided in identifying if the project was able to meet its objective of providing employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents.
  147. The researcher reviewed the literature related to the study on the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project and its management in order to determine how these can contribute to the study. Books, undergraduate and master theses, and electronic journals on Las Piñas cultural heritage, heritage conservation, and project management were reviewed. From these sources, significant concepts and useful methods for conducting the study were derived by the researcher.
  148.  
  149.  
  150. Framework of the Study
  151.  
  152.         The study on the management of Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project will utilize the “Scope Triangle”  as a framework, in order to analyze the management of the project.
  153.  
  154.  
  155.  
  156.  
  157.  
  158.  
  159.  
  160. Figure 1. Scope Triangle
  161.  
  162. The equilateral triangle illustrates the relationship between three primary forces in a project. Time is the available time to deliver the project, cost represents the amount of money or resources available and quality represents the “fit-to-purpose” that the project must achieve to be a success.
  163. The normal situation is that one of these factors is fixed and the other two will vary in inverse proportion to each other. For example “time” is often fixed and the “quality” of the end product will depend on the “cost” or resources available. Similarly if you are working to a fixed level of “quality” then the “cost” of the project will be largely dependent upon the “time” available (if you have longer you can do it with fewer people).
  164.  
  165.         The study will look into which among the three primary factors in a project, as stated in the scope triangle, is given priority in the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project and why this is the case. Moreover, the study will examine how giving priority to a particular factor has affected the entire course of the project.
  166.  
  167. Chapter III
  168. PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS
  169.  
  170. Presentation of Data
  171.  
  172. History of Las Piñas
  173.        
  174. The origin of the name “Las Piñas” is surrounded by mystery and legend, the actual details of which are no longer known.    Perhaps the most credible account is that Las Piñas was once “Las Peñas” meaning “the rocks” or “the boulders”. Up to 1762, Las Piñas was considered to be a village of Parañaque. From 1690 to 1761, a stone quarry in Parañaque supplied stones for the construction of military and civil structures in Manila. Moreover, in 1745, while the fortification and town structures of Cavite were being built, a stone quarry was discovered near Parañaque. The short distance of the said stone quarry was very economical since this quarry was only one league away from Cavite, in contrast with the former source of stones that was in Meycauayan, Bulacan which was some ten leagues away. It is highly probable that this stone quarry of Parañaque may have been within the present city of Las Piñas, formerly known as “Las Peñas” in reference to the quarry. The name “Laspeñas” is engraved on the old bell that may be found in the museum of the St. Joseph’s Parish (Bamboo Organ) Church at present. The entire inscription on the bell reads: “Siendo cura del pueblo de Laspeñas el M.R.P. Fr. Diego Cera se fundió este esquilon año de 1820”. This engraving on the bell strengthens the belief that “Laspeñas” was the old name of the town although during Father Cera’s time, he himself called and spelled the town’s name in communications as “Laspiñas” or “Las Piñas”.
  175.  
  176.         Once an old fishing village of Parañaque, Las Piñas was named as a separate town in 1762. This was the same year Fr. Diego Cera assumed the position of parish priest of Las Piñas. During that time, it had a population of only 1,200 people whose means of livelihood were farming, fishing, and salt making.
  177.  
  178.          Las Piñas was once dubbed as the “Saltbed of the Philippines.” It was where the technique known as iras Intsik or solar evaporation method was practiced. Chinese traders who came regularly to Parañaque taught this technique to the early Filipinos. Even until the 1970’s it was a familiar sight, most especially in the summer months, to see mounds of salt being harvested at the salt beds. During the rainy season these salt beds became converted into fishponds. However, today one neither sees much of these salt beds nor the fishponds for they occupy only three percent of the total land area of Las Piñas. Instead, they are now localized at the lower areas along Manila Bay as well as along the Las Piñas River.
  179.  
  180.         Ildefonso Aragon in his book Provincia de Tondo 1819 in 1819 and Manuel Buzeta and Felipe Bravo in their Diccionario Geografico-Estadistico-Historico de las Islas Filipinas in 1851 are among the earliest authors to discuss Las Piñas. The latter places the town on the southernmost tip of the Province of Tondo under whose jurisdiction it belonged until 1859 when Tondo came to be relegated as belonging to the Province of Manila. Both Aragon and Buzeta cite the presence of two stone bridges in the town. The first was located along the way to Cavite and across a creek known as Tripa de Gallina. Buzeta places the year of construction as 1809, although church records of Las Piñas enter it as 1810. Both the sources stated above mention that the construction of this bridge proved to be an enormous convenience to everyone because it was situated along the main route from Las Piñas to the other provinces of Southern Luzon especially Cavite. Meanwhile, both Aragon and Buzeta describe the second bridge as being larger than the first. Constructed in 1817-1818, it was also made of stone. This bridge is none other than the historic Zapote Bridge. Aragon names the engineer who constructed both bridges. Unfortunately, only his surname of “Bovedas” is discernible. It is noteworthy that both bridges were built during Fr. Diego Cera’s term as parish priest of Las Piñas.
  181.  
  182.         The proximity of Las Piñas to Cavite rendered it always involved in clashes between the Spaniards and the Filipinos since Caviteños frequently sought the aid of nearby Las Piñeros in battle. The matter became even more pronounced when Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja established his general headquarters in Parañaque in his efforts to suppress the rebels in Cavite. Las Piñas, including its parish church, became involved in the Revolution as early as the events following the uprising in General Trias, Cavite, on August 31, 1896. Aside from the Municipal Building of the town of Noveleta, the Recollect Hacienda in Imus was also among those attacked by the so-called rebels. The leader of the rebels was Emilio Aguinaldo. The Spanish Artillery forces which came from Manila and passed by Las Piñas won this initial skirmish.  On February 17, 1897, the Spanish artillery and the revolutionists met in one of the fiercest skirmishes on the Zapote Bridge which is the boundary between Las Piñas and Cavite. Dubbed as “The Battle of Zapote Bridge,” it is considered as one of the turning points of the Revolution because the Zapote Bridge served as a venue where Filipinos, headed by generals Emilio Aguinaldo, Pio del Pilar, Mariano Noriel, and Edilberto Evangelista, fought the strong and massive Spanish forces. Even though the Filipinos were defeated, this battle had already paved the way wide open for more Filipinos to join the pursuit for independence.  In the afternoon of this day, Colonel de Barranguer of the government forces brought into the Las Piñas Church the wounded casualties of the previous battle.
  183.  
  184.         After the Spanish and American Regime, and World War II, Las Piñas, together with the rest of the country, went through a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation. Las Piñas returned to its former semi-rural ways with its salt beds and agricultural lands.
  185.  
  186.         In March 27, 1907, Las Piñas was officially converted into a municipality of Metro Manila, thereby separating it from the province of Rizal.
  187.  
  188.         In the 1960’s Manila was bombarded with all sorts of industrial and commercial establishments. With the construction of the South Superhighway later in the decade, eyes therefore turned to the quiet Las Piñas. The South Superhighway opened a new approach to provinces of Laguna and Batangas, and simultaneously provided new access to Las Piñas from the east. The Alabang-Zapote Road and the areas around it soon became the focal point of development because it linked the town to the said expressway. Commercial centers soon rose along the route, followed by a huge demand for homes in the area. In an instant, at least 50 business firms moved into the town, including two jeepney assembly plants which, for a time, averaged 200 units a month. The vehicles, which are described as a combination jeep-taxi-minivan, soon came to be identified with Las Piñas.  
  189.  
  190. In the 1980’s, the Coastal Road was constructed, further fostering the town’s economic growth.  Due to the burgeoning of the economy of Las Piñas, visiting the Parish of St. Joseph where the Bamboo Organ is located became more and more difficult throughout the years because it is situated along the old, narrow, and extremely congested Quirino Highway renamed Fr. Diego Cera Avenue (now also known as the Las Piñas Historical Corridor).  
  191.  
  192.         By virtue of RA 8251 signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos on February 12, 1997, the former Municipality of Las Piñas was converted into a city, making it the tenth of presently 12 cities comprising the Metro Manila complex (or the Philippine National Capitol Region).
  193.  
  194.  
  195. History and Background of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  196.  
  197. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was the brainchild of then Rep. Manny Villar (now senator). In a newsletter entitled Las Piñas Historical Corridor News on December 1999 which he personally wrote, he said that:
  198. More than 20 years ago, I settled here in Las Piñas, raised a family and began building my business. As a homebuilder, I realized the importance of a people’s sense of community, their affinity and pride of their hometown. As I saw Las Piñas grow by leaps and bounds, I also realized its great potential as a true hometown with modern amenities but with a rich past it can draw inspiration on (it is after all, home to the famous Bamboo Organ). That is when I began to dream of this hometown of mine develop responsibly with deep respect of its past heritage. I realized that there are many historical landmarks that can be developed here not only for tourism purposes but to give our residents pride of their place. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is the means wherein we seek to realize that dream.
  199.  
  200. The Las Piñas Tourism Master Plan is a massive development effort that is composed of the following: (1) Bamboo Organ Festival—held every February and is currently on its 34th year; (2) Water Lily Festival—held every July and is currently on its 3rd year; (3) Parol Festival—held every December and is currently on its 3rd Year; and the (4) Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. This plan is primarily intended to bring in more tourists to Las Piñas. Aside from this goal, it also aims to give the Las Piñeros pride of place as well as to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents. Those involved in the conception of the said plan were Villar, then Vice-Mayor Nene Aguilar (now mayor), and then parish priest of the St. Joseph’s Parish Church Fr. Mark Lesage.  At this point, there are no details on how the group which was responsible for the conception of the plan came together and how they came up with the plan.
  201.  
  202. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor became the centerpiece of the Tourism Master Plan of the local government. The prominent architect Francisco Mañosa was commissioned by the Congressional District Office to draw the Historical Corridor’s architectural design.  On Villar’s end, he sponsored RA 8003, which became a law on April 22, 1995, declaring the following sites in Las Piñas as tourist spots: the Asinan Area, the Las Piñas Church and Bamboo Organ, the Las Piñas Bridge, the Father Diego Cera Bridge, and the Old District Hospital. This occurrence marked the beginning of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project.  RA 8003 mandated the Department of Tourism (DOT), in coordination with the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA), to give priority development to the tourist spots through the following: (1) by preparing a development plan involving the construction, installation and maintenance of such appropriate facilities and infrastructure that shall enhance the tourism in the tourist spots, (2) by implementing the development plan, and (3) by incorporating the development plan in the DOT overall tourism development program for 1996. However, the DOT and PTA were unable to fulfill the said mandate because the Congressional District Office made arrangements with them that they donate P3,000,000 for the establishment of a Historical Corridor instead. This amount donated by the DOT and PTA was used for the completion of Plaza Rizal, the reconstruction of Zapote Bridge, and the construction of the Battle of Zapote Bridge monument.  
  203. In 1996, the municipal council of Las Piñas showed their support for RA 8003 when they sponsored Ordinance No. 275-96 entitled An Ordinance Regulating Construction, Renovation, Alteration or Repair of Properties and Establishments or Infrastructure Works Undertaken Within the Tourism Development Zone of Las Piñas, Requiring the Conformity of Whatever Works in Zone With the Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design, for this ordinance would strengthen the implementation of RA 8003 through the aid of local jurisdiction. Ordinance No. 275-96 included other structures not covered under RA 8003 as worthy of preservation and/or restoration because of their historical importance to Las Piñas, which was determined on the basis of oral history accounts: Plaza Quezon, Zapote Hall, Public Library, Fire Station, and the Gabaldon Hall in the Las Piñas Elementary School. The ordinance also recognizes the new Las Piñas District Hospital and the Manpower Building as significant structures that will enhance the Philippine-Spanish colonial ambiance of the Historical Corridor since a larger number of public structures that adhere to the prescribed motif would offer a grander visual treat for tourists. Ordinance 275-96 was enacted on March 5, 1997.
  204.  
  205. The vision that has been laid down by the city, in cooperation with the Congressional district office, is to transform a 3.4 kilometer stretch of road in Las Piñas into a Historical Corridor showcasing its Spanish colonial heritage. This covers the old district of Fr. Diego Cera Avenue, stretching from Barangay Manuyo, Daniel Fajardo, E. Aldana, Ilaya, Pulang Lupa, to Zapote. Under the project's unified architectural theme in building structures, public historical buildings will be restored while private structures will be given prescriptions by the local government to build in the style of the Spanish colonial period. Initially, the plan was to give tax incentives to those who would comply with the building motif. However, this plan failed to push through due to financial constraints of the Las Piñas local government. This failure, in turn, may be attributed to the lack of risk analysis during the planning stage of the project since the project personnel did not have prior experience in handling this type of project. The architectural theme provides specifications not only for the design of buildings but also for the design of sidewalks, lamp posts, street signs, walls, waiting sheds, park benches, pot planters, and garbage bins.    
  206.  
  207.  
  208.  
  209. Figure 2. Las Piñas Historical Corridor Map
  210. The Management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  211.  
  212. Project management      is defined as a series of activities embodied in a process of getting things done on a project by working with members of the project team and with other people in order to reach the desired goal.  Planning and implementation are two important phases of project management.
  213.  
  214.  
  215. Planning
  216.  
  217. The purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project. The project plan controls the project by: (1) Breaking a complex process down into a number of simpler components, (2) Providing visibility for obscure or ambiguous tasks in the project, (3) Providing a single point of reference for everyone, (4) Enforcing scrutiny of the sequence and nature of events, (5) Providing a baseline against which execution of the project can be compared, and (6) Anticipating likely events and providing pre-planned means of avoiding them. Each project plan is unique. However, in a broader sense, the minimum elements a project plan must specify are: (1) What is to be done–what is desired of the project and what it must deliver to succeed, (2) When it needs to be done by–the deadlines by which the objectives must be met, usually in a schedule of some kind, (3) Who is to do it–the people who are to deliver those objectives (this also usually implies costs since the application of costs implies the use of labor that is documented by a project budget), and (4) How it is to be achieved–the method of delivery, covered by documents such as a technical specification, test plans and the like.
  218.  
  219. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project does not possess an actual project plan. However, it does have a booklet which is a compilation of the various structural plans for the project, such as drawings of the façade of public structures as well as different types of street furniture that will be installed along the Historical Corridor including their quotations. This booklet, through the use of visual aids, became helpful in communicating the vision of the project to the project personnel.  
  220.  
  221. The vision of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is the transformation of a 3.4 kilometer stretch of road of the “old town Las Piñas” into a Historical Corridor showcasing its Spanish colonial heritage. Consequently, the said project has the following objectives: (1) to bring in more tourists to Las Piñas and (2) to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents.
  222.  
  223. Arch. Francisco Mañosa became involved in the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project but this involvement was limited to his drawing of the Historical Corridor’s architectural design, a compilation of which may be found in a booklet. It is Arch. Ludwig Alvarez, a partner of Arch. Mañosa in his architectural firm Francisco Mañosa and Partners, who serves as a consultant for the project up to the present.
  224.  
  225.  
  226.  
  227.  
  228.  
  229.  
  230.  
  231.  
  232.  
  233.  
  234. The following table and figure show the various committees that are involved in the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project:
  235. Committees      Members Responsibilities
  236. 1.  Congressional District Office            Engr. Dexter Gonzales
  237.      Engr. Patrick de Leon
  238.              Approval of the Philippine-Spanish colonial designs
  239.      Construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of the buildings along the  Historical Corridor
  240.      Implementation of rules and regulations in the Historical Corridor
  241. 2. Office of the Mayor  -no specific person-    -same as above-
  242. 3. City Engineer’s Office     Engr. Rosabella Bantog  Approval of building permits
  243. 4. Business Permit and Licensing Office Mr. Bonifacio Riguera   Approval of business permits
  244. 5. Las Piñas Chamber of Commerce & Industry    Arch. Mohammad Yasin Badr       Coordination of businesses along the Historical Corridor
  245. 6. Fire Station Sr. Insp. Roberto Pacis
  246.         Planning department for zoning
  247. 7. St. Joseph’s Parish Church Monsignor Albert Venus  Consultant
  248. * Arch. Ludwig Alvarez of Francisco Mañosa and Partners also serves as a consultant.
  249.  
  250. Table 1. Committees of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  251.  
  252.  
  253. Figure 3. Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project Organizational Chart
  254.  
  255. The Congressional District Office, with Engineers Dexter Gonzales and Patrick de Leon, is the only committee that handles the construction aspect of the project. As Project Officer, Engr. Gonzales had dealt with the construction bid process and the awarding of construction contract. He monitored the work of the contractors in the Historical Corridor. Furthermore, he held a consultation with Arch. Alvarez at least once a year regarding the Philippine-Spanish colonial design of the Historical Corridor as well as the necessary conservation processes that were to be carried out. The insights gathered from these consultations then guide Engr. Gonzales in managing the project. Engr. de Leon as Project Supervisor, on the other hand, deals with the maintenance aspect of the Historical Corridor. With the Congressional District Office’s position at the top level of the organizational chart, it can be seen that it has the final say in all matters pertaining to the project.  
  256.  
  257. There is no specific person in the Office of the Mayor who is directly involved in the project. This set-up is so because the Office of the Mayor merely allows the Congressional District Office to decide on the project—once the Congressional District Office has come to a decision, the Office of the Mayor automatically gives its consent. However, it is important to note that the Office of the Mayor is not entirely passive because the City Engineer’s Office and the Business Permit and Licensing Office, which are under the Office of the Mayor, have been empowered by the latter to do work on the project.  
  258.  
  259. The City Engineer’s Office, Business Permit and Licensing Office, Las Piñas Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Fire Station, and St. Joseph’s Parish Church report to the Congressional District Office. Whoever are the incumbent Officers-in-Charge in the City Engineer’s Office and Business Permit and Licensing Office, Las Piñas Chamber of Commerce & Industry President, Fire Station Marshall, and St. Joseph’s Parish Church Parish Priest serve as the members of the various committees of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project.  
  260.  
  261. The City Engineer’s Office and Business Permit and Licensing Office have the same function of withholding the respective permits that they issue, until those who are applying for a permit are able to comply with the prescribed Philippine-Spanish architectural style for their private residence or business establishment. In addition, these offices also espouse to those applying for a permit that the design discipline would rebound back to them in terms of increasing revenues, rising real estate prices, and cleaner and orderly building lay-outs. Meanwhile, the Las Piñas Chamber of Commerce & Industry is present to ensure the cooperation of the newly-built business establishments along the Historical Corridor to the project by encouraging them to conform to the prescribed Philippine-Spanish colonial design of their buildings. The Fire Station is delegated with the task of planning for the zoning of the Historical Corridor. Lastly, the project is done in coordination with the St. Joseph’s Parish Church because of the church’s strategic location in the Historical Corridor, which is the near the junction of Las Piñas and Parañaque. Moreover, the church is the most popular stop in the Historical Corridor for it houses the Bamboo Organ.
  262.  
  263. The following figures show the processes done on old and new structures, in line with the creation of a Historical Corridor. Figure 4 shows the step-by-step process done by the Congressional District Office in conserving old public structures:
  264.  
  265.  
  266.  
  267.  
  268.  
  269.  
  270.  
  271. Figure 4. How to Conserve Old Public Structures in the Historical Corridor
  272.  
  273. Meanwhile, Figure 5 shows the step-by-step process done by people in building new private residences:
  274.  
  275.  
  276.  
  277.  
  278.  
  279.  
  280.  
  281.  
  282. Figure 5. How to Build New Private Residences in the Historical Corridor
  283.  
  284. Lastly, Figure 6 shows the step-by-step process done by people in building new business establishments:
  285.  
  286.        
  287.  
  288.  
  289.  
  290.  
  291.  
  292.  
  293.  
  294. Figure 6. How to Build New Business Establishments in the Historical Corridor
  295. The conception of the project’s vision and objectives, the commission of Arch. Mañosa to draw the Historical Corridor’s architectural design, and the formation of the project’s committees happened successively. During this stage of the project, no problems were said to have been encountered.  
  296.         The proposed budget for the project is estimated by the Congressional District Office to have been at P30,000,000. Further details regarding this figure cannot be disclosed.
  297.  
  298. The funding for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was obtained from the following sources:
  299. Source  Amount of
  300. Contribution    Pet Projects
  301. 1. Congress’ Countrywide Development Fund             Funding to jumpstart the ff:
  302.      Construction of the New District Hospital
  303.      Construction of the Manpower Building
  304.      Restoration of the Daniel Fajardo Public Library
  305. 2. Local government of Las Piñas               Construction of the Manpower Building
  306. 3. Department of Tourism (DOT)  P700,000        Completion of Plaza Rizal
  307. 4. Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA)   P2,000,000           Reconstruction of Zapote Bridge
  308.      Construction of the Battle of Zapote Bridge monument
  309. 5. Department of Health (DOH)   P20,000,000     Construction of New Las Piñas District Hospital
  310. 6. The Zonta Club of Las Piñas P5,000  Purchase of 2 lamp posts with Spanish design
  311. 7. Las Piñas Lions Club                Construction of a waiting shed with Spanish design
  312. 8. The Philippine Dental Association-Las Piñas Chapter P1,000 
  313.  
  314. Table 2. Sources of Funding for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project
  315. The funding was primarily obtained from the Congress’ Countrywide Development Fund during the Villar’s term as Representative of Las Piñas.  This fund was tapped to start the construction of the New District Hospital and the Manpower Building, and the restoration of the Daniel Fajardo Public Library. The local government of Las Piñas also became a source of funding for the construction of the Manpower Building. Solicitations from national government agencies such as the DOT, PTA, and DOH gave financial support to the project.  The contributions of these agencies were used for the completion of Plaza Rizal, the reconstruction of Zapote Bridge and the construction of the Battle of Zapote Bridge monument, and the construction of New Las Piñas District Hospital, respectively. It is important to note that the DOT and PTA were encouraged to give money instead of doing what was mandated by RA 8003. Donations from non-government organizations (NGOs) were also obtained. The Zonta Club of Las Piñas purchased two lamp posts with Spanish design. The monetary donation of the Las Piñas Lions Club was used for the construction of a waiting shed with Spanish design, however, there is no data regarding the amount contributed for this item. The Philippine Dental Association-Las Piñas Chapter was also among those who gave a monetary donation, but in this instance, there is no data regarding which item was purchased from the contribution.  
  316.  
  317. Taking into account the scope and proposed budget of the project, the project was initially estimated by the Congressional District Office to be finished by December 2004.
  318.        
  319.         Since the project is aimed at the re-creation of the Spanish colonial ambiance of Las Piñas, prior to the implementation of the project, a one-year research regarding the history of Las Piñas was carried out by the Congressional District Office personnel. During this span of time, the researchers were able to gather the necessary data from books such as those found in the National Library: (1) Pedro S. de Achutegui’s Aguinaldo and the Revolution of 1896: a documentary history, (2) Historical Conservation Society’s 200 Years of Las Piñas, and (3) Helen Samson-Lauterwald’s The Bamboo Organ of Las Piñas. Photographs of the “old town Las Piñas” were also gathered. The data gathered during the research was used to establish the historical significance of the various points of interest in the Historical Corridor as well as to establish what the “old town Las Piñas” looked like.
  320. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor
  321.  
  322. There are four public historical buildings that may be found along Fr. Diego Cera Avenue that are part of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project (from the Cavite-Las Piñas junction in Barangay Zapote towards the Las Piñas-Parañaque junction in Barangay Manuyo): (1) Zapote Bridge, (2) Fr. Diego Cera Bridge, (3) Plaza Quezon, and (4) Plaza Rizal.
  323.  
  324. Zapote Bridge
  325. The Battle of Zapote Bridge on February 17, 1897 is considered as one of the turning points of the Revolution because the Zapote Bridge served as a venue where Filipinos, headed by generals Emilio Aguinaldo, Pio del Pilar, Mariano Noriel, and Edilberto Evangelista, fought the strong and massive Spanish forces. Even though the Filipinos were defeated, this battle had already paved the way wide open for more Filipinos to join the pursuit for independence because of their heightened awareness regarding the nationalistic cause.
  326.  
  327. Since one-half of the bridge was blown-up during the war, the old photographs which showed how the bridge appeared previous to the war made the reconstruction process easier. The challenge, however, was to produce a durable bridge. This preference for durability necessitated the use of reconstruction over restoration. Reconstruction entails the return of a place to a known earlier state and is distinguished from restoration by the introduction of new material into the fabric. The old bridge was made almost entirely of adobe. With durability in mind, the reconstructed bridge was made of synthetic adobe.
  328.  
  329.  
  330.  
  331.        
  332.  
  333.  
  334.  
  335.  
  336.  
  337.  
  338. Figures 7 & 8. Zapote Bridge (before and after reconstruction)
  339.  
  340. The arch on the left of Figure 5 belongs to the original construction, while that on the right is a reconstruction. This old preserved bridge is used only by pedestrians today. The bigger and more modern bridge parallel to it is for the ease of vehicular traffic.
  341.  
  342.  
  343. Fr. Diego Cera Bridge
  344. Fr. Diego Cera Bridge is reconstructed in commemoration of Fr. Diego Cera’s invaluable contributions to Las Piñas, the most notable of which is the Bamboo Organ.
  345.  
  346.  
  347.  
  348.        
  349.  
  350.  
  351.  
  352. Figures 9 & 10. Fr. Diego Cera Bridge (before and after reconstruction)
  353.  
  354. The bridge was originally made out of wood. However, during Fr. Diego Cera’s assignment in the then town of Las Piñas as parish priest, he replaced the wooden material of the bridge with adobe. Since this bridge was also made out of adobe and durability of the structure is of utmost importance because vehicles pass through here, Fr. Diego Cera Bridge was reconstructed and is now made of synthetic adobe with cement and sand.
  355.  
  356.  
  357.  
  358. Plaza Quezon
  359. It is said that during Manuel L. Quezon’s term as President of the Philippines, he usually conducted his speeches in this plaza. Thus, Quezon’s statue was erected at this site.  In addition, based on the stories of the residents within the area, Plaza Quezon was considered to be the “Plaza Miranda of Las Piñas,” for this was the site of many political rallies in Las Piñas.
  360.  
  361.  
  362.  
  363.        
  364.  
  365.  
  366.  
  367.  
  368.  
  369. Figures 11 & 12. Plaza Quezon (before and after rehabilitation)
  370.  
  371. Understandably, no statue of President Manuel Quezon appears in old photographs of Plaza Quezon during the Spanish colonial period. At present, the statue of President Quezon stands at the middle of the plaza—a plaza that is made out of different materials such as lumber, capiz, and tegula among others. The challenge for the planners of the project was to determine how to properly utilize this spacious plaza while still preserving its heritage. They responded to the challenge by means of rehabilitating a particular area in the plaza—altering the area where the statue of Pres. Quezon was first positioned by turning it into a two-storey structure, which functioned as a stage on the first floor and a barangay library on the second floor.
  372.  
  373. Plaza Rizal
  374. A statue of the Philippines’ National Hero Jose Rizal was erected at this plaza, hence the name “Plaza Rizal”. This park is a re-development of the site of the first municipal hall in Las Piñas.
  375.  
  376.  
  377.  
  378.        
  379.  
  380.  
  381.  
  382. Figures 13 & 14. Plaza Rizal (before and after re-development)
  383. Seen on Figure 10 is a photograph of the first municipal hall of Las Piñas. It was mostly made of wood. When this municipal hall re-located, it became the site for the Old District Hospital. However, when this hospital likewise re-located near the Las Piñas-Cavite junction and became the New District Hospital, the project planners decided for the site to undergo re-development and so, Plaza Rizal came to be. The plaza is made out of different materials such as synthetic adobe, concrete, iron grills, and some wood, among others.
  384.  
  385.  
  386. Implementation
  387.  
  388.         Once the project plan has already been laid out as accurately as possible, it is time for that plan to be implemented. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project does not possess an actual project plan but instead has a booklet which serves as a compilation of some of the project’s plans. Copies of this booklet were distributed to each of the seven committees involved in the project. This booklet, through the use of visual aids, became helpful in communicating the vision of the project, which was the transformation of Fr. Diego Cera Avenue into a Historical Corridor showcasing the Spanish colonial heritage of Las Piñas, to each committee.
  389.  
  390. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was formally launched on February 28, 1997. But even before this occurrence, the constructions of the New District Hospital and Manpower Building, the rehabilitation of Plaza Quezon, the restoration of the Daniel Fajardo Public Library, as well as the re-development of the Old District Hospital into a public park (now known as Plaza Rizal) had already begun. Early restoration and re-development efforts of the latter two structures may be attributed to their locations, which are immediately in front of the St. Joseph’s Parish Church. Since the church is the most popular stop along the entire Historical Corridor, it would greatly contribute to the tourists’ aesthetic experience if the structures surrounding the church adhered to the Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design at the soonest possible time.  On the other hand, no explanation is offered for the early construction and rehabilitation efforts of the former three structures.
  391.  
  392. The present status of the various public structures located along the Historical Corridor, in terms of its completion, may be seen in the following table:
  393.  
  394.  
  395.  
  396. Structure       Year Started    Status
  397. 1. Boundary Arch        Not yet started -
  398. 2. Plaza Rizal  1996    Completed 2002
  399. 3. Daniel Fajardo Barangay Hall
  400. and Public Library      1995    Completed 1999
  401. 4. Police and Fire Station      1998    Completed 1999
  402. 5. Plaza Quezon 1995    Completed 1997
  403. 6. Gabaldon Hall        1999    Completed
  404. 7. Fr. Diego Cera Bridge        2008    Completed 2008
  405. 8. Manpower Building    1994    Completed 1996
  406. 9. New District Hospital        1994    Completed 1998
  407. 10. Zapote Bridge       2001    Completed 2003
  408.  
  409. Table 3. Status of Completion of the Public Buildings along the Historical Corridor
  410.  
  411. As of today, the construction of the boundary arch, which rises into a curve, is made of bamboo, and is intended to signal one’s entry into the Historical Corridor of Las Piñas from Parañaque, has not yet started. The plan is to go through with its construction next year. The re-development of the Old District Hospital into a public park has been finished already. The nearby Daniel Fajardo Barangay Hall and Public Library, and Police and Fire Station are also finished with their restorations. Likewise, the rehabilitation of Plaza Quezon has been completed. The façade of the Gabaldon Hall of the Las Piñas Central Elementary School has been improved to depict the Spanish colonial era. The reconstruction of the Fr. Diego Cera Bridge has been completed. The constructions of the Manpower Building and the New District Hospital have also been completed. The Zapote Bridge, which signals one’s exit from the Historical Corridor of Las Piñas into Cavite, is also done with its reconstruction.
  412.  
  413. Monitoring of the status of each of the public structures is done through the ocular inspection of Engr. Gonzales. He pays frequent visits to the Historical Corridor in order to determine the progress of the construction aspect of the project. Once he discovers a problem, he looks for a way for it to be resolved. Delay in construction was probably the most challenging problem he had encountered. This occurrence is brought about by the failure of some donations to push through. Engr. Gonzales responds to this predicament by constantly following up with the party responsible for the delayed/missing donation. Although the task of following up is not anymore within his scope of work, he still opts to attend to this. This effort done by Engr. Gonzales did have some positive outcomes, such as when donations become acquired successfully.    
  414.        
  415. The depiction of the 18th century Philippine-Spanish colonial motif was not only limited to public historical buildings. To ensure that Fr. Diego Cera Avenue maintains its old world look, the local government of Las Piñas passed an ordinance requiring new structures to adopt the 18th century Philippine-Spanish colonial motif through Ordinance No. 275-96 entitled An Ordinance Regulating Construction, Renovation, Alteration or Repair of Properties and Establishments or Infrastructure Works Undertaken Within the Tourism Development Zone of Las Piñas, Requiring the Conformity of Whatever Works in Zone With the Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design which was enacted in March 5, 1997. For existing structures like houses and other buildings however, Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project personnel merely ask if those people residing and/or doing business in such structures are willing to have their façades painted over with synthetic adobe to give them an old red bricks effect—the expense of doing so will be shouldered by the Congressional District Office. So far, most residents on the thoroughfare have followed the suggestion. For example, there exists in the Historical Corridor a 7-11 store with its walls painted to look like adobe bricks and its roof made of tiles. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project also made use of iron grills, synthetic adobe, terra cotta paint, wrought iron and wood with an antique finish to give the avenue a look similar to the historic town of Vigan. Sidewalks for the entire stretch of the Fr. Diego Cera Avenue was laid with cobblestone, two lantern type lamp posts, circular type clay pot planters, synthetic adobe walls, and waiting sheds that all adhere to the Philippine-Spanish colonial motif.  The projected and actual costs of the various types of street furniture found along the Historical Corridor may be seen in the following table:
  416.  
  417. Street furniture        Projected Cost/piece (Year 1994)        Actual Cost/piece (Year 2000)   Number of
  418. pieces installed       
  419. Total cost
  420.         Material
  421. Cost    Labor
  422. Cost    Total Amount                   
  423. 1. Lamp post (2-lantern type)   P4,815  P3,210  P8,025   P12,500        310     P3,875,000
  424.  
  425. 2. Synthetic adobe wall P16,000 P6,000  P22,000         No data
  426. 3. Garbage bin                  P3,700  -       None    -
  427. 4. Concrete park bench  P3,310  P1,690  P5,000  -       None    -
  428. 5. Lamp post w/ street sign     P4,500  P3,000  P7,500  -       None    -
  429. 6. Sidewalk                     P600    P1,000  3,000 sq m      P3,000,000
  430. 7. Waiting shed P28,000 P12,000 P40,000 P80,000 2       P160,000
  431. 8. Clay pot planters
  432.    a. Circular type
  433.    b. Rectangular type                 
  434. P3,300
  435. P2,500 
  436.  P4,000
  437. 200
  438. None   
  439. P800,000
  440.  
  441. TOTAL   P7,835,000
  442.  
  443. Table 4. Street Furniture Projected and Actual costs
  444. The projected cost per piece of street furniture was indicated in the Las Piñas Historical Corridor plan, meaning that these costs were part of the P30,000,000 proposed budget for the project. However, it took six years before the street furniture were manufactured and installed in the Historical Corridor because more priority was given to the conservation processes done on the public historical buildings. As a result, discrepancies between the projected cost in 1994 and the actual cost in 2000 came about: P4,475 per unit of a 2-lantern type lamp post; P400/sq m of the sidewalk; P40,000 per unit of a waiting shed; and P700 per unit of a circular type pot planter. Almost P8,000,000 was spent on street furniture alone, meaning that more or less P22,000,000 was left in the initial budget for the conservation processes on the public structures along the Historical Corridor. Moreover, not every type of street furniture that was indicated in the plan achieved fruition, namely the garbage bin, concrete park bench, and lamp post with street sign. This occurrence was brought about by the failure of some donations to push through because of the lack of commitment of some parties who pledged support to the project, a circumstance which was not taken into account by the project personnel at the outset of the project due to their inexperience with this type of project.
  445.  
  446. It is important to note that in order for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project to attain permanence, proper maintenance of the Historical Corridor should always be observed. At least P500,000 a year, which is incorporated in the project’s budget, is spent on the Historical Corridor’s maintenance for purposes such as sidewalk cleaning, replacement of curbs, gutters, as well as potted plants. Also, it is very unfortunate that theft and vandalism sometimes occur in the Historical Corridor. Thieves steal parts of the lamp posts which they consequently sell to junk shops. Vandalism is also evident in various locations. As a remedy to these problems, the project personnel seek the assistance of the barangay officials, who have jurisdiction over the entire span of Fr. Diego Cera Avenue, to watch over the area. These barangay officials verbally report their observations to Engr. Dexter Gonzales whenever the latter goes about his ocular inspections in the Historical Corridor.  Non-compliance of private residences and business establishments to the Philippine-Spanish colonial design sometimes occur as well. To this end, project personnel, specifically the committees which are responsible for handing out the necessary building permits, verbally inform those who plan to build a private residence and/or a business establishment along the Historical Corridor that complying with the Philippine-Spanish colonial design is beneficial for it would rebound back to them in terms of increasing revenues, rising real estate prices, and cleaner and orderly building lay-outs.  
  447.        
  448. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project was successful in its two objectives: (1) to bring in more tourists to Las Piñas and (2) to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents. Statistics show that there was an increase in the number of tourists who visit Las Piñas, specifically the Bamboo Organ as well as the Historical Corridor—from 1,500 in 1999 to 2,300 in 2001 —thus accomplishing objective number 1. No data is available as to whether these tourists are local or foreign.
  449.  
  450. It is important to note that there is actually no budget allocated for the marketing of the Historical Corridor itself. This is primarily because the project personnel deem the popularity of the Bamboo Organ to be sufficient in promoting the Historical Corridor—the philosophy is that tourists who visit the St. Joseph’s Parish Church and Bamboo Organ cannot miss the adjacent chain of public buildings that prescribe to the Philippine-Spanish colonial motif hence, they become intrigued to travel along the Historical Corridor. This philosophy has become a reality on numerous occasions, based on stories by locals along the Historical Corridor.
  451.  
  452. Objective number 2 was also achieved because it was able to increase the employment rate of Las Piñeros from 59.55% in 1995 to 67.33% in 2000. This increase in employment rate is primarily brought about by the construction of various business establishments along Fr. Diego Cera Avenue ever since it was transformed into a Historical Corridor.   The following table shows the increase in the number or business establishments in Las Piñas from 1995 to 2000:
  453.         Manufacturing   Retail/Wholesale/Trade  Services        Total   Growth Rate
  454. 1995    149     3,447   2,210   5,806  
  455. 1997    178     4,900   4,661   9,739   67.7
  456. 1998    170     4,712   4,966   9,848   1.1
  457. 1999    179     5,494   4,962   10,635  8.0
  458. 2000    157     5,699   5,385   11,241  5.7
  459.  
  460. Table 5. Number of Business Establishments in Las Piñas
  461.  
  462.         Based on Table 5, it can be seen that only certain kinds of businesses expanded. From 1995 until 2000, there was a continuous increase in the number of retail/wholesale/trade and service-oriented establishments, the former including those associated with tourism (e.g. souvenir shops). On the other hand, a continuous fluctuation in the number of establishments that dealt with manufacturing was experienced. But overall, the number of business establishments in Las Piñas doubled, from 5,806 in 1995 to 11,241 in 2000.  
  463.  
  464. Naturally resulting from an increase in the number of business establishments is an increase in employment rate. As can be seen in the table that follows, quite a number of newly-constructed business establishments in Las Piñas from 1995 to 2000 may be found in the various barangays along the Historical Corridor:
  465. Barangay        1995    2000    Growth Rate
  466. Almanza Uno     552     1,402   20.5
  467. Almanza Dos     255     625     19.6
  468. CAA-BF Int’l Village  212     305     7.5
  469. Daniel Fajardo  65      129     14.7
  470. Elias Aldana    43      95      17.2
  471. Ilaya   24      48      14.9
  472. Manuyo Uno      91      145     9.8
  473. Manuyo Dos      61      211     28.2
  474. Pamplona Uno    474     597     4.7
  475. Pamplona Dos    415     617     8.3
  476. Pamplona Tres   567     1107    14.3
  477. Pilar Village   433     670     9.1
  478. Pulang Lupa Uno 269     448     10.7
  479. Pulang Lupa Dos 168     740     34.5
  480. Talon Uno       550     878     9.8
  481. Talon Dos       545     1,113   15.4
  482. Talon Tres      160     420     21.3
  483. Talon Kuatro    153     217     7.2
  484. Talon Singko    343     742     16.7
  485. Zapote  426     410     -0.8
  486. TOTAL   5806    10,919  13.5
  487. * Barangays in boldface are situated along the Historical Corridor.
  488.        
  489. Table 6. Number of Business Establishments by Barangay
  490.  
  491. Barangay Pulang Lupa Dos which is located along the Historical Corridor has the highest growth rate in business establishments (34.5). Other barangays along the Historical Corridor possess significant growth rates also, with Manuyo Dos coming in second to Pulang Lupa Dos (28.2).  
  492.  
  493.  
  494.  
  495.  
  496. Analysis
  497.  
  498.         The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is a heritage conservation project that was undertaken by the local government of Las Piñas. This type of project is a testament to the growing interest in heritage concerns in the Philippines over the past decade. Las Piñas, like Vigan in Ilocos Sur, is included in the list of cities and towns throughout the country that have come to the defense of their built heritage, which depict their Spanish colonial roots, through various conservation efforts such as preservation, restoration, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of their historical monuments and sites.
  499.  
  500.         Undoubtedly, the most important lesson that the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project has learned from prior conservation projects is the value of preserving built heritage. Also, although the restoration of the historic town of Vigan and the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project are not entirely the same, owing to the fact that the former is a conservation project on a much larger scale, similar lessons in project planning and implementation may be obtained from both projects.
  501.  
  502. In terms of planning, the concept of urban conservation was taken into account in both the restoration of the historic town of Vigan and the Las Piñas Historical Corridor project. Durability of structures is a primary concern in urban conservation. In urban conservation, the integrity of a historical structure is still preserved while at the same time, the ability of the structure to withstand the test of time is aimed at. This preference for durability necessitated the use of reconstruction over restoration. Reconstruction entails the return of a place to a known earlier state and is distinguished from restoration by the introduction of new material into the fabric for the sake of durability.
  503.        
  504. In terms of implementation, the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project encountered similar problems to that of Vigan’s restoration. For example, both projects had difficulty in implementing their respective conservation guidelines. The action taken by each of the city councils of Las Piñas and Vigan to overcome this obstacle was to enact an ordinance that would contain the important guidelines in the conservation project, as with Ordinance 275-96 or An Ordinance Regulating Construction, Renovation, Alteration or Repair of Properties and Establishments or Infrastructure Works Undertaken Within the Tourism Development Zone of Las Piñas, Requiring the Conformity of Whatever Works in Zone With the Philippine-Spanish Colonial Design as well as Ordinance No. 4, S. 2000 or the Ordinance Enacting the Conservation and Preservation Guidelines for Vigan Ancestral Houses. After the enactment of such ordinances, project personnel of the restoration of the historic town of Vigan as well as that of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project report that the people residing and/or doing business within the conservation zones of Las Piñas and Vigan showed strict adherence to the conservation guidelines.
  505.  
  506. Several issues arose during the management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. These issues are related to either planning or implementation, which are two fundamental aspects of project management.
  507.  
  508. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project does not possess an actual project plan. As stated earlier, the purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of the project. Therefore, it can be said that a lack of control follows the lack of a project plan. From the planning stages of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, it was evident that there was no clear-cut time frame or schedule for the completion of the conservation process for each public historical building along the Historical Corridor. Given that the plan for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project did not provide a schedule, it was inevitable for the project to be delayed, thus resulting to increased material and labor costs. However, what was clearly established even at the outset by those who conceptualized the project—then Congressman Manny Villar (now senator), then Vice-Mayor Nene Aguilar (now mayor), and then parish priest of the St. Joseph’s Parish Church Fr. Mark Lesage—was the need to produce a quality project since it was primarily concerned with uplifting the tourism industry of Las Piñas.
  509.  
  510. Since the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project gives utmost priority to quality, concrete goals must be set. The more accurately defined the objectives are, the more likely for the project to succeed. However, the two objectives of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, which are to bring in more tourists to Las Piñas and to provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents, are vague. No target figures of increase in tourist and employment rate are specified in these objectives thus becoming problematic when it comes to assessing if the project is truly successful or not. However, as seen in the example of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, there is a direct correlation between the increase in the number of tourists and the increase in the number of businesses cropping up in Las Piñas. This particular circumstance goes to show that cultural heritage conservation can contribute to economic development because as more tourists become attracted and come to visit a conservation zone, more people would choose to invest their businesses in this type of place. If this is the case, then the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project personnel have the right to demand that the design discipline be followed since it would eventually rebound back to the people in terms of increasing revenues, rising real estate prices, and cleaner and orderly building lay-outs.
  511.  
  512. There is actually no budget allocated for the marketing of the Historical Corridor itself. This is primarily because the project personnel deem the popularity of the Bamboo Organ to be sufficient in promoting the Historical Corridor. However, given the project’s objectives, the creation and implementation of a marketing plan could raise even more awareness regarding the existence of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor to be able to attract more tourists to visit Las Piñas thus enticing people to invest their businesses in Las Piñas thus providing more employment to Las Piñeros.  
  513.  
  514. Also, the non-designation of a point person in the Office of the Mayor for the project may be linked to the issue of quality control. Ideally, the Office of the Mayor should work hand-in-hand with the Congressional District Office in managing the project. However, the former settled for a passive role—once the Congressional District Office has decided on matters regarding the project, the Office of the Mayor automatically gives its consent. In this type of arrangement, the method of check-and-balance does not occur since all the decision-making is entrusted in the care of the Congressional District Office. If the project is really focused on quality, the Office of the Mayor should have the initiative to offer its insights regarding the project to the Congressional District Office as well as to check on the performance of the latter’s duties.
  515.  
  516. The Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project came up with two distinct methods to make people adhere to the prescriptions in building structures along the Historical Corridor. During the project’s planning stage, the local government of Las Piñas thought of a way to encourage the adherence of the people to the Philippine-Spanish colonial design. The initial plan was to give tax incentives to those private residences and business establishments that would comply with the prescribed motif. However, this plan was not realized due to supposed financial constraints of the Las Piñas local government. As mentioned earlier, since the project did not have a fixed amount of time because a deadline for the completion of the various conservation processes on the Historical Corridor was not established, it was inevitable for the project to be delayed, thus the costs of production increased over the years.  
  517.  
  518. Given that cost was the primary factor in the failed attempt to give tax incentives to those who would comply with the prescribed building motif, the focus on quality became the driving force behind the serious stance of the Las Piñas local government during the project’s implementation of the prescribed building motif. As witnessed until the present situation, those who wish to erect new structures along the Historical Corridor become obliged to comply with the architectural prescriptions because if not, they will be denied of the necessary building permits by the different local government units. Furthermore, it is indicated in Section 8 of Ordinance 275-96 that the newly-built structures which did not comply with the Philippine-Spanish colonial design and were, therefore, constructed without the proper construction clearance, shall be subject to summary demolition by the City Engineer’s Office. So far, no summary demolitions have been executed, which points to the Las Piñeros’ understanding of the project and its significance.
  519.  
  520.         The two distinct methods mentioned previously can be viewed as the application of a reward or punishment system in the project. However, since the “rewarding” of tax incentives did not push through, a comparison regarding which of the two methods is more effective in achieving the desired outcome of people adhering to the prescribed motif cannot be carried out. Other cultural heritage projects, such as the restoration of the historic town of Vigan, seem to employ the punishment system like that of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project since the fear of punishment has been more effective in instilling a compliant behavior among those living and/or doing business in the conservation zones of Vigan and Las Piñas.  
  521.  
  522. Delay in manufacture and installation of certain items needed in the project, specifically the boundary arch and street furniture, as well as the non-delivery of supposed deliverables like money are also unfavorable issues which arose during the implementation stage of the project. The delay in the construction of the boundary arch is problematic, given the fact that the boundary arch is intended to signal the entry to the Las Piñas Historical Corridor from Parañaque and that the public structures near to it have completed their respective conservation processes already. The delay in the manufacture and installation of the street furniture is also problematic because it resulted in increased material and labor costs due to the inflation rate. Lastly, the delayed or non-delivery of supposed deliverables like money is problematic because this became the primary reason for the delay in construction of some public structures. The said issues exist simply because of the lack of risk analysis during the planning stage of the project. This, in turn, is brought about by the inexperience of the project personnel in the management of this type of project. Given that the plan for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project did not provide a schedule, it was inevitable for the project to be delayed, thus resulting to increased material and labor costs. Furthermore, given the project’s focus on the quality of the project, an ample amount of funds had to be secured before beginning to engage in a particular conservation process; this particular circumstance causing the project to be delayed even more. If only possible risks were given attention to at the outset, then all the provisions for the project would have been realized more likely. However, it should be noted that in ensuring the quality of a conservation project, what should be taken into account are not only the funds of a project but also an understanding of culture, the project’s dimensions, and its implications.
  523.  
  524. Monitoring the project is a very important means of quality control. Monitoring the construction, maintenance, and most especially the adherence to the principles of conservation of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is very important because it is more than a construction project—it is rebuilding the Spanish colonial heritage of Las Piñas. Also, new structures were erected along the Historical Corridor which means that there would be additional structures to look out for aside from the old public structures. Furthermore, this project involves a collaboration of many agencies thus a lot of people have invested on the project—it would be a shame to let these people down. The monitoring process of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, which was done through the ocular inspections of the Historical Corridor by Engr. Gonzales from time-to-time, does not suffice in ensuring the proper construction, maintenance, and adherence to the principles of conservation of the project primarily because the project is so massive for only one man, however committed, to undertake.
  525.  
  526.  
  527.  
  528.  
  529.  
  530.  
  531.  
  532.  
  533.  
  534.  
  535. Chapter IV
  536. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
  537.  
  538. Conclusions
  539.  
  540. Good project management is vital for any project to attain success. Like any other project, planning and implementation are two fundamental aspects in the management of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. A primary concern for the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is the absence of an actual project plan. In place of a project plan, the project only has a booklet containing the vision of the project, which is demonstrated through the use of drawings. Each project plan is unique. However, the minimum elements a project plan must specify are: (1) What is to be done (vision, mission, objectives, and strategies), (2) When it needs to be done by (schedule or timeframe), (3) Who is to do it (project team), and (4) How it is to be achieved (budget and technical specifications). Owing to the fact that the purpose of a project plan is to maintain control of a project, an actual project plan should have been clearly laid out from the beginning.
  541.  
  542. The lack of risk analysis during planning had repercussions in the implementation stage of the project. The basic concept of risk analysis is an assessment of the project which identifies anything significant that could possibly go wrong with the project. A risk management plan will then seek to mitigate or eliminate those risks, hopefully avoiding their consequences. One way for larger-scale projects to control their risk is to appoint a risk management officer. The risk management officer’s responsibility is to identify all the risks to a project and to prioritize and present them to the project team for resolution. In smaller-scale projects, risk management is often intrinsic to the role of the project manager and is not considered separately. A quick discussion among different representatives of the team can often highlight some interesting items which have been concealed from the rest of the project team. The formalized process of profiling and resolving risks can then be applied in an informal manner to plan for potential threats to the project. Regarding the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project, if only possible risks were given attention to at the outset, several issues could have been avoided.
  543.  
  544. Up to this point, the study is not yet conclusive since the project is still ongoing. However, it can be stated that in spite of the unfavorable circumstances mentioned, the project is successful, in terms of fulfilling its objectives to attract more tourists to visit Las Piñas and provide employment to Las Piñas’ growing number of residents. Clearly, there is always room for improvement in project management.
  545.  
  546. At present, none of the structures along the Historical Corridor have been included in the National Historical Institute’s (NHI) National Registry of Historic Structures. The Battle of Zapote Bridge of 1897 is mentioned in history books as one of the turning points in the Philippine Revolution. In this regard, the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project personnel must work towards the identification of the Zapote Bridge as a National Landmark by coordinating with the NHI because, as stated in the NHI’s Classification of Historic Sites and Structures, National Landmarks are sites or structures that are associated with an event, achievement, characteristic, or modification that makes a turning point or stage in Philippine history. If this is the case, then, the Zapote Bridge is worthy of the said merit.
  547.  
  548.  
  549.  
  550.  
  551.  
  552.  
  553.  
  554. Recommendations
  555.  
  556.         Over the years, interest in Philippine heritage has emerged in the country. Among those who have shown interests are the various towns and cities around the Philippines that have shown commitment in conserving their built heritage. This growing interest in Philippine heritage should be encouraged in order to foster a deeper cultural awareness among others. In view of this situation, engaging in studies on cultural heritage conservation is highly recommended by the researcher.
  557.  
  558. The researcher also recommends further study on the marketing of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project. It would be important to look into the impact of the creation and implementation of a marketing plan on the number of tourists and businesses in the Historical Corridor.
  559.  
  560. Up to this point, the study is not yet conclusive since the project is still ongoing. Therefore, a study on the present status of the Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project is recommended in order to fully document and assess the first conservation project that is undertaken by the city of Las Piñas.
  561.  
  562. Lastly, the researcher recommends further study on the arts and culture scene of Las Piñas City for it really has so much to offer. Aside from the Las Piñas Historical Corridor, three festivals are annually celebrated in the city—Bamboo Organ Festival held every February, Water Lily Festival held every July, and Parol Festival held every December. All the festivities, as well as the Las Piñas Historical Corridor, are geared towards the promotion of the city’s tourism.
  563.  
  564.  
  565.  
  566.  
  567.  
  568.  
  569.  
  570.  
  571.  
  572.  
  573.  
  574.  
  575.  
  576.  
  577.  
  578.  
  579. Bibliography
  580.  
  581.  
  582. Aurelio, Julie M. “Houses, shops lining Las Piñas road adopt Old World look.” INQUIRER.net. 8 Mar. 2008. 11 Jan. 2009 <http: //newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/metro/view_article.php?article_id=123591>.
  583.  
  584. Australia ICOMOS. The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS charter for the conservation of places of cultural significance. Australia: Australia ICOMOS Incorporated, 1999.
  585.  
  586. Batalla, Deil Matthew. “Kulturang Dokumentasyon Tungo sa Pagpapakilala ng Kakanyahan ng Las Piñas.” BA thesis. University of the Philippines Manila, 2002.
  587.  
  588. Bautista, Romelinda R., et al. “Evaluations of Las Piñas Historical Corridor Project and its Contributions to the Tourism Industry of Baranggays Manuyo-Zapote.” BS thesis. Lyceum of the Philippines, 2001.
  589.  
  590. Cleland, David I. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation. 2nd ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.,1995.
  591.  
  592. Crisanto, Joyce M. and Visitacion De la Torre. Las Piñas: A City with Heritage. Philippines: Villar Foundation, 2006.
  593.  
  594. Dado, Arnulfo, Angel Lazaro III, and Tina Paterno. “Saving Grace: Case Studies on the Architectural Conservation of Heritage Churches Here and Abroad.” The Heritage Conservation Society, Manila Historical & Heritage Commission, and Museo ng Maynila. Museo ng Maynila. 31 Jan. 2009.
  595.  
  596. De Achutegui, Pedro S. and Miguel A. Bernad. Aguinaldo and the Revolution of 1896: a documentary history.       Manila: Ateneo de Manila, 1972.
  597.  
  598. Ferrer, Jerrick C. “City Growth and Development of Las Piñas.” MA Thesis. University of Asia and the Pacific, 2001.
  599.  
  600. Gonzales, Dexter. Personal interview. 9 Jan. 2009.
  601.  
  602. Gonzales, Dexter. Personal interview. 27 Jan. 2009.
  603.  
  604. Gonzales, Dexter. Personal interview. 17 Feb. 2009.
  605.  
  606. Historical Conservation Society. 200 Years of Las Piñas. Manila: Ateneo de Manila, 1962.
  607.  
  608. Jenkins, Nick. “A Project Management Primer.” NickJenkins.net. 3 Dec. 2008 < http://www.exinfm.com/training/pdfiles/projectPrimer.pdf>.
  609.  
  610. Kocher, A.L. and Howard Dearstyne. Colonial Williamsburg, its buildings and gardens: a study of Virginia's restored capital. Virginia: Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., 1919.
  611.  
  612. National Committee on Monuments and Sites. Primer on the Preservation and Restoration of Historic Monuments and Sites in the Philippines.
  613.  
  614. National Historical Institute. National Registry of Historic Structures.
  615.  
  616. NCCA-Committee on Monuments and Sites. Balangkas: A Resource Book on the Care of Built Heritage in the Philippines. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts, 1997.
  617.  
  618. NCCA and Public Information Office-Supreme Court of the Philippines. Laws and Jurisprudence on Built Heritage. Manila: NCCA Press, 2001.
  619.  
  620. Revote, Alaine G. “A Study on the Reconstruction of the Nature Church.” BA thesis. University of the Philippines Manila, 2008.
  621.  
  622. Samson-Lauterwald, Helen. The Bamboo Organ of Las Piñas. 2nd ed. Las Piñas: The Bamboo Organ Foundation, Inc., 2006.
  623.  
  624. Santiago, Asteya M. The Restoration of Historic Intramuros: A Case Study in Plan Implementation. Quezon City: School of Urban and Regional Planning and UP Planning and Development Research Foundation, Inc., 2003.
  625.  
  626. UNESCO Bangkok. “Report on the Implementation of the Action Plan of Vigan, Philippines.” 12 Mar. 2009 <http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Tourism/8.pdf>.
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