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  1. IP Address:
  2. IP address is made up of 32 binary bits. The 32 binary bits are broken into four octets (1 octet = 8 bits).
  3. Each octet is converted to decimal and separated by a period (dot).
  4. For this reason, an IP address is said to be expressed in dotted decimal format (for example, 172.16.81.100).
  5. The value in each octet ranges from 0 to 255 decimal, or 00000000 - 11111111 binary.
  6.  
  7. Network Masks:
  8. A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node.
  9. Class A: 255.0.0.0
  10. Class B: 255.255.0.0
  11. Class C: 255.255.255.0
  12. 8.20.15.1 = 00001000.00010100.00001111.00000001
  13. 255.0.0.0 = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
  14. netid =  00001000 = 8
  15. hostid = 00010100.00001111.00000001 = 20.15.1
  16.  
  17. Subnetting:
  18. 204.17.5.0 255.255.255.224     host address range 1 to 30
  19. 204.17.5.32 255.255.255.224    host address range 33 to 62
  20. 204.17.5.64 255.255.255.224    host address range 65 to 94
  21. 204.17.5.96 255.255.255.224    host address range 97 to 126
  22. 204.17.5.128 255.255.255.224   host address range 129 to 158
  23. 204.17.5.160 255.255.255.224   host address range 161 to 190
  24. 204.17.5.192 255.255.255.224   host address range 193 to 222
  25. 204.17.5.224 255.255.255.224   host address range 225 to 254
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