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  1. Exchange surface > SA, cells > vol
  2. Small organism - large SA:V
  3. Large organism - small SA:V so exchange surfaces w/ large ratio, thin d dis, seletively permeable, medium movement conc grad, transport system for medium
  4.  
  5. Insects - trachae network sup by rings, tracheoles in tissues directly deliver gas maintain conc grad
  6. Abdominal pump push air in out of trachea
  7. H20 in trachea moves in muscle when produce lactate low h20 pot so D occurs in gas phase
  8. Spiracles on surface to allow gas movement, usually shut prevent h20 loss
  9. Save water loss: small SA:V, chitin h20proof cuticle, spiracles can open/close
  10. ------------------------------------------
  11. Fish - gills behind head of gill filaments, gill lamellae on each one large SA, H20 comes from mouth over gills and out
  12. Counter current flow for max conc grad and more absorbance
  13.  
  14. Plants - D in gas phase, stomata and air spaces so short diffusion distance, large SA:V ratio, stomata open/close w/ guard cells via osmosis to prevent water loss
  15. Xerophytes: thick cuticle, roll up leaves/hairs on leaves/sunken stomata > region of still air saturated w/ h20, reduced SA:V balance photosynthesis/water loss
  16. ------------------------------------------
  17. Trachea - airway w/ cartilage ring, muscle, ciliated epithelial, mucus
  18. Bronchi - trachea divisions
  19. Bronchioles - bronchi divisions, muscle, epithelial, control air in/out alveoli
  20. Alveoli - airsacs, collagen/muscle between, 1 layer epithelial, surrounded by thin capillaries, RBC slowed, RBC against wall
  21.  
  22. Inspiration (active) - external intercostal contract, internal relax
  23. Ribs move up/out ^thorax vol
  24. Diaphragm muscle contract ^thorax vol
  25. Atmospheric pressure lower than pulmonary, air moves in
  26.  
  27. Expiration (passive recoil/active strenuous) - internal intercostal contract, external relax
  28. Ribs move down/in thorax vol dec
  29. Diaphragm muscle relax thorax vol dec
  30. Pulmonary pressure higher than atmospheric, air moves out
  31. ------------------------------------------
  32. Oesphagus, stomach, ileum, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands (amylase), pancreas (protease/lipase/amylase)
  33.  
  34. Carbohydrates - saliva amylase hydrolyse starch > maltose, stops in stomach since acidic
  35. Pancreatic amylase starch > maltose in ileum
  36. Food pushed against membrane, maltase (membrane-bound) hydrolyse maltose > a-glucose
  37. Sucrase and lactase can also be present
  38.  
  39. Proteins - endopeptidase, hydrolyse middle peptide bond for shorter chains
  40. Exopeptidase - hydrolyse bonds at end of short chains to di and AA
  41. Dipeptidase (membrane bound) - hydrole di to AA
  42. ------------------------------------------
  43. Ileum - microvilli/blood capillary network, thin walls, muscles to mix
  44.  
  45. AA/monosaccharides - diffusion/co-transport
  46.  
  47. Triglycerides - lipase hydrolyse ester bond > fatty acids/monoglycerides
  48. Bile salts emulsify forming micelles
  49. Non-polar micelles break down, diffuse into epithelial CSM
  50. In ER reform to triglycerides
  51. In golgi associate w/ chloresterol/lipoproteins > chylomicrons
  52. Chylomicrons undergo exocytosis into lymphatic capillaries
  53. Enter bloodstream and hydrolysed by enzyme in endothelial cells to diffuse into cells
  54. ------------------------------------------
  55. Each polypeptide chain associated with a haem group w/ Fe2+
  56. Dif haemoglobin AA sequence = dif affinity
  57.  
  58. O2 associates at lungs, diassociates at tissues
  59. High affinity = associates easily
  60. Low affinity = disassociates easily
  61.  
  62. Haemoglobin changes affinity under presence of CO2 due to more acidity
  63. Exchange surface - CO2 conc low so high pH, high affinity to associate and not lose
  64. Tissue - CO2 conc is high so low pH, low affinity to disassociate, higher rate of resp = lower pH so more easily disassociated
  65. ------------------------------------------
  66. Relationship of haem saturation, partial pressure
  67. Left curve = higher affinity
  68. Right curve = lower affinity
  69. When CO2 conc high = curve shifts left
  70. When CO2 conc low = curve shifts right
  71.  
  72. First O2 difficult to bind, polyp subunits close together
  73. After one, shape changes so easier for others called positive cooperation
  74. Low resp tissue - lose 1 O2, return w/ 75%
  75. High resp tissue - lose 3 O2, return w/ 25%
  76.  
  77. Low O2 conc conditions - left shifted curve to readily associate
  78. Smaller animals - big SA:V lose heat quick, respire more so right shifted
  79. Bigger animals - opposite ^
  80. ------------------------------------------Closed double circulatory system - blood passes heart twice to boost speed, necessary due to ^temp/metabolic rate
  81.  
  82. Heart - 2 pumps, left oxygenated/right deoxygenated, necessary to low blood p to lungs, high to rest of body
  83. Atrium - thin walls, elastic
  84. Ventricle - thick walls
  85. Bicuspid in left side, tricuspid in right side
  86.  
  87. Aorta - left ven, oxygenated blood to body (artery)
  88. Vena carva - right at, deoxygenated blood from body (vein)
  89. Pulm artery - right ven, deoxygenated blood to lungs (artery)
  90. Pulm vein - left at, oxygenated blood from lungs (vein)
  91. Coronary artery - provide heart w/ oxygenated blood
  92. Renal artery - provide kidneys w/ oxygenated blood
  93. ------------------------------------------
  94. Diastole - blood returns from pulm vein/vena carva, atrial blood p^
  95. Once blood p^ enough, atrioventricular valves open, blood moves into ven
  96. Ven walls are relaxed so p is lower than aorta/pulm artery, semilunar valve closed
  97.  
  98. Atriole systole - Atria contract, ven relaxed
  99. Ventricular systole - after delay, both ventricles contract so p^
  100. Atrioventricular valves close, pressure rises above aorta/pulm artery, semilunar valves open
  101. Blood moves through
  102.  
  103. Cardiovascular valves - cusp shaped, flexible fiberous tissue, when p on convex side high, open pushing cusps apart
  104. Atrioventricular - prevents backflow when ven contract
  105. Semilunar - prevents ven backflow when elastic vessel walls recoil
  106. Pocket - in veins
  107.  
  108. Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke vol
  109. ------------------------------------------
  110. Fiberous outer layer - prevent p changes
  111. Elastic - maintain p via recoil ac
  112. Muscle - contract control blood flow
  113. Endothilium - smooth/thin reduce friction
  114. Lumen - central cavity
  115.  
  116. Arteries - high bp > tissues
  117. Thick muscle, constrict/control blood vol
  118. Thick elastic, maintain high bp by stretching at systole going back at diastole
  119. Thick wall, stop bursting
  120. No valves
  121.  
  122. Atrioles - slight lower p arteries > capillaries
  123. Thicker muscle, constrict blood further
  124. Thinner elastic, lower bp
  125.  
  126. Veins - low p capillaries > heart
  127. Thin muscle, doesn't control flow into tissues
  128. Thin elastic, too low bp for recoil/burst
  129. Thin wall, allow flattening aid flow
  130. Valves, prevent backflow when contract
  131.  
  132. Capillaries - exchange materials
  133. V thin wall, short D dis
  134. Branched, large SA
  135. Narrow, travel through tissue, short D dis
  136. Epithelium spaces, WBC escape
  137. ------------------------------------------
  138. Liquid w/ useful materials, means of transporting between cells/blood
  139.  
  140. High HS p from heart at arterial end, everything except cells/proteins move out of capillaries via ultrafiltration
  141. Forms tissue fluid on outside, waste materials exchange with useful materials in cells
  142. Low HS p at vein end vs tissue fluid, tissue fluid moves back into capillaries
  143. WP low in capillaries h20 moves in via osmosis and blood goes to the heart
  144.  
  145. Some TF becomes lymph enters lymphatic capillary, carries to heart via 2 ducts connected to veins
  146. Possible by HS p of TF, contractions of muscles squeezing lymphatic capillaries
  147. ------------------------------------------
  148. Transpiration causes h20 to be pulled up xylem: h20 moves out stomata from airspace in leaf to air w/ low humidity via diffusion
  149. H20 in cell walls of sur mesophyll cell moves to airspaces via osmosis
  150. Continues w/ neighbouring cells creating WP grad
  151.  
  152. Cohesion tension theory (passive/sun energy):
  153. H20 molecules h bonded (cohesion), continuous unbroken column xylem > mesophyll
  154. H20 drawn up as leaves from mesophyll (transpiration pull)
  155. Trans puts xylem under tension due to -p
  156. ------------------------------------------Sieve tube elements - long tubes
  157. Sieve plates - perforated end wall
  158. Companion cells - associated w/ STE
  159. Sources - sugars produced
  160. Sinks - sugars required
  161.  
  162. Mass flow of sucrose down HS grad (active translocation):
  163. Sucrose moves from photosynthesising cells via fac D/conc grad to companion cells from source
  164. H+ ions AT into cell wall of companion cells
  165. H+ ions fac D thru carrier protein into STE w/ sucrose via cotransport
  166. Sucrose gives STE low WP so h20 moves in via osmosis from xylem (high HS p @ source)
  167. Sucrose used up at sink so AT in companion cell
  168. Low WP at sink h20 moves in via osmosis from STE (low HS p @ sink)
  169. ------------------------------------------
  170. Evidence for xylem:
  171. Tree trunks change diameter dif time of day
  172. If xylem breaks, plant cannot draw up h20
  173. If xylem breams, h20 doesn't leak since under tension
  174.  
  175. Evidence for phloem:
  176. Pressure in STE
  177. Sucrose conc ^ in leaves than roots
  178. Sugar moves down in day, stops at night
  179. Poison/lack of O2 inhibits
  180. Companion cells have mitochondria
  181. Evidence against phloem:
  182. Solutes don't move at the same speed
  183. Sugars delivered to all regions at same rate
  184. Sieve plate function is unknown
  185.  
  186. Experiments:
  187. Ringing - protective layer/phloem removed from plant, area above swells w/ sugar liquid, proves translocation
  188. Tracer - C14 in CO2 goes in sugars, autoradiograph phloem only black area
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