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  1. In [35]: def a(i):
  2.     ...:     return i * 2
  3.     ...:
  4.  
  5. In [36]: def b():
  6.     ...:     return a(i)
  7.     ...:
  8.  
  9. In [37]: def c():
  10.     ...:     def a(i):
  11.     ...:         return i * 2
  12.     ...:     return a(2)
  13.     ...:
  14.  
  15. In [38]: def d():
  16.     ...:     a = lambda i: i * 2
  17.     ...:     return a(2)
  18.     ...:
  19.  
  20. In [39]: def e():
  21.     ...:     i = 2
  22.     ...:     return i * 2
  23.     ...:
  24.  
  25. In [47]: %timeit b()
  26. 177 ns ± 1.06 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10000000 loops each)
  27.  
  28. In [48]: %timeit c()
  29. 261 ns ± 2.54 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000000 loops each)
  30.  
  31. In [49]: %timeit d()
  32. 260 ns ± 1.05 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000000 loops each)
  33.  
  34. In [50]: %timeit e()
  35. 120 ns ± 0.13 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10000000 loops each)
  36.  
  37. In [59]: class C:
  38.     ...:     def a(self, i):
  39.     ...:         return i * 2
  40.     ...:     def b(self):
  41.     ...:         return a(2)
  42.     ...:
  43.  
  44. In [60]: class D:
  45.     ...:     def b(self):
  46.     ...:         def a(i):
  47.     ...:             return i * 2
  48.     ...:         return a(2)
  49.     ...:
  50.  
  51. In [61]: obj_c = C()
  52.  
  53. In [62]: obj_d = D()
  54.  
  55. In [63]: %timeit obj_c.b()
  56. 202 ns ± 0.628 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000000 loops each)
  57.  
  58. In [64]: %timeit obj_d.b()
  59. 286 ns ± 1.12 ns per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000000 loops each)
  60.  
  61. In [65]: dis.dis("""def a(i):
  62.     ...:     return i * 2
  63.     ...: def b():
  64.     ...:     return a(2)
  65.     ...: """)
  66.   1           0 LOAD_CONST               0 (<code object a at 0x106ad45d0, file "<dis>", line 1>)
  67.               2 LOAD_CONST               1 ('a')
  68.               4 MAKE_FUNCTION            0
  69.               6 STORE_NAME               0 (a)
  70.  
  71.   3           8 LOAD_CONST               2 (<code object b at 0x1071e44b0, file "<dis>", line 3>)
  72.              10 LOAD_CONST               3 ('b')
  73.              12 MAKE_FUNCTION            0
  74.              14 STORE_NAME               1 (b)
  75.              16 LOAD_CONST               4 (None)
  76.              18 RETURN_VALUE
  77.  
  78. Disassembly of <code object a at 0x106ad45d0, file "<dis>", line 1>:
  79.   2           0 LOAD_FAST                0 (i)
  80.               2 LOAD_CONST               1 (2)
  81.               4 BINARY_MULTIPLY
  82.               6 RETURN_VALUE
  83.  
  84. Disassembly of <code object b at 0x1071e44b0, file "<dis>", line 3>:
  85.   4           0 LOAD_GLOBAL              0 (a)
  86.               2 LOAD_CONST               1 (2)
  87.               4 CALL_FUNCTION            1
  88.               6 RETURN_VALUE
  89.  
  90. In [66]: dis.dis("""def b():
  91.     ...:     def a(i):
  92.     ...:         return i * 2
  93.     ...:     return a(2)
  94.     ...: """)
  95.   1           0 LOAD_CONST               0 (<code object b at 0x1071e4420, file "<dis>", line 1>)
  96.               2 LOAD_CONST               1 ('b')
  97.               4 MAKE_FUNCTION            0
  98.               6 STORE_NAME               0 (b)
  99.               8 LOAD_CONST               2 (None)
  100.              10 RETURN_VALUE
  101.  
  102. Disassembly of <code object b at 0x1071e4420, file "<dis>", line 1>:
  103.   2           0 LOAD_CONST               1 (<code object a at 0x106ad45d0, file "<dis>", line 2>)
  104.               2 LOAD_CONST               2 ('b.<locals>.a')
  105.               4 MAKE_FUNCTION            0
  106.               6 STORE_FAST               0 (a)
  107.  
  108.   4           8 LOAD_FAST                0 (a)
  109.              10 LOAD_CONST               3 (2)
  110.              12 CALL_FUNCTION            1
  111.              14 RETURN_VALUE
  112.  
  113. Disassembly of <code object a at 0x106ad45d0, file "<dis>", line 2>:
  114.   3           0 LOAD_FAST                0 (i)
  115.               2 LOAD_CONST               1 (2)
  116.               4 BINARY_MULTIPLY
  117.               6 RETURN_VALUE
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