prototyperspective

Science Summary - 2020, August

Sep 10th, 2020 (edited)
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  3. \__ \ / _| | | / -_) | ' \ / _| / -_) \__ \ | || | | ' \ | ' \ / _` | | '_| | || |
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  6. -------------------------------------- August 2020 --------------------------------------
  7.  
  8. https://imgur.com/gallery/cPCMt9k
  9.  
  10. Monthly newsletter: https://mailchi.mp/359cae84aa22/science_summary
  11.  
  12. ----------------- Selection -----------------
  13.  
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_in_science
  15.  
  16. Items which I added to the Wikipedia list are marked with a star below.
  17. Some more relevant information can be found on the list's talk page.
  18.  
  19. ------------------ Sources ------------------
  20.  
  21. Greenland
  22. https://phys.org/news/2020-09-greenland-ice-sheet-years.html
  23. https://www.nature.com/articles/s43247-020-0001-2#Fig3
  24.  
  25. *Bedding
  26. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-years-humans-beds.html
  27. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6505/863
  28.  
  29. ʻOumuamua
  30. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-scientists-oumuamua-isnt-molecular-hydrogen.html
  31. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/abab0c
  32.  
  33. Quantum theorem
  34. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/this-twist-on-schroedingers-cat-paradox-has-major-implications-for-quantum-theory/
  35. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-020-0990-x
  36.  
  37. *Ice sheet loss
  38. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-greenland-lost-billion-tons-ice.html
  39. https://www.nature.com/articles/s43247-020-0010-1
  40.  
  41. Extremophile
  42. https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/26/world/earth-mars-bacteria-space-scn/index.html
  43. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.02050/full
  44.  
  45. Water
  46. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-08/aaft-uao082420.php
  47. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6507/1110
  48.  
  49. SARS-CoV-2
  50. *Vulnerability
  51. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-exposes-vulnerability-sars-cov-.html
  52. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c04798
  53. *Climate change
  54. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-lockdown-emissions-fall-effect-climate.html
  55. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-020-0883-0
  56. Vaccine
  57. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-53735718
  58. *Mammals
  59. https://www.macon.com/news/coronavirus/article245313350.html
  60. https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/08/20/2010146117
  61.  
  62. _________
  63.  
  64. *+Amazon
  65. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-environment/fires-in-brazils-amazon-rainforest-surge-in-july-worst-in-recent-days-idUSKBN24X3SW
  66.  
  67. Milne Ice Shelf
  68. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-climate-change-canada-idUSKCN2523JH
  69.  
  70. *Introgressions
  71. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-dna-ancient-unidentified-ancestor-humans.html
  72. https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1008895
  73.  
  74. Ceres
  75. https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7722
  76.  
  77. *Brain
  78. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-08-neuroscientists-regions-brain.html
  79. https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008033
  80.  
  81. Qubit-coherence
  82. https://www.anl.gov/article/uchicago-scientists-discover-way-to-make-quantum-states-last-10000-times-longer
  83. https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.06082v1
  84.  
  85. *Bird evolution
  86. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-birds-evolved-their-incredible-diversity/
  87. https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3000801
  88.  
  89. *Laser-plasma accelerator
  90. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-world-plasma-clock.html
  91. https://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.10.031039
  92.  
  93. *Seafood
  94. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-food-sea-sustainably-fisheries-future.html
  95. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2616-y
  96.  
  97. *Salmon size
  98. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-alaska-salmon-smaller-affecting-people.html
  99. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17726-z
  100.  
  101. *Sea-level rise variability
  102. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-53836018
  103. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2591-3
  104.  
  105. *Forest restoration
  106. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-global-forest-importance-empowering-local.html
  107. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-020-01282-2
  108.  
  109. *Soil erosion
  110. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-climate-soil-erosion.html
  111. https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/08/19/2001403117
  112.  
  113. *Cosmic rays
  114. https://www.newscientist.com/article/2252933-quantum-computers-may-be-destroyed-by-high-energy-particles-from-space/
  115. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2619-8
  116.  
  117. *Last Glacial Maximum
  118. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-cold-ice-age.html
  119. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2617-x
  120.  
  121. *+Torpor
  122. https://phys.org/news/2020-08-fossil-evidence-hibernation-like-state-million-year-old.html
  123. https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-020-01207-6
  124.  
  125. Neuralink
  126. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-53956683
  127. https://www.theverge.com/2020/8/28/21406143/elon-musk-neuralink-ai-pigs-demo-brain-computer-interface
  128.  
  129. *Sycamore
  130. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/googles-quantum-computer-achieves-chemistry-milestone/
  131. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6507/1084
  132.  
  133. *Sea-level rise projections
  134. https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Space_for_our_climate/Ice_sheet_melt_on_track_with_worst-case_climate_scenario
  135. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-020-0893-y
  136.  
  137. ------------------ Not included ------------------
  138.  
  139. * Scientists report that valley networks in the southern highlands of Mars may have been formed mostly under glaciers, not free-flowing rivers of water, indicating that early Mars was colder than thought and that extensive glaciation likely occurred in its past.
  140.  
  141. - Physicists working on the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider announce new results indicating that the Higgs boson decays into two muons as expected.
  142.  
  143. - The British Antarctic Survey reports that emperor penguin colonies in Antarctica are nearly 20% more numerous than previously thought, with new discoveries made using satellite mapping technology.
  144.  
  145. * Scientists report the creation of the brightest fluorescent solid optical materials so far by enabling the transfer of properties of highly fluorescent dyes via spatial and electronic isolation of the dyes by mixing cationic dyes with anion-binding cyanostar macrocycles. According to a co-author these materials may have applications in areas such as solar energy harvesting, bioimaging, and lasers.
  146.  
  147. - NASA announces it will change unofficial and potentially contentious names used by the scientific community for distant cosmic objects and systems including references to NGC 2392 as "the Eskimo Nebula" and NGC 4567 and NGC 4568 as the "Siamese Twins Galaxy".
  148.  
  149. - Astronomers announce the discovery of S4714, a star orbiting the black hole at the center of the Milky Way at up to 8% the speed of light.
  150.  
  151. - The latest State of the Climate report finds that 2010 to 2019 was the hottest decade on record globally, with an increase of 0.39 °C (0.7 °F) above the long-term average, and 2019 either the second or third warmest year on record.
  152.  
  153. * Scientists report that bacteria that feed on air discovered 2017 in Antarctica are likely not limited to Antarctica after discovering the two genes previously linked to their "atmospheric chemosynthesis" in soil of two other similar cold desert sites, which provides further information on this carbon sink and further strengthens the extremophile evidence that supports the potential existence of microbial life on alien planets.
  154.  
  155. - Scientists at the University of Southern California report the "likely" order of initial symptoms of the COVID-19 disease: "fever, cough, muscle pain, and then nausea, and/or vomiting, and diarrhea".
  156.  
  157. - Unexpected dimming of Betelgeuse is explained by NASA as a "traumatic outburst", caused by an immense amount of hot material ejected into space, forming a dust cloud that blocked starlight. On 30 August 2020, astronomers reported the detection of a second dust cloud emitted from Betelgeuse, and associated with a secondary minimum on 3 August in luminosity of the star.
  158.  
  159. - July 2020 is tied as the second-warmest July on record, with a record low Arctic sea ice extent for the month, in a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  160.  
  161. - Astronomers report the detection of asteroid 2020 QG, a small Earth-crossing Earth-crossing near-Earth asteroid of the Apollo group that passed the Earth about 2,950 kilometres (1,830 mi) away, the closest known asteroid to pass the Earth that did not impact the planet.
  162.  
  163. * Scientists describe a way cells – in particular cells of a slime mold and mouse pancreatic cancer–derived cells – are able to navigate efficiently through a body and identify the best routes through complex mazes: generating gradients after breaking down diffused chemoattractants which enable them to sense upcoming maze junctions before reaching them, including around corners.
  164.  
  165. * Scientists report that New Guinea singing dogs, known for their characteristic vocalization, are not extinct in the wild as was previously commonly believed after analyzing blood samples of specimens found in highlands of New Guinea.
  166.  
  167. ------------------ Image sources ------------------
  168.  
  169. - Study
  170. - Study
  171. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oumuamua_orbit_at_perihelion.png
  172. - https://theconversation.com/a-new-quantum-paradox-throws-the-foundations-of-observed-reality-into-question-144426
  173. - https://blog.frontiersin.org/2020/08/26/bacteria-could-survive-the-travel-from-earth-to-mars-and-vice-versa-when-forming-aggregates/
  174. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_17_Blue_Marble_original_orientation_(AS17-148-22727).jpg
  175. - Study
  176. - https://news.mongabay.com/2020/08/brazilian-amazon-protected-areas-in-flames-as-land-grabbers-invade/
  177. - News report
  178. - Background image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasa_ice/13425732263/
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