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  1. Connecting with Computer Science
  2. CHAPTER 1
  3. 1. The Jacquard loom allowed not only keying in the parameters of a problem, but also storing parameters and using them whenever needed. T
  4. 2. IBM built the first electronic computer. F
  5. 3. The Von Neumann machine's operation was governed by a program loaded into memory. T
  6. 4. The UNIVAC incorrectly predicted the outcome of the 1952 election. F
  7. 5. A scalable system allows a company to add components as business and computing needs increase. T
  8. 6. Application programs are geared toward an end user rather than the programmer. T
  9. 7. The real revolution of the ' 70s was the minicomputer. F
  10. 8. Because of market limitations resulting from AT&T's monopoly status, AT&T couldn't sell UNIX, so it distributed the software free to educational institutions. T
  11. 9. The 4004 chip was named for the number of transistors onboard. T
  12. 10. Because the Altair bus was patented, hobbyists had to license it in order to use it. F
  13. 11. The Apple II gained broad acceptance due to the ease with which programmers could write applications for it. T
  14. 12. IBM only sold its PC through an established commercial sales force rather than retail outlets. F
  15. 13. IBM chose Microsoft to develop its PC operating system. T
  16. 14. Most consumers asserted that the user interface to DOS was easy to learn. F
  17. 15. The Xerox Alto featured graphics, menus, icons, windows, and a mouse. T
  18. 16. The single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) stream allows different parts of a program or different programs to be worked on simultaneously. F
  19. 17. ARPA was created by Eisenhower as a direct response to the possible threat posed by the Russian launch of Sputnik. T
  20. 18. Netscape required Microsoft Windows to run. F
  21. 19. Only 10 percent of the software running on all the computing devices of the world comes from Microsoft. T
  22. 20. The need to be aware of the complex mix of technological requirements and historical forces is part of a computer scientist's job. T
  23.  
  24. CHAPTER 2
  25. 1. Altruism tends to motivate directed hackers, who are usually more proficient and do not advertise their exploits. F
  26. 2. Security managers divide attacks into three main categories: access, denial of service, and repudiation. F
  27. 3. Unfortunately reverse-engineering a program takes very little effort. F
  28. 4. A patent protects inventions, the workings of a device, or a process. T
  29. 5. using weak passwords could be considered unethical because they give online vandals access to systems. T
  30. 6. Programming is still more art than engineering. T
  31. 7. All cultures have the same set of ethics or laws concerning privacy. F
  32. 8. Spyware is often passed into your computer through a virus, worm, or Trojan program. T
  33. 9. Spyware/adware is illegal. F
  34. 10. Spyware is a file on your hard drive used to communicate with Web pages you visit. F
  35. 11. Subverting the phone system to get free service is known as phreaking.
  36. 12. Intentional intruders motivated primarily by the challenge of breaking into a system, called undirected hackers.
  37. 13. A document, written anonymously, that justifies cracking into systems as an ethical exercise is known as the Hacker's Manifesto.
  38. 14. A buffer overflow happens when a program tries to place more information into a memory location than that location can handle.
  39. 15. Code designed to breach system security and threaten digital information is known as malicious code.
  40. 16. Attacks on a system that alter information illicitly are known as modification attacks.
  41. 17. Attacks that prevent legitimate users from using the system or accessing information are known as denial-of-service attacks.
  42. 18. E-mail that contains a phony virus warning is known as a virus hoax.
  43. 19. The science of the relationship between people and machines as well as designing work areas to facilitate both productivity and human ease and comfort is known as ergonomics.
  44. 20. A program that can gather information about a user and store it on the user's machine is known as a cookie.
  45.  
  46. CHAPTER 3
  47. 1. The Boolean OR operator returns a 1 only when either or both of the inputs are 1. T
  48. 2. The OR gate allows two inputs and on output. T
  49. 3. The flip-flop circuit latches onto a bit and maintains the output state until it's changed. T
  50. 4. The computer has a crystal clock called a control clock that times, or synchronizes, each of the steps in the fetch-execute cycle. F
  51. 5. Control wires contain the binary data that is being read from or written to memory and I/O. F
  52. 6. By switching on and off, the transistor can be used to represent the 1s and 0s that are the foundation of all that goes on in the computer.
  53. 7. The AND, OR, and NOT gates are the basic building blocks of the CPU.
  54. 8. The NAND gate takes the output of the AND gate and then reverses it with the NOT gate.
  55. 9. The high-speed cache memory in your computer is made of many thousands of flip-flop circuits.
  56. 10. Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) chips contain millions of circuits.
  57. 11. The portion of the CPU responsible for mathematical operations is the arithmetic logic unit.
  58. 12. Ono of the basics of Von Neumann architecture is the fetch-execute cycle.
  59. 13. The term “storage” refers to the family of components used to store programs and data.
  60. 14. RAM is called “random” because it doesn't have to be read sequentially.
  61. 15. Hard disks are made up of one or more metal platters with a coating consisting of magnetic particles.
  62. 16. A 120-mm disc used to store data, music, and video in a computer system by using laser technology is known as a(n) CD-ROM.
  63. 17. Printer resolution ranges from 300 dpi to 2400 dpi for both inkjet and laser printers.
  64. 18. The sound card fits into the PCI bus expansion slot on the main board.
  65. 19. When an I/O device places a voltage signal to an interrupt line, the associated chip checks its priority before passing it on to the CPU.
  66. 20. Factors such as memory type, bus speed, and even hard drive speed can affect overall speed far more than the CPU clock.
  67.  
  68. CHAPTER 4
  69. 1. Impedance makes the electrical signals weaken as they travel along the wire. T
  70. 2. The distinction between LANs and WANs is clear and well defined. F
  71. 3. Repeaters alter the content of the data in the signals that they boost. F
  72. 4. You can compress information by replacing repeating patterns with a code. T
  73. 5. DSL (digital subscriber line) technologies do not allow the upload speed to differ from the download speed. F
  74. 6. Bandwidth measures how much information can be carried in a given time period over a wired or wireless communication medium, usually measured in bits per second.
  75. 7. The tendency of a signal to become weaker over distance is known as attenuation.
  76. 8. Guided media are physical media such as copper wire or fiber-optic cable.
  77. 9. Infrared transmissions are capable of transmission rates up to 4 Mbps.
  78. 10. A protocol is a set of rules designed to facilitate communication.
  79. 11. A timing diagram shows the protocol interactions between two entities.
  80. 12. The OSI conceptual model for the communication process has seven discrete layers.
  81. 13. The Presentation layer of the OSI model is responsible for formatting data so that it's ready for presentation to an application.
  82. 14. A LAN is a small number of computers connected together in close proximity, usually in a building or complex.
  83. 15. Network configurations are often referred to as network topologies.
  84. 16. Routers are small, special-purpose devices or computers used to connect two or more networks.
  85. 17. Modems convert binary digits into sounds by modulating or modifying a tone.
  86. 18. Normal copper wire is capable of carrying 24 voice channels.
  87. 19. Normal telephone voice-grade lines use frequency-division multiplexing to divide up the bandwidth among the subscribers.
  88. 20. Because of attenuation, a DSL subscriber is required to be no more than 18,000 feet away from the nearest telephone company switching station.
  89.  
  90. CHAPTER 5
  91. 1. When you connect your computer to your _ISP___, you become part of the Internet.
  92. 2. The acronym HTTP stands for __Hypertext Transfer Protocol__.
  93. 3. Central to the operation of the IP protocol is the IP _address_ of both the source and destination.
  94. 4. The total pool of IPv4 addresses is separated into groups called _classes___.
  95. 5. Subnets are defined with a subnet __mask__.
  96. 6. With routers, a packet can be sent on another line if the original line is damaged or busy.
  97. 7. So that packets don't keep bouncing from router to router, the time to live field in the IP header is initialized to a value.
  98. 8. The session layer of the OSI model starts or stops a session and maintains order.
  99. 9. The SMTP protocol establishes a link from an e-mail client to a mail server.
  100. 10. The FTP protocol is used for reliable and efficient transmission of data files.
  101. 11. SSH is a network protocol used primarily with Linux and UNIX operating systems.
  102. 12. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee came up with the idea of the World Wide Web and built the first rudimentary browser program.
  103. 13. The problem of having to remember IP addresses was solved by allowing Web servers to have domain names.
  104. 14. Domain names are mapped to IP addresses by a special computer called a DNS server.
  105. 15. With TCP, you can go beyond specifying an IP address by specifying a unique port number for each application and for the sending and receiving computers in the TCP header.
  106. 16. NAT is often used to allow multiple computers to share one Internet connection.
  107. 17. You can check your computer's network configuration in Windows by using the IPCONFIG command-line utility.
  108. 18. The Web server is just a computer programmed to respond to HTTP requests.
  109. 19. With scripting languages, Web page developers can include dynamic properties.
  110. 20. XML has become the standard for transferring data via the internet.
  111.  
  112. CHAPTER 6
  113. 1. An attribute is also called a relation. F
  114. 2. A collection of columns referring to one item is called a row or tuple. T
  115. 3. From a database design point of view, first normal form is better than second normal form. F
  116. 4. A determinant is also called a composite key. F
  117. 5. The third normal form creates columns that are independent of the primary key. F
  118. 6. The main rules in database design are the second and third normal forms. F
  119. 7. A one-to-many relationship is the most common relationship. T
  120. 8. Every column must be initialized with data. F
  121. 9. The MORE clause in a SQL SELECT statement specifies additional criteria for retrieving data from a table. F
  122. 10. By default, the SELECT statement returns data in no particular order. F
  123. 11. A special language known as Structured Query Language is used to query or extract information from databases.
  124. 12. E.F. Codd was one of the computer scientists at IBM creating a theoretical model for designing data structures.
  125. 13. An index is a special type of file that occupies its own space and specifies one or more columns that determine how information stored in a table can be accessed more efficiently.
  126. 14. The set of rules that dictates how databases are designed is called normalization.
  127. 15. To put the table into the first normal form, any columns containing two values need to be separated into two rows.
  128. 16. Placing a table into second normal form eliminates repetition of data.
  129. 17. A visual representation of how all the tables or entities interact and relate to each other in a database is called an entity relationship model.
  130. 18. Cardinality shows the numeric occurrences between entities in an ER model.
  131. 19. SQL statements are closed with a semicolon.
  132. 20. The SELECT statement is the most commonly used SQL statement.
  133.  
  134. CHAPTER 7
  135. 1. Displays containing the contents of a computer’s memory or the hard disk are often referred to as __hexadecimal __ memory dumps.
  136. 2. The number 10-4 evaluates to __ 0.00001 __.
  137. 3. The concept of _ positional ___ value exists in all numbering bases.
  138. 4. _Positional ___ values are used to calculate how many of something a number represents.
  139. 5. The letters __A–F__ are used in hexadecimal to represent numeric values above 9.
  140. 6. To use the Windows calculator to convert between hex, binary, and decimal make sure the calculator is in the _Scientific ___ view.
  141. 7. Each 1 and 0 (on and off) in a computer is referred to as a _bit ___.
  142. 8. Larger groups of bits (more than 8) are referred to as __words __.
  143. 9. When separating these binary digits into groups of four, you must begin grouping on the _ right ___.
  144. 10. When converting from hex to binary, each hexadecimal digit corresponds to a(n) __4 __-bit binary pattern.
  145. 11. __Twos __ complement is a method of representing negative numbers in a computer system.
  146. 12. In scientific notation, the method of displaying numbers uses a(n) _mantissa _ and an exponent.
  147. 13. The eight bit extended ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set can be used to represent _256 ___ characters.
  148. 14. A _pixel ___ is the smallest unit that can be displayed on a computer monitor.
  149. 15. Each pixel is stored in the computer as a(n) __ binary __ pattern containing information about its color and brightness.
  150. 16. Unicode character representation uses a(n) __16 __-bit standard.
  151. 17. JPG and GIF are examples of _ compressed___ image formats.
  152. 18. A sound consists of a waveform with amplitude (volume) and __frequency __ (pitch).
  153. 19. The computer samples sounds at fixed intervals and each sample is assigned a binary value according to its __ amplitude __.
  154. 20. Which of the following is an example of a video compression format?  MPEG
  155.  
  156. CHAPTER 8
  157. 1. A multi-dimensional array is an array consisting of two or more single-dimensional arrays. T
  158. 2. A stack is a special form of a list that allows you to “push” new items onto the list and “pop” existing items off the list. T
  159. 3. Insertions are made at the front of the queue. F
  160. 4. Stacks are typically used to organize requests to print documents. F
  161. 5. In a selection sort for lowest to highest values, the computer starts processing through the list until it finds the largest value. F
  162. 6. In the context of the Java programming language, the “new” keyword tells the computer that a new array is being created.
  163. 7. What type of data can be stored in an array generated by the statement, “int[] aGrades = new int [5]”? integers
  164. 8. In the statement “int[] aGrades = new int [5];”, the __ semicolon __ tells the computer that the end of the statement has been reached.
  165. 9. With arrays, the offset specifies the distance between memory locations.
  166. 10. The index or subscript tells the computer which memory cell to access in the array.
  167. 11. A two dimensional array declared with size [3] [3] may contain how many elements? 9
  168. 12. Arrays are an excellent data structure for storing information in memory because they can be accessed sequentially without any knowledge of the memory cell contents.
  169. 13. The pop operation removes an item from a stack.
  170. 14. A queue uses a head pointer and a tail pointer.
  171. 15. A tree represents a hierarchical structure, similar to that of organizational or genealogy charts.
  172. 16. The node that begins the tree is called the root.
  173. 17. In a binary search tree each node contains three components.
  174. 18. To sort data, you first need to create an algorithm that defines the process for sorting.
  175. 19. The bubble sort works by starting with the last element in the list and comparing its value with that of the item just above it in the list order.
  176. 20. The process of a routine calling itself is called recursion.
  177. +MIDTERM
  178. 1. Fiber-optic cables are much more susceptible to attenuation than copper cables. F
  179. 2. Cable modems provide for differing upload and download speeds. T
  180. 3. The Internet is actually just a collection of LANs and WANs connected to form a giant WAN. T
  181. 4. Routers work in a manner similar to the way mail is delivered. T
  182. 5. Each position in the tree is called a node or vertex. T
  183. 6. In 1823 _Charles Babbage ___ invented a mechanical device that did addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of 6-digit numbers.
  184. 7. The _vacuum tube ___ is a signal amplifier that preceded the transistor.
  185. 8. Assembly language, although easier to use than machine code, still had a __one-to-one __ correspondence with machine code.
  186. 9. The science of the relationship between people and machines as well as designing work areas to facilitate both productivity and human ease and comfort is known as _ergonomics ___.
  187. 10. The freedom from unwanted access to or intrusion into a person’s private life or information is known as __privacy __.
  188. 11. A transistor-based circuit in the computer that implements Boolean logic by creating a single output value for a given set of input values is known as a __gate __.
  189. 12. Keyboards, and most other I/O devices, connect to the main board through a(n) __port __.
  190. 13. The process of painting an image on the screen of a monitor is called _raster ___ scanning.
  191. 14. Data that has been organized and logically related to allow access, retrieval, and use of that data is called a __database __.
  192. 15. Which of following is a valid SQL command for constructing a table? CREATE TABLE
  193. 16. A __ positional __ value is calculated by raising the base to the power indicated by the position.
  194. 17. To find the __complement __ of a given bit, flip it to the opposite state.
  195. 18. A computer’s memory is organized into _cells ___.
  196. 19. Backtracking is accomplished by using a(n) __stack __.
  197. CHAPTER 10
  198. 1. The NTFS file management system is used to locate files on storage medium. T
  199. 2. The FAT (File Allocation Table) was introduced in Windows NT and incorporated into all desktop and server Windows OSs since then. F
  200. 3. The FAT format progressed from FAT12 through FAT16 to FAT32. The numbers refer to the number of files each Fat entry. F
  201. 4. FAT32 supports 155-character maximum filenames. F
  202. 5. One of the main disadvantages of NTFS is the lack of security. F
  203. 6. All the hard drives in a computer must use the same file management system. F
  204. 7. You can't access NTFS volumes from MS-DOS, Windows 95, or Windows 98. T
  205. 8. All files are stored as text files. F
  206. 9. Text files consist of ASCII or Unicode characters. T
  207. 10. The disadvantage of random file access is that disk space can be wasted if data doesn't fill the entire record or if some record numbers don't have data. T
  208. 11. A hard disk is a random access device, meaning you can read data from or write data to anywhere on the disk.
  209. 12. Sectors are grouped to form clusters.
  210. 13. The file allocation table keeps track of which files are using which clusters.
  211. 14. Disk fragmentation occurs when files' clusters are scattered in different locations on the storage medium instead of being in contiguous locations.
  212. 15. Disk defragmenter improves performance by minimizing how much read/write heads have to move to access data.
  213. 16. NTFS clusters are also called allocation units.
  214. 17. EFS is an encryption technology that converts data in a file to unreadable information by using an encryption algorithm and key value.
  215. 18. Sequential file access allows storing information in the file row by row, much like a database table record.
  216. 19. A hash key is a unique value used in hashing algorithms and identifying records.
  217. 20. Collisions happen when the hashing algorithm generates the same relative key for more than one original key value.
  218.  
  219. CHAPTER 11
  220. 1. The software industry, like no other, has involved consumers in the development process by releasing software in beta format and updating it based on user feedback. T
  221. 2. With ubiquitous and embedded computing technologies, the interface to a computer could be a teddy bear, the human body, your car's dashboard, or a number of other objects. T
  222. 3. Recognition systems trained for individual users, such as Dragon Naturally Speaking, are quite good at processing both voice commands and text input, and they continue learning and improving as they interact with users. T
  223. 4. Haptics cannot be used with virtual reality technologies to train people for working real situations. F
  224. 5. The visceral level cannot be controlled by the behavioral and reflective levels. F
  225. 6. Studies have shown that users rate a computer's ease of use as up to 45% of their overall satisfaction.
  226. 7. A system that uses users' eye movements as input is known as a gaze system.
  227. 8. Computer voice-recognition technology has improved considerably since the mid-1990's, and you're probably familiar with the increasing use of voice-activated help systems that companies use.
  228. 9. Where sensory information is first processed by the human brain before passing to short-term memory is known as sensory storage.
  229. 10. Where information is sent after the sensory system receives it is known as short-term memory.
  230. 11. Designing by focusing on users' needs before considering other constraints of the system is known as user-centric design.
  231. 12. Written descriptions of who the users are, including backgrounds, skills, and so forth are known as user profiles.
  232. 13. What users do and how they do it are known as user tasks.
  233. 14. The place where users perform their tasks is called the user environment.
  234. 15. A measure of how quickly users can learn to use the technology to perform their tasks is known as its learnability.
  235. 16. A measure of how much users enjoy their experience with the technology is known as the attitude.
  236. 17. There are three levels of design: visceral, behavioral, and reflective.
  237. 18. Visceral thinking is immediate, instinctive thinking; an object's look and feel plays a role in how it's perceived.
  238. 19. Reflective thinking is where a sense of belonging to a community or status level plays a role.
  239. 20. Thinking about how something works is known as behavioral thinking.
  240. CHAPTER 12
  241. 1. Coding bugs are usually caused by not understanding the programming language thoroughly.
  242. 2. An example of a logic bug is an index counter counting past the end of the array and accessing an out-of-bounds memory location.
  243. 3. Architecture bugs are the most difficult to debug and might require rewriting the code completely.
  244. 4. With a straw man argument, you build up a theory of the problem with the idea that it will likely be knocked down.
  245. 5. Heuristics, used in many fields, consist of “good enough” approximations.
  246. 6. A procedure is a detailed checklist of what steps need to be followed.
  247. 7. Inductive reasoning is a basic approach to problem solving, consisting of four steps: observe, theorize, test, and repeat.
  248. 8. The third step in the scientific method is Test the theory.
  249. 9. Admiral Grace Hopper helped develop the COBOL language and brought the term “bug” to the computing industry when a glitch in the Harvard Mark II was solved by pulling an actual insect out from a relay's contacts.
  250. 10. The name “Thirteen I's” is used for these guidelines to reinforce that you're responsible for solving problems in code you write.
  251. 11. The approaches for uncovering the origins of an error are straw man arguments, rules of thumb (heuristics), and following a procedure.
  252. 12. Intermittent bugs are especially difficult to trace.
  253. 13. One method that's helpful when debugging a program is having a way to automate the process of running the program repeatedly with slight variations in input each time, usually with a script.
  254. 14. Complexity is already a characteristic of most programs, so you have to follow the KISS rule as best you can.
  255. 15. With approximation, you can narrow the range of possible causes for a problem down quickly.
  256. 16. A breakpoint is a stop command inserted to prevent the program from executing past that point.
  257. 17. One technique in debugging is using data in tests that gives you easy-to-spot patterns.
  258. 18. A debugging log can be used to keep a record of the changes you have made.
  259. 19. Remember to use descriptive filenames to help you keep track of program versions.
  260. 20. Sometimes it's the most minor change to a program that ends up causing a problem, so the more details you include in your log, the better.
  261. CHAPTER 13
  262. 1. The spiral method starts with an initial pass, using the waterfall model. T
  263. 2. The project manager is assigned the role of creating and maintaining the database structure. F
  264. 3. The data dictionary servers as a map for the structures of tables in a database. T
  265. 4. The database administrator is responsible for writing source code to meet the functional needs of the end user. F
  266. 5. The software engineer is responsible for making sure programs function correctly and meet the specified functional requirements set forth in the design document. F
  267. 6. On completion of your source code, you should create a logical flow of the application. F
  268. 7. You should have at least three people in charge of creating and maintaining the databases. F
  269. 8. When testing, make sure the programmers have developed the application to handle any situation that could arise. T
  270. 9. When testing, you should keep a log of the errors encountered during testing and after the release of the application. T
  271. 10. The client is the driving force behind a software development project. T
  272. 11. Software engineering is the process of producing software applications.
  273. 12. An end user is someone or something that needs the program to perform a function or meet a need, and who determines the required functionality of the program.
  274. 13. Testing software to ensure that it meets the software specifications is called software validation.
  275. 14. In the waterfall model of software development, the fundamental processes involved in creating the program are represented as phases.
  276. 15. UML is a software modeling process that enables system developers to create a blueprint showing the overall functionality of the program being engineered and provides a way for the client and the developer to communicate.
  277. 16. The UML class diagram shows how the different object classes relate to each other.
  278. 17. Use cases describe a system's behavior from a user's standpoint.
  279. 18. The deployment diagram shows the physical architecture of a computer-based system.
  280. 19. The project manager is the leader of the team and is responsible for choosing the right players for the right positions.
  281. 20. Creating the database involves taking the information from design meetings with end users and creating a data dictionary.
  282.  
  283. CHAPTER 14
  284. 1. A collection of statements or steps that solves a problem and needs to be converted into a language the computer understands to perform tasks is known as a program.
  285. 2. A logically ordered set of statements used to solve a problem is known as an algorithm.
  286. 3. A compiler is an application that reads all the program's statements, converts them into computer language, and produces an executable file that doesn't need an interpreter.
  287. 4. All programming languages end up in binary.
  288. 5. A low-level languages is a programming language that uses binary code for instructions.
  289. 6. An assembler is a program that reads assembly-language code and converts it into machine language.
  290. 7. Syntax is rules for how a programming language's statements must be constructed.
  291. 8. In assembly language, the mov instruction moves values around.
  292. 9. The inc instruction adds 1 to the register being used.
  293. 10. The cmp instruction tells the assembler to compare two values.
  294. 11. The jnz instruction tests the value of the ZR flag maintained by the system.
  295. 12. An integrated development environment is an interface provided with software development languages that incorporates all the tools needed to write, compile and distribute programs.
  296. 13. Pseudocode is a detailed yet readable description in human language that describes an algorithm so that it can be converted into programming statements.
  297. 14. In many high-level languages, operators are used to manipulate the data stored in variables.
  298. 15. An expression is simply a programming statement that returns a value when it's executed.
  299. 16. A control structure is an element that dictates a program's flow and enforces modular structured programming.
  300. 17. Inheritance is the process of creating more specific classes based on generic classes.
  301. 18. A base class is a general class from which other classes can be created via inheritance.
  302. 19. A subclass is a more specific class based on a parent class and created via inheritance.
  303. 20. Encapsulation is the process of hiding an object's operations from other objects.
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