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  1. % This tutorial will give you an introduction to the csquotes package by way of
  2. % example. All the instructions are included as comments in this file. There is
  3. % nothing fancy to see in the typeset version of this file but you should
  4. % compare the document source to the typeset result while reading this
  5. % tutorial to see what the commands do.
  6. %
  7. % Note that this file uses ISO-8859-15 (Latin 9) encoding.
  8. % Please adjust your text editor as required.
  9. % Both ISO-8859-15 (Latin 9) and ISO-8859-1 (Latin 1) will work.
  10.  
  11. \documentclass[a4paper]{article}
  12.  
  13. % We're using 8-bit input and T1 encoded fonts for proper output:
  14. \usepackage[latin9]{inputenc}
  15. \usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
  16.  
  17. % In order to demonstrate babel support we load the babel package:
  18. \usepackage[french,german,polish,american]{babel}
  19.  
  20. % We load csquotes with the 'babel' option. The csquotes package works just
  21. % fine without babel, but it will support multilingual typesetting if babel
  22. % has been loaded.
  23. \usepackage[babel=true]{csquotes}
  24.  
  25. % In this tutorial, we'll make use of a few active quotes. They will be
  26. % discussed in greater detail below. Active quotes are defined in the document
  27. % preamble or the configuration file.
  28.  
  29. % The first two are obvious choices:
  30. \MakeOuterQuote{"}
  31. \MakeAutoQuote{«}{»}
  32. % The next one is more or less evident as well:
  33. \MakeBlockQuote{<}{|}{>}
  34.  
  35. % In general, an active quote must be a single character with
  36. % category code 12 or 13 (or a valid UTF-8 sequence representing a
  37. % single character, if you are using UTF-8 encoding). The csquotes
  38. % package will automatically check all characters for validity as
  39. % you allocate them with a command like \MakeOuterQuote.
  40. %
  41. % Apart from characters which are not suitable because of their
  42. % category code, the package will also reject numbers, punctuation
  43. % marks, the apostrophe, and all characters which are part of
  44. % LaTeX's syntax or reserved for a specific purpose (such as '*',
  45. % '[', ']', '~', for example). If you are unsure, there is no harm
  46. % in trying. If a character you choose is unsuitable, csquotes will
  47. % issue an error message.
  48.  
  49. % Some additional packages used or discussed in this tutorial:
  50. \usepackage[noadjust]{cite}
  51. \usepackage{relsize}
  52.  
  53. % Some generic settings:
  54. \setcounter{secnumdepth}{1}
  55. \pagestyle{empty}
  56. \frenchspacing
  57. \raggedbottom
  58.  
  59. \makeatletter
  60. \renewcommand{\@makefntext}[1]{%
  61.   \@hangfrom{\makebox[0.5em][r]{\@thefnmark}%
  62.              \hspace{1em}}%
  63.   #1}
  64. \makeatother
  65.  
  66. \newcommand*{\example}[1]{%
  67.   \addvspace{\baselineskip}%
  68.   \par\noindent\hspace{-4em}%
  69.   \makebox[3em][r]{\textbf{Ex. #1}}%
  70.   \hspace{1em}\ignorespaces}
  71.  
  72. % Let's go
  73. \begin{document}
  74.  
  75. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  76.  
  77. % We include a short note to anyone looking at the typeset file first:
  78.  
  79. \noindent This is the typeset version of \texttt{\jobname.tex}. There is
  80. nothing fancy to see here. The tutorial you are looking for consists of a
  81. series of comments which are included in the source.
  82.  
  83. \clearpage
  84.  
  85. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  86.  
  87. \section{Basic quotations}
  88.  
  89. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  90.  
  91. % Csquotes is able to interface with the babel package. To demonstrate that,
  92. % we will occasionally change the document language. We start off with American
  93. % English:
  94.  
  95. \selectlanguage{american}
  96.  
  97. \subsection{\languagename}
  98.  
  99. % Getting started is simple: just load the package and use the command \enquote
  100. % to enclose a piece of text in quotation marks:
  101.  
  102. \example{1} \enquote{outer quote \enquote{inner quote} outer quote}
  103.  
  104. % \enquote can detect nested quotations. It will toggle between outer and inner
  105. % quotation marks depending on the nesting level. There is also a starred
  106. % version of this command which jumps to the inner level right away:
  107.  
  108. \example{2} \enquote*{inner quote}
  109.  
  110. % The csquotes package supports two markup styles for quotations: control
  111. % sequences and active characters. An active character is a single character
  112. % functioning as a control sequence. Think of them as 'smart quotes' done
  113. % right. The active characters are defined in the document preamble or in the
  114. % configuration file. There are several commands which make that a trivial
  115. % task:
  116. %
  117. % \MakeOuterQuote{<character>}
  118. % \MakeInnerQuote{<character>}
  119. % \MakeAutoQuote{<first character>}{<second character>}
  120. %
  121. % \MakeOuterQuote and \MakeInnerQuote set up active characters which typeset
  122. % outer or inner quotation marks respectively.
  123. %
  124. % Preamble: \MakeOuterQuote{"}
  125.  
  126. \example{3} "outer quote"
  127.  
  128. % Using the straight Ascii quote as an active quote is tempting. However, note
  129. % that this may cause problems because it is used as an active character by
  130. % several language extensions of the babel package. It will conflict with the
  131. % following language extensions:
  132. %
  133. % Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, Galician,
  134. % German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Latin, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese,
  135. % Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Ukrainian, Upper Sorbian.
  136. %
  137. % Looks like a long list? It certainly is. But then again, you could use it in
  138. % conjunction with the English or the French extensions. More hints concerning
  139. % active characters will be given below, so make sure you read the entire
  140. % tutorial.
  141. %
  142. % \MakeAutoQuote sets up two active characters that toggle between outer and
  143. % inner quotation marks like the \enquote command. You need two distinct
  144. % characters in this case.
  145. %
  146. % Preamble: \MakeAutoQuote{«}{»}
  147.  
  148. \example{4} «outer quote «inner quote» outer quote»
  149.  
  150. % Since the control sequences and active quotes of csquotes are essentially
  151. % different frontends to a common backend, you may also mix them:
  152.  
  153. \example{5} \enquote{outer quote «inner quote» outer quote}
  154.  
  155. \example{6} "outer quote \enquote{inner quote} outer quote"
  156.  
  157. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  158.  
  159. % We're switching languages:
  160.  
  161. \selectlanguage{french}
  162.  
  163. \subsection{\languagename}
  164.  
  165. % Csquotes will detect the change and adjust the quotation marks to the new
  166. % language automatically:
  167.  
  168. \example{1} les guillemets \enquote{à la française}
  169.  
  170. % Of course the active quotes will obey the language change as well:
  171.  
  172. \example{2} les guillemets «à la française»
  173.  
  174. % A note about French: when using \enquote or active quotes, don't add any
  175. % nonbreakable spaces. Csquotes will space out the guillemets automatically as
  176. % is custom in French. The spacing is similar to what you get when using the
  177. % commands \og and \fg provided by the French extension of the babel package.
  178. % This feature is not hard-coded, it is part of the quote styles for French and
  179. % could be modified if desired.
  180.  
  181. \example{3} les guillemets \og à la française\fg
  182.  
  183. \example{4} les guillemets "à la française"
  184.  
  185. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  186.  
  187. % We're switching languages once again:
  188.  
  189. \selectlanguage{german}
  190.  
  191. \subsection{\languagename}
  192.  
  193. % ... and csquotes will adjust the quotation marks as well:
  194.  
  195. \example{1} «Zitat «Zitat im Zitat» Zitat»
  196.  
  197. % Before we continue with the multilingual capabilities of csquotes, a few
  198. % general notes concerning active quotes are in order.
  199.  
  200. % Like the quotation commands provided by csquotes, the active quotes are
  201. % fully-fledged markup elements which allow for basic validation of the
  202. % document structure. They differ substantially from the quote commands
  203. % provided by the babel package. Conceptually, the latter are physical
  204. % markup elements whereas csquotes provides semantic markup.
  205. %
  206. % Babel's German extension, for example, provides the command \glqq and the
  207. % shorthand "` to typset the opening quotation mark used in German:
  208.  
  209. \example{2} \glqq Zitat\grqq\ "`Zitat"'
  210.  
  211. % The shorthand "` is more convenient than something like \quotedblbase, but
  212. % it's not different in concept. If you get the shorthands wrong by mixing up
  213. % "` and "', TeX will happily typeset the wrong quotation marks without giving
  214. % any warning:
  215.  
  216. \example{3} "'Zitat"`
  217.  
  218. % If you get the active quotes of csquotes wrong, TeX will bail out with an
  219. % error message drawing you attention to the problem. This package tracks the
  220. % nesting level of all quotations and issues an error message if they are
  221. % nested in an invalid way. It also employs grouping to make sure that a
  222. % quotation opened with an active quote is also closed properly. All active
  223. % quotes have essentially the same effect as { and } or \begingroup and
  224. % \endgroup. This means that active quotes must always be properly balanced and
  225. % nested.
  226. %
  227. % Some grouping mistakes may trigger a generic TeX error. Note that packages
  228. % cannot catch low-level errors caused by grouping mistakes, nor do they have
  229. % any control over the wording of generic error messages. Error messages like:
  230. %
  231. %    ! Missing } inserted.
  232. % or
  233. %    ! Too many }'s.
  234. %
  235. % could be caused by unbalanced quotes or by intersecting groups. In some
  236. % cases, all a package can do is make sure that there will be *some* kind of
  237. % error message. Bear this in mind when tracking down the cause of such
  238. % seemingly cryptical errors.
  239.  
  240. % When defining active quotes, make sure that they don't conflict with other
  241. % packages. Several language extensions of the babel package use the Ascii
  242. % double quote as a shorthand for diacritics and special hyphenation points.
  243. % When switching to one of these languages with \selectlanguage (or any
  244. % command/environment activating babel's specials locally), babel will
  245. % overwrite the definitions set up by csquotes:
  246.  
  247. \selectlanguage{german}
  248.  
  249. \example{4} "a "o "u "i
  250.  
  251. % You can reclaim active quotes after their definitions have been overwritten
  252. % by another package with \EnableQuotes. This command will replay the
  253. % definitions of all active quotes recorded in the preamble or elsewhere.
  254. % Note that it doesn't make sense to use \EnableQuotes in the preamble because
  255. % a lot of packages (including csquotes) defer the activation of such
  256. % characters until \begin{document}.
  257.  
  258. \EnableQuotes
  259.  
  260. \example{5} "Zitat"
  261.  
  262. % Use \EnableQuotes with care as you may break other packages by reclaiming
  263. % active quotes. Even if things don't break outright, you might loose
  264. % functionality. With babel's German extension, for example, you can do without
  265. % the " shorthand as far as diacritics and (babel's) quotes are concerned when
  266. % using inputenc and csquotes. But sooner or later you might still need it to
  267. % mark special hyphenation points.
  268.  
  269. % The above might be acceptable as a one-time workaround, but it is not really
  270. % advisable as a general solution. Since the choice of active quotes is up to
  271. % you, it is a good idea to choose characters which are not used by any other
  272. % package in the first place. If you are using an input encoding like Latin 1
  273. % or Latin 9 anyway, I recommend using 8-bit characters as active quotes. Such
  274. % characters will not conflict with other packages since they have to make do
  275. % with Ascii for hard-wired active characters. The left and right guillemets
  276. % («») used as an example here are particularly well suited for this purpose.
  277.  
  278. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  279.  
  280. \selectlanguage{polish}
  281.  
  282. \subsection{\languagename}
  283.  
  284. % Quote styles for some of the languages covered by babel are still missing
  285. % simply because I'm not familiar with the respective language and nobody has
  286. % contributed a suitable style yet. In this case, csquotes will typeset bold
  287. % question marks and issue a warning:
  288.  
  289. \example{1} «unknown»
  290.  
  291. % You can easily add support for your language or change a predefined style.
  292. % All you need to do is add a declaration to the configuration file,
  293. % csquotes.cfg. Detailed instructions concerning this are included in the
  294. % manual. The configuration file also includes some example styles.
  295.  
  296. \selectlanguage{american}
  297.  
  298. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  299.  
  300. \subsection{Foreign language quotations}
  301.  
  302. % In the following, we will have a closer look at the multilingual capabilities
  303. % of csquotes. First of all, we're changing the default language:
  304.  
  305. \selectlanguage{german}
  306.  
  307. \example{1} «Zitat in der Standardsprache.» % "quote in the default language"
  308.  
  309. % Babel offers environments for changing the language locally. This works just
  310. % fine with csquotes:
  311.  
  312. \begin{otherlanguage*}{american}
  313.  
  314. \example{2} «This is a quote in a different language.»
  315.  
  316. \end{otherlanguage*}
  317.  
  318. % Babel's 'hyphenrules' environment merely switches hyphenation patterns but
  319. % does not affect the typesetting in any other way. Consequently, csquotes will
  320. % not change the quotation mark style within this environment either:
  321.  
  322. \begin{hyphenrules}{american}
  323.  
  324. \example{3} «quote snippet in a different language»
  325.  
  326. \end{hyphenrules}
  327.  
  328. % Babel also features the command \foreignlanguage which changes the language
  329. % for a foreign phrase embedded in the text body. This command corresponds to
  330. % the 'otherlanguage*' environment. Csquotes provides a command which combines
  331. % the features of \foreignlanguage and \enquote:
  332.  
  333. \example{4} \foreignquote{american}{This is a quote in a different language.}
  334.  
  335. % In addition to that, csquotes provides an inline substitute for the
  336. % 'hyphenrules' environment which changes the hyphenation rules used within the
  337. % quotation without adapting the quotation mark style:
  338.  
  339. \example{5} \hyphenquote{american}{quote snippet in a different language}
  340.  
  341. % Since the syntax of these commands is somewhat verbose you might want to
  342. % build your own, shorter commands on top of them. Note that all \foreign...
  343. % and \hyphen... commands take the language as their first argument, hence you
  344. % can easily include the language in your own commands if you like:
  345. %
  346. % \newcommand*{\usquot}{\foreignquote{american}}
  347. % \newcommand*{\frhyph}{\hyphenquote{french}}
  348. %
  349. % Which would be used as follows:
  350. %
  351. % \usquote{This is a quote in American English.}
  352. % \frhyph{Voici une citation en français.}
  353. %
  354. % See the comments in the configuration file (csquotes.cfg) for further hints
  355. % and some examples.
  356. %
  357. % You might also prefer to use active quotes. There are two commands which
  358. % facilitate that:
  359. %
  360. % \MakeForeignQuote{<language>}{<first character>}{<second character>}
  361. % \MakeHyphenQuote{<language>}{<first character>}{<second character>}
  362. %
  363. % For example:
  364. %
  365. % \MakeForeignQuote{american}{<}{>}
  366. % \MakeHyphenQuote{french}{«}{»}
  367. %
  368. % Which would be used as follows:
  369. %
  370. % <This is a quote in American English.>
  371. % «Voici une citation en français.»
  372.  
  373. \EnableQuotes % because \selectlanguage{german} overwrites the " special
  374. \selectlanguage{american}
  375.  
  376. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  377.  
  378. \section{Formal quotations}
  379.  
  380. % A common requirement in academic writing demands that quotations be embedded
  381. % in the flow of text if they are short but set off as an indented paragraph, a
  382. % so-called block quotation, if they are longer than a certain number of lines.
  383. % This package provides commands which will determine the number of lines
  384. % required to typeset the quotation and then decide on the format
  385. % automatically.
  386.  
  387. \example{1}
  388. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  389. the running text. \blockquote{This is a short quotation. Since it's shorter
  390. than three lines it will be embedded in the running text.} This is some filler
  391. text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with the running text.
  392. \blockquote{This is a long quotation. Since it's longer than three lines it
  393. will be presented as an indented paragraph. By default, the csquotes package
  394. will use the \texttt{quote} environment for block quotations. Both the line
  395. threshold and the block quotation environment may be adapted to your
  396. requirements.} This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is
  397. integrated with the running text.
  398.  
  399. % Formal quotations are always accompanied by a citation indicating the source
  400. % of the quoted text. The citation will usually have a specific format which is
  401. % used consistently throughout the entire text. For example, it might be
  402. % enclosed in parentheses or put in a footnote. Therefore, the block quotation
  403. % facilities take the citation as an optional argument and pass it to an
  404. % auxiliary command called \mkcitation. This command may be redefined to format
  405. % the citation. Here is an example:
  406.  
  407. \renewcommand{\mkcitation}[1]{ (#1)} % this is the default
  408.  
  409. \example{2}
  410. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  411. the running text. \blockquote[Citation]{This is a short quotation. Since it's
  412. shorter than three lines it will be embedded in the running text.} This is
  413. some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with the
  414. running text. \blockquote[Citation]{This is a long quotation. Since it's
  415. longer than three lines it will be presented as an indented paragraph. By
  416. default, the csquotes package will use the \texttt{quote} environment for
  417. block quotations. Both the line threshold and the block quotation environment
  418. may be adapted to your requirements.} This is some filler text demonstrating
  419. how the quotation is integrated with the running text.
  420.  
  421. % There is another useful command called \ifblockquote which you may use in the
  422. % definition of \mkcitation to present the citation in a way that depends on
  423. % the format of the corresponding quotation:
  424.  
  425. \renewcommand{\mkcitation}[1]{%
  426.   \ifblockquote{\footnote{#1.}}{ (#1)}}
  427.  
  428. % If the quotation is embedded in the running text, this definition will behave
  429. % like the one discussed above. If the quotation is presented as a block
  430. % quotation, however, the citation will be given in a footnote.
  431.  
  432. \example{3}
  433. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  434. the running text. \blockquote[Citation]{This is a short quotation. Since it's
  435. shorter than three lines it will be embedded in the running text.} This is
  436. some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with the
  437. running text. \blockquote[Citation]{This is a long quotation. Since it's
  438. longer than three lines it will be presented as an indented paragraph. By
  439. default, the csquotes package will use the \texttt{quote} environment for
  440. block quotations. Both the line threshold and the block quotation environment
  441. may be adapted to your requirements.} This is some filler text demonstrating
  442. how the quotation is integrated with the running text.
  443.  
  444. % You may also want to present a quotation in inline or in display style,
  445. % regardless of its length. That's what the text and display quotation
  446. % facilities are for. Quotations typeset with the text quotation facilities
  447. % look like a 'short' quotation, those typeset by means of the display
  448. % quotation facilities look like a 'long' quotation. Citations are supported
  449. % as well and will be formated consistently with \mkcitation. \ifblockquote
  450. % will also work as expected in this context.
  451. %
  452. % This is the current definition of \mkcitation:
  453. %
  454. %    \renewcommand{\mkcitation}[1]{%
  455. %      \ifblockquote{\footnote{#1.}}{ (#1)}}
  456. %
  457. % That's what a text quotation ...
  458.  
  459. \example{4}
  460. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  461. the running text.
  462. \textquote[Citation]{This is a short quotation typeset with a text quotation
  463. command. It would be presented in inline style even if it were longer than
  464. three lines.}
  465. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  466. the running text.
  467.  
  468. % ... and a display quotation looks like:
  469.  
  470. \example{5}
  471. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  472. the running text.
  473. \begin{displayquote}[Citation]
  474. This is a fairly short quotation. Since it is enclosed in a
  475. \texttt{displayquote} environment, however, it is typeset just like a long
  476. one.
  477. \end{displayquote}
  478. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  479. the running text.
  480.  
  481. % See the sections entitled "Fine-tuning block/display quotations" and
  482. % "Fine-tuning terminal punctuation" for additional hints.
  483.  
  484. % For the remaining examples, we restore the default definition:
  485.  
  486. \renewcommand{\mkcitation}[1]{ (#1)}
  487.  
  488. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  489.  
  490. % If you prefer using active quotes, you may do so with block quotations as
  491. % well. In the preamble we already defined some active quotes including the
  492. % following:
  493. %
  494. % \MakeBlockQuote{<}{|}{>}
  495. %
  496. % These active quotes are used as follows:
  497.  
  498. \example{5} <quotation>
  499.  
  500. \example{6} <quotation|citation>
  501.  
  502. % This is equivalent to:
  503. %
  504. %    \blockquote{quotation}
  505. %    \blockquote[citation]{quotation}
  506. %
  507. % The delimiter | separates the quotation from the citation. If the delimiter
  508. % is not used, the entire piece of text between the opening and the closing
  509. % mark will be treated as quotation text. Note that the marks and the delimiter
  510. % must not be included in the quoted piece of text and the citation. See the
  511. % section entitled "Controlling active quotes" on how to work around this
  512. % limitation.
  513.  
  514. % Let's go over our verbose example once again, using active quotes this time:
  515.  
  516. \example{7}
  517. This is some filler text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with
  518. the running text. <This is a short quotation. Since it's shorter than three
  519. lines it will be embedded in the running text.|Citation> This is some filler
  520. text demonstrating how the quotation is integrated with the running text.
  521. <This is a long quotation. Since it's longer than three lines it will be
  522. presented as an indented paragraph. By default, the csquotes package will use
  523. the \texttt{quote} environment for block quotations. Both the line threshold
  524. and the block quotation environment may be adapted to your
  525. requirements.|Citation> This is some filler text demonstrating how the
  526. quotation is integrated with the running text.
  527.  
  528. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  529.  
  530. \section{Integrated quotations}
  531.  
  532. % For every quotation command/environment which takes a citation as an
  533. % argument, there is also a corresponding 'integrated' command/environment with
  534. % the letter 'c' for 'cite' in its name:
  535. %
  536. %    \textquote            \textcquote
  537. %    \foreigntextquote     \foreigntextcquote
  538. %    \hyphentextquote      \hyphentextcquote
  539. %
  540. %    \blockquote           \blockcquote
  541. %    \foreignblockquote    \foreignblockcquote
  542. %    \hyphenblockquote     \hyphenblockcquote
  543. %
  544. %    displayquote          displaycquote
  545. %    foreigndisplayquote   foreigndisplaycquote
  546. %    hyphendisplayquote    hyphendisplaycquote
  547. %
  548. % The integrated quotation facilities differ from their regular counterparts in
  549. % that they integrate automated citations into their syntax. Instead of adding
  550. % \cite manually, you pass the arguments for \cite to the respective quotation
  551. % command. You would normally give a citation like that:
  552.  
  553. \example{1} \enquote{This is the quotation.} \cite[174]{citekey}
  554.  
  555. % The commands for formal quotations already take the citation as an argument,
  556. % but using \cite in an optional argument may lead to some rather convoluted
  557. % constructs with multiple nested pairs of brackets and braces:
  558. %
  559. %    \textquote[{\cite[174]{citekey}}]{This is the quotation.}
  560. %
  561. % The integrated quotation facilities allow you to write that in a much more
  562. % readable, sequential way:
  563.  
  564. \example{2} \textcquote[174]{citekey}{This is the quotation.}
  565.  
  566. % This works with block quotations as well:
  567.  
  568. \example{3} \blockcquote[174]{citekey}{This is the quotation.}
  569.  
  570. % The \cite command will format the citation in a certain way (it is enclosed
  571. % in square brackets by default). Since csquotes' \mkcitation would interfere
  572. % with \cite's formatting, all integrated quotation facilities use \mkccitation
  573. % instead of \mkcitation. The citation arguments are handed over to \cite and
  574. % this entire unit is passed to \mkccitation.
  575. %
  576. % When using citation packages such as cite, natbib, jurabib, or biblatex, you
  577. % might want to put the format of the citation completely under the control of
  578. % the respective package and have \mkccitation do nothing at all:
  579. %
  580. %    \renewcommand*{\mkccitation}[1]{#1}
  581. %
  582. % Obviously, anything inserted by \cite cannot be removed by \mkccitation.
  583. % Hence you might need additional packages which redefine \cite in order to
  584. % adjust the format of the automated citations. Here's an example using the
  585. % cite package to present the citation in a way that is better suited for the
  586. % author-year citation format:
  587.  
  588. \renewcommand*{\mkccitation}[1]{ #1} % this is the default (note the space)
  589. \renewcommand*{\citeleft}{(}    % -> cite.sty
  590. \renewcommand*{\citeright}{)}   % -> cite.sty
  591. \renewcommand*{\citemid}{, p.~} % -> cite.sty
  592.  
  593. \example{4} \textcquote[174]{doe96}{This is the quotation.}
  594.  
  595. % Of course you may also combine \mkccitation and the features of additional
  596. % citation packages. Depending on the citation package, there may be more than
  597. % one way to achieve a certain result.
  598. %
  599. % Suppose that we wanted to put all citations in a footnote. The jurabib and
  600. % biblatex packages offers a \footcite command which does just that. In this
  601. % case, \mkccitation need not do anything:
  602. %
  603. %    \renewcommand*{\mkccitation}[1]{#1}
  604. %    \SetCiteCommand{\footcite}
  605. %
  606. % With natbib, \mkccitation may take care of the footnote but we still need to
  607. % use an alternative \cite command to get a suitable citation format:
  608. %
  609. %    \renewcommand*{\mkccitation}[1]{\footnote{#1}}
  610. %    \SetCiteCommand{\citealp}
  611. %
  612. % Here's one last example combining \mkccitation with the features of the cite
  613. % package to achieve a similar result. \mkccitation will put the citation in a
  614. % footnote while the cite package is used to format the citation:
  615.  
  616. \renewcommand*{\mkccitation}[1]{\footnote{#1}}
  617. \SetCiteCommand{\cite}
  618.  
  619. \renewcommand*{\citeleft}{}
  620. \renewcommand*{\citeright}{.}
  621. \renewcommand*{\citemid}{, p.~}
  622.  
  623. \example{5} \blockcquote[174]{doe96}{This is the quotation.}
  624.  
  625. % All of this also works with the text...
  626.  
  627. \example{6} \textcquote[174]{doe96}{This is the quotation.}
  628.  
  629. % ...and the display quotation facilities:
  630.  
  631. \example{7}
  632. This is some filler text.
  633. \begin{displaycquote}[174]{doe96}
  634. This is the quotation.
  635. \end{displaycquote}
  636. This is some filler text.
  637.  
  638. % The natbib, jurabib, and biblatex packages redefine \cite so that it takes
  639. % two optional arguments. If one of these packages is loaded, all integrated
  640. % quotation facilities will automatically accept this additional argument
  641. % as well:
  642. %
  643. %    \usepackage{natbib}
  644. %    ...
  645. %    \textcquote[See][174]{doe96}{...}
  646. %
  647. % The citation arguments are handed over to \cite in the order in which they
  648. % were given. How they are interpreted is at the discretion of \cite. With the
  649. % natbib and biblatex packages, the first optional argument is a prenote.
  650. % With jurabib, it has a different function by default.
  651.  
  652. % See the section entitled "Fine-tuning terminal punctuation" for additional
  653. % hints.
  654.  
  655. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  656.  
  657. \section{Miscellaneous hints}
  658.  
  659. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  660.  
  661. \subsection{Fine-tuning block/display quotations}
  662.  
  663. % The most frequent complaint about the traditional 'quote' and 'quotation'
  664. % environments is that they do not adjust the font size of the quoted text. It
  665. % is very common to set block quotations slightly smaller than the surrounding
  666. % text. This problem is easily remedied:
  667. %
  668. %    \newenvironment{smallquote}
  669. %      {\begin{quote}\small}
  670. %      {\end{quote}}
  671. %
  672. % Because of the way environments are implemented in LaTeX, it is better to
  673. % avoid nesting \begin and \end when including an environment in the definition
  674. % of another one. Another problem with this definition is that \small will
  675. % effectively hard-code the font size. It is advisable to use the \smaller
  676. % command from the relsize package. \smaller will decrease the font size by one
  677. % step (from \normalsize to \small or from \footnotesize to \scriptsize) so
  678. % that this environment will also work as expected when used in a footnote.
  679. %
  680. % Hence our final definition is written as follows:
  681.  
  682. \newenvironment*{smallquote}
  683.  {\quote\smaller}
  684.  {\endquote}
  685.  
  686. % Now we instruct csquotes to use the new environment:
  687.  
  688. \SetBlockEnvironment{smallquote}
  689.  
  690. \example{1}
  691. This is some filler text. \blockquote{This is a quotation typeset with one of
  692. the block quotation commands of the \texttt{csquotes} package. The block
  693. quotation environment has been modified so that the font size of the quotation
  694. is decreased by one step with respect to the size of the surrounding text.}
  695. This is some filler text.
  696.  
  697. % All adjustments made by means of \SetBlockEnvironment will automatically
  698. % apply to the 'display' environments as well:
  699.  
  700. \example{2}
  701. This is some filler text.
  702. \begin{displayquote}
  703. This is a quotation typeset with one of the quotation environments of the
  704. \texttt{csquotes} package. Quotations typeset by way of these environments
  705. will behave exactely like a long quotation set with the block quotation
  706. commands.
  707. \end{displayquote}
  708. This is some filler text.
  709.  
  710. % If you want to use this setup by default, add the following to csquotes.cfg:
  711. %
  712. %    \RequirePackage{relsize}
  713. %
  714. %    \newenvironment{smallquote}
  715. %      {\quote\smaller}
  716. %      {\endquote}
  717. %
  718. %    \SetBlockEnvironment{smallquote}
  719. %
  720. % Of course you could also redefine the original 'quote' environment, but keep
  721. % in mind that the 'quote' and 'quotation' environments are not part of the
  722. % LaTeX kernel. They are defined in the document class. Since any definition
  723. % given in csquotes.cfg should be independent of the document class, it's
  724. % better to build a new environment on top of 'quote'.
  725.  
  726. % For the next examples, we'll switch back to the default:
  727.  
  728. \SetBlockEnvironment{quote}
  729.  
  730. % You may have noticed that the first line of text after the quotation is not
  731. % indented in the example above. This is possibly not what you would expect.
  732. % However, this is in fact a feature of the standard 'quote' environment which
  733. % is used for long quotations by default. Strictly speaking, it is a feature of
  734. % LaTeX's list environments and both 'quote' and 'quotation' are implemented as
  735. % lists. If they are part of a paragraph, the first line after the environment
  736. % will not be indented:
  737.  
  738. \example{3}
  739. This is some filler text.
  740. \begin{quote}
  741. This is a quotation typeset with the standard \texttt{quote} environment. In
  742. the source of this example the environment is part of a paragraph, hence the
  743. first line after the environment is not indented.
  744. \end{quote}
  745. This line is not indented.
  746.  
  747. % If the environment is separated from the surrounding text by \par or by a
  748. % blank line, the first line after the environment will get regular paragraph
  749. % indentation:
  750.  
  751. \example{4}
  752. This is some filler text.
  753.  
  754. \begin{quote}
  755. This is a quotation typeset with the standard \texttt{quote} environment. In
  756. the source of this example the environment is separated from the surrounding
  757. text by blank lines, hence the first line after the environment gets regular
  758. paragraph indentation.
  759. \end{quote}
  760.  
  761. This line gets regular paragraph indentation.
  762.  
  763. % Block quotation commands such as \blockquote will usually be integrated in
  764. % the text in the document source since \blockquote may decide to typeset its
  765. % argument inline. When using the 'quote' environment for long quotations, this
  766. % implies that the first line after the environment will not get regular
  767. % paragraph indentation:
  768.  
  769. \example{5}
  770. This is some filler text. \blockquote{This is a quotation typeset with one of
  771. the block quotation commands of the \texttt{csquotes} package. In the source
  772. of this example the quotation is part of a paragraph. By default, the block
  773. quote commands will use the standard \texttt{quote} environment for long
  774. quotations. Therefore, the first line after the block quotation is not
  775. indented.} This line is not indented.
  776.  
  777. % This behavior is perfectly in line with LaTeX's list environments, but it can
  778. % lead to inconsistencies in the layout. The csquotes package will not insert
  779. % an explicit \par before and after block quotations automatically since you
  780. % might prefer it the other way and suppressing the indentation later on is a
  781. % somewhat tricky thing to do. It is much easier to force indentation after
  782. % paragraph quotations automatically. If you want to force indentation in all
  783. % cases, a suitable environment is easily defined:
  784. %
  785. %    \newenvironment*{paraquote}
  786. %      {\par\begin{quote}}
  787. %      {\end{quote}\par}
  788. %
  789. % As mentioned above, it is better to avoid nesting \begin and \end:
  790.  
  791. \newenvironment*{paraquote}
  792.  {\begingroup\quote}
  793.  {\endquote\endgroup}
  794.  
  795. % We instruct csquotes to use the new environment:
  796.  
  797. \SetBlockEnvironment{paraquote}
  798.  
  799. % Now all long quotes will be treated as separate paragraphs:
  800.  
  801. \example{6}
  802. This is some filler text. \blockquote{This is a quotation typeset with one of
  803. the block quotation commands of the \texttt{csquotes} package. In the source
  804. of this example the quotation is also part of a larger paragraph. However, the
  805. block quotation environment has been redefined so that the first line after
  806. the quotation gets regular paragraph indentation.} This line gets regular
  807. paragraph indentation.
  808.  
  809. % Our 'paraquote' environment may also be merged with the 'smallquote'
  810. % environment discussed above:
  811. %
  812. %    \newenvironment*{smallparaquote}
  813. %      {\begingroup\quote\smaller}
  814. %      {\endquote\endgroup}
  815. %
  816. %    \SetBlockEnvironment{smallparaquote}
  817.  
  818. \subsection{Fine-tuning terminal punctuation}
  819.  
  820. % Style guides often include subtleties such as detailed provisions concerning
  821. % the placement of terminal punctuation. With \blockquote, such provisions can
  822. % complicate matters quite a bit since you don't know in advance how the
  823. % quotation is going to be typeset.
  824. %
  825. % The csquotes package is designed to cope with as many of these provisions as
  826. % possible. The facilities for formal quotations provide a combination of
  827. % 'hooks' and tests which may be used to deal with them automatically. We'll
  828. % consider MLA-style quotations as an example. The APA style uses a different
  829. % citation format (author-year) but is very similar in concept otherwise.
  830.  
  831. % The MLA style guide demands that quotations of up to four lines be set inline
  832. % and quotations of five or more lines be presented as an indented paragraph.
  833. % The \blockquote command and its various companions can deal with this task
  834. % automatically. The required settings are obvious:
  835.  
  836. \SetBlockThreshold{4} % the default is 3 lines
  837. \SetBlockEnvironment{quote} % this is the default
  838.  
  839. % The source of the quotation is indicated in the body by a short citation in
  840. % parentheses. This is what the default definition of \mkcitation already does:
  841.  
  842. \renewcommand*{\mkcitation}[1]{ (#1)} % this is the default
  843.  
  844. % What complicates this further is the placement of the terminal punctuation.
  845. % With long quotations, the period is simply placed at the end of the
  846. % quotation. With short quotations, however, the final period is omitted from
  847. % the quotation and placed after the whole unit formed by quotation and
  848. % citation. This can be automated as follows:
  849.  
  850. \renewcommand*{\mkmidblockpunct}[1]{%
  851.   \ifblockquote{.}{}}
  852.  
  853. \renewcommand*{\mkfinblockpunct}[1]{%
  854.   \ifblockquote{}{.}}
  855.  
  856. % Note that both \mkmidblockpunct and \mkfinblockpunct must take one mandatory
  857. % argument, even if it is not used in their definition. We will use it further
  858. % down, though.
  859. %
  860. % Now, when quoting, we simply omit the terminal period:
  861.  
  862. \example{1}
  863. \blockquote[Doe 174]{This is a short quotation. The terminal period is omitted
  864. from the quotation and inserted automatically}
  865.  
  866. \blockquote[Doe 174]{This is a long quotation. Apart from this absolutely
  867. pointless filler text (which serves no purpose whatsoever besides making the
  868. quotation exceed the block threshold so that the command used to typeset the
  869. quotation will finally have mercy and present it as an indented paragraph) it
  870. is similar to the short quotation above. The terminal period is also omitted
  871. from the quotation and inserted automatically}
  872.  
  873. % But what if the quotation ends with a question mark? With short quotations
  874. % there is no problem because the whole unit including the citation should
  875. % still be closed with a terminal period. Therefore, our definition of
  876. % \mkfinblockpunct does not require any adjustments. With long quotations,
  877. % however, this would result in '?.' at the end of the quotation. We need an
  878. % additional test in the definition of \mkmidblockpunct: \ifquotepunct tells
  879. % us if the quotation ends with a punctuation mark. If so, we don't add a
  880. % terminal period to the block quotations:
  881.  
  882. \renewcommand*{\mkmidblockpunct}[1]{%
  883.   \ifblockquote
  884.     {\ifquotepunct{}{.}}
  885.    {}}
  886.  
  887. \example{2}
  888. \blockquote[Doe 174]{This is a short quotation ending with a question
  889. mark. You see?}
  890.  
  891. \blockquote[Doe 174]{This is a long quotation. Apart from this absolutely
  892. pointless filler text (which serves no purpose whatsoever besides making the
  893. quotation exceed the block threshold so that the command used to typeset the
  894. quotation will finally have mercy and present it as an indented paragraph) it
  895. is similar to the short quotation above. It also ends with a question mark.
  896. You see?}
  897.  
  898. % But it gets even more complicated. What about inline quotations with a
  899. % terminal question mark which is not part of the quotation? For example,
  900. % consider something like the following:
  901. %
  902. %    Is it true, as Epimenides claims, that "all Cretans are liars"?
  903. %
  904. % This might be given as follows in the source document:
  905. %
  906. %    Is it true, as Epimenides claims, that
  907. %    \blockquote[][?]{all Cretans are liars}
  908. %
  909. % Note that the 'punctuation' argument is passed to both \mkmidblockpunct and
  910. % \mkfinblockpunct. (But only on of them should actually insert it!) In the
  911. % above definitions of these commands, the argument was simply discarded. Our
  912. % final definitions will subject #1 to an \ifstringblank test to find out if
  913. % the 'punctuation' argument is used and handle it in an appropriate way:
  914.  
  915. \renewcommand*{\mkmidblockpunct}[1]{%
  916.   \ifblockquote
  917.     {\ifstringblank{#1}
  918.       {\ifquotepunct{}{.}}
  919.       {}}
  920.    {}}
  921.  
  922. \renewcommand*{\mkfinblockpunct}[1]{%
  923.   \ifblockquote
  924.     {\ifstringblank{#1}{}{#1}}
  925.    {\ifstringblank{#1}{.}{#1}}}
  926.  
  927. \example{3}
  928. \blockquote[Doe 174][?]{This is a short quotation closed with a question mark
  929. which is not part of the quotation itself}
  930.  
  931. \blockquote[Doe 174][?]{This is a long quotation. Apart from this absolutely
  932. pointless filler text (which serves no purpose whatsoever besides making the
  933. quotation exceed the block threshold so that the command used to typeset the
  934. quotation will finally have mercy and present it as an indented paragraph) it
  935. is similar to the short quotation above. It is closed with a question mark
  936. which is not part of the quotation itself}
  937.  
  938. % Setting the long quotation this way is not a good idea because it's still
  939. % somewhat ambiguous. Let's make that more explicit:
  940.  
  941. \renewcommand*{\mkmidblockpunct}[1]{%
  942.   \ifblockquote
  943.     {\ifstringblank{#1}
  944.       {\ifquotepunct{}{.}}
  945.       { [\dots\unkern]\,[#1]}}
  946.    {}}
  947.  
  948. \renewcommand*{\mkfinblockpunct}[1]{%
  949.   \ifblockquote
  950.     {}
  951.    {\ifstringblank{#1}{.}{#1}}}
  952.  
  953. \example{4}
  954. \blockquote[Doe 174][?]{This is a short quotation closed with a question mark
  955. which is not part of the quotation itself}
  956.  
  957. \blockquote[Doe 174][?]{This is a long quotation. Apart from this absolutely
  958. pointless filler text (which serves no purpose whatsoever besides making the
  959. quotation exceed the block threshold so that the command used to typeset the
  960. quotation will finally have mercy and present it as an indented paragraph) it
  961. is similar to the short quotation above. It is closed with a question mark
  962. which is not part of the quotation itself}
  963.  
  964. % There's an additional benefit to this last solution: if you quote a partial
  965. % sentence, that is, if the end of the quotation is not the end of the quoted
  966. % sentence, you can have csquotes mark the omission automatically be passing
  967. % a period as the optional 'punctuation' argument:
  968.  
  969. \blockquote[Doe 174][.]{This is a long quotation. Apart from this absolutely
  970. pointless filler text (which serves no purpose whatsoever besides making the
  971. quotation exceed the block threshold so that the command used to typeset the
  972. quotation will finally have mercy and present it as an indented paragraph) it
  973. is similar to the quotation above. In this case, however, the end of the
  974. quotation is not the end of the quoted sentence%, which goes on like this.
  975. }
  976.  
  977. % For the remaining examples, we restore the defaults:
  978.  
  979. \SetBlockThreshold{3}
  980. \SetBlockEnvironment{quote}
  981. \renewcommand*{\mkcitation}[1]{ (#1)}
  982. \renewcommand*{\mkmidblockpunct}[1]{}
  983. \renewcommand*{\mkfinblockpunct}[1]{#1}
  984.  
  985. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  986.  
  987. \subsection{Babel and csquotes}
  988.  
  989. % Let's take another, more systematic look at the commands and environments
  990. % provided by the babel package to see how csquotes fits into the picture.
  991. %
  992. % First of all, we (re)set the main document language to 'american'. This will
  993. % reset strings like \chaptername and the date as printed by \today to the
  994. % defaults:
  995.  
  996. \selectlanguage{american}
  997.  
  998. \example{1} \chaptername: \today
  999.  
  1000. % Babel's 'otherlanguage' environment switches hyphenation patterns and
  1001. % activates all extra definitions for the respective language, such as
  1002. % shorthands and language specific adjustments. It will also translate strings
  1003. % like \chaptername and localize the date format of \today. Essentially, it's
  1004. % like \selectlanguage but restricted to the scope of the environment.
  1005. %
  1006. % We'll use French as an example here because the language specific adjustments
  1007. % are obvious in this case (note the spaced out colon):
  1008.  
  1009. {\begin{otherlanguage}{french}
  1010.  
  1011. \example{2} \chaptername: \today
  1012.  
  1013. \end{otherlanguage}}
  1014.  
  1015. % Note that the extra set of braces in the example above was merely added to
  1016. % work around a bug in older versions of the babel package. They are not
  1017. % related to csquotes in any way and should not be required with a recent
  1018. % version of babel.
  1019.  
  1020. % The starred version of this environment switches hyphenation patterns and
  1021. % activates the language specific adjustments without modifying the strings:
  1022.  
  1023. \begin{otherlanguage*}{french}
  1024.  
  1025. \example{3} \chaptername: \today
  1026.  
  1027. \end{otherlanguage*}
  1028.  
  1029. % Babel's \foreignlanguage command is an inline version of the 'otherlanguage*'
  1030. % environment:
  1031.  
  1032. \example{4} \foreignlanguage{french}{\chaptername: \today}
  1033.  
  1034. % Csquotes' \foreignquote command and all active quotes defined with
  1035. % \MakeForeignQuote behave the same as \foreignlanguage. The quotation mark
  1036. % style will be adapted to the language of the quotation:
  1037.  
  1038. \example{5} \foreignquote{french}{\chaptername: \today}
  1039.  
  1040. % Babel's 'hyphenrules' environment switches hyphenation patterns without
  1041. % making any further adjustments. You won't see it in the typeset version of
  1042. % the example below, but inside the environment the active hyphenation patterns
  1043. % are actually the French ones while everything else adheres to the standards
  1044. % of the main document language ('american' here):
  1045.  
  1046. \begin{hyphenrules}{french}
  1047.  
  1048. \example{6} \chaptername: \today
  1049.  
  1050. \end{hyphenrules}
  1051.  
  1052. % The \hyphenquote command and all active quotes defined with \MakeHyphenQuote
  1053. % are inline versions of babel's 'hyphenrules' environment plus quotation
  1054. % marks. They will switch hyphenation patterns without making any further
  1055. % adjustments. The quotation marks match the text surrounding the quotation:
  1056.  
  1057. \example{7} \hyphenquote{french}{\chaptername: \today}
  1058.  
  1059. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  1060.  
  1061. \subsection{Controlling active quotes}
  1062.  
  1063. % Once made active, the active quotes cannot be used any more as if they were
  1064. % ordinary characters. You may always include them literally in the text by
  1065. % using a verbatim environment, but it is also possible to control their
  1066. % current state in situations in which a verbatim environment is not feasible.
  1067.  
  1068. % The commands \EnableQuotes and \DisableQuotes will turn the active quotes on
  1069. % and off:
  1070.  
  1071. \example{1}
  1072. "text" «text» <text>
  1073.  
  1074. \DisableQuotes
  1075. "" «» <>
  1076.  
  1077. \EnableQuotes
  1078. "text" «text» <text>
  1079.  
  1080. % Like verbatim environments, these commands modify category codes. This
  1081. % implies that you cannot use them to change the behavior of the argument read
  1082. % in by a command. In this case, use \VerbatimQuotes instead. This command
  1083. % will print all active quotes literally without changing category codes.
  1084. % Since the scope of this command is local, you don't even need \EnableQuotes
  1085. % if you put everything in a group. Here's an example:
  1086.  
  1087. \newcommand{\printverbquotes}[1]{\begingroup\VerbatimQuotes #1\endgroup}
  1088.  
  1089. \example{2}
  1090. "text" «text» <text>
  1091.  
  1092. \printverbquotes{"" «» <>}
  1093.  
  1094. "text" «text» <text>
  1095.  
  1096. % Note that the situation is slighly different with active block quotes. Only
  1097. % the opening mark really is an active quote. The delimiter and the closing
  1098. % mark are also active characters, but their behavior is different. Outside
  1099. % the scope of a block quotation they may be employed as usual:
  1100.  
  1101. \example{3} \printverbquotes{<} | >
  1102.  
  1103. % When included in a block quotation, however, they would confuse TeX's
  1104. % argument scanner. You can prevent that by wrapping the offending character
  1105. % in curly brackets:
  1106.  
  1107. \example{4} <quotation \printverbquotes{<} {|} {>}|citation>
  1108.  
  1109. % Of course you can always use control sequences instead:
  1110.  
  1111. \example{5} <quotation \textless\ \textbar\ \textgreater|citation>
  1112.  
  1113. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  1114.  
  1115. % That's it.
  1116.  
  1117. \clearpage
  1118.  
  1119. % The bibliography is required by the integrated quotation commands discussed
  1120. % above.
  1121.  
  1122. \begin{thebibliography}{Doe 1996}
  1123. \bibitem{citekey} This is an example\dots
  1124. \bibitem[Doe 1996]{doe96} This is an example\dots
  1125. \end{thebibliography}
  1126.  
  1127. \end{document}
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