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  1. Utilitarianism
  2. a) If someone always chooses the lower pleasure, what does that person suffer from according to J.S. Mill?
  3. b) What cause or causes force someone to lose the capacities for higher pleasures and nobler feelings according to J.S. Mill?
  4. Their surrounding
  5. c) Which of the following statements best describes act utilitarianism according to the handout?
  6.     Act Utilitarianism: do the action that leads to the greatest happiness for the greatest number at the time of the action
  7. d) Which of the following statements best describes rule utilitarianism according to the handout?
  8.     Rule Utilitarianism: follow the rule that leads overall to the greatest happiness for the greatest number
  9. Aristotle
  10. e) What is the end towards which all human acts are striving according to Aristotle?
  11.  The end is perfections
  12. f) What is the end towards which everything in nature is striving towards according to Aristotle?
  13.     Nature also aims at perfection.
  14. g) What is the end towards which all living things are striving according to Aristotle?
  15.     Perfection is the end of everything.
  16.  
  17. Stoics
  18. 1)  What are the conditions for Stoic suicide?
  19. Must be stoic enlightened, Future must only promise pain, really know reality only promises pain
  20. 2)Explain stoic freedom.
  21. Free to go do what you are capital of doing based on their nature.
  22. 4) What is required for Stoic enlightenment?
  23.     Knowledge of reality, acceptance of reality, and dispassionate manner.
  24. 7) Describe the stoic picture of reality and humans part in it.
  25.     Universe is guided by logos, so there is a divine plan, and reality as a whole is perfect
  26. 8) How should one become happy according to the Stoics?
  27.  If you want what the universe gives you, you’ll become happy.
  28.  
  29.  
  30. SW: Good p. 40-52
  31. 9) What is the problem if the moral code fails to have height (or depth), fails to reach the heavens, i.e. if it lacks the sublime and the divine according to Steinsaltz?
  32.     That it fail to be justified.
  33. 11) According to Steinsaltz, list two reasons why moral theories fail to give what we expect namely clear answers to moral dilemmas.
  34.      grey areas exist, general vs. particulars
  35. 13) What. three things are required for an ethical system to be satisfactory according to Steinsaltz?
  36.  
  37. 14) What three things are required for a basic moral code structure according to Steinsaltz?
  38. `   Need basic moral code,  rank the principals, be consistent.
  39. Utilitarianism p. 280-288
  40. 15) Which statement correctly states J.S. Mill's principle of government interference?
  41.     no regulations except to prevent great harms
  42. 16) What does Bentham mean when he says, “one person, one vote”?  
  43.     You decide your pleasures best. One person, one vote. No experts, democratic values
  44. 17) What is the general principle of Utility?
  45.     Greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
  46. 18) Governments cannot interfere according to J.S. Mill in private lives; yet, society can still try to influence the private behavior of people.  What method is allowable for this according to J.S. Mill?
  47. 19) What is required to be a competent judge according to J.S. Mill?
  48.     one who is capable of both pleasures, exposed to both, competent at both.
  49. 20) State and explain J.S. Mill's tender plant analogy and how it applies to humans.
  50. 21) What test or criteria is used to distinguish a higher from a lower pleasure according to J.S. Mill?
  51.  
  52. Aristotle p. 72-85
  53. Aristotle virtue (packet)
  54. 22) What characterizes a legitimate government according to Aristotle?
  55.     One who takes care of it’s people
  56. 23) What characterizes a perverse government according to Aristotle?  
  57.     One who disrespects it’s people.
  58. 24) List and define the four moral levels of agents according to Aristotle.
  59. 25) List the three kinds of virtue according to Aristotle.
  60.     --moral virtue: what’s right and wrong (habit)(propensity to act in certain manner) (character) - practical: abstract thinkin aobut things that affect you, that you control and can change—practical thinking-philosophical:
  61. q0) Describe how one typically acquires moral virtue and later how one can change it according to Aristotle.
  62.     Virtue ethics: actions in accordance with virtue in conformity with reason;.
  63. SW: Hollywood p. 133-144
  64. 36) List a few reasons why Hollywood is cult-like according to Steinsaltz.
  65.     Cause people copy manners, behaviors, images, and figure that Hollywood creates.
  66. 37) According to Steinsaltz, what roles in Hollywood compare with roles in church, specifically idols, priests, worshippers?
  67. Priests are equivalent to directors and there are active and passive members like a church some make the rules. Other follow them.
  68. 38) Give three reasons why the Hollywood message is harmful and fictitious according to Steinsaltz.
  69.     Hollywood gives false happiness.
  70.  
  71. SW: Masks p. 145-158
  72. 39) Describe three purposes a mask plays according to Steinsaltz.
  73.     They are symbols of the roles we play in life.
  74. 40) What are two reasons why people want to unmask the self, reveal the inner self according to Steinsaltz?
  75.    
  76. 41) What is the potential danger of taking off or stripping away all masks according to Steinsaltz?
  77.     If the masks are removed then everyone will lose the since that makes a person a person.
  78. SW: Sex p. 97-107
  79. 42) What happens when humans try to have sex without emotions according to Steinsaltz?
  80.     It self destructs the ego. And gets boring after a while.
  81. 43) What is multidimensional sex and why should multidimensional sex be an aim of the human according to Steinsaltz?
  82.     You need to satisfy all layers to become happy. Emo, physical, and mental
  83.  
  84. SW: Family p. 171-186
  85. 44) What two things in modern societies are disrupting family values according to Steinsaltz?
  86.     Emotions and stress.
  87. 45) What typically happens when stress occurs in the romantic or emotionally based family relationship according to Steinsaltz?
  88.     stress will happen in every relationship: economic stress, relationship stress, social stress, feeling of attraction to other may lead them to leave, (emotional stresses)-emotions don’t survive stress.
  89.  
  90. 46) What is the stable basis of the family according to Steinsaltz?
  91.     -All social units work based on agreements kept. Love makes the family a glorious place, can only happen after the obligations and responsibilities are met, never the other way around. Mutual protection and trust,
  92.  
  93.  
  94.  
  95. Medium Answer: (40 pts.)
  96. Stoics
  97. Describe the stoic picture of knowledge and reality as well as humans part in reality.  What is stoic freedom, and how is it connected to happiness?  What causes unhappiness according to stoic doctrine?  
  98.     Knowledge leads one to act in accordance with nature, humans part is to be enlightened. free to go do what you are capable of doing base on their nature. Happiness is desiring what you get, what is, desiring reality, doing what you can do (don’t do what you can’t do), Stoic attitude: want what the universe gives you and you’ll be happy. Unhappiness and frustration is caused by wanting something you can’t get, or wanting something you’re not free to do
  99. 2) List and explain two things required for the Stoic enlightenment disposition.  What are the conditions for Stoic suicide?  Why do most suicides fail to live up to this standard?  
  100.     Stoic enlightenment 3 things:-knowledge of reality, acceptance of reality, dispassionate manner: cool, even-keeled rational disposition, emotions should not be listened to. You don’t get emotionally invested in things. NO EMOTIONS!! Stoic Conditions for Suicide: 1) Must be stoic enlightened 2) Future must only promise pain, really know reality only promises pain. Cause most people are not enlightened when they commit suicide.
  101. Good
  102. 3) Specifically give the three aspects of width, length and height and explicitly explain these three things required for an ethical system to be satisfactory according to Steinsaltz?  State and explain what the physical bridge building analogy means for moral codes according to Steinsaltz.
  103.     3 things a morality must have to be SATISFCTORY:- width: must accord with human behavior in general, what we do and should do, generality- length: past, present, and future, can’t favor only young or old, rich or poor- height: reach what is divine in us: name things and question: sublime height: it must answer the deep questions that humans can ask, hence provide adequate justification. Bridge Building Analogy:
  104. -- all bridges must do the required minimum, in this, they are all alike-- not all bridges are alike. Tough cases solved differently- reasonable people can arrive different answers in the grey areas.
  105. 4) What three things are required for a basic moral code structure according to Steinsaltz?  Why must moral codes give general and not specific guidelines for moral behavior according to Steinsaltz, i.e. why do they fail to give specific answers to all situations?
  106.     3 of three things needed to formulate the basic moral code:
  107. -need the basic moral code—throw out the cultural noise and trash, environmental, bias-hierarchy of principles: rank the principles, because in particular cases, the principles will conflict-be consistent, aka, have inner harmony We expect moral codes to give us clear answers, morality can’t:-grey areas exist-general vs. particulars,
  108. J.S. Mill Handout (packet)
  109. 5) What does Bentham mean when he says, “one person, one vote”?  What does Mill worry about with a “one person, one vote” pleasure principle?  How does Mill overcome (or attempt to overcome) the ‘one person, one vote’ democratic principle of Bentham?  What two charges do critics level against J.S. Mill's revision to Bentham's Utility?  In your opinion, whose interpretation of Utility do you think is better, more useful, more practical?  Why?  Support.
  110.     Bentham: You decide your pleasures best. One person, one vote. No experts, democratic values, J.S. Mill: worried about one person, one vote principle (read all the Greeks, Romans, and French) - worried that society will be ruled by the lowest common denominator, -- encourage people to do the superior or noble, better actions- social approval or rewards, and social disapproval
  111. 6) Describe what the difference is between higher and lower pleasures and how we find out according to J.S. Mill.  Describe the competent judge according to J.S. Mill.  Should we treat any pleasure as worthwhile such as Bentham, or is J.S. Mill better?  Why or why not according to you?  In your opinion, does education, and especially the better, noble education recommended by competent judges make the people who listen and follow the competent judges in education become competent judges themselves?  Why or why not?
  112.     -- better and worse pleasures, some are superior, intrinsically worthwhile- competent judges: one who is capable of both pleasures, exposed to both, competent at both.
  113. -- if competent judges consistently choose one pleasure over the other, it shows the one is superior to the other. encourage people to do the superior or noble, better actions- social approval or rewards, and social disapproval.
  114. 7) Recite Mill’s analogy of the tender plant.  To what is he referring?  What two reasons does Mill think cause people to often become unable to lead the higher, more noble life?  Do you agree?  Why or why not?  Is ignorance bliss in your opinion?  In J.S. Mill's opinion? Describe the complex interrelationships between ignorance, higher faculties, education, and happiness according to J.S. Mill.  Do you agree? Why or why not?
  115.     They people are like plants, if in bad place it can not sustain life.they don’t want to or can’t based on their surroundings. I argee that you are a product of your placement.
  116. 8) Describe the “two slave lottery to the rest of the class” case, does Utilitarianism do a good job formulating the moral decisions in this case?  Why or why not?  State rule utilitarianism.  Can formulating rules (i.e. rule utility) make utilitarianism better so that it answers more situations correctly?  Support clearly and use the "two slave lottery" case if useful to do so.  If it is not useful to do so, tell why it is not useful to do so.
  117.     People work while other relaxes. Util = measure of time. Yes it does, best for best of time. It’s useful if the pleasure of the many outweighs the pain and suffering of the two slaves.
  118. 9) Describe the case of Sam and organ donation according to the handout.  Now, clearly distinguish between act and rule utilitarianism.  Tell what answer an act ultilitarian doctor gives for the case of Sam.  Tell what answer a rule utilitarian doctor gives for the case of Sam.  What is the rule you have the rule utilitarian doctor following to end up with a different answer than the act utilitarian doctor?  It is a good rule for moral guidance?  Why or why not?
  119. Case of Sam: involuntary organ donation- society of fear, denies security Act Utilitarianism: do the action that leads to the greatest happiness for the greatest number at the time of the action, Rule Utilitarianism: follow the rule that leads overall to the greatest happiness for the greatest number, J.S. Mill: only legitimate use of force, against their will, is to prevent harms to others
  120. Aristotle virtue (packet)
  121. 11) State and clearly define and explain the four causes of a thing according to Aristotle.  Give an example by explaining an object or thing of your choice using the four causes.  According to Aristotle, what causes are needed to merely categorize an object?  Can we in fact encounter these two causes needed to categorize an object separately in reality or not according to Aristotle?  Why or why not according to Aristotle?
  122.  If you know four causes of an object, person, place, thing, you know the object-material cause: stuff that the object is made of, what material-formal cause: shape and function give the form
  123. (knowing these two lets you pick out class of object)-efficient cause: who made it?-final cause: what’s he purpose? Note: related to the function and form. Can continue to ask this question again and again: eventually end up with one answer
  124. SW: Sex p. 97-107
  125. 16) Although theoretically possible, is it in fact feasible to separate the physiological aspect of sex from the emotional and psychological aspects that can be in sexual relations according to Steinsaltz?  Why or why not according to Steinsaltz?  What is the consequence of those that attempt physical only sex according to Steinsaltz?  Justify according to Steinsaltz.  Without disclosing any personal information, i.e. using hypotheticals or friends, do you agree with Steinsaltz's view of sex?  Why or why not?
  126.     No natural limits, only in the mind can we separate the physical act of sex from the emotional (social or mental) you cant keep them separate forever. Aim only at physical sex, becomes boring after a while.-humans have multiple layers, need to satisfy all of them to be happy: emo physical and mental, social -physical sex only self- destructs the ego.
  127. Family p.
  128. 17) What two things in modern societies are disrupting family values according to Steinsaltz?  Clearly state and explain how they are affecting family values and stability according to Steinsaltz.  Do you agree that he has the correct answer to the high divorce rate and the loss of family values in modern societies?  Why or why not?  What must the relationship be like in order to have fun in the family according to Steinsaltz?  Why according to Steinsaltz?  Do you agree?  Why or why not?
  129. Family missed some cont.  (LOVE) We live in a culture that tried to substitute the feeling of love for obligation.-emotionalism:stress will happen in every relationship: economic stress, relationship stress, social stress, feeling of attraction to other may lead them to leave, (emotional stresses)-emotions don’t survive stress. -greater part of romanticism is cultural clichés and ephemeral contact reactions.
  130. --as this fiction gains influence, the family until becomes increasingly more unstable.
  131. Obligations kept make the family last-All social units work based on agreements kept. Love makes the family a glorious place, can only happen after the obligations and responsibilities are met, never the other way around.
  132. Mutual protection and trust,
  133.  
  134.     If you know four causes of an object, person, place, thing, you know the object…
  135. There are four levels of moral agents according to Aristotle.  
  136. -The vicious person is not moral at all, nor do they know what ought to be done. [morally confused]
  137. -The akratic, incontinent or morally weak agent desires to do other than what he knows ought to be done and acts on this desire against his better judgment [they do the wrong thing, knowing the right thing].
  138. -The enkratic, continent or morally strong person shares the akratic agent's desire but acts in accordance with his better judgment [they want to do the wrong thing, but do the better action anyway, however, not for the right reasons].
  139. In neither kind of akratic or enkratic choice are desire and judgment in harmony.
  140. -The virtuous agents [they desire to do and do the right things for the right reasons].  The virtuous agent has the ruling part of the soul that governs choice and action so disposed that desire and right judgment coincide.  Desire and judgment agree, so their choices are free of the conflict and pain that inevitably accompany those of the akratic and enkratic agents.
  141.  
  142. The key concepts of virtue ethics are: human character and virtue.  Aristotle's virtue ethics is also heavy with teleology.
  143.  
  144. The Nicomachean Ethics was written by Aristotle "not in order to know what virtue is, but in order to become good."  One becomes good by becoming a good chooser and doer.  This is not simply a matter of choosing and doing right actions but of choosing or doing them in the right way.  Aristotle assumes that, for the most part, agents know what ought to be done (the evil or vicious person is an exception).  
  145.  
  146. A virtue is not simply a tendency or a disposition to behave in a certain way; a virtue is a state of one's character.  If you display the virtues of honesty, justice, and kindness, you are honest, just, and kind--but not in an empty sort of way. The virtues link your character with the world.  When you act kindly, it is because you have a reason to act kindly, that is, because you have taken into consideration the feelings of others as part of the motivation behind your actions.  Because you have (good) reasons for your actions when they are expressions of virtues, the virtues are rational.    But they also involve emotions...Aristotle said that virtuous actions are performed with the right feelings and emotions behind them.  [In virtue theory, according to Hursthouse] a central aspect of [the
  147. Consequentialism:
  148. Concerned only with the outcomes, consequence based morality
  149. - we know what works and what doesn’t work from the past.
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