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Debunking the lipid hypothesis

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May 10th, 2020
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  1. "LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review of the current literature."
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30198808
  3.  
  4. "The mainstream hypothesis that LDL cholesterol drives atherosclerosis may have been falsified by non-invasive imaging of coronary artery plaque burden and progression."
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19560285
  6.  
  7. "Dietary cholesterol reduces circulating levels of small, dense LDL particles, a well-defined risk factor for CHD."
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683785
  9.  
  10. "Cholesterol does not cause coronary heart disease in contrast to stress."
  11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18609060
  12.  
  13. "The fallacies of the lipid hypothesis."
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615352
  15.  
  16. Low cholesterol is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality
  17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12967690
  18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19033015
  19. http://www.clinchem.org/content/46/8/1114.full.pdf
  20. http://ccforum.com/content/pdf/cc10584.pdf
  21.  
  22. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with elevated LDL/HDL ratio survive by more than 12 months longer.
  23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199832
  24.  
  25. Replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates increases small, dense LDL particles, shifts to an overall atherogenic lipid profile, and increases incidence of diabetes and obesity. Replacing saturated fat with omega 6 polyunsaturated fats increases risk of cancer, increases risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular events, and death to heart disease and overall mortality, increases oxidized LDL-C, reduces HDL-C.
  26. http://openheart.bmj.com/content/1/1/e000032.full
  27.  
  28. Low cholesterol is associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease.
  29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3247776/
  30.  
  31. Egg consumption improves lipid profile, blood pressure, and reduces risk for cardiovascular mortality and diabetes.
  32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683785
  33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11023005
  34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18991244
  35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776466
  36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369056
  37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134328
  38. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15164336
  39. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203890
  40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17531457
  41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340654
  42.  
  43. "A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat."
  44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071648
  45. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2010/01/13/ajcn.2009.27725.abstract
  46.  
  47. Recommendations of the American Heart Association from 1982 are based on misinterpretation, obsolete science, and arbitrary choices without explanation.
  48. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6383010
  49. http://highsteaks.com/a-critical-look-at-the-american-heart-associations-dietary-guidelines-from-1982/
  50.  
  51. "Public health emphasis on reducing SFA consumption without considering the replacement nutrient or, more importantly, the many other food-based risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is unlikely to produce substantial intended benefits."
  52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354806
  53.  
  54. "We conclude that major weight loss was associated with a late rise in serum cholesterol, possibly from mobilization of adipose cholesterol stores, which resolved when weight loss ceased."
  55. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2035468
  56.  
  57. "The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes."
  58. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0113605
  59.  
  60. Conclusion: The lipid hypothesis is foolish.
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