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  1. It's hotly debated exactly when dogs were domesticated.
  2. But there's one thing that both archeologists and geneticists agree on.
  3. Our relationship with dogs goes back thousands of years further than with any other pet.
  4. It was a time when we were still hunter-gatherers.
  5. Dogs were certainly the first animal to be domesticated, and they fit into hunting and gathering societies probably better than any other species out there.
  6. At this stage when we're hunting and gathering and killing wild animals, after you finish with them you're creating a relatively large pile of bone and leftover meat things that these wolves would have been very attracted to.
  7. Those wolves that were able to take advantage of that resource and were a little bit less afraid and could approach the human camp, were then setting themselves up into a closer relationship with humans.
  8. We are carnivores.
  9. We are social carnivores.
  10. We hunt in groups and we hunt in daylight.
  11. There are not many other species that do that.
  12. The wolf is a social carnival that hunts by daylight, and therefore I think there is natural potential for teamwork between those two species.
  13. We became much better hunters with dogs.
  14. We are more successfully taking down large game which means we have more food to eat, which means we can have more offspring, which means the overall populations of humans grow.
  15. Dog domestication may have helped pave the way for a fundamental change in human lifestyle.
  16. It's hard to see how early herders would have moved and protected and guarded their flocks without domestic dogs being in place.
  17. And one has to wonder whether agriculture would ever really have made it as a viable alternative to hunting and gathering.
  18. Some believe that the influence of dogs on our development was not just important but pivotal.
  19. Dogs absolutely turn the tables.
  20. Without dogs humans would still be hunter-gatherers.
  21. Without that initial starting phase of dog domestication, civilization just would not have been possible.
  22.  
  23. Musk oxen are on the move.
  24. They're heading into the valleys, where the brief summer rains will produce fresh grazing.
  25. This is an opportunity that must be seized, even if it means travelling 80 miles in a day.
  26. Their task is a formidable one.
  27. Musk oxen are immensely powerful and their sharp horns can kill.
  28. A heavily-armoured bull would be an unwise choice.
  29. Even two wolves would find it a struggle to bring it down.
  30. A calf.
  31. Much easier.
  32. The two wolves work together to split the herd and isolate their victim.
  33. It seems that the wolf cubs will at last eat well.
  34. But the herd regroups.
  35. The cavalry ride to the rescue.
  36. The whole herd encircles the calf with a protective wall of horns.
  37. For the musk oxen, it's all for one and one for all.
  38. For the wolves, another attack would be not only futile, but dangerous.
  39. They have spent a lot of energy and have nothing whatever to show for it.
  40. Their failure will be felt most keenly back at the den.
  41. They have nothing to take back to the family.
  42. The pack are forced to move on in search of better hunting.
  43. They must find something soon in this vast wilderness to feed their growing family.
  44. The brief Arctic summer is almost over.
  45.  
  46. While the prey's running, the dogs have the advantage.
  47. But when the wildebeest stand their ground, the tables are turned.
  48. Faced with a wall of horns, the pack is powerless.
  49. But not all the wildebeest have had the courage to stop.
  50. Now, the real contest begins.
  51. The wildebeest are big and strong.
  52. But the dogs have stamina.
  53. Right now, hunters and hunted are clocking 40m/h.
  54. The pack can keep this pace up for miles.
  55. The wildebeest can't.
  56. One wildebeest peels off, then another two.
  57. The split confuses the inexperienced pack, sending them in different directions.
  58. The mother and one youngster continue on.
  59. The rest of the pack stop, believing they have an easier target.
  60. It's a mistake.
  61. Like a beast with two heads, each bull protects the other's rear.
  62. And the dogs can do nothing.
  63. Ahead, the chase continues.
  64. Another wildebeest peels off.
  65. Now the mother has just one in her sights.
  66. But it'll mean nothing without the help of the rest of the pack.
  67. The situation here has reached stalemate.
  68. The young dogs have lost valuable time.
  69. They must try and catch up with their mother.
  70. Back at the front, the mother is beginning to tire.
  71. And the wildebeest knows it.
  72. Bouncing to show he's still strong and not worth chasing.
  73. But fresh, young legs are catching up fast.
  74. When one dog tires, there's always another member of the team to take up the lead.
  75. The dogs now have the numbers to bring the wildebeest down.
  76. Each bite risks a broken jaw, but going for the legs is the only way to stop it.
  77. And they must do so before it reaches the safety of the herd, a few hundred meters ahead.
  78. After a 20-minute chase, the bull's energy is near spent.
  79. This time there will be no sanctuary within the herd.
  80. The dogs' stamina has been rewarded.
  81. All they must do now is to bring their quarry to the ground.
  82. Working as a pack allows wild dogs to take on prey ten times heavier than any one of them.
  83. But many mouths need a lot of food.
  84. The price they pay for these numbers is knowing they'll have to attempt the same thing again tomorrow, and every day.
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