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  1. Reading material on Intelligence, Crime and Race Realism: an egalitarian approach
  2.  
  3.  
  4. Transracial adoption studies on racial IQ differences adjusted for the Flynn effect (w/ Minnesota transracial adoption study)
  5. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.mdpi.com/2079-3200/5/1/1/pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjv4bf0-NLfAhWJSBUIHRb9AgcQFjAEegQIBhAB&usg=AOvVaw1p36Ad3YdX32rZXJJnz06Z
  6.  
  7. A response to Hans Eysenck and review of Racial IQ literature - environmental explanation for the b/w IQ gap using transracial adoption, admixture studies and molecular genetics
  8. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/npb/people/amc/articles-pdfs/racediff&ved=2ahUKEwjzne-H_NLfAhXkrHEKHfQcBM4QFjAAegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw0WPxvJSPP6wY1Aj1Lva6q-
  9.  
  10. Heritability in the genomics era — concepts and misconceptions
  11. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrg2322
  12.  
  13. Criticisms of Davide Piffer paper on population genetics (with Piffer's inane commentary) - rejected by academic journal 'Intelligence'
  14. https://www.google.com/amp/s/topseudoscience.wordpress.com/2016/01/10/the-forbidden-paper-on-the-population-genetics-of-iq/amp/
  15.  
  16. Trait-SNP differences across population groups preventing polygenic score extrapolation, possibly due to differences in linkage disequilibrium patterns
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017115/
  18.  
  19. Polygenic score and phenotype discrepancies caused by gene interactions, environmental influences and changes in linkage disequilibrium: the non-validity of polygenic score extrapolation for different population groups
  20. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/11/06/167551.full.pdf
  21.  
  22. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns - a review of the academic literature on the nature of Intelligence including group differences with suggested explanations and criticism of the genetic hypothesis
  23. http://differentialclub.wdfiles.com/local--files/definitions-structure-and-measurement/Intelligence-Knowns-and-unknowns.pdf
  24.  
  25. Wicherts et al. systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans and a response to Lynn
  26. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289609000634?via%3Dihub
  27.  
  28. Wicherts et al. A response to Lynn's criticism of the literature review of sub-Saharan IQ
  29. https://jeltewichertsdotnet.files.wordpress.com/2015/12/wichertsravenafr2010rej.pdf
  30.  
  31. Socioeconomic status as a moderator of the genetic and shared environmental influence on verbal IQ: A multilevel behavioral genetic approach
  32. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289615000987
  33.  
  34. The fact that, given enough genetic data, individuals can be correctly assigned to their populations of origin is compatible with the observation that most human genetic variation is found within populations, not between them
  35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1893020/
  36.  
  37. Further reconciliation of greater within group differences to between group differences and multi-loci allelic frequency classification into population groups: further evidence in support of Lewontin
  38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516610/
  39.  
  40. The ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM and Microcephalin is not explained by increased intelligence.
  41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17220170
  42.  
  43. Family socialization and the IQ test performance of traditionally and transracially adopted Black children - parenting differences between black and white mothers contributes to the IQ gap
  44. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1986-24139-001
  45.  
  46. Environmental factors contribute significantly, to the b/w IQ gap, at very young ages
  47. https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/fryer/files/testing_for_racial_differences_in_the_mental_ability_of_young_children.pdf
  48.  
  49. A reply to Rushton and Jensen 2005 on alleged genetic bases for racial IQ gap - a non sequitur
  50. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232501669_There_are_no_public-policy_implicatons_A_reply_to_Rushton_and_Jensen_2005
  51.  
  52. The biological effects of childhood trauma, it's impact on adult behaviour and intelligence via brain development
  53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3968319/
  54.  
  55. Evidence for reduction in b/w IQ gap with 9 US samples for 4 different cognitive tests, also evidence for g gains - gap less than 10 points
  56. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40064475?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
  57.  
  58. Geographic continuity in the distribution of genetic variation - the non-validity of traditional race concepts and consistency with Lewontin 1972
  59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180234/
  60.  
  61. Criticism of the 10,000 year explosion by Cochran
  62. https://vav.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/vav/article/view/15966/17131
  63.  
  64. Further criticism of the 10,000 year explosion by Cochran
  65. http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html
  66.  
  67. A letter from 143 geneticists denounce 'A troublesome inheritance' for misuse of their research and flawed conclusions
  68. https://cehg.stanford.edu/letter-from-population-geneticists
  69.  
  70. Criticism of A troublesome inheritance by Nicholas Wade
  71. https://www.americanscientist.org/article/a-troubling-tome
  72.  
  73. Further criticism of A troublesome inheritance by Nicholas Wade
  74. https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004817
  75.  
  76. Race and other misadventures including r/k selection and further criticisms of Rushton
  77. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
  78.  
  79. The more intelligent a person, the fewer connections there are between the neurons in his or her cerebral cortex - IQ beyond brain size
  80. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180517102236.htm
  81.  
  82. Reading material on GWAS and heritability
  83. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408201/
  84.  
  85. Polygenic scores inferred from European GWASs are biased by genetic drift in other populations even when choosing the same causal variants and that biases in any direction are possible and unpredictable
  86. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384097/
  87.  
  88. The association of socioeconomic status with IQ development in children with the IQ gap increasing with age
  89. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289614001433
  90.  
  91. A refutation of a scientific paper on molecular genetics by Davide Piffer, frequently used by race realists
  92. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=etMmhzQL3ho
  93.  
  94. A meta-analysis of the causal impact of education on IQ - potential mediator for national IQ differences
  95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29911926
  96.  
  97. How Heritability Misleads about Race
  98. https://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/Heritability.html
  99.  
  100. Refutations of Rushton including misapplication of r/k selection and the concept of races
  101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1469962002002002627
  102.  
  103. The worldwide distribution of cognitive ability is determined in part by variation in the intensity of infectious diseases
  104. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2010.0973
  105.  
  106. The method of correlated vectors (MCV) is often used to study group differences in performance on cognitive test items. It is shown here that this method does not convey much information about the role of g in the ethnic groups being compared - criticism of Jensen effect and Spearman's hypothesis
  107. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616303233?via%3Dihub
  108.  
  109. IQ can experience significant changes in teenage years due to alterations in brain structure during development
  110. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10514
  111.  
  112. The causal effect of education in adolescence on raising IQ, potential factor contributing to national IQ differences
  113. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/2/425.full.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwi4wdH5--HhAhWSblAKHWN8Dv4QFjAIegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw2jxJrlGNKQwY83JtnKd6PX
  114.  
  115. Cultural differences in the provision of information account for racial differences in IQ
  116. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289606001085
  117.  
  118. cognitive gains consequent to adoption/immigration, changes in IQ’s heritability across life span and socioeconomic status, gains in IQ over time consequent to societal development (the Flynn effect), the slowdown of age-related cognitive decline, and the gains in intelligence from early education - means to mediate population differences in IQ
  119. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29083200
  120.  
  121. The apportionment of human diversity revisited - evolutionary foundation for the rejection of biological race
  122. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.22899
  123.  
  124. The remarkable role of nutrition in learning and behaviour: how protein, iron and iodine intake impact cognitive development in adolescents - potential factor contributing to national and racial IQ differences
  125. https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/00346650510605658
  126.  
  127. No relationship between intelligence and facial attractiveness in a large, genetically informative sample
  128. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415372/
  129.  
  130. Meta-analysis demonstrating racial discrimination in hiring in the US
  131. https://www.pnas.org/content/114/41/10870
  132.  
  133. Structural disadvantage as a mediator for racial crime differences - particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime
  134. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097310/
  135.  
  136. Racial bias in bail decisions - Estimates from Miami and Philadelphia show that bail judges are racially biased against black defendants
  137. https://www.nber.org/papers/w23421.pdf
  138.  
  139. Meta-analysis of African-american test score gap - socioeconomic status and schooling as mediators for the gap and policy suggestions to eliminate the gap
  140. http://nickchk.com/Huntington-Klein_Ackert_Full_Long_Road_to_Equality.pdf
  141.  
  142. Human ancestry correlates with language and reveals that race is not an objective genomic classifier
  143. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484253?dopt=Abstract
  144.  
  145. Assessing the accuracy of perceptions of intelligence based on heritable facial features - There was a significant association between perceived intelligence and measured IQ, but of the specific facial attributes only interpupillary distance significantly mediated this relationship
  146. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617300843?via%3Dihub
  147.  
  148. From a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response
  149. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756148/
  150.  
  151. Criticism of the publication of inadequately reviewed papers regarding race and IQ by Wicherts et al.
  152. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2012.00020/full
  153.  
  154. Equal intellectual abilities between genders despite differences in brain size
  155. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jnr.23953
  156.  
  157. Reading material on the clinal nature of human genetic variation
  158. http://golem.anth.wsu.edu/sites/ipem.anth.wsu.edu/files/Handley_etal_2007-TIG.pdf
  159.  
  160. Review of the literature on the b/w IQ gap by Nisbett, concluding an environmental explanation
  161. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~nisbett/racegen.pdf
  162.  
  163. ‘Race’, IQ and Genes - how molecular genetics research is misused by hereditarians
  164. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470015902.a0005689.pub3
  165.  
  166. The Black-White Test Score Gap: An Introduction - an overall environmental problem and solution
  167. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/9780815746096_chapter1.pdf
  168.  
  169. Reading material on intelligence with section on race including admixture studies, crossing studies, test bias and environmental influences
  170. https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/npb/people/amc/articles-pdfs/aspeinte.pdf
  171.  
  172. Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples around 3000 years B.C - Wicherts et al. study in response to Lynn, Rushton and Templer on national IQ differences and evolutionary history by examining socioeconomic explanations for the disparity (including the irrelevance of brain size)
  173. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222545421_Evolution_brain_size_and_the_national_IQ_of_peoples_around_3000_years_BC
  174.  
  175. How inter-population differences account for the vast majority of genetic variation in humans
  176. https://web.stanford.edu/group/rosenberglab/papers/popstruct.pdf
  177.  
  178. The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults - potential factor to reducing national IQ differences
  179. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2009.02220.x
  180.  
  181. The significance of brain structure over volume in comparison between Humans and Neanderthals
  182. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2013.0168
  183.  
  184. Criticism of Michael Woodley study "Is Homo Sapiens polytypic"
  185. http://nyaafest.blogspot.com/2018/04/polytypic-my-ass.html?m=1
  186.  
  187. Review of academic literature on Intelligence including information on racial differences and refutations of genetic arguments
  188. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341646/
  189.  
  190. The Unintended Impact of Pretrial Detention on Case Outcomes: Evidence from New York City Arraignments - Higher pretrial detention rates among minority defendants explain 40 percent of the black-white gap in rates of being sentenced to prison 
  191. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/695285
  192.  
  193. Racial Differences in IQ Revisited: A Synthesis of Nearly a Century of Research - refutations of hereditarian premises
  194. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0095798401027002004
  195.  
  196. Reflections about intelligence over 40 years by Flynn - review of hereditarian papers including jensen and environmental explanation conclusion
  197. https://scottbarrykaufman.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/1-s2.0-S0160289618300904-main.pdf
  198.  
  199. A critique of OpenPsych journal and Emil Kirkegaard by a former reviewer
  200. http://archive.is/YcIDb
  201.  
  202. Projected narrowing of b/w IQ gap in 2060 by hereditarian Heiner Rindermann
  203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603674/
  204.  
  205. Hereditarian Heiner Rindermann finds b/w IQ gap in the US reduced to 10 points
  206. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289613000895
  207.  
  208. The Black-White Achievement Gap When Progress Stopped - the reduction of the racial IQ gap over time, how it stalled and measures to eliminate it in future
  209. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICBWGAP.pdf
  210.  
  211. Correcting misunderstandings of the heritability of intelligence and its relevance to discussion of the b/w IQ gap
  212. https://www.scottbarrykaufman.com/the-heritability-of-intelligence-probably-doesnt-mean-what-you-think-it-means/
  213.  
  214. The “Flynn Effect” and Flynn's paradox - review of academic literature, criticism of hereditarian arguments and reduction of national IQ differences
  215. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.397.4354&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  216.  
  217. Archive of scholarly critique of HBD claims
  218. http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/1599/hbd-heriditarian-claims-critiqued-scholars
  219.  
  220. Review and criticism of Race: The Reality of Human Differences
  221. https://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
  222.  
  223. A response to Steve Sailer at UNZ and further critique of HBD
  224. http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html
  225.  
  226. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences -Previous effect sizes were inflated due to reporting bias and brain size is not a necessary cause for human IQ differences
  227. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014976341500250X
  228.  
  229. Economic mobility gap between black and white men but not women when controlling for income - rebuttal of proposed genetic explanation for gap
  230. https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/3/21/17139300/economic-mobility-study-race-black-white-women-men-incarceration-income-chetty-hendren-jones-porter
  231.  
  232. National differences in literacy skills as a factor for IQ differences - findings supports the hypothesis that both secular and racial differences in intelligence test scores have an environmental explanation: secular and racial differences in IQ are an artifact of variation in literacy skills
  233. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712152
  234.  
  235. Criticism of the proposed explanation for Jamaican olympic success predicated on ACTN3 gene
  236. https://scienceblogs.com/geneticfuture/2008/10/04/actn3-and-jamaican-olympic-success
  237.  
  238. Criticism of MAOA (warrior) in the as explanation for racial crime differences and response to Sean Last
  239. https://www.google.com/amp/s/notpoliticallycorrect.me/2017/10/15/maoa-race-and-crime-a-simple-relationship/amp/
  240.  
  241. The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China - The level of iodine nutrition plays a crucial role in the intellectual development of children and is thus a potential factor contributing to national IQ differences
  242. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15734706
  243.  
  244. Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture - reading material on race and intelligence including a review of the race and IQ literature. Refutations of hereditarian principles and papers and correcting misapplication of behavioural genetic research
  245. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OVg4AAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:9780231527699&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjAqaSAldrgAhVPRhUIHReYDmIQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  246.  
  247. Heritability Estimates Versus Large Environmental Effects: The IQ Paradox Resolved - James R. Flynn study demonstrating the compatibility of high IQ heritability and an environmental explanation for group IQ differences
  248. https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/rev1082346.pdf
  249.  
  250. Analysis: How poverty can drive down intelligence - potential factor contributing to population IQ differences
  251. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/economy/making-sense/analysis-how-poverty-can-drive-down-intelligence
  252.  
  253. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing - meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes
  254. https://www.pnas.org/content/108/19/7716.abstract
  255.  
  256. Stereotype threat in African American children: The role of Black identity and stereotype awareness - stereotype threat is found to be a potential, though small and overstated, contributor to b/w IQ gap
  257. https://www.cairn-int.info/article-E_RIPSO_273_0175--stereotype-threat-in-african-american.htm
  258.  
  259.  
  260. Race, Head Size, and Intelligence - Possible relations between head size and measured IQ are so small that they cannot possibly explain black-white differences in IQ
  261. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/008124639802800301
  262.  
  263. Recently-derived variants of brain-size genes ASPM, MCPH1, CDK5RAP and BRCA1not associated with general cognition, reading or language - results strongly did not support the hypothesis that derived alleles in MCPH-related genes are related to the evolution of human language or cognition
  264. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289608000421
  265.  
  266. A critique of Rushton on race, brain size and intelligence
  267. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/019188699090185T?via%3Dihub
  268.  
  269. Jensen's Genetic Interpretation of Racial Differences in Intelligence: Critical Evaluation
  270. https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=rPNFXBnwuNoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA397&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  271.  
  272. Eliminating Genetic Reductionism from Developmental Science - critique of the genetic reductionist approach to human behaviour in academic literature and public interpretation
  273. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15427609.2015.1068058?journalCode=hrhd20
  274.  
  275. A Meta-Analysis of Race and Sentencing Research - For similar offenses, African Americans are generally sentenced more harshly than whites
  276. https://crimeandjusticeresearchalliance.org/rsrch/meta-analysis-race-sentencing-research/
  277.  
  278. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research - reading material on the concept of race and it's non-validity as a means of segmenting populations
  279. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3808769/
  280.  
  281. Racial Bias in Police Investigations - State Police officers issue significantly more traffic citations to drivers whose race differs from their own
  282. https://people.ucsc.edu/~jwest1/articles/West_RacialBiasPolice.pdf
  283.  
  284. Impact of the US Housing Crisis on the Racial Wealth Gap Across Generations - among families that owned homes, white households have started to rebound from the worst effects of the Great Recession while black households are still struggling to make up lost ground
  285. https://www.ssrc.org/publications/view/impact-of-the-us-housing-crisis-on-the-racial-wealth-gap-across-generations/
  286.  
  287. Jelte Wicherts response to te Nijenhuis and van den Hoek (2018) on the application of MCV and Spearman's hypothesis
  288. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30015605
  289.  
  290. Nine things to remember about human genome diversity - The small genomic differences between populations and the extensive allele sharing across continents explain why historical attempts to identify, once and for good, major biological groups in humans have always failed. Racial labels may not only obscure important differences between patients but also that they have become positively useless now that cheap and reliable methods for genotyping are making it possible to pursue the development of truly personalized medicine
  291. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24032721/
  292.  
  293. A Meta-Analysis on the Factors That Best Reduce the Achievement Gap - results indicate that several factors are associated with a reduced achievement gap that could help bridge the gap
  294. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0013124514529155?journalCode=eusa
  295.  
  296. The ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM and Microcephalin is not explained by increased intelligence - findings do not support a detectable association between the recent adaptive evolution of either ASPM or Microcephalin and changes in IQ
  297. https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/16/6/600/610971
  298.  
  299. Understanding Human Genetic Variation - reading material on human variation and the non-validity of race based on the observation of greater intra-population variation
  300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20363/
  301.  
  302. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics - statements from the faculty from the humanities, social sciences, life sciences, law and medicine at Stanford University on the non-existence of biological race and the fallacy of attributing complex phenotypic differences (IQ) to it
  303. https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-404
  304.  
  305. Open letter from 67 scientists in response to a statement in 'Who We Are and How We Got Here' by David Reich on the existence of race
  306. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/bfopinion/race-genetics-david-reich#.xvoWpjN8x
  307.  
  308. Introduction and reading material to the determinants of intelligence
  309. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/traits/intelligence
  310.  
  311. A reanalysis of the bell curve - critique on the significance of IQ over SES and parental income
  312. https://www.nber.org/papers/w5230.pdf
  313.  
  314. Are Jews Smarter Than Everyone Else? - critique of racial explanation for Ashkenazi intellect
  315. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3190562/
  316.  
  317. Lead Poisoning and The Bell Curve - Preschool lead exposure trends continue to predict global crime trends and USA trends in education attainment, mental retardation, and teenage pregnancy. Potential factor contributing to racial IQ and crime differences
  318. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/36569/1/MPRA_paper_36569.pdf
  319.  
  320. Race, IQ, and the Search for Statistical Signals Associated with So-Called “X”-Factors: Environments, Racism, and the “Hereditarian  Hypothesis” - the difficulty of controlling for environmental factors and response to hereditarian criticism of environmental explanations
  321. https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/downloads/0z708z33c
  322.  
  323. Race, Intelligence and Ideology: A Review Essay of The Bell Curve
  324. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/download/645/767
  325.  
  326. Richard E. Nisbett, Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments - review of existing literature on Intelligence including comprehensive analysis of race and IQ favouring an environmental explanation
  327. http://humancond.org/_media/papers/nisbett12_intelligence_new_findings.pdf
  328.  
  329. Measurements of Intelligence in sub-Saharan Africa: Perspectives Gathered from Research in Mali - Results indicate that use of the Ravens may substantially underestimate the intelligence of children in Mali. This can be particularly problematic when comparisons are made across cultures using the same test and norms. It is recommended that tests developed with local normative samples be used to assess for IQ
  330. http://christopherjferguson.com/DrameFerguson.pdf
  331.  
  332. Assessing student’s achievement gap between ethnic groups in Brazil - achievement gaps between ethnic groups in Brazil are found to be statistically insignificant giving evidence that genetic factors have little or no effect on ethnic group performance when students are exposed to similar cultural and financial
  333. contexts.
  334. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.10544.pdf
  335.  
  336. Race, genes and culture - Brief introduction to the non-validity of biological race
  337. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260173487_Race_genes_and_culture
  338.  
  339. Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism about Race - review of the academic literature on race
  340. https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/downloads/m326m371j
  341.  
  342. Tracking the Causes and Consequences of Racial Disparities in Imprisonment
  343. https://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~oliver/RACIAL/Reports/nsfAug01narrative.pdf
  344.  
  345. Science shows why you're smarter than a neanderthal - neanderthal admixture and brain volume are insufficient at explaining racial IQ differences
  346. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/science-shows-why-youre-smarter-than-a-neanderthal-1885827/?no-ist=
  347.  
  348. Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function - poverty-related concerns consume mental resources, leaving less for other tasks
  349. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/341/6149/976
  350.  
  351. Africanist archaeology and ancient IQ: racial science and cultural evolution in the twenty-first century - examination of archaelogical records to test hereditarian claims about human evolutionary development yielding negative results
  352. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00438240500509918
  353.  
  354. Does the Intelligence of Populations Determine the Wealth of Nations? - differences in the timing of agriculture transition and the histories of States, not population IQ differences, predict international development differences before the colonial era. The average IQ of populations appears to be endogenous, related to the diverse stages of nations’ modernization, rather than being an exogenous cause of economic development.
  355. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.vittoriodaniele.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/IQ_Development.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiypfeL6f_hAhVJ5eAKHYB-Dl4QFjAIegQIBxAB&usg=AOvVaw3vlmD6r9f2GjZ8nhMtqCDe&cshid=1556902357213
  356.  
  357. Echoes of the Past: Hereditarianism and A Troublesome Inheritance - criticism of Nicholas Wade: A Troublesome Inheritance
  358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263368/
  359.  
  360. Black and White Differences in Cognitive Function Test Scores: What Explains the Difference? - exploration of environmental causes for b/w IQ gap
  361. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2939725/
  362.  
  363. MAOA and CDH13 genes linked to violent crime, but can they explain criminal behavior? - the red herring that is the MAOA gene in explaining crime
  364. https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2014/10/29/genes-linked-to-violent-crime-but-can-they-explain-criminal-behavior/
  365.  
  366. The Trouble with Twin Studies - unaccounted for confounding environmental variables
  367. https://www.madinamerica.com/2013/03/the-trouble-with-twin-studies/
  368.  
  369. The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior - criticism of the eurocentric human revolution model for recent advanced cognition
  370. http://in-africa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/McBrearty-Brooks-2000-JHE-modern-hum-beh.pdf
  371.  
  372. Conceptualizing human variation - introduction to the non-validity of separate human races
  373. https://www.nature.com/articles/ng1455.pdf
  374.  
  375. AAPA Statement on Race & Racism - physical anthropologist consensus that race does not provide an accurate representation of human biological variation
  376. http://physanth.org/about/position-statements/aapa-statement-race-and-racism-2019/
  377.  
  378. How human smarts evolved - evidence against explaining intelligence differences by cranial volume
  379. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2018/08/20/how-human-smarts-evolved/#.XG3Uiej7TIV
  380.  
  381. Missing compared to what? Revisiting heritability, genes and culture - cultural inheritance, when incorporated into models for the determination of phenotypes, can sharply reduce estimates of the genetic contribution to these phenotypes
  382. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5812976/
  383.  
  384. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics - A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability. This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. 
  385. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635473/
  386.  
  387. Multiracial adolescents show no test score gap with whites
  388. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.brookings.edu/research/multi-racial-adolescents-show-no-test-score-gap-with-whites/amp/
  389.  
  390. Socio-Economic Status and Inequalities in
  391. Children’s IQ and Economic Preferences - results indicate that disparities in the level of parental investments hold substantial importance for SES gaps in economic preferences and, to a lesser extent, IQ
  392. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://ftp.iza.org/dp11158.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjs5J_ooubhAhUeURUIHah0CvsQFjAJegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw3Z19jJF7lPCVcLnFOZmdFd
  393.  
  394. An expanded view of complex traits: from polygenic to omnigenic - on complex traits being highly polygenic
  395. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536862/
  396.  
  397. Northern humans had bigger brains, to cope with the low light levels, study finds - increased brain size in cold northern climates is due to a larger cranial vision area rather than intelligence
  398. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110804214410.htm
  399.  
  400. Intelligence and socioeconomic success: A meta-analytic review of longitudinal research - the importance of parental SES and grades
  401. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.gwern.net/docs/iq/2007-strenze.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjs5J_ooubhAhUeURUIHah0CvsQFjAIegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw1qc8H3nnM1YwkEeYDoklG1
  402.  
  403. The Bell Curve Revisited: Testing Controversial Hypotheses with Molecular Genetic Data - criticism of the bell curve's assertion that society is becoming increasingly genetically stratified using recent developments in molecular genetics (includes the non-validity of inter-population polygenic score extrapolation)
  404. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.sociologicalscience.com/download/vol-3/july/SocSci_v3_520to539.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwimiPuZtOThAhVxQxUIHb9xBx4QFjAGegQIChAB&usg=AOvVaw2PG6P5VMmMh8f-3VibGldy&cshid=1555960511789
  405.  
  406. Review and criticism of The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilizations Acceler-
  407. ated Human Evolution
  408. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/64524/21004_ftp.pdf;jsessionid=95288DFF41DE408494F802894E03F6D5?sequence=1
  409.  
  410. Richard E. Nisbett Group Differences in IQ Are Best Understood as Environmental in Origin - brief review of race and IQ literature
  411. http://people.virginia.edu/~ent3c/papers2/Articles%20for%20Online%20CV/Nisbett%20(2012)%20Group.pdf
  412.  
  413. Educational and ecological correlates of IQ: A cross-national investigation - much of the variance in IQ scores of 81 countries was explained by enrollment in secondary education, illiteracy rates, and by the proportion of agricultural workers. Cross-national IQ scores were also related to low birth weights. These effects remained with national wealth, infant mortality, and geographic continent controlled (exception secondary education) and were largely due to variation within continents. Cross-national differences in IQ scores thus suggest that increasing cognitive demands in developed countries promote an adaptive increase in cognitive ability.
  414. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289605000152
  415.  
  416. The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events - exposure to poverty in early childhood materially impacts brain development at school age further underscores the importance of attention to the well-established deleterious effects of poverty on child development
  417. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/1761544
  418.  
  419. Ignoring psychometric problems in the study of group differences in cognitive test performance - criticism of te Nijenhuis et al. (2017) using Jensen's method of correlated vectors to study the nature of ethnic group differences on Raven’s Progressive Matrices test
  420. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-biosocial-science/article/ignoring-psychometric-problems-in-the-study-of-group-differences-in-cognitive-test-performance/95176FA6CBA1CA3DA7116904F97EF894
  421.  
  422. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis - evidence in favour of stereotype threat as a contributor to ethnic achievement gaps
  423. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00900/full
  424.  
  425. Testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children - minor racial differences of intelligence in young children with proposed environmental explanations for widening gap later in life
  426. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/fryer/files/testing_for_racial_differences_in_the_mental_ability_of_young_children.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiW1YnmiPbhAhWMlxQKHWS1Ad04HhAWMAN6BAgIEAE&usg=AOvVaw2paXzKQFT0Csuv_nXP4jxy
  427.  
  428. HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT, AND RACE
  429. DIFFERENCES IN IQ - A Commentary on Rushton and Jensen (2005)
  430. http://bactra.org/sloth/nisbett-on-rushton-and-jensen.pdf
  431.  
  432. Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of ‘‘Race’’ - more on the non-existence of race
  433. https://philpapers.org/archive/KAPPOA
  434.  
  435. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Prosecution: A Meta-Analysis - minority offenders face greater odds of being charged or fully prosecuted than White offenders
  436. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0093854815628026?journalCode=cjbb
  437.  
  438. The geography of tyranny and despair: Development indicators and the hypothesis
  439. of genetic inevitability of national inequality -
  440. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6200273.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwj_r5ei-N_hAhWTtXEKHWnmDvI4ChAWMAR6BAgDEAE&usg=AOvVaw39wPOO5tCknEZH0bJB1IdT
  441.  
  442. The geography of tyranny and despair: Development indicators and the hypothesis
  443. of genetic inevitability of national inequality - criticism of Lynn and Vanhanen
  444. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/62133/21011_ftp.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ved=2ahUKEwjVsZv8lvHhAhUK0uAKHVcDBPUQFjADegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw1qC3o2_nAvY5WeXqEMCDoM&cshid=1556399247064
  445.  
  446. Parent and Peer Predictors of Violent Behavior of Black and White Teens - potential environmental factors contributing to racial crime gap
  447. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767568/
  448.  
  449. comprehensive school reform: meta-analytic evidence of black-white achievement gap narrowing - This study suggests that educational achievement inequities need not be America’s destiny. It seems that they could be eliminated through concerted political will and ample resource commitments to evidence-based educational programs.
  450. https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/708
  451.  
  452. Has the Black-White IQ Gap in the United States Narrowed? A Literature Review - most studies show that the gap has narrowed, and that those studies reaching a contradictory conclusion generally seem to do so due to methodological flaws.
  453. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324074343_Has_the_Black-White_IQ_Gap_in_the_United_States_Narrowed_A_Literature_Review
  454.  
  455. Recent advances in the study of fine-scale population structure in humans - reading material on population genetics and its compatibility with Lewontin (1972) along with correcting misinterpretations of PCA etc.
  456. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5291306/
  457.  
  458. Verbal and non-verbal intelligence changes in the teenage brain - IQ is found to change in teenage years
  459. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51731103_Verbal_and_non-verbal_intelligence_changes_in_the_teenage_brain
  460.  
  461. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study - home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.
  462. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127052#sec016
  463.  
  464. Comment on Papers by Evans et al. and
  465. Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for
  466. Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM - no meaningful associations with brain size and various cognitive measures, which indicates that contrary to previous speculations, ASPM and MCPH1 have not been selected for brain-related effects
  467. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.862.7957&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  468.  
  469. How Jews Became Smart: Anti-"Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence" - criticism of genetic explanation for Ashkenazi intelligence
  470. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1eed/b19bcf7c059a4b10a9ed8c58027d9ed22bae.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjOmMXvwNTfAhWEsHEKHXLdAAUQFjALegQIAhAB&usg=AOvVaw2S6mXtmI-daNhkV8GE-OrR&cshid=1546618012750
  471.  
  472. Myths, Countermyths, and Truths about Intelligence
  473. https://www.wou.edu/~girodm/643/Sternberg.pdf
  474.  
  475. The relationship between "race" and genetics in biomedical research - casual use of "race" to define groups in biomedical research has contributed to limited understanding of complex disease etiology and risk factors driving health disparities
  476. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6313833_The_relationship_between_race_and_genetics_in_biomedical_research
  477.  
  478. The Social, Psychological, and Political Causes of Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System - the contribution of racial bias to crime rate disparity
  479. https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1511&context=faculty_articles
  480.  
  481. Controversial study of African IQ levels is 'deeply flawed' - critique of Lynn and Vanhanen (2006)
  482. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100121155220.htm
  483.  
  484. Human capital in the inner city - Black and white young males are equally likely to engage in violent behavior, conditional on reported exposure to violence
  485. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00181-016-1160-y
  486.  
  487. The spectacles through which I see the race and IQ debate - Flynn's criticism of the method of correlated vectors and its relevance to the race and IQ debate
  488. http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/flynn2010a.pdf
  489.  
  490. Explaining the black–white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact - analysis of environmental factors contributing to b/w IQ gap
  491. https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fapl0000020
  492.  
  493. Heritability: a handy guide to what it means, what it doesn’t mean, and that giant meta-analysis of twin studies
  494. https://scientiasalon.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/heritability-a-handy-guide-to-what-it-means-what-it-doesnt-mean-and-that-giant-meta-analysis-of-twin-studies/
  495.  
  496. Helping immigrant students to succeed at school and beyond - analysis of data on immigrant academic attainment and environmental factors leading to achievement gaps
  497. https://www.oecd.org/education/Helping-immigrant-students-to-succeed-at-school-and-beyond.pdf
  498.  
  499. Reading material on the heritability of IQ
  500. https://www.nature.com/scitable/content/The-heritability-of-IQ-26372
  501.  
  502. Does IQ Really Predict Job Performance? - review of academic literature on predictability of IQ in job performance
  503. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557354/
  504.  
  505. Stop Talking About Race and IQ - former hereditarian gives brief introduction to race and IQ debate
  506. https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/04/stop-talking-about-race-and-iq-take-it-from-someone-who-did.html
  507.  
  508. The heritability fallacy - correcting misunderstandings of heritability
  509. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wcs.1400
  510.  
  511. Different differences: The use of ‘genetic ancestry’ versus race in biomedical human genetic research - study on the growing redundancy of traditional concepts of race
  512. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124377/
  513.  
  514. Race-ethnicity is related to biomarkers of iron and iodine status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in NHANES 2003–2006 - varying levels of iron and iodine by race in the US
  515. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811330/
  516.  
  517. Review and criticism of the 10,000 year explosion
  518. https://vav.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/vav/article/view/15966/17131
  519.  
  520. Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused
  521. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042097/
  522.  
  523. Still missing - study on the missing heritability problem of the gap between heritability estimates for complex human traits based on quantitative genetics and the small magnitude and unreliability of contemporary molecular genetics, especially genome wide association studies
  524. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15427609.2011.625321
  525.  
  526. What went wrong? Reflections on science by observation and the bell curve - further criticism of the bell curve
  527. http://web.archive.org/web/20120615223523/http:/www.hss.cmu.edu/philosophy/glymour/glymour1998.pdf
  528.  
  529. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing - meta-analysis demonstrating the positive effect of motivation on IQ test outcome
  530. https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/04/19/1018601108.abstract
  531.  
  532. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens’ experiences of police encounters - the effect of stereotype threat on likelihood of arrest for african-americans
  533. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2015-23903-001
  534.  
  535. Race-related healthcare stereotype threat and affect among african-americans - Findings suggest that not only are individuals aware of HCST and able to report on it through surveys, but they also experience greater negative affect and lower positive affect
  536. https://academic.oup.com/innovateage/article/2/suppl_1/649/5170488
  537.  
  538. The Flynn effect: a meta-analysis - evidence in support of the Flynn effect
  539. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24979188
  540.  
  541. Genes, behavior, and behavior genetics - criticism of flawed methodologies in behavioural genetics
  542. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wcs.1405
  543.  
  544. Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races - criticism of using FST to assign races
  545. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/381883
  546.  
  547. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies of violence and aggression - meta-analysis of studies identifying polymorphisms for aggression find no association between any polymorphism analyzed and aggression at the 5% level of significance. Subgroup analyses, including by severity of outcome, age group, characteristics of the sample and ethnicity, did not demonstrate any consistent findings. Current evidence does not support the use of such genes to predict dangerousness or as markers for therapeutic interventions.
  548. https://www.nature.com/articles/mp201331
  549.  
  550. ASHG Denounces Attempts to Link Genetics and Racial Supremacy - criticism of lay misinterpretations of population genetics studies
  551. https://www.cell.com/ajhg/fulltext/S0002-9297(18)30363-X
  552.  
  553. Biological Races in Humans - Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not
  554. http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3737365
  555.  
  556. Myth and reality: A response to Lynn on the determinants of Italy's North–South imbalances - rebuttal of proposed genetic explanations for supposed IQ gap
  557. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3efe/13a5b05d78da4777c444a6e59dfac7e1b5de.pdf?_ga=2.155739134.456051522.1553634488-1622802805.1550024350
  558.  
  559. The Geography of Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps - analysis of racial test score gaps and proposed environmental explanations
  560. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/wp16-10-v201803.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjau9SC1IHiAhXvQxUIHcXLB7w4ChAWMAJ6BAgHEAE&usg=AOvVaw0__7lG-zEZRkQoMTs2BnnM
  561.  
  562. Only in America: Cold Winters Theory, race, IQ and well-being - evidence against Lynn's cold winters theory of intelligence by studying variations in the US
  563. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289614001019
  564.  
  565. Why do East Asian children perform so well in PISA? An investigation of Western-born children of East Asian descent - analysis of environmental factors contributing to east Asian academic success
  566. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f6be/f1ac79bdfdc7ec81dc4bd5bd4645dc4994b3.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiho-Wj1oHiAhXgSxUIHWJQBJ0QFjADegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw0nPdtUsDA3uM-HfCOQytnR
  567.  
  568. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites
  569. https://www.pnas.org/content/111/23/8416
  570.  
  571. Understanding Asian American Student Achievement: Do Their Immigrant Parents’ Networks and Empowerment Contribute to Their Academic Performance?
  572. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2156759X18788534
  573.  
  574. How Good are the Asians? Refuting Four Myths about Asian-American Academic Achievement - evidence against genetic explanation for Asian-American academic achievement
  575. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242229807_How_Good_are_the_Asians_Refuting_Four_Myths_about_Asian-American_Academic_Achievement
  576.  
  577. Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Achievement in East Asian Countries - positive association between parental involvement and academic achievement
  578. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.researchgate.net/publication/332366715_Meta-Analysis_of_Parental_Involvement_and_Achievement_in_East_Asian_Countries/amp
  579.  
  580. WHY DO ASIANS DO WELL AT SCHOOL? - introduction to east asian academic achievement and non-genetic explanations
  581. https://www.otago.ac.nz/deepsouth/vol2no1/setsuo.html
  582.  
  583. Asian American students’ academic achievement: reassessing early childhood and college - explanation for Asian-American academic achievement and further criticism of model minority myth
  584. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi%3Farticle%3D7948%26context%3Detd&ved=2ahUKEwiXl4qG2YHiAhXqSRUIHRMwCSoQFjACegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw2tJKkJeJXwXv9k0mXmpgBB
  585.  
  586. Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review - positive association between ITI and achievement including explanation for racial gaps
  587. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996155/#!po=14.0411
  588.  
  589. Raven's test performance of sub-Saharan Africans: Average performance, psychometric properties, and the Flynn Effect - the unreliability of the raven's test on sub-Saharan intelligence and that the Flynn Effect has yet to take hold in sub-Saharan Africa
  590. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1041608009001071?via%3Dihub
  591.  
  592. Large Cross-National Differences in Gene × Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Intelligence - The results indicate that Gene × SES effects are not uniform but can rather take positive, zero, and even negative values depending on factors that differ at the national level
  593. https://labs.la.utexas.edu/tucker-drob/files/2015/02/Psychological-Science-2015-Tucker-Drob-09567976156127271.pdf
  594.  
  595. STEREOTYPE THREAT: AN OVERVIEW - summary of literature on the effect of stereotype threat
  596. https://diversity.arizona.edu/sites/default/files/stereotype_threat_overview.pdf
  597.  
  598. Race Is Real, but not in the way Many People Think - brief introduction to the non-existence of biological race
  599. https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/busting-myths-about-human-nature/201204/race-is-real-not-in-the-way-many-people-think
  600.  
  601. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition Across Development and Context - genetic influences on cognition are maximized in more advantaged socioeconomic contexts
  602. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006996/
  603.  
  604. Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count - comprehensive overview of factors contributing to racial IQ gaps
  605. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2009-03541-000
  606.  
  607. Cold Winters and the Evolution of Intelligence  - criticism of Lynn's theory of the evolution of intelligence
  608. https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/unique-everybody-else/201211/cold-winters-and-the-evolution-intelligence
  609.  
  610. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics - consensus demonstrating lack of support for the existence of biological race by a survey conducted by the AAA
  611. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.23120
  612.  
  613. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ
  614. https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/38/6/1700/669439
  615.  
  616. Gene Conversion and Different Population Histories May Explain the Contrast between Polymorphism and Linkage Disequilibrium Levels - on the non-validity of extrapolating non-African polymorphisms to African populations
  617. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707611380
  618.  
  619. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics - on the non-validity of exploring racial explanations for population IQ gaps in light of preceding literature on race
  620. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8089268_Intelligence_Race_and_Genetics
  621.  
  622. Race and Genetics Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences - criticism of race in behavioural genetics
  623. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/89a7/4ec80642b4bf569f1f8fb4ef5f770f0e8572.pdf
  624.  
  625. Race?: Debunking a scientific myth - criticism of A troublesome inheritance
  626. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287311915_Race_Debunking_a_scientific_myth
  627.  
  628. Continuous geographic structure is real, "discrete races" aren't - review of literature on 'race' and an introduction to its non-existence
  629. https://pandasthumb.org/archives/2012/02/continuous-geog.html
  630.  
  631. Brief introduction to the issue of race and IQ with further reading material
  632. http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/526/Race-Intelligence.html
  633.  
  634. Twenty Years of Stereotype Threat Research: A Review of Psychological Mediators - reading material on the effect of stereotype threat
  635. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146487
  636.  
  637. Genetic determinism rides again - criticism of GWAS based hereditarianism including application of polygenic scores
  638. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06784-5
  639.  
  640. Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective - more on the non-validity of biological races in humans
  641. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c829/1f0f4af1da61c72383f3fd1b4274ff2643fa.pdf
  642.  
  643. Personality, Intelligence And "Race Realism" - brief criticism of rushton and hereditarianism
  644. https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/unique-everybody-else/201210/personality-intelligence-and-race-realism
  645.  
  646. Replication of a Gene-Environment Interaction via Multimodel Inference: Additive-Genetic Variance in Adolescents’ General Cognitive Ability Increases with Family-of-Origin Socioeconomic Status
  647. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4374354/#R57
  648.  
  649. Absence of a Relationship between Degree of White Ancestry and Intellectual Skills within a Black Population (study quite old)
  650. https://lesacreduprintemps19.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/absence-of-a-relationship-between-degree-of-white-ancestry-and-intellectual-skills-within-a-black-population.pdf
  651.  
  652. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - criticism of Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006)
  653. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886909002475?via%3Dihub
  654.  
  655. The dangers of unsystematic selection methods and the representativeness of 46 samples of African test-takers - criticism of Lynn and Meisenberg on African IQ
  656. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289609001470?via%3Dihub
  657.  
  658. Analysis of Polygenic Score Usage and Performance in Diverse Human Populations - on the non-validity of inter-population polygenic score extrapolation
  659. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2018/11/03/398396.full.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiCq4Pk-4HiAhUhpHEKHcvhBEYQFjAAegQIAhAC&usg=AOvVaw2Kyt7FxhRRglV3NGTgykng
  660.  
  661. Polygenic risk scores: a biased prediction? - more on the non-validity of inter-population polygenic score extrapolation
  662. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309089/
  663.  
  664. It's a smart, smart, smart world - brief introduction to the Flynn effect
  665. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/13/opinion/kristof-its-a-smart-smart-smart-world.html?referer=https://www.google.it/
  666.  
  667. Transracially adopted intermediate IQ : Hereditarian nonsense - criticism of hereditarian interpretations of transracial adoption studies
  668. https://analyseeconomique.wordpress.com/2013/11/03/transracially-adopted-intermediate-iq-hereditarian-nonsense/
  669.  
  670. Family socialization and the IQ test performance of traditionally and transracially adopted Black children - transracial adoption study in support of environmental explanations for b/w IQ gap
  671. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1986-24139-001
  672.  
  673. Chapter Two - Stereotype Threat and Learning - stereotype threat: a potential though small factor contributing to racial test score gap
  674. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065260117300199
  675.  
  676. The Equal Environment Assumption in Twin Studies of Political Traits: Social Confounds and Suggested Remedies
  677. https://nkalmoe.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/suhay-kalmoe-violations_of_the_eea.pdf
  678.  
  679. Softly, softly: genetics, intelligence and the hidden racism of the new geneism - review and criticism of recent hereditarian literature
  680. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680939.2016.1139189?src=recsys&journalCode=tedp20
  681.  
  682. Racial-group differences in IQ in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study: A reply to Levin and Lynn - criticism of hereditarian interpretation of Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study
  683. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0160289694900515
  684.  
  685. Are Clusters Races? A Discussion of the Rhetorical Appropriation of Rosenberg et al.’s “Genetic Structure of Human Populations” - rebuttal to interpreting genetic clusters as equivalent to races
  686. https://philarchive.org/archive/WILACR-8
  687.  
  688. Regression to the Mean - explanation and the regression to infinity fallacy
  689. https://www.google.com/amp/s/jaymans.wordpress.com/2015/10/21/regression-to-the-mean/amp/
  690.  
  691. Fallacious Use of Regression Effects in The I.Q. Controversy - refutation of hereditarian interpretations of regression to the mean (old study)
  692. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00050068008254396
  693.  
  694. Reservations about Rushton - overview and criticism of the work of J. Philippe Rushton by James R. Flynn
  695. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.mdpi.com/2624-8611/1/1/3/pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiRkPSajILiAhXiVhUIHeRsAjgQFjACegQIBBAB&usg=AOvVaw1L9tIBcf6-VZs39VBtGz57&cshid=1556980495795
  696.  
  697. The g beyond Spearman's g: Flynn's paradoxes resolved using four exploratory meta-analyses
  698. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/flynn2014.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjBp9KCjYLiAhWhSxUIHekGA3Q4ChAWMA16BAgFEAE&usg=AOvVaw2_rs8WzZa5tXNMlzihE3UM
  699.  
  700. Misuses of Statistics in the Study of Intelligence: The Case of Arthur Jensen - review and criticism of Jensen including rebuttal to his fallacious understanding of regression to the mean
  701. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://arthurjensen.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/2001-kaplan.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwj33ISw_tXhAhVD4OAKHVtkCrw4ChAWMAF6BAgJEAE&usg=AOvVaw0AzDWLlK-9XzbgjiCUGzfo
  702.  
  703. The importance of good research on tricky policy topics - criticism of OpenPsych Noah Carl paper (sidenote: Cambridge has rescinded his fellowship)
  704. http://www.healthgeomatics.com/award-winner-in-dumb-research/
  705.  
  706. The cultural malleability of intelligence and its impact on the racial/ethnic hierarchy - overview of academic literature on cultural and environmental explanations for racial achievement gap
  707. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232597552_The_cultural_malleability_of_intelligence_and_its_impact_on_the_racialethnic_hierarchy
  708.  
  709. Regression to the Mean - analysis by hereditarian Ryan Faulk (The Alternative Hypothesis) of regression to the mean and the fallacy of infinite regression
  710. https://thealternativehypothesis.org/index.php/2017/01/16/regression-to-the-mean/
  711.  
  712. MAOA, Race, and Crime: A Simple Relationship? - criticism of pure biological determinist argument for crime predicated on the MAOA gene
  713. https://www.google.com/amp/s/notpoliticallycorrect.me/2017/10/15/maoa-race-and-crime-a-simple-relationship/amp/
  714.  
  715. Evidence for interplay between genes and maternal stress in utero: monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates effects of life events during pregnancy on infant negative emotionality at 5 weeks - MAOA gene can influenced by low birth weight and stress during pregnancy which are factors influenced by poor nutrition during pregnancy and cortisol levels.
  716. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23480342/
  717.  
  718. MAOA regulates antisocial personality in Caucasians with no history of physical abuse -  The "effect" of the gene is not significantly different between races at least with the U.S. samples when comparing antisocial scores
  719. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058761/
  720.  
  721. Differing Birth Weight among Infants of U.S.-Born Blacks, African-Born Blacks, and U.S.-Born Whites - results indicate environmental cause for birth weight disparity
  722. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199710233371706
  723.  
  724. Behavioural and emotional outcome of very low birth weight infants--literature review - behavioural problems arising from low birth weight children
  725. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19521926/
  726.  
  727. Explaining the Gaps in White, Black, and Hispanic Violence since 1990: Accounting for Immigration, Incarceration, and Inequality - structural disadvantage as a significant factor in racial violence disparity
  728. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/journals/ASR/Apr16ASRFeature.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjGkMifn5fiAhVMVRUIHftsCsQQFjAAegQIBRAB&usg=AOvVaw00LVQ3X_azrS7caNHjHpPP
  729.  
  730. Social Anatomy of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Violence - marital status of parents, immigrant generation, and dimensions of neighborhood social context as factors significantly contributing to racial disparity in violence
  731. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449156/
  732.  
  733. IQ is largely a pseudoscientific swindle - controversial statistical criticism of the validity of IQ
  734. https://medium.com/incerto/iq-is-largely-a-pseudoscientific-swindle-f131c101ba39
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