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Session 3

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  1. SESSION 3 - NETWORK TERMINOLOGIES II
  2. =====================================
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  8. PORTS
  9. ======
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  36. A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system. In the computer networking system a computer or a program connects and run the services on the Internet via a port. They are the gateways through which we access any service of any system.
  37.  
  38. THere are 2 TYpes of Ports Basically-
  39.  
  40. 1. Hardware or Physical Ports - The ports which helps to connect the hardware components to our computer.These are the ports which are tangible and we can see and use the into a particular system. For eg. USB Port, HDMI, VGA Port.
  41.  
  42. 2. Virtual or Logical Ports -  These are those ports which are not tangible and used to run a service in a Computer Networking System. For every service or protocol there is a unique port number assigned to it which helps in processing it. SO these are the ports which are virtually located in a system or a machine to access some services of the system but is not visible and virtually located.
  43.  
  44. There are a total of 65,535 POrts in a particular system.
  45.  
  46. Categories of Virtual and Logical Ports
  47. =========================================
  48.  
  49. 1. Well KNown and Pre-defined Ports - THese are those which are used for all the well knowned Services like which are used all over the globe.
  50. EG. FTP - 21
  51.     HTTP - 80
  52.     HTTPS - 443
  53. http://www.facebook.com
  54.     user : hgfhgg
  55.     password : hggfd
  56. https://www.facebook.com
  57.  
  58.     SMTP - 25
  59.     POP3 - 110
  60.     UDP - 53
  61.     SSH - 22
  62.     TELNET - 23
  63.  
  64. Range - 0 - 1023
  65.  
  66.  
  67. 2. Registered Ports - THese ports are those which are basically used by software organizations to run there services.
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  69. Eg. MYSQL - 3306
  70.     ITUNES - 1609
  71.     MS-RDP - 3389
  72.     ORACLE - MYSQL - 3306
  73.     DARK COMET - 1604
  74.     Team Viewer - 1609
  75.  
  76. 3. Dynamic or Standalone Ports - THese ports are those which are used by anyone for there personal purposes.
  77. For eg . 48,897
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  79. Range Of Ports
  80. ===============
  81.  
  82. WEll KNown Ports - 0-1023
  83. Registered Ports - 1024 - 41,951
  84. Dynamic Ports - 41,952-65,535
  85.  
  86. -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  87.  
  88. DNS
  89. ====
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  91. THE COMPUTER ONLY UNDERSTANDS THE LANGUAGE OF NUMBERS.
  92. CHROME - "WWW.FACEBOOK.COM"
  93. Language - Binaries - 0&1
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  95. Domain Name System is a Technology which converts a Domain Name into IP Address or a Number and Vice Versa.
  96. Because it is difficult to learn a IP Address for a website for a layman. for eg. learning "247.116.25.195" for "www.google.com" .
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  98. "Ping" - "ping www.google.com"
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  100. "Tracert" - Trace Routes of the desitination with hops.
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  102. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZUxoi7YNgs
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  109. -------------------------------------------------------------------------
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  115. PROXIES AND VPN
  116. =================
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  118. PROXY / PROXY SERVERS
  119. ======================
  120. Proxy are the Dummy Servers which helps us by allocating an IP Address of themselves to us which is for temporary basis.
  121. It acts as a middle man between DNS server and client accessing it.
  122. THey alocate a IP Address of any location, and give us the permission to access the web service which is blocked.
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  124. To find out the loaction of a Global IP - "ip2location.com"
  125.  
  126. Proxies are of 3 Types
  127. ========================
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  129. 1. Web Based Proxy or Proxy Servers - These are the Websites which are acting as a Proxy Server and allows to act as a intermediater between client and server.
  130. For eg. - kproxy.com
  131.           ninja proxy etc.
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  133. 2. Web Extension Based Proxy - THese are the Proxy Servers Client Agents which are enabled in our browser and helps to as behaving like a proxy dummy server.
  134.  
  135. For eg. Anonymox, Hola Proxy Extension etc.
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  137. 3. Network Based Proxy -
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  141. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
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  147. VPN - VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK
  148. ==============================
  149. Virtual Private Network is more advanced technology which allows authorized clients to access the Virtually Created Network which will be safe and set the anonymity of a person. They are most advanced then proxies and basically a new virtual network created by organizations or anyone for there personal usage.
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  151. THey are only can be accessed by authorized people only usually in corporates for accessing there confidential resources..
  152.  
  153. More Functionalities that Proxies:
  154. = Tunneling of data - So that there can be a secret passage which will not be known to anyone.
  155. = Encryption of Data- It encrypts or make the data in the unreadable format.
  156. = It gives you better functionalities of networking.
  157. = Authorization and Authentication - Only authorized people can access it.
  158.  
  159. Eg. PROXPN, VPNBOOK.COM , free of cost
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  167. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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  169. Standardisation Followed for commiunication into a Particular Network
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  171. OSI REFERENCE MODEL
  172. ====================
  173.  
  174. 1. Physical Layer - Wired / Wireless, Bitwise conversion of data
  175. 2. Data Link Layer- MAC Addressing
  176. 3. Networking Layer - LOgical Addressing and IP Fragmentation
  177. 4. Transport Layer - Define the Port Addressing and Routing Architecture
  178. 5. Session Layer - Existance of a particular Session created by the Application.
  179. 6. Presentation Layer - Bit Conversion and Fragmentation of data packets
  180. 7. Application Layer - UI of any application -Whatsapp etc.
  181.  
  182. or
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  184. Physical Layer - Way of transmitting the day, - peripherals
  185. Data Link Layer - Identifies the Hardware Address - MAC Address, Fragmentation and De-fragmentation of data
  186. Network Layer - Logical Address - IP Address, Topologies, TCP/UDP
  187. Transport Layer - Routing Mechanism, Port Addressing
  188. Session Layer - TimeStamp of transmitting the data, QOS
  189. Presentation Layer - Works on Segmentation as well as Window Framing
  190. Application Layer - User Interface of the Application
  191.  
  192.  
  193. Not Feasable
  194. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  195.  
  196. TCP/IP MODEL
  197. =============
  198.  
  199. 1. Physical Layer / Network INterface = Physical + Data Link Layer
  200. 2. Network Layer / INternet Layer
  201. 3. TRansport Layer
  202. 4. Application Layer = Session + Presentation + Application Layer
  203.  
  204. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  205.  
  206. WEB TECHNOLOGY BASICS
  207. ======================
  208.  
  209. 1. Web Hosting Space - ICANN - GoDaddy, Bigrock etc.
  210. 2. Domain Name - .com/.in/.net
  211. 3. Database - Where all the data get stored in a server
  212. 4. Server Type - Windows based servers, Linux Servers
  213. 5. Clients and Server Architecture
  214. 6. WEb Technologies - HTML , PHP , JSP , ASP etc.
  215.  
  216. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  217.  
  218. TASK
  219. =====
  220.  
  221. 1. How does Search Engine Works? Spiders? Crawlers?
  222. 2. https://www.google.co.in
  223.     https
  224.     :
  225.     //
  226.     www
  227.     .
  228.     google
  229.     .
  230.     co
  231.     .
  232.     in
  233. 3. Create a Table of 10 Well Keown Ports and Registered Ports.
  234. 4. Comprision between OSI and TCP/IP Model.
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