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CHOK WATER COMPANY OF FIRE

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  1. SUBJECT POINT 6.6     (PURE WATER)                **How to obtain pure water from salt water**
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  12. Obtaining pure water from salt water*
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  16. Have you ever wondered how you could purify seawater to drink it or how you could separate salt from water in saltwater? It's really very simple. The two most common methods are distillation and evaporation, but there are other ways to separate the two compounds.
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  20. Separate Salt and Water Using Distillation*
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  24. You can boil or evaporate the water and the salt will be left behind as a solid. If you want to collect the water, you can use distillation. This works because salt has a much higher boiling point than water. One way to separate salt and water at home is to boil the salt water in a pot with a lid. Offset the lid slightly so that the water that condenses on the inside of the lid will run down the side to be collected in a separate container. Congratulations! You've just made distilled water. When all of the water has boiled off, the salt will remain in the pot.
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  28. Separate Salt and Water Using Evaporation*
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  32. Evaporation works the same way as distillation, just at a slower rate. Pour the salt water into a shallow pan. As the water evaporates, the salt will remain behind. You can speed up the process by raising the temperature or by blowing dry air over the surface of the liquid. A variation of this method is to pour the salt water onto a piece of dark construction paper or a coffee filter. This makes recovering the salt crystals easier than scraping them out of the pan.
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  36. Other Methods To Separate Salt and Water*
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  40. Another way to separate salt from water is to use reverse osmosis. In this process, water is forced through a permeable filter, causing the concentration of salt to increase as the water is pushed out. While this method is effective, reverse osmosis pumps are relatively expensive. However, they can be used to purify water at home or when camping.
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  43. Electrodialysis can be used to purify water. Here, a negatively-charged anode and a positively-charged cathode are placed in water and separated by a porous membrane. When an electric current is applied, the anode and cathode attract the positive sodium ions and negative chlorine ions, leaving behind the purified water. Note: this process does not necessarily make the water safe to drink, since uncharged contaminants may remain.
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  46. A chemical method of separating salt and water involves adding decanoic acid to salt water. The solution is heated. Upon cooling, salt precipitates out of
  47. the solution, falling to the bottom of the container. The water and decanoic acid settle into separate layers, so the water can be removed.
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  65. Page 2                              * Materials to be used and calculate the cost of the material*
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  71. Action plan
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  76. A)Form a mixture of water and salt
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  78. B)Identify the methods to be used to separate the mixture of salt solution
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  80. C)Determine the     (((**materials to be used and calculate the total cost of material**)))
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  88. --------------------------
  89. What are Direct Materials?*
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  94. Definition: Direct materials are raw materials that are made into finished products. These are not materials that are used in the production process. Direct materials are goods that physically become the finished product at the end of the manufacturing process. In other words, these are the tangible pieces or components of a finished product.
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  97. Examples*
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  103. You can think of a direct material a single part of the finished product. For example, the Harley Davidson manufacturing plant orders raw materials like sheet metal and pipes from foundries and other metal suppliers. Harley then takes these raw materials bends, welds, and chromes them in order to turn them into a set of exhaust pipes. These pipes are considered direct materials because they directly contribute to the production of a finished product, a motorcycle.
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  106. So handle bars, fenders, pipes, gas tanks, and windshields are all considered direct materials in the production of a motorcycle. They are all components that can be traced back to the production of a finished product.
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  109. What Does Direct Material Mean?
  110. It might be easier to think of the chain of events in a production process. Raw materials are purchased and turned into direct materials. These materials are then assembled and turned into finished goods. In this sense, direct materials can be considered goods in process inventory. Even though a set of handlebars is completely finished, the overall bike is still incomplete and a work in process.
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  116. Direct materials cost*
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  120. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  
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  123. Direct materials cost the cost of direct materials which can be easily identified with the unit of production. For example, the cost of glass is a direct materials cost in light bulb manufacturing.[1]
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  125. The manufacture of products or goods required material as the prime element. In general, these materials are divided into two categories. These categories are direct materials and indirect materials.[2]
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  127. Direct materials are also called productive materials, raw materials[citation needed], raw stock, stores and only materials without any descriptive title.
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  129. Direct materials cost estimation
  130. Steps to estimate the direct material costs:[3]
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  132. Find the total amount to be produced. This is usually noted as the order size.
  133. Calculate the total amount of raw materials required to produce the order size.
  134. Multiply that amount by the cost associated with the raw materials.
  135. If there is a waste or scrap, its cost should be added to the costs in step 3.
  136. If the waste or scrap can be sold at salvage value, this value should be subtracted from the costs in step 4.
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  155. Page 3                                                    Using the natural evaporation method (SUN)
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  161. --------------------------------------------------
  162. Natural Evaporation Type Salt Manufacturing Process
  163. Resource Management using Distributed Embedded             ***
  164. System
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  166.  
  167. From website,
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  169.  
  170. ABSTRACT
  171. The conventional salt production a system in India is based on
  172. sea water solar(SUN) evaporation method with huge human
  173. intervenes. The Advance Control Decision Support system
  174. can manage environmental problems efficiently and increase
  175. salt product quality at low cost solution. The proposed
  176. system is a model for the parameter readings, environmental
  177. conditions monitoring and controlling and reporting to the
  178. Expert system. This system monitors level measuring, water
  179. pH, humidity in environment, temperature of the field,
  180. wind/air circulation speed, etc, These data continuously
  181. acquired through field bus and wireless network
  182. communication. Then controlling system analyzes acquired
  183. data and activates different actuators automatically. In this
  184. paper Controller Area Network field bus and Zigbee wireless
  185. network communication is proposed for automatic controlled
  186. distributed embedded system in natural solar evaporation salt
  187. production process.
  188. Keywords
  189. Distributed embedded system, Controller Area Network, Salt
  190. Evaporation Process, Zigbee
  191. 1. INTRODUCTION
  192. Salt is used as raw material in chemical industries for the
  193. production of chlorine (Cl) and caustic soda (sodium
  194. hydroxide, NaOH)[1]. Salt plays an important role in various
  195. fields in industries like Metal processing, ceramic,
  196. petrochemical, textile industries, etc.[1]. human body /animal
  197. require right intake of Salt to ensure their growth, strong
  198. immune and reproductive systems. Human body cannot
  199. produce salt itself. Human salt requirements ensure through
  200. various sources of salt in food for daily intake. The salt
  201. making procedures is varied by geographic region and
  202. depends on locally availability of resources [2]. India long
  203. seashore provides see water and suitable environment for
  204. natural solar evaporation for salt production, main salt
  205. manufacturing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu,
  206. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and West Bengal
  207. in India. Solar evaporation of brine to form salt works best in
  208. environment where sunlight available up to long time duration
  209. with high intensity and low relative humidity [2]. Solar
  210. evaporation is the best when fuel resources are limited and
  211. boiling of brine is not viable. Solar evaporation also useful at
  212. many inland saline where highly concentrated brine available
  213. which require less total evaporation time[2].This technique is
  214. common and commercially viable in coastal areas [2]. In
  215. Gujarat specifically Kuchh- runn(small white send desert)
  216. Area make salt from inland brine through traditional solar
  217. evaporation method in which most of the operations are
  218. handle by Salt workers manually[16]. In this area Due to high
  219. temperature and pure water shortage salt workers migrate at
  220. different place during summer which creates social problems.
  221. salt workers work normally 10 to 12 hours/day in a field and
  222. because of pure water shortage they take bath at 3 to 4 day
  223. interval which creates physical and medical problems like
  224. skin diesis, lung related diesis, Eye burning diesis, etc.[16]. In
  225. traditional salt manufacturing process all operations like water
  226. filling in the pond, water level maintenance, water salinity
  227. level, fresh water injection schedule, etc handle manually on
  228. the basis of human experience which may degrade product
  229. quality. Now a days advanced technology also available for
  230. salt production but its plant installation and equipment cost is
  231. very high. Different industrial applications essentially require
  232. a reliable communication without data loss for smooth
  233. functioning and better control performance [11]. Distributed
  234. system Control efficiency depends on task Performance and
  235. reliable communication between measurement nodes and
  236. actuators [13]. Advanced Technology adoption in industrial
  237. field can improve productivity and quality of crop with less
  238. effort [14]. Proposed system can provide solution to manage
  239. automatic field parameter reading and control the actuator
  240. devices. Hybrid network establish between different
  241. microcontrollers based embedded system module through
  242. twisted pair wired Controller Area Network (CAN) field bus
  243. and Zigbee wireless communication channel. Proposed
  244. system approach is implementation of embedded system
  245. technology in existing system to control various operations
  246. automatically from remote location at low cost with less
  247. human interference.  
  248.  
  249.  
  250.  
  251.  
  252. BY : CHOK YIK ZAN
  253.      EDWIN SHIM
  254.      STANFORD THIEN
  255.      YEHEZKIEL
  256.      ALIFF HAKIMI
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