Ilmen

List of language families sorted by size and their flagships

Mar 31st, 2019
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  1. # 1—10
  2. Indo-European 3238M* eng spa hin por ben rus pan deu fra ita…
  3. Sino-Tibetan 1386M* OV; →SVO [cmn, wuu, yue | Top non-Chinese lang: Burmese 32:43M↑]
  4. Niger-Congo 520M* Swahili⁺ 18:109~150M↑, Yoruba 40M, Fula⁺ 30, Zulu 28, Igbo 27, Xhosa 19
  5. Afro-Asiatic 499M* Arabic (arz: 65M); Chadic top: Hausa 44-63M; Cushitic top: Oromo 45M
  6. Austronesian 326M* Malay⁺ 80-250M, Javanese 68, Tagalog 24:45, sun 32, mlg, ceb ∈ Austro-Tai
  7. Dravidian 253M Telugu 82:93M SOV, Tamil 75:81M, Kannada 45-56M, Malayalam 38M…
  8. Turkic 180M SOV ^ Turkish 80M, Uzbek⁺ 30M, Azeri⁺ 23M, Kazakh 13M…
  9. Japonic 129M
  10. Austro-Asiatic 116M ^ Vietnamese 77M, Khmer 18M, Santali 7.6M, Ho 1½, Mundari, Khasi, Wa, Mon
  11. Tai-Kadai 81.5M ^ Thai 21:61M, Isan 15M, N.Thai 6M, Lao 4.5M, S.Thai 4.5M… ∈ Austro-Tai
  12. # 11—20
  13. Koreanic 77.3M ∈? Dravido-Korean
  14. Nilo-Saharan? 53.4M ^ S.Luo 8.8M (Dholuo 4.2M↑), C.Kanuri 7.8M, Zarma 3.7M; Maasai 1.5M↑ VSO
  15. Eastern Sudanic: S.Luo 8.8M (Dholuo 4.2M↑), Teso 2.7M, Kipsigis, Maasai…
  16. Central Sudanic: High Lugbara [lgg] 1.9M↑, Ngambay 1.4M, Lendu 750k…
  17. Saharan: C.Kanuri [knc] 7.8M | Songhai: Zarma [dje] 3.7M
  18. Creole* 40.7M ×87
  19. Uralic 20.7M ^ Hungarian 13M, Finnish 5.4M, Estonian 1.1M, Mari 548k…
  20. Hmong-Mien 9.33M ^ Hmong 3.7M iso-SVO (std-var: Daw 1.6M), Hmu 2.1M, Qo Xiong 900k
  21. Sign language* 9.04M ×143 [Chinese SL > Brazilian 3M > Indo-Pakistani > American@FSL…]
  22. Quechuan 7.77M #SOV-agg-poly [Southern 6.9M [^ South Boliv. 1.6M, Cusco 1.5M…]…]
  23. Mongolic 7.27M #SOVX?-agg [Peripheral (mvf) 3.38M, Khalkha/Standard (khk) 2.38M]
  24. ※ Je–Tupi–Carib 6.41M = "Katuje"; Possibly related to Guaykuruan?
  25. Tupian 6.26M (∈? Je–Tupi–Carib) @South-America (Guarani 6.1M↓ SVO) # poly
  26. Mayan 4.95M ^East: K'iche' 891k; Yuc.: Yucatec 735k; West: Tzeltal 450k; VO agg-poly
  27. Kartvelian 4.30M ^ Georgian 3.7M, Mingrelian 500k, Laz 22k, Svan 15k.
  28. Nakh-Daghestanian 4.14M ^ Chechen 1.5M LB, Lezgian 789k, Avar 762k, Dargwa 490k…
  29. # 21—30
  30. Trans-New-Guinea 3.58M* ^ Enga 230k, Western Dani 180k, Huli 150k, Melpa 130k, Ekari 100k
  31. Abkhaz-Adyghe 2.51M ^ Kabardian 1.7M, Adyghe 500k, Abkhaz 110k. | poly agg AOV erg
  32. Uto-Aztecan 1.93M ^ Nahuatl 1.6M, Tarahumara 85k, Huichol; Hopi 6.8k; poly ∈? Aztec–Tanoan
  33. Oto-Manguean 1.72M @Mexico VSO [Mixtec* 480k, Zapotec* 450k, Mazahua 140k…] (※)
  34. Aymaran 1.68M SOV, agg, somewhat poly
  35. Language isolate* 871k ×78 ^ Basque 538~752k, Burushaski 87k, Sandawe 60k, Páez 40k, Warao 32k…
  36. Maipurean 775k (= Arawakan) ^Wayuu 416k VSO, Garífuna 175k, Asháninka, Ashéninka
  37. Mixed language* 762k ×23
  38. ※ ? Dogon languages ~600k ∈? Nigero-Congo, ^ Western Plains Dogon 260k (※)
  39. ※ Basque [isolate] 538~752k
  40. Unclassified* 354k ×42
  41. Chibchan 303k ^ Guaymí/Ngäbere 172k SOV, Guna 61k, Buglere 18k, Kogi 10k… # + Muiscas
  42. Khoe-Kwadi 284k (A Khoisan family) ∈? Khoe–Sandawe; ^ Khoekhoe ~300k SOV ⇒ naq 202k S4
  43. Totonacan 282k ^ Highland Totonac 120k (dialects), Papantla 58k; poly, ∈? Totozoquean
  44. # 31—40
  45. West Papuan (hypo) 269k [? Ternate 42k + 20k L2, Mai Brat (?) 25k SVO] # many polysynthetic?
  46. ∈? Extended West Papuan
  47. Mapudungu 258k THR (= Araucanian) @Chile | Single lang or 2 langs. Top: Mapuche. # poly
  48. Tarascan 235k (= Purépecha) @Mexico | Single lang or 2 langs. # aggl, flex, ~poly
  49. Eyak-Athabaskan 202k THR; ∈ Na-Dené; ^ Navajo 167k ~SOV; Western Apache 14k # poly templatic
  50. Sepik 166k @Papua ^Abelam 44k, Boiken 31k, Kwanga… # Maybe related to Torricelli
  51. Mixe-Zoquean 164k ^ Mixe 188k (^mir: 22½k), Zoque 88k (^poi: 26k); poly, ∈? Totozoquean
  52. Misumalpan 152k ^ Miskito 143k SOV, Sumo 7k # ∈? Macro-Chibchan
  53. Kx'a 143k (A Khoisan family) ^ !Kung 45k (Main dialect: Juǀ'hoan [ktz] 44k S4)
  54. Algic 132k ^ Cree 97k, Ojibwe 90~101k, Mi'kmaq 8k, Blackfoot 5k, Cheyenne 2k # poly
  55. Chocoan 114k @Colombia ^ Emberá 100k
  56. Jivaroan 114k ^ Aguaruna 38k, Shuar 35k, Huambisa 9.3k…
  57. # 41—50
  58. Torricelli 114k @Papua ^ Bukiyip 16k, Olo 14k, Mufian 11k, Au 8k, Urat 6k…
  59. ※ Burushaski [iso] 112k↑ SOV, 4 genders, vigesimal
  60. Eskimo-Aleut 110k (Kalaallisut 57k > Inuktitut 34k) # poly (extreme examples)
  61. Cariban 89.1k ∈? Je–Tupi–Carib; ^ Macushi 18k
  62. Paezan 81.0k THR @Colombia ^ Páez 60k
  63. East Bird’s Head-Sentani 71.7k @Indonesia ^ Sentani 30k, Meax 15k, Mantion 12k, Moskona 8k…
  64. ∈? Extended West Papuan
  65. Ramu-Lower Sepik 70.2k ^ Kambot 10k, Angoram 8.2, Aruamu 8, Rao 6, Adjora 4.2…
  66. South Bougainville 66.6k @Papua ^ Terei 27k, Naasioi 20k, Motuna 7k, Nagovisi 6k…
  67. ※ Sandawe [isolate] 60k (Khoisan, possibly ∈ Khoe) SOV-flex, Status 6a
  68. Matacoan 56.1k @S.America ^ Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz 25k, Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay 15k…
  69. # 51—60
  70. Jean 56.1k ∈ Macro-Jê ∈? Je–Tupi–Carib | ^Kaingang 18k (※)
  71. Tungusic 54.5k THR aggl; ^ Xibe 30k S6b, Evenki 17k SOV HF S7, Even 5.7k S7, Nanai S7…
  72. Guaykuruan 39.4k ^ Toba Qom 31.6k
  73. Guajiboan 39.3K @Colombia Top: Guajibo 23k; ∈? Macro-Arawakan
  74. Panoan 38.2k ^ Shipibo-Conibo 26k, Yaminawa 3.1, Matsés 2.2… # poly ∈? Pano–Tacanan
  75. Australian* 37.0k Main family: Pama–Nyungan [Top: Wati/WDL 7.4k] (※)
  76. Tucanoan 35.6k ^ Tucano 6.6k, Cubeo 6.3, Wanano 2.6, Koreguaje 2.1, Barasano…
  77. ※ Warao [isolate] 32.4k [wba] S=6a
  78. Yanomaman 27.2k 5 very similar langs. ^ Yanomamö 20k, Waiká 6k, Sanumá 5.1k…
  79. North Bougainville 26.1k ^ Rotokas 4.3k OV (one of the smallest phoneme set), Rapoisi 3.5k…
  80. # 61—70
  81. Maybrat 25.0k ∈? West Papuan ^Mai Brat 20k SVO, Karon Dori 5k, ∅
  82. Barbacoan 21.8k @ Colombia+Ecuador ^ Coconuco 21k, Awa Pit 15k, Cha'palaa
  83. ※ Puroik [isolate] 20k @ China [suv] ∈? Kho-Bwa ∈? Sino-Tibetan
  84. Border 17.1k Imonda…
  85. Sálivan 16.2k
  86. South-Central Papuan 15.9k
  87. Tor-Kwerba 15.3k
  88. Muskogean 15.2k THR @US ^ Choctaw 9.6k, Muscogee 5k, Chickasaw 2~3k
  89. Central Solomons 14.8k
  90. Huavean 14.7k Huave 18k?; possibly related to Oto-Manguean.
  91. # 71—80
  92. Cahuapanan 14.0k
  93. East New Britain 13.8k
  94. Mascoyan 13.6k
  95. Lakes Plain 10.8k @ Indonesia
  96. Keresan 10.7k THR ^ Eastern Keres 6.7k, Western Keres 4k, ∅
  97. Siouan-Catawban 10.3k THR ^ Sioux SOV ~2k (※) ∈? Macro-Siouan
  98. ※ Yawa [isolate] 10k [yva] S5 ∈? West Papuan
  99. ※ Zuni language 9.6k↑ THR (9650 increasing, 6b threatened)
  100. Skou 8.6k
  101. Nimboran 8.5k @ Indonesia
  102. # 81—90
  103. East Geelvink Bay 8.0k @ Indonesia
  104. Mosetenan 7.3k Chimané / Tsimané, ∈? Moseten–Chonan
  105. ※ Amberbaken [isolate] 7.0k [akc] ∈? West Papuan
  106. Chukotko-Kamchatkan 6.9k THR ^ Chukchi 5.1k SOV-free, Koryak 1.7k
  107. Yuat 6.9k @ Papua New Guinea
  108. Eastern Trans-Fly 6.8k
  109. Yele-West New Britain 6.6k
  110. Kiowa-Tanoan 6.4k THR ^ Jemez 1.8k↓, Southern Tiwa 1.6k↓, S6b, Tewa 1.6k; ∈? Aztec–Tanoan
  111. Puinavean 6.1k
  112. # 91—100
  113. Arauan 5.7k
  114. Yaguan 5.3k (poly)
  115. Zamucoan 5.2k
  116. Iroquoian 4.7k THR ^ Mohawk 3.0k S6b, Cherokee 1520 S8a # poly, ∈? Macro-Siouan
  117. ----------------------------
  118. Witotoan 4.4k, Mairasi 4.4k, Pauwasi 3.7k, Senagi 3.6k, Tequistlatecan 3.5k, Karajá 3.0k,
  119. Tacanan 3.0k, Kwomtari 2.9k, Fas 2.8k, Chapacuran 2.8k, Piawi 2.6k, Tuu 2.5k, Cochimí-Yuman 2.3k,
  120. Harákmbut 2.2k, Somahai 2.2k, Arai (Left May) 2.0k, Mongol-Langam 2.0k, Arafundi 2.0k,
  121. Chipaya-Uru 1.8k, Bororoan 1.4k ∈ Macro-Jê, Tsimshian 1.4k, Salish 1.3k, Maxakalian 1.3k,
  122. Nambikwara 1.0k, Hadza 1.0k↓……
  123. ----------------------------
  124. ----------------------------
  125. Tuu 2.5k (A Khoisan family) ^ ǃXóõ (basically only survivor, dial.clust., Status 6a)
  126. (typologically very similar to Kx'a, but the similarities may be an areal feature)
  127. Chipaya-Uru 1.8k Chipaya is basically the only survivor. Agglutinative.
  128. "May be Arawakan or distantly related to Mayan (Olson 1964)." ⓘ Ethnologue
  129. Tsimshian 1.4k Nisga'a 2360 (860 FSp) S7 VSO, Gitxsan 840 S7…
  130. Salish 1.3k VSO poly; ^ Okanagan 420↑/2k; Halkomelen 285/1.3k, Shuswap 200↑/1.4k
  131. Hadza 1.0k↓ (Khoisan) VSO-flex, Status 6b
  132. Yukaghir 740 Possibly related to Uralic; S8b.
  133. Wakashan 739 (pred/arg flex) ^ Haisla S7 240+21semi, Kwak'wala S8a 170+500semi,
  134. Nuu-chah-nulth S8b 130+200semi… ∈? Algic-Nivkh-Wakashan
  135. Andamanese 684 [Ongan] Jarawa [anq] 250 S6a, Öñge [oon] 94 S6b
  136. Muran 390 (= Mura–Matanawí) Pirahã (only survior in the family, 250-380, S6a) #poly
  137. Sahaptian 225 ^ Sahaptin: 125 (4 dial, ^Tenino 50 S7) (most populous Penutian language outside Tsimishian), Nez Percé 100 S8a
  138. Yeniseian 211 ∈? Dené—Yeniseian
  139. Nivkh 200 Moribund. Possibly related to Chukotko-K. or Algic?
  140. ...
  141. Palaihnihan 10 (∈? Hokan) Achumawi.
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