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  1. C always has the value of k, never of s; thus Celebros
  2. is ‘Kelebros’, not ‘Selebros’. CH always has the value of ch in Scotch loch or German
  3. buch, never that of ch in English church; examples
  4. are Anach, Narn i Chîn Húrin. DH is always used to represent the sound of a voiced
  5. (‘soft’) th in English, that is the th in then, not the th in
  6. thin. Examples are Glóredhel, Eledhwen, Maedhros. G always has the sound of English g in get; thus Region
  7. is not pronounced like English region, and the first
  8. syllable of Ginglith is as in English begin, not as in gin.
  9. AI has the sound of English eye; thus the second sylla­ble of Edain is like English dine, not Dane.
  10. AU has the value of English ow in town; thus the first vowel of Sauron is like English sour, not sore.
  11. EI as in Teiglin has the sound of English grey.
  12. IE should not be pronounced as in English piece, but with both the vowels i and e sounded, and run together; thus Ni-enor, not ‘Neenor .
  13. AE as in Aegnor, Nirnaeth, is a combination of the indi­vidual vowels, a-e, but may be pronounced in the same way as AI.
  14. EA and EO are not run together, but constitute two syllables; these combinations are written ëa and ëo, as in Bëor, or at the beginning of names Eä, Eö, as in Eärendil.
  15. Ú in names like Húrin, Túrin, should be pronounced oo; thus ‘Toorin, not ‘Tyoorin.
  16. IR, UR before a consonant (as in Círdan, Gurthang) should not be pronounced as in English fir, fur, but as in English, eer, oor.
  17. E at the end of words is always pronounced as a dis­tinct vowel, and in this position is written ë. It is always pronounced in the middle of words like Celebros, Menegroth.
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