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  15. G R A S P
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  17. GRAphical System for Presentation
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  49. Another USEware product from:
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  51. Microtex Industries, Inc.
  52. 2091 Business Center Drive
  53. Irvine, Ca. 92715
  54. (714) 476-0777
  55.  
  56. (714) 545-8100 - PCPaint Picture Swap Line
  57.  
  58. Current release number: 1.10 Current release date :05/86
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  122. GRASP - Table of Contents
  123. =========================
  124.  
  125. Overview of Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
  126.  
  127. What is GRASP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
  128. What is on the GRASP disk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
  129. Making a working copy of the GRASP disk . . . . . . . . 6
  130. Installing GRASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
  131. GRASP Installation Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
  132. How do I use GRASP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
  133. Running GRASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
  134. The Grasp Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
  135. Simple GRASP Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
  136. Running the library file version - GRASPRT . . . . . . . 18
  137. Using the GRASP Graphics Librarian - GLIB . . . . . . . 19
  138.  
  139. The commands of GRASP - Detailed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
  140.  
  141. BOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
  142. CFADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
  143. CFREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
  144. CHGCOLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
  145. CIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
  146. CLEARSCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
  147. CLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
  148. COLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
  149. EXEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
  150. EXIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
  151. FFREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
  152. FGAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
  153. FLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
  154. FLOAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
  155. FLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
  156. FSTYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
  157. GOSUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
  158. GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
  159. IFKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
  160. LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
  161. LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
  162. LOOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
  163. MARK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
  164. MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
  165. NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
  166. OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
  167. PALETTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
  168. PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
  169. PFADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
  170. PFREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
  171. PLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
  172. POINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
  173. PUTUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
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  175. i
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  180. RESETSCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
  181. RETURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
  182. SETCOLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
  183. TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
  184. TRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
  185. VIDEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
  186. WAITKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
  187. WINDOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
  188.  
  189. Tips, Hints, Examples and Demo Programs . . . . . . . . . . . 67
  190.  
  191. Example Program #1 - Slide Show . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
  192. Example Program #2 - How to animate using FLY . . . . . 70
  193.  
  194. APPENDIX A - Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
  195.  
  196. APPENDIX B - Fade Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
  197.  
  198. APPENDIX C - Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
  199.  
  200. APPENDIX D - Picture Swap Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
  201.  
  202. APPENDIX E - GRASP Order Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
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  233. ii
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  236.  
  237.  
  238. Overview of Product
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  291. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  292. Page: 1
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  351. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  352. Page: 2
  353.  
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  357.  
  358.  
  359. What is GRASP?
  360.  
  361. GRASP is a simple graphics programming pseudo-language which can be
  362. used to create and run animated graphics demonstrations, tutorials,
  363. and presentations on an IBM PC/XT/AT or respective compatible.
  364. GRASP requires that the user make use of some other tool, such as
  365. Mouse Systems' PCPAINT PLUS, to create PCPAINT PLUS packed page or
  366. BSAVE format pictures, or 'capture' screens from any other graphics
  367. software with the provided capture utility program. This product
  368. was developed by the folks at Microtex Industries, the authors of
  369. PCPAINT PLUS, so it is patterned to take advantage of the pictures,
  370. clippings and fonts created with PCPAINT PLUS and its related
  371. utilities, like FONTASIA and ARTOOLS.
  372.  
  373. GRASP was designed to be the base for many other products. GRASP
  374. files can be generated by programs written in virtually any other
  375. language. This allows great flexibility to users in many different
  376. areas. It is this flexibility that sets GRASP apart from its
  377. competitors. GRASP in its raw form, as you have it here, is not
  378. indended to be a user-friendly, end-user tool. It is, however,
  379. simple enough that any user can quickly learn how to manipulate
  380. GRASP files with ease.
  381.  
  382.  
  383. Features:
  384.  
  385. * Supports IBM CGA, IBM EGA, HERCULES, AST ColorGraphPlus,
  386. Plantronics, AST Preview, 3 text modes.
  387.  
  388. * 16 Picture Buffers
  389.  
  390. * 128 Clipping Buffers
  391.  
  392. * Single command to control animation sequences
  393.  
  394. * 25 different fades with limitless combinations
  395.  
  396. * Simple ASCII file format
  397.  
  398. * FONTRIX(tm) font compatible
  399.  
  400. * Fully PCPAINT PLUS from MOUSE SYSTEMS(tm) compatible
  401.  
  402. * Run Custom Programs from within GRASP program
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  410.  
  411. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  412. Page: 3
  413.  
  414.  
  415.  
  416.  
  417.  
  418. What is on the GRASP disk?
  419.  
  420.  
  421. The following files are on the GRASP disk
  422.  
  423. GRASP.EXE -
  424.  
  425. This is the main GRASP program. This version of GRASP gets the
  426. pictures, character sets, clippings and text files it needs from
  427. the current directory on your current disk drive, unless otherwise
  428. specified in the text files. This program allows you to create,
  429. edit and execute your GRASP programs.
  430.  
  431. GRASPRT.EXE -
  432.  
  433. This is the run-time version of GRASP. This version of GRASP gets
  434. the pictures, character sets, clippings, and text it needs from a
  435. graphics library created with the GRASP graphics librarian GLIB.
  436. This version only allows you to execute completed programs that are
  437. in library form. No editing of the files is possible. This .EXE
  438. file, along with your .GL file, may be distributed without license
  439. fees or other compensation.
  440.  
  441. GLIB.COM -
  442.  
  443. Library manager for version GRASPRT of GRASP product. Allows
  444. management of all necessary files in a library environment rather
  445. than as files in a subdirectory on a disk.
  446.  
  447. CAP.COM -
  448.  
  449. Capture program for capturing screens and clippings from all your
  450. favorite software.
  451.  
  452. WHATPIC.EXE -
  453.  
  454. Utility program to determine size and color combinations of PCPAINT
  455. PLUS pictures.
  456.  
  457. WHATCLP.EXE -
  458.  
  459. Utility program to determine size and color combinations of PCPAINT
  460. PLUS clippings.
  461.  
  462. *.SET -
  463.  
  464. Some fonts for you to use in your demo.
  465.  
  466. *.HLP -
  467.  
  468. Various help files.
  469.  
  470.  
  471. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  472. Page: 4
  473.  
  474.  
  475.  
  476.  
  477.  
  478. GRASP.PIC -
  479.  
  480. A 4 color CGA picture to use for testing and learning about GRASP.
  481.  
  482. ALLFADES.TXT -
  483.  
  484. A sample GRASP text file that uses GRASP.PIC and demonstrates all
  485. the different fades.
  486.  
  487. GRASP.MAN -
  488.  
  489. The GRASP manual. You are reading it right now!
  490.  
  491. CAP.MAN -
  492.  
  493. A short manual on CAP, the resident capture utility.
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  531. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  532. Page: 5
  533.  
  534.  
  535.  
  536.  
  537.  
  538. Making a working copy of the GRASP disk
  539.  
  540.  
  541. The GRASP disk is not copy protected in any way. You should back up
  542. the disk using the DOS diskcopy command, or you may perform a file
  543. by file backup to a hard disk using the DOS copy command. There are
  544. several different ways to copy disks under DOS, but the following
  545. will work on almost any hardware configuration since all it
  546. requires is access to the DOS master disk and 1 floppy disk drive.
  547.  
  548. For PCs with 1 or 2 floppys, or an XT or AT with 1 floppy:
  549.  
  550. Put your DOS master disk in drive A and turn on the machine or
  551. press CTRL-ALT-DEL to re-boot the system. Enter the Date and Time
  552. when prompted and you should see the system prompt:
  553.  
  554. A>_
  555.  
  556. Type:
  557.  
  558. A>DISKCOPY A: A:
  559.  
  560. and press the return key. You will be prompted to put the SOURCE
  561. disk in drive A. Remove the DOS master disk from drive A, put the
  562. GRASP distribution disk in, close the door and press the return
  563. key. After it reads some information, DOS will ask you to put the
  564. TARGET disk in drive A. Put a blank disk (formatted or unformatted)
  565. into drive A, close the door and press return. If your machine has
  566. less than 512K of memory, you may be prompted to perform this disk
  567. exchange several times. When the process is complete, put the GRASP
  568. disk away in a safe place and use the backup copy for your work.
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  591. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  592. Page: 6
  593.  
  594.  
  595.  
  596.  
  597.  
  598. Installing GRASP
  599.  
  600.  
  601. Simple Set-Up
  602. -------------
  603.  
  604. To develop demos under the grasp system, you need to have the
  605. following GRASP files and programs accessible:
  606.  
  607. GRASP.EXE
  608. CM1.HLP
  609. CM2.HLP
  610. ED1.HLP
  611. FD1.HLP
  612. FD2.HLP
  613. RP1.HLP
  614.  
  615. as well as your pictures, clippings and fonts.
  616.  
  617. With all of these files in one subdirectory, you will be able to
  618. create and edit your demo program and have access to the help. If
  619. you do not need the help files, you may omit them. If you are going
  620. to be creating a library version of your demo, you will also need
  621. access to the librarian utility, GLIB.EXE.
  622.  
  623.  
  624.  
  625. Advanced Set-Up
  626. ---------------
  627.  
  628. The following is an example of a well set-up system on a hard disk,
  629. including PCPAINT, so that you can edit pictures and clippings and
  630. create your demo with a minimum of effort.
  631.  
  632. From the root directory, create a sub-directory called PAINTLIB and
  633. put all the PCPAINT files in it. (This is the recommended method
  634. for installing PCPAINT). In addition, be sure your PATH statement
  635. points to PAINTLIB and set up an environment variable to point to
  636. PAINTLIB as well with the command:
  637.  
  638. SET PAINTLIB=C:\PAINTLIB
  639.  
  640. Also make a sub-directory off the root called GRASP. Copy the GRASP
  641. disk contents to the sub-directory GRASP. Add the GRASP directory
  642. to your PATH command. Then create a DEMO directory, change to it,
  643. and run GRASP by typing GRASP at the command prompt. When you are
  644. in the GRASP editor, you can run PCPAINT by pressing ALT-F10 and
  645. your previous PATH and SET statements will help DOS know where to
  646. find it. The following diagram is an example:
  647.  
  648.  
  649.  
  650.  
  651. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  652. Page: 7
  653.  
  654.  
  655.  
  656.  
  657.  
  658. GRASP Installation Diagram
  659.  
  660.  
  661. This diagram shows the proper structure for your sub-directories
  662. for GRASP to perform in the above stated manner. This is not a
  663. requirement, just an example.
  664.  
  665. ___________
  666. | |
  667. | C:\Root |
  668. |___________|
  669. ________________________|________________________ . . . .
  670. ______|_______ ______|______ __________|__________
  671. | | | | | |
  672. | PAINTLIB | | GRASP | | DOS or OTHER |
  673. |______________| |_____________| |_____________________|
  674. : : | :
  675. PCPAINT.EXE GRASP.EXE | DOS files
  676. PxPAINT.OVR ED1.HLP | Various batch files
  677. CAP.COM CM1.HLP |
  678. CM2.HLP |
  679. CM3.HLP |
  680. FD1.HLP |
  681. FD2.HLP |
  682. RP1.HLP |
  683. |
  684. ___________|_
  685. | |
  686. | Demos |
  687. |_____________|
  688.  
  689. Then these statements would be in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
  690.  
  691. SET PAINTLIB=C:\PAINTLIB
  692. PATH C:\PAINTLIB;C:\GRASP;C:\whateverelseyouwant...
  693.  
  694. With this set-up, you can be in any directory and run GRASP by
  695. typing GRASP and PCPAINT by typing PCPAINT. You have full access to
  696. all help files and the PCPAINT system. The auto-run feature in
  697. GRASP (ALT-F10) allows you to run PCPAINT while in GRASP. It looks
  698. for PCPAINT in the \PAINTLIB directory. The GRASP help files are
  699. only accessible if they are in one of three places:
  700.  
  701. 1) In the current directory
  702. 2) In the directory pointed to by the environment string 'PAINTLIB'
  703. 3) In a sub-directory off the root called 'GRASP'
  704.  
  705. GRASP performs a search for the help files in this order. If they
  706. are not found, a message will appear when you first run grasp
  707. telling you so. You may run GRASP without access to the help files,
  708. but you will get a beep if you try to access them.
  709.  
  710.  
  711. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  712. Page: 8
  713.  
  714.  
  715.  
  716.  
  717.  
  718. How do I use GRASP?
  719.  
  720.  
  721. To use GRASP you need to do 3 things.
  722.  
  723.  
  724. 1) Create the pictures and clippings you want to use with PCPAINT
  725. PLUS, or capture them the the CAP utility.
  726.  
  727. 2) Use the built-in GRASP editor to create an GRASP 'program' which
  728. is nothing more than a list of GRASP commands and some comments.
  729.  
  730. 3) Run your demonstration by pressing F10 from the editor or by
  731. selecting EXECUTE FILE from the main GRASP menu.
  732.  
  733.  
  734. It's that simple. If you want to give your demo away, you must put
  735. the .PIC, .CLP, .SET and .TXT files into a library with the GLIB
  736. utility, and distribute the library file with GRASPRT.EXE.
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  749.  
  750.  
  751.  
  752.  
  753.  
  754.  
  755.  
  756.  
  757.  
  758.  
  759.  
  760.  
  761.  
  762.  
  763.  
  764.  
  765.  
  766.  
  767.  
  768.  
  769.  
  770.  
  771. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  772. Page: 9
  773.  
  774.  
  775.  
  776.  
  777.  
  778. Running GRASP
  779.  
  780. To run the GRASP, enter at the command prompt:
  781.  
  782. A:>GRASP
  783.  
  784. You will be presented with a screen that looks something like this:
  785.  
  786. G R A S P
  787. GRAphical System for Presentation
  788. Version 1.10* - May, 1986
  789. Copyright (C) 1986 - Microtex Industries, Inc.
  790.  
  791. Edit File
  792. Execute File
  793. Load File
  794. Save File
  795. Quit GRASP
  796.  
  797. Current File: TMPFILE
  798.  
  799. To select an option from this menu, use the up and down arrow keys
  800. until the option you want to select is highlighted. Then just press
  801. return and the option is selected. Each of these options has a
  802. special meaning to GRASP.
  803.  
  804. Edit File: The Edit File option tells GRASP that you want to go to
  805. the editor and create or modify your GRASP program file.
  806.  
  807. Execute File: The Execute File option tells GRASP to execute the
  808. currently loaded GRASP program file.
  809.  
  810. Load File: The Load File option allows you to tell GRASP to load in
  811. an existing file, or to create a new one. Notice that just below
  812. the menu there is an area with the current filename listed. When
  813. you first run GRASP, the system will default to a file named
  814. TMPFILE. This is the name that GRASP will use unless you specify a
  815. new one. To specify a new one, just type in the name you want. DO
  816. NOT specify the filename extension. GRASP will automatically use
  817. the extension .TXT for you. To create a new file, just perform the
  818. load as though the file you want already exists. GRASP is smart
  819. enough to understand and create a new file for you. If a file is
  820. already loaded, and changes have been made, GRASP will prompt you
  821. for saving before allowing you to load another. This keeps you from
  822. trashing your current file.
  823.  
  824. Save File: The Save File option tells GRASP that you want to save
  825. the current working GRASP program file. It works much the same as
  826. the load command. Just specify the name you want to save the file
  827. under and press return. The system will default to the current
  828. working name.
  829.  
  830.  
  831. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  832. Page: 10
  833.  
  834.  
  835.  
  836.  
  837.  
  838. Quit GRASP: The Quit GRASP option tells the system that you want to
  839. exit GRASP. If a file is loaded and has been changed since the last
  840. save, GRASP will prompt you for saving before allowing you to quit.
  841.  
  842. Be sure to save your file before quitting!
  843.  
  844.  
  845. Of these options, the only one that requires special consideration
  846. is the first one, Edit File. Select that option and let's explore
  847. the world of the GRASP editor...
  848.  
  849.  
  850.  
  851.  
  852.  
  853.  
  854.  
  855.  
  856.  
  857.  
  858.  
  859.  
  860.  
  861.  
  862.  
  863.  
  864.  
  865.  
  866.  
  867.  
  868.  
  869.  
  870.  
  871.  
  872.  
  873.  
  874.  
  875.  
  876.  
  877.  
  878.  
  879.  
  880.  
  881.  
  882.  
  883.  
  884.  
  885.  
  886.  
  887.  
  888.  
  889.  
  890.  
  891. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  892. Page: 11
  893.  
  894.  
  895.  
  896.  
  897.  
  898.  
  899. The Grasp Editor
  900.  
  901.  
  902. If you have selected the Edit File option from the main menu, you
  903. will now be in the GRASP editor. The screen should have a blue line
  904. across the top that looks like the following:
  905.  
  906.  
  907. TMPFILE COL:1 LINE:1 POS:0 LEN:0 INSERT ON
  908.  
  909. These are just information items about the current file you are
  910. working on and the mode you are operating in. Starting at the left
  911. is the name of the current file, which defaults to TMPFILE. Next
  912. comes the current cursor column number, the current cursor line
  913. number, the current cursor's character position relative to the
  914. entire file, and the total number of characters in the current
  915. file. At the far right is the status of the INS key on your
  916. keyboard. If INSERT mode is ON, then characters you type will be
  917. inserted before the character just to the right of the cursor. If
  918. INSERT mode is OFF, then characters to the right of the cursor will
  919. be overwritten. This second mode, INSERT OFF, is commonly called
  920. OVERSTRIKE mode. This information is just there for reference, and
  921. with the exception of the INSERT mode signal, you probably won't
  922. need to refer to it too often.
  923.  
  924. The first three function keys are the most important keys to learn
  925. in the GRASP editor. GRASP provides 'Quick Help' for three
  926. different areas and is accessable by pressing F1, F2 or F3.
  927.  
  928. NOTE: If you press one of these function keys and hear a low tone
  929. from your computer and no help appears, it means that GRASP
  930. couldn't find the .HLP files that were on your distribution disk.
  931. If you want to use the help. the .HLP files must be on the current
  932. drive and directory, in a directory called 'GRASP' directly off the
  933. root directory, or in a directory pointed to by the environment
  934. string 'PAINTLIB'. See INSTALLING GRASP for more details.
  935.  
  936. F1 - Provides help in using the GRASP Editor. This includes a list
  937. of the most commonly used editing keys and a description of what
  938. each function key is used for.
  939.  
  940. F2 - Provides a quick summary listing of all available GRASP
  941. commands. This information is not a complete reference on the
  942. commands of GRASP, but rather a command syntax reference so that
  943. you can insure proper useage of the commands and a brief
  944. description of what the command is used for.
  945.  
  946. F3 - Provides a summary listing of the 25 GRASP fades and their
  947. respective numbers. Remember that all fades can be used for
  948. graphics pictures, text pictures, pictures in a window and
  949. clippings.
  950.  
  951. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  952. Page: 12
  953.  
  954.  
  955.  
  956.  
  957.  
  958.  
  959. If this is your first time running GRASP and you are too lazy or
  960. too bored to read the entire manual, you should find enough
  961. information in these help keys to get you started.
  962.  
  963. If you want to learn a little more about the editor, here is a full
  964. description of all the keys available in the GRASP editor.
  965.  
  966. F1 - Quick help with the editor.
  967. F2 - Quick help with the commands.
  968. F3 - Quick help with the fades and video modes.
  969. F4 - Start/End highlighting a block.
  970. F5 - Copy a highlighted block.
  971. F6 - Move a highlighted block.
  972. F7 - Read a block in from disk.
  973. F8 - Write a highlighted block to disk.
  974. F9 - Save current file and run from current line.
  975. F10 - Save current file and run from the top.
  976.  
  977. ALT/F1 - Quick exit to DOS. Typing EXIT at the DOS propmt returns
  978. you to the GRASP editor.
  979.  
  980. ALT/F10 - Run PCPAINT from within the GRASP editor. PCPAINT.EXE
  981. and its overlays must be in a subdirectory called
  982. PAINTLIB off the root directory on the current drive.
  983.  
  984. CTRL-K-X or
  985. ESC - Quit the editor. Do not save file. Leave flag set that
  986. indicates changes if they have been made.
  987.  
  988. CTRL-K-Q - Quit the editor. Do not save file. Reset flag to
  989. indicate no changes have been made.
  990.  
  991. CTRL-K-D or
  992. ALT/X - Quit the editor, save file if changes have been made.
  993.  
  994. CTRL-K-S or
  995. ALT/S or
  996. ALT/W - Save the current file and continue editing.
  997.  
  998. ALT/L or
  999. ALT/R - Reload the current file and continue editing,
  1000. overwriting any changes made.
  1001.  
  1002. CTRL-Y or
  1003. ALT/D - Delete current line.
  1004.  
  1005. CTRL-N - Insert a carriage return and leave cursor at current
  1006. line.
  1007.  
  1008. CTRL-K-B - Mark block beginnng. Same as the first time you hit F4.
  1009.  
  1010.  
  1011. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1012. Page: 13
  1013.  
  1014.  
  1015.  
  1016.  
  1017.  
  1018. CTRL-K-K - Mark block end. Same as the second time you hit F4.
  1019.  
  1020. CTRL-Q-B - Go to block beginning.
  1021.  
  1022. CTRL-Q-K - Go to block end.
  1023.  
  1024. CTRL-K-C - Copy a block. Same as F5.
  1025.  
  1026. CTRL-K-V - Move a block. Same as F6.
  1027.  
  1028. CTRL-K-R - Read block at cursor position. Same as F7.
  1029.  
  1030. CTRL-K-W - Write block. Same as F8.
  1031.  
  1032. CTRL-K-Y - Delete highlighted block.
  1033.  
  1034. CTRL-HOME or
  1035. CTRL-Q-R - Go to top of file.
  1036.  
  1037. CTRL-END or
  1038. CTRL-Q-C - Go to end of file.
  1039.  
  1040. CTRL-RIGHT ARROW or
  1041. CTRL-F - Skip word right.
  1042.  
  1043. CTRL-LEFT ARROW or
  1044. CTRL-A - Skip word left.
  1045.  
  1046. CTRL-Q-S or
  1047. HOME - Go to beginning of line.
  1048.  
  1049. CTRL-Q-D or
  1050. END - Go to end of line.
  1051.  
  1052. INS - Turns insert mode on and off.
  1053.  
  1054. DEL - Deletes character under cursor and adjusts text.
  1055.  
  1056. ARROW KEYS / PGUP / PGDN and Wordstar(tm) 'Diamond' equivalents
  1057. move cursor around document.
  1058.  
  1059. Now that you know how to use the editor, let's see exactly how to
  1060. make a demo...
  1061.  
  1062.  
  1063.  
  1064.  
  1065.  
  1066.  
  1067.  
  1068.  
  1069.  
  1070.  
  1071. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1072. Page: 14
  1073.  
  1074.  
  1075.  
  1076.  
  1077.  
  1078. Simple GRASP Tutorial
  1079.  
  1080. Loading and displaying a picture:
  1081.  
  1082. It is important to understand that GRASP is very much a LINE
  1083. oriented programming pseudo-language. It is called this because
  1084. inter-line dependencies have been kept to a minimum. In simpler
  1085. terms, GRASP interprets one line at a time, executes it, then goes
  1086. and gets the next line. Except for a few special cases, what
  1087. happens on each line is relatively independent of the previous line
  1088. or the next line. This is important because if you understand this,
  1089. then creating a GRASP program will be easier to understand in
  1090. concept.
  1091.  
  1092. Each line can start with only one of three things:
  1093.  
  1094. 1) A GRASP command. (PRESS F2 to see all the GRASP commands)
  1095.  
  1096. 2) A semicolon - ';'. This indicates the beginning of a comment.
  1097.  
  1098. 3) A label. This can be any continuous string of ASCII characters
  1099. with the exception of space, and must be followed by a colon - ':'.
  1100.  
  1101. This keeps the GRASP interpreter's job simple. It either sees a
  1102. command, and immediately looks for possible parameters, or a
  1103. semicolon, in which case it ignores the rest of that line, or a
  1104. label, which it puts into a list so it can find it later if needed.
  1105. Any variation from these three options will result in GRASP
  1106. thinking that what you typed was a GRASP command which it cannot
  1107. understand, and results in an 'INVALID COMMAND IN LINE XXX' message
  1108. when you try to execute the program.
  1109.  
  1110. Usually, you will want to start you GRASP program with a comment,
  1111. like a title of your program or your name, etc. Type:
  1112.  
  1113. ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1114.  
  1115. and press return. You now have written a 1-line GRASP program.
  1116.  
  1117. Exciting huh? I'll bet you can't wait for more.
  1118.  
  1119. The very first command in every GRASP program should be a VIDEO
  1120. command which tells GRASP which video mode you want to use. If you
  1121. select a video mode that is not available on your computer, GRASP
  1122. will try to understand and tell you so. If you get wierd results,
  1123. or the screen seems to go crazy, don't worry, just check the
  1124. reference section of this manual to be sure you are using a valid
  1125. video mode. For this tutorial, we will assume that your computer
  1126. has an IBM Color Graphics Adapter or compatible, and we will use
  1127. the standard 4 color 320x200 mode, which GRASP understands as video
  1128. mode A. Type the following (exactly as spelled below, with upper
  1129. case):
  1130.  
  1131. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1132. Page: 15
  1133.  
  1134.  
  1135.  
  1136.  
  1137.  
  1138.  
  1139. ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1140. ;
  1141. video Q
  1142.  
  1143. Now press F10 to execute the program. (By the way, all this does is
  1144. set the video mode and come back to the editor. Not too exciting
  1145. yet, but we're getting there...)
  1146.  
  1147. You should get a message that says
  1148.  
  1149. Illegal argument(s) at line 3
  1150. File TMPFILE.TXT
  1151. Press any Key to Continue
  1152.  
  1153. Any time you see the message, it means that the command you entered
  1154. was correct, but one of the arguments you entered was incorrect.
  1155. Press a key and you will be returned back to the editor, to the
  1156. line where the error occured. The problem here is that Q is an
  1157. invalid video mode. Change it to A (which stands for CGA 320x200 4
  1158. color mode) and press F10 again. Your screen should blink and the
  1159. you will be put back in the editor.
  1160.  
  1161. Now we have named the program and set up a video mode, so it's time
  1162. to try out some graphics commands. On the distribution disk is a
  1163. picture named GRASP.PIC. This is a 4 color picture from the
  1164. CGADEMO.GL file. Let's load it into GRASP and display it using a
  1165. variety of fades.
  1166.  
  1167. ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1168. ;
  1169. video A
  1170. ;
  1171. pload grasp,1 ; load picture into buffer #1
  1172. pfade 0,1,0,0 ; fade it to the screen using fade
  1173. ; #0
  1174. waitkey ; wait for a keypress before
  1175. ; returning to the editor.
  1176.  
  1177. now, press F10 and you should see the GRASP.PIC picture loaded and
  1178. displayed.
  1179.  
  1180. Change the first parameter of the pfade command to any number
  1181. between 0 and 25 and watch all the different special effects. Then
  1182. to slow things down, try a number like 50 for the third parameter,
  1183. which is the speed of the fade. Speed seems to have no effect on
  1184. some fades, while on others, it makes a lot of difference. This is
  1185. because of the nature of each individual fade. To optimize the
  1186. performance of GRASP, it was decided that speed would be a relative
  1187. number, that is, relative to the actual fade. This way, each fade
  1188. may be accurately controlled from its fastest speed to its slowest.
  1189.  
  1190.  
  1191. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1192. Page: 16
  1193.  
  1194.  
  1195.  
  1196.  
  1197.  
  1198. Let's do one more command, the WINDOW command. Window means don't
  1199. allow any part of the picture that lies outside of a specific
  1200. rectangle to be faded to the screen. Add the window command to your
  1201. demo program as follows:
  1202.  
  1203. ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1204. ;
  1205. video A
  1206. ;
  1207. pload grasp,1 ; load picture into buffer #1
  1208. window 0,0,100,100 ; set fade clip window
  1209. pfade 0,1,0,0 ; fade it to the screen using fade
  1210. ; #0
  1211. waitkey ; wait for a keypress before
  1212. ; returning to the editor.
  1213.  
  1214. now press F10 and watch the difference. You should see that only
  1215. the lower left part of your picture was actually dissolved to the
  1216. screen. Change the coordinates of the window command and watch the
  1217. results.
  1218.  
  1219. One other note: The window command can only operate on byte
  1220. boundaries. For most video modes, this means every 8 pixels in the
  1221. x direction. You don't have to worry because WINDOW will
  1222. automatically adjust itself to a byte boundary.
  1223.  
  1224. This concludes this lesson. Other commands in GRASP work in a
  1225. similar fashion. Experiment with them. Just remember to keep track
  1226. of your video modes and buffers. You may also want to take apart
  1227. the demo program, CGADEMO.GL using the GLIB.EXE utility and look at
  1228. the code for more examples.
  1229.  
  1230.  
  1231.  
  1232.  
  1233.  
  1234.  
  1235.  
  1236.  
  1237.  
  1238.  
  1239.  
  1240.  
  1241.  
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  1243.  
  1244.  
  1245.  
  1246.  
  1247.  
  1248.  
  1249.  
  1250.  
  1251. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1252. Page: 17
  1253.  
  1254.  
  1255.  
  1256.  
  1257.  
  1258. Running the library file version - GRASPRT
  1259.  
  1260.  
  1261. The Library file, or runtime version of the program is identical to
  1262. the text file version except that the interpreter gets its
  1263. information from a library file instead of the current disk and
  1264. directory. The GLIB utility will put all of your .PIC, .CLP, .SET
  1265. and .TXT files into a library with the extension GL. To run your
  1266. demo execute the command:
  1267.  
  1268. GRASPRT <libfile> <textfile>
  1269.  
  1270. If the textfile is omitted from the command line, GRASP will
  1271. execute the first text file it finds in the library.
  1272.  
  1273. To run the demo that comes with GRASP, type:
  1274.  
  1275. GRASPRT CGADEMO
  1276.  
  1277.  
  1278.  
  1279.  
  1280.  
  1281.  
  1282.  
  1283.  
  1284.  
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  1288.  
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  1290.  
  1291.  
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  1296.  
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  1298.  
  1299.  
  1300.  
  1301.  
  1302.  
  1303.  
  1304.  
  1305.  
  1306.  
  1307.  
  1308.  
  1309.  
  1310.  
  1311. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1312. Page: 18
  1313.  
  1314.  
  1315.  
  1316.  
  1317.  
  1318. Using the GRASP Graphics Librarian - GLIB
  1319.  
  1320. The Graphics LIBrarian, GLIB.EXE, is used in the following manner:
  1321.  
  1322. GLIB [-dstuea] libname [files...]
  1323.  
  1324. where the following commands are supported:
  1325.  
  1326. -d delete file from library
  1327. -s extended file list
  1328. -t quick file list
  1329. -u update (add) file to library
  1330. -e extract file from library
  1331. -a extract all files from library
  1332.  
  1333. For example, if you wanted to put all of the .PIC files in the
  1334. current directory into a library file named MYFILE, you would type:
  1335.  
  1336. GLIB -u MYFILE *.PIC
  1337.  
  1338. Or if you wanted to extract GRASP.PIC from the library CGADEMO, you
  1339. would type:
  1340.  
  1341. GLIB -e CGADEMO GRASP.PIC
  1342.  
  1343. Be sure that all files needed for your demo are in the library
  1344. file before you try to run it. Otherwise, you may get error
  1345. messages.
  1346.  
  1347. NOTE:
  1348. You cannot use wild cards for extracting or deleting in this
  1349. version (1.0) of GLIB. However, you may use wild cards for adding
  1350. to or updating the library.
  1351.  
  1352. More Examples:
  1353.  
  1354. GLIB -d DEMO FRED.TXT
  1355.  
  1356. will delete the file 'fred.txt' from library file DEMO.GL
  1357.  
  1358. GLIB -e DEMO LOGO.CLP
  1359.  
  1360. will extract the clipping 'logo.clp' from library file DEMO.GL
  1361.  
  1362. GLIB -u DEMO MTX.CLP
  1363.  
  1364. will add/replace the picture 'mtx.pic' to library file DEMO.GL
  1365.  
  1366.  
  1367.  
  1368.  
  1369.  
  1370.  
  1371. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1372. Page: 19
  1373.  
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  1432. Page: 20
  1433.  
  1434.  
  1435.  
  1436.  
  1437.  
  1438.  
  1439. The commands of GRASP - Detailed
  1440.  
  1441.  
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  1490.  
  1491. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1492. Page: 21
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  1550.  
  1551. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1552. Page: 22
  1553.  
  1554.  
  1555.  
  1556.  
  1557.  
  1558. BOX BOX
  1559.  
  1560.  
  1561. Summary:
  1562. -------
  1563.  
  1564. BOX allows you to draw a box on the screen in the current drawing
  1565. color.
  1566.  
  1567.  
  1568. Syntax:
  1569. ------
  1570.  
  1571. BOX startx, starty, endx, endy, <width>
  1572.  
  1573. where 'startx' and 'starty' is the point of one corner of the box
  1574. and 'endx' and endy' is the point of the opposite corner of the
  1575. box. Width is the number of pixels wide you want the box to be.
  1576. Width is drawn 'inward' from the original box.
  1577.  
  1578.  
  1579. Example:
  1580. -------
  1581.  
  1582. BOX 0,0,100,100
  1583.  
  1584. will draw a box in the current drawing color from x=0, y=0 to
  1585. x=100, y=100.
  1586.  
  1587.  
  1588. Comments:
  1589. --------
  1590.  
  1591. Transparent mode does not affect this command. Default width is 1.
  1592. BOX is not available in text modes.
  1593.  
  1594.  
  1595.  
  1596.  
  1597.  
  1598.  
  1599.  
  1600.  
  1601.  
  1602.  
  1603.  
  1604.  
  1605.  
  1606.  
  1607.  
  1608.  
  1609.  
  1610.  
  1611. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1612. Page: 23
  1613.  
  1614.  
  1615.  
  1616.  
  1617.  
  1618. CFADE CFADE
  1619.  
  1620.  
  1621. Summary:
  1622. -------
  1623.  
  1624. CFADE allows you to dissolve or fade a clipping to the screen. You
  1625. may specify one of several dissolves, the speed for that dissolve,
  1626. and a delay after the dissolve. This command is similar to PFADE,
  1627. but applies to clippings. The same 25 fades that apply to pictures
  1628. also apply to clippings.
  1629.  
  1630.  
  1631. Syntax:
  1632. ------
  1633.  
  1634. CFADE fade number, x, y, <buffer number>, <speed>, <delay>
  1635.  
  1636. where 'fade number' is the number of the fade you want to use,
  1637. 'buffer number' is the clipping buffer number where the clipping
  1638. you want to fade has been loaded, 'x' and 'y' are the location for
  1639. the clipping to be faded, 'speed' is the speed of the fade and
  1640. 'delay' is the time to wait after the delay. Speed can be in the
  1641. range 0-10000. Check Appendix B for a list of fades.
  1642.  
  1643.  
  1644. Example:
  1645. -------
  1646.  
  1647. CFADE 2,20,40,5,500,1000
  1648.  
  1649. will fade the clipping in buffer 5 using fade 2 at location x=24,
  1650. y=40 at speed 500, and then wait 10 seconds. The delay works the
  1651. same as using the WAITKEY command.
  1652.  
  1653.  
  1654. Comments:
  1655. --------
  1656.  
  1657. Note: CFADE only fades byte-width clippings and puts them up at the
  1658. nearest byte boundary to the x and y specified in the command.
  1659. Deviations may cause unpredictable results. Use the utility WHATCLP
  1660. to obtain the needed information about your clippings. If your
  1661. clipping is not byte-width, it will fill the right edge to
  1662. byte-width with white (highest color available). Transparent mode
  1663. does NOT apply to CFADE.
  1664.  
  1665. Default values for optional parameters:
  1666.  
  1667. buffer number: 1
  1668. speed: 0
  1669. delay: 0
  1670.  
  1671. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1672. Page: 24
  1673.  
  1674.  
  1675.  
  1676.  
  1677.  
  1678. CFREE CFREE
  1679.  
  1680.  
  1681. Summary:
  1682. -------
  1683.  
  1684. CFREE is used to free-up a clipping buffer. Sometimes, you may run
  1685. out of memory and need to clear up some buffers you have full of
  1686. clippings you have already used.
  1687.  
  1688.  
  1689. Syntax:
  1690. ------
  1691.  
  1692. CFREE buf1, <buf2>, <buf3>...
  1693.  
  1694. where 'buf1' and other buffers are buffers you want to free-up.
  1695.  
  1696.  
  1697. Example:
  1698. -------
  1699.  
  1700. CFREE 1,4,12
  1701.  
  1702. will free-up clipping buffers 1, 4 and 12.
  1703.  
  1704. CFREE 1,-,16
  1705.  
  1706. will free-up buffers 1 through 16. You MUST use commas or spaces to
  1707. separate these parameters.
  1708.  
  1709.  
  1710. Comments:
  1711. --------
  1712.  
  1713. This is especially useful in EGA 16 color mode where space is
  1714. critical.
  1715.  
  1716.  
  1717.  
  1718.  
  1719.  
  1720.  
  1721.  
  1722.  
  1723.  
  1724.  
  1725.  
  1726.  
  1727.  
  1728.  
  1729.  
  1730.  
  1731. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1732. Page: 25
  1733.  
  1734.  
  1735.  
  1736.  
  1737.  
  1738. CHGCOLOR CHGCOLOR
  1739.  
  1740.  
  1741. Summary:
  1742. -------
  1743.  
  1744. Chgcolor is used to set the color palette registers in IBM EGA 16
  1745. color mode. On the EGA, there are 16 possible colors, called an
  1746. 'index', and each of these color indices may be one of 64 color
  1747. 'values'.
  1748.  
  1749.  
  1750. Syntax:
  1751. ------
  1752.  
  1753. CHGCOLOR color index, color value,...
  1754.  
  1755. where 'color index' refers to the color number you want to change
  1756. in the range 0-15 and 'color value' lies in the range 0-63.
  1757.  
  1758.  
  1759. Example:
  1760. -------
  1761.  
  1762. CHGCOLOR 3,32
  1763.  
  1764. will change color index 3 to color value 32.
  1765.  
  1766.  
  1767. Comments:
  1768. --------
  1769.  
  1770. Remember, this only works in EGA 16 color modes.
  1771.  
  1772.  
  1773.  
  1774.  
  1775.  
  1776.  
  1777.  
  1778.  
  1779.  
  1780.  
  1781.  
  1782.  
  1783.  
  1784.  
  1785.  
  1786.  
  1787.  
  1788.  
  1789.  
  1790.  
  1791. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1792. Page: 26
  1793.  
  1794.  
  1795.  
  1796.  
  1797.  
  1798. CIRCLE CIRCLE
  1799.  
  1800.  
  1801. Summary:
  1802. -------
  1803.  
  1804. CIRCLE allows you to draw a circle or ellipse on the screen in the
  1805. current drawing color. The color parameters must be specified in
  1806. pairs, as in the example.
  1807.  
  1808.  
  1809. Syntax:
  1810. ------
  1811.  
  1812. CIRCLE centerx, centery, xradius, <yradius>
  1813.  
  1814. where 'centerx' and 'centery' is the center point of the circle or
  1815. ellipse, xradius' is the radius in the x-direction and 'yradius' is
  1816. the radius in the y direction.
  1817.  
  1818.  
  1819. Example:
  1820. -------
  1821.  
  1822. CIRCLE 100,100,100,20
  1823.  
  1824. will draw a circle centered at x=100, y=100 with x radius=100 and y
  1825. radius=20.
  1826.  
  1827.  
  1828. Comments:
  1829. --------
  1830.  
  1831. Transparent mode does not affect this command. Failure to specify a
  1832. yradius assumes yradius=xradius and a circle is produced. Note also
  1833. that circle here implies xradius=yradius which, depending on the
  1834. aspect ratio of your current video mode, may not be a circle.
  1835. CIRCLE is not available in text modes.
  1836.  
  1837.  
  1838.  
  1839.  
  1840.  
  1841.  
  1842.  
  1843.  
  1844.  
  1845.  
  1846.  
  1847.  
  1848.  
  1849.  
  1850.  
  1851. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1852. Page: 27
  1853.  
  1854.  
  1855.  
  1856.  
  1857.  
  1858. CLEARSCR CLEARSCR
  1859.  
  1860.  
  1861. Summary:
  1862. -------
  1863.  
  1864. Clearscr is used to clear the screen to the current drawing color.
  1865.  
  1866.  
  1867. Syntax:
  1868. ------
  1869.  
  1870. CLEARSCR
  1871.  
  1872.  
  1873. Example:
  1874. -------
  1875.  
  1876. CLEARSCR
  1877.  
  1878. will clear the screen to the current drawing color (the color set
  1879. with the last COLOR command).
  1880.  
  1881.  
  1882. Comments:
  1883. --------
  1884.  
  1885.  
  1886.  
  1887.  
  1888.  
  1889.  
  1890.  
  1891.  
  1892.  
  1893.  
  1894.  
  1895.  
  1896.  
  1897.  
  1898.  
  1899.  
  1900.  
  1901.  
  1902.  
  1903.  
  1904.  
  1905.  
  1906.  
  1907.  
  1908.  
  1909.  
  1910.  
  1911. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1912. Page: 28
  1913.  
  1914.  
  1915.  
  1916.  
  1917.  
  1918. CLOAD CLOAD
  1919.  
  1920.  
  1921. Summary:
  1922. -------
  1923.  
  1924. This command is used to load a clipping into a buffer. There are
  1925. 128 buffers available for clippings in GRASP. It is advised, for
  1926. memory reasons, that the user try to manage using as few as
  1927. possible. A clipping must be loaded into a buffer before it can be
  1928. dissolved or put up onto the screen.
  1929.  
  1930.  
  1931. Syntax:
  1932. ------
  1933.  
  1934. CLOAD clipping, buffer number, <shiftparm>
  1935.  
  1936. where 'clipping' is the name of the clipping you want to load (the
  1937. file name extension is optional) and 'buffer number' is the number
  1938. of the buffer you want to load in to. Valid buffer numbers are 1
  1939. through 128. Buffer 0 is non-existent for clippings, and thus, no
  1940. clipping may be loaded into it. 'Shiftparm' indicates whether or
  1941. not to create the shifted copies necessary to place clippings at
  1942. non-byte boundaries. Default for shiftparm is 0 or YES. Placing a 1
  1943. here will cause GRASP not to create the shifted copies and thus
  1944. saving memory. This is useful if you know that you are going to be
  1945. using CFADE on this clipping and therefore couldn't use the shifted
  1946. copies anyway.
  1947.  
  1948.  
  1949. Example:
  1950. -------
  1951.  
  1952. CLOAD myclip,5
  1953.  
  1954. will load the clipping myclip.clp into clipping buffer number 5.
  1955.  
  1956.  
  1957. Comments:
  1958. --------
  1959.  
  1960. If you do not understand the concept of shifted copies, it is best
  1961. not to fool around with the shiftparm parameter. Note also that a
  1962. file extension is not necessary in your GRASP file. Drive letter
  1963. and path may be specified.
  1964.  
  1965.  
  1966.  
  1967.  
  1968.  
  1969.  
  1970.  
  1971. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1972. Page: 29
  1973.  
  1974.  
  1975.  
  1976.  
  1977.  
  1978. COLOR COLOR
  1979.  
  1980.  
  1981. Summary:
  1982. -------
  1983.  
  1984. COLOR allows you to choose a drawing color. Drawing color is used
  1985. for drawing primitives (such as line, box, circle, or point),
  1986. transparent mode selection, text strings and clearing the screen.
  1987. Secondary color is used for background color in text mode or shadow
  1988. color for font styles in graphics modes.
  1989.  
  1990.  
  1991. Syntax:
  1992. ------
  1993.  
  1994. COLOR n1,<n2>
  1995.  
  1996. where 'n1' is the drawing color and 'n2' is the secondary color.
  1997.  
  1998.  
  1999. Example:
  2000. -------
  2001.  
  2002. COLOR 3,0
  2003.  
  2004. will set the current drawing color to color 3 and the secondary
  2005. color to 0.
  2006.  
  2007.  
  2008. Comments:
  2009. --------
  2010.  
  2011. Related commands are LINE, BOX, CIRCLE, POINT, TRAN, CLEARSCR,
  2012. PALETTE, MODE and PFADE. The secondary color is used for the bottom
  2013. character in shadow text strings and the background color for text
  2014. screens. Secondary color defaults to color 0 if not specified.
  2015.  
  2016.  
  2017.  
  2018.  
  2019.  
  2020.  
  2021.  
  2022.  
  2023.  
  2024.  
  2025.  
  2026.  
  2027.  
  2028.  
  2029.  
  2030.  
  2031. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2032. Page: 30
  2033.  
  2034.  
  2035.  
  2036.  
  2037.  
  2038. EXEC EXEC
  2039.  
  2040.  
  2041. Summary:
  2042. -------
  2043. This command allows you to execute another program from within your
  2044. GRASP program. Useful for utility programs, or custom programs you
  2045. write that provide a function that GRASP does not.
  2046.  
  2047.  
  2048. Syntax:
  2049. ------
  2050.  
  2051. EXEC program, <parameters>
  2052.  
  2053. where 'program' is the name of the program you wish to execute. You
  2054. MUST include path if it is in a different path, and all program
  2055. names must include the extension. 'Parameters' are any command line
  2056. parameters you would normally pass to the program.
  2057.  
  2058.  
  2059. Example:
  2060. -------
  2061.  
  2062. EXEC \PAINTLIB\PCPAINT.EXE, /O
  2063.  
  2064. will execute pcpaint from the \paintlib directory on the current
  2065. drive passing the /O parameter.
  2066.  
  2067.  
  2068. Comments:
  2069. --------
  2070.  
  2071. You MUST include full path and file extension.
  2072.  
  2073.  
  2074.  
  2075.  
  2076.  
  2077.  
  2078.  
  2079.  
  2080.  
  2081.  
  2082.  
  2083.  
  2084.  
  2085.  
  2086.  
  2087.  
  2088.  
  2089.  
  2090.  
  2091. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2092. Page: 31
  2093.  
  2094.  
  2095.  
  2096.  
  2097.  
  2098. EXIT EXIT
  2099.  
  2100.  
  2101. Summary:
  2102. --------
  2103.  
  2104. Exit will cause the currently running GRASP program to quit and
  2105. return to DOS or the GRASP editor.
  2106.  
  2107.  
  2108. Syntax:
  2109. ------
  2110.  
  2111. EXIT
  2112.  
  2113.  
  2114. Example:
  2115. -------
  2116.  
  2117. EXIT
  2118.  
  2119. will cause the currently running GRASP program to terminate and
  2120. return to DOS or the GRASP editor.
  2121.  
  2122.  
  2123. Comments:
  2124. --------
  2125.  
  2126. If you are running GRASPRT, EXIT returns you to DOS. If you are
  2127. running GRASP, EXIT returns you to the editor or the main menu,
  2128. depending on how you ran the program.
  2129.  
  2130.  
  2131.  
  2132.  
  2133.  
  2134.  
  2135.  
  2136.  
  2137.  
  2138.  
  2139.  
  2140.  
  2141.  
  2142.  
  2143.  
  2144.  
  2145.  
  2146.  
  2147.  
  2148.  
  2149.  
  2150.  
  2151. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2152. Page: 32
  2153.  
  2154.  
  2155.  
  2156.  
  2157.  
  2158. FFREE FFREE
  2159.  
  2160.  
  2161. Summary:
  2162. -------
  2163.  
  2164. This command will free up the font buffer so that more memory may
  2165. be available for pictures and clippings.
  2166.  
  2167.  
  2168. Syntax:
  2169. ------
  2170.  
  2171. FFREE
  2172.  
  2173.  
  2174. Example:
  2175. -------
  2176.  
  2177. FFREE
  2178.  
  2179. will free up the font buffer.
  2180.  
  2181.  
  2182. Comments:
  2183. --------
  2184.  
  2185.  
  2186.  
  2187.  
  2188.  
  2189.  
  2190.  
  2191.  
  2192.  
  2193.  
  2194.  
  2195.  
  2196.  
  2197.  
  2198.  
  2199.  
  2200.  
  2201.  
  2202.  
  2203.  
  2204.  
  2205.  
  2206.  
  2207.  
  2208.  
  2209.  
  2210.  
  2211. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2212. Page: 33
  2213.  
  2214.  
  2215.  
  2216.  
  2217.  
  2218. FGAPS FGAPS
  2219.  
  2220.  
  2221. Summary:
  2222. -------
  2223.  
  2224. This command allows you to set the gaps between characters in the
  2225. text command and also the width of the space character.
  2226.  
  2227.  
  2228. Syntax:
  2229. ------
  2230.  
  2231. FGAPS <char gap, space gap>
  2232.  
  2233. where 'char gap is the number of pixels between characters and
  2234. 'space gap' is the number of pixels wide for the space character.
  2235.  
  2236.  
  2237. Example:
  2238. -------
  2239.  
  2240. FGAPS 3,9
  2241.  
  2242. will set the inter-character gap to 3 pixels and the space
  2243. character to a width of 9 pixels.
  2244.  
  2245.  
  2246. Comments:
  2247. --------
  2248.  
  2249. Note that this has no effect on the TEXT command if you are in TEXT
  2250. mode. FGAPS with no parameters resets the gaps to the default gaps
  2251. for the currently loaded font.
  2252.  
  2253.  
  2254.  
  2255.  
  2256.  
  2257.  
  2258.  
  2259.  
  2260.  
  2261.  
  2262.  
  2263.  
  2264.  
  2265.  
  2266.  
  2267.  
  2268.  
  2269.  
  2270.  
  2271. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2272. Page: 34
  2273.  
  2274.  
  2275.  
  2276.  
  2277.  
  2278. FLOAD FLOAD
  2279.  
  2280.  
  2281. Summary:
  2282. -------
  2283.  
  2284. This command is used to load in a character set. The GRASP system
  2285. only allows 1 character set in memory at a time. After a character
  2286. set has been loaded, TEXT commands (see command TEXT) will be
  2287. performed using the currently loaded font. Applies only to graphics
  2288. modes.
  2289.  
  2290.  
  2291. Syntax:
  2292. ------
  2293.  
  2294. FLOAD fontname
  2295.  
  2296. where 'fontname' is the name of the FONTRIX(tm) or PCPAINT font
  2297. file you wish to load. File name extensions are optional.
  2298.  
  2299.  
  2300. Example:
  2301. -------
  2302.  
  2303. FLOAD bocklin
  2304.  
  2305. will load the FONTRIX(tm) font bocklin.set into memory for use by
  2306. the TEXT command.
  2307.  
  2308.  
  2309. Comments:
  2310. --------
  2311.  
  2312. When a font is loaded with FLOAD, the gaps are reset to the default
  2313. gaps for that font. So be sure to reset gaps using the FGAPS
  2314. command if the default gaps aren't adequate.
  2315.  
  2316.  
  2317.  
  2318.  
  2319.  
  2320.  
  2321.  
  2322.  
  2323.  
  2324.  
  2325.  
  2326.  
  2327.  
  2328.  
  2329.  
  2330.  
  2331. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2332. Page: 35
  2333.  
  2334.  
  2335.  
  2336.  
  2337.  
  2338. FLOAT FLOAT
  2339.  
  2340.  
  2341. Summary:
  2342. -------
  2343.  
  2344. FLOAT allows you to animate a clipping or series of clippings
  2345. between any two points on the screen with one command. It
  2346. is similar to FLY except that it performs an exchange with screen
  2347. data so that the background may be preserved.
  2348.  
  2349. Syntax:
  2350. ------
  2351.  
  2352. FLOAT startx, starty, endx, endy, increment, delay, clip1, clip2,
  2353. ...clipn
  2354.  
  2355. where 'startx' and 'starty' indicate the starting point, 'endx' and
  2356. 'endy' indicate the ending point, 'increment' is the distance
  2357. between each put along the line, 'delay' is the wait time between
  2358. each put and 'clip1-clipn' is the list of clippings.
  2359.  
  2360.  
  2361. Example:
  2362. -------
  2363.  
  2364. FLOAT 0,0,200,200,2,10,1,2,3
  2365.  
  2366. will 'FLOAT' the clippings 1,2 and 3 in that order from 0,0 to
  2367. 200,200, skipping 2 pixels between each put, waiting a count of 10
  2368. between each put. For example, clip 1 will be put at 0,0, clip 2
  2369. will be put at clip 2,2, clip 3 will be put a 4,4, clip 1 will be
  2370. put at 6,6, clip2 will be put at 8,8, etc.
  2371.  
  2372.  
  2373. Comments:
  2374. --------
  2375.  
  2376. This command differs from FLY in that it preserves the background.
  2377. Also note that the last operation it performs is the swap-back,
  2378. which restores screen data. This means that if you want to have a
  2379. clipping on the screen after the FLOAT command, you have to follow
  2380. the FLOAT with a PUTUP command. Selective use of transparent can
  2381. yield very interesting results.
  2382.  
  2383.  
  2384.  
  2385.  
  2386.  
  2387.  
  2388.  
  2389.  
  2390.  
  2391. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2392. Page: 36
  2393.  
  2394.  
  2395.  
  2396.  
  2397.  
  2398. FLY FLY
  2399.  
  2400.  
  2401. Summary:
  2402. -------
  2403.  
  2404. FLY allows you to animate a clipping or series of clippings between
  2405. any two points on the screen with one command.
  2406.  
  2407.  
  2408. Syntax:
  2409. ------
  2410.  
  2411. FLY startx, starty, endx, endy, increment, delay, clip1, clip2,
  2412. ...clipn
  2413.  
  2414. where 'startx' and 'starty' indicate the starting point, 'endx' and
  2415. 'endy' indicate the ending point, 'increment' is the distance
  2416. between each put along the line, 'delay' is the wait time between
  2417. each put and 'clip1-clipn' is the list of clippings. You may
  2418. animate up to 10 clippings.
  2419.  
  2420.  
  2421. Example:
  2422. -------
  2423.  
  2424. FLY 0,0,200,200,2,10,1,2,3
  2425.  
  2426. will 'fly' the clippings 1,2 and 3 in that order from 0,0 to
  2427. 200,200, skipping 2 pixels between each put, waiting a count of 10
  2428. between each put. For example, clip 1 will be put at 0,0, clip 2
  2429. will be put at clip 2,2, clip 3 will be put a 4,4, clip 1 will be
  2430. put at 6,6, clip2 will be put at 8,8, etc.
  2431.  
  2432.  
  2433. Comments:
  2434. --------
  2435.  
  2436. Selective use of slightly larger than necessary clippings (to wipe
  2437. out the previous put) and transparent mode can yield very
  2438. interesting results.
  2439.  
  2440.  
  2441.  
  2442.  
  2443.  
  2444.  
  2445.  
  2446.  
  2447.  
  2448.  
  2449.  
  2450.  
  2451. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2452. Page: 37
  2453.  
  2454.  
  2455.  
  2456.  
  2457.  
  2458. FSTYLE FSTYLE
  2459.  
  2460.  
  2461. Summary:
  2462. -------
  2463.  
  2464. This command allows you to choose a style for the characters in the
  2465. TEXT command. Styles are as follows:
  2466.  
  2467. style # style
  2468. ------- -----
  2469. 0 Default, normal letters
  2470. 1 Bold up.
  2471. 2 Bold right.
  2472. 3 Shadow up right.
  2473. 4 Shadow up left.
  2474. 5 Shadow up right 2 pixels.
  2475. 6 Shadow up left 2 pixels.
  2476.  
  2477.  
  2478. Syntax:
  2479. ------
  2480.  
  2481. FSTYLE fstyle
  2482.  
  2483. where fstyle is the number of the desired style.
  2484.  
  2485.  
  2486. Example:
  2487. -------
  2488.  
  2489. FSTYLE 4
  2490.  
  2491. will set the text style to shadow up left.
  2492.  
  2493.  
  2494. Comments:
  2495. --------
  2496. Use of the command with no parameters will default to style 0.
  2497.  
  2498.  
  2499.  
  2500.  
  2501.  
  2502.  
  2503.  
  2504.  
  2505.  
  2506.  
  2507.  
  2508.  
  2509.  
  2510.  
  2511. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2512. Page: 38
  2513.  
  2514.  
  2515.  
  2516.  
  2517.  
  2518. GOSUB GOSUB
  2519.  
  2520.  
  2521. Summary:
  2522. -------
  2523.  
  2524. This command allows the transfer of control during execution of a
  2525. GRASP program to a sub-program defined elsewhere in the program.
  2526. This is similar to a BASIC gosub command. The subprogram is defined
  2527. by a label at the beginning, and a RETURN command at the end. When
  2528. the RETURN is encountered, control is returned to the line
  2529. following the line where the GOSUB ocurred.
  2530.  
  2531.  
  2532. Syntax:
  2533. ------
  2534.  
  2535. GOSUB subroutine
  2536.  
  2537. where 'subroutine' is a sub-program defined elsewhere in the GRASP
  2538. program.
  2539.  
  2540.  
  2541. Example:
  2542. -------
  2543.  
  2544. GOSUB myprog
  2545.  
  2546. will transfer control to the sub-program 'myprog'. Control will
  2547. return when the statement RETURN in encountered in the sub-program.
  2548.  
  2549.  
  2550. Comments:
  2551. --------
  2552.  
  2553. Also see command RETURN.
  2554.  
  2555.  
  2556.  
  2557.  
  2558.  
  2559.  
  2560.  
  2561.  
  2562.  
  2563.  
  2564.  
  2565.  
  2566.  
  2567.  
  2568.  
  2569.  
  2570.  
  2571. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2572. Page: 39
  2573.  
  2574.  
  2575.  
  2576.  
  2577.  
  2578. GOTO GOTO
  2579.  
  2580.  
  2581. Summary:
  2582. -------
  2583.  
  2584. This command allows you to transfer control of a GRASP program to
  2585. another portion of the program, similar to the same command in
  2586. BASIC. You must first define a label at the point you want to go
  2587. to. Labels are defined as any string of less than 16 characters
  2588. terminated by a colon (:).
  2589.  
  2590.  
  2591. Syntax:
  2592. ------
  2593.  
  2594. GOTO label
  2595.  
  2596. where 'label' is defined somewhere else in the program.
  2597.  
  2598.  
  2599. Example:
  2600. -------
  2601.  
  2602. GOTO here
  2603.  
  2604. will transfer control to the line which begins with the string
  2605. 'here:'. There may only be one label of a particular name in one
  2606. GRASP program.
  2607.  
  2608.  
  2609. Comments:
  2610. --------
  2611.  
  2612. You may have up to 512 labels in a GRASP program.
  2613.  
  2614.  
  2615.  
  2616.  
  2617.  
  2618.  
  2619.  
  2620.  
  2621.  
  2622.  
  2623.  
  2624.  
  2625.  
  2626.  
  2627.  
  2628.  
  2629.  
  2630.  
  2631. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2632. Page: 40
  2633.  
  2634.  
  2635.  
  2636.  
  2637.  
  2638. IFKEY IFKEY
  2639.  
  2640.  
  2641. Summary:
  2642. -------
  2643.  
  2644. IFKEY allows conditional branching by means of an implied goto. If
  2645. the key indicated in the command matches the last key pressed
  2646. during a waitkey command, branching occurs.
  2647.  
  2648.  
  2649. Syntax:
  2650. ------
  2651.  
  2652. IFKEY key label
  2653.  
  2654. where key is the key code to compare to and label is a label
  2655. defined elsewhere in the program.
  2656.  
  2657.  
  2658. Example:
  2659. -------
  2660.  
  2661. IFKEY 1 part1
  2662.  
  2663. means that if, during the last waitkey command, the '1' key was
  2664. pressed, goto label "PART1".
  2665.  
  2666.  
  2667. Comments:
  2668. --------
  2669.  
  2670. Valid keys are all numeric and letter keys, F1-F10, UP, DN, LF, RT,
  2671. PGUP, PGDN, HOME, END.
  2672.  
  2673.  
  2674.  
  2675.  
  2676.  
  2677.  
  2678.  
  2679.  
  2680.  
  2681.  
  2682.  
  2683.  
  2684.  
  2685.  
  2686.  
  2687.  
  2688.  
  2689.  
  2690.  
  2691. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2692. Page: 41
  2693.  
  2694.  
  2695.  
  2696.  
  2697.  
  2698. LINE LINE
  2699.  
  2700.  
  2701. Summary:
  2702. -------
  2703.  
  2704. LINE allows you to draw a single pixel width line on the screen in
  2705. the current drawing color.
  2706.  
  2707.  
  2708. Syntax:
  2709. ------
  2710.  
  2711. LINE startx, starty, endx, endy
  2712.  
  2713. where 'startx' and 'starty' is the location for the first point in
  2714. the line and 'endx' and 'endy' is the location for the last point
  2715. in the line.
  2716.  
  2717.  
  2718. Example:
  2719. -------
  2720.  
  2721. LINE 0,0,100,100
  2722.  
  2723. will draw a line in the current drawing color from x=0, y=0 to
  2724. x=100, y=100.
  2725.  
  2726.  
  2727. Comments:
  2728. --------
  2729.  
  2730. Transparent mode does not affect this command. LINE is not
  2731. available in text modes.
  2732.  
  2733.  
  2734.  
  2735.  
  2736.  
  2737.  
  2738.  
  2739.  
  2740.  
  2741.  
  2742.  
  2743.  
  2744.  
  2745.  
  2746.  
  2747.  
  2748.  
  2749.  
  2750.  
  2751. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2752. Page: 42
  2753.  
  2754.  
  2755.  
  2756.  
  2757.  
  2758. LINK LINK
  2759.  
  2760.  
  2761. Summary:
  2762. -------
  2763.  
  2764. This command is used to link to another text command file. IF you
  2765. wish to have several special effects, and for editing purposes,
  2766. keep them is separate ASCII files, you may link them during GRASP
  2767. run time with this command.
  2768.  
  2769.  
  2770. Syntax:
  2771. ------
  2772.  
  2773. LINK txtfile
  2774.  
  2775. where 'txtfile' is the name of the command file you wish to
  2776. execute. File name extensions are not required, but all text
  2777. command files must have an extension of txt.
  2778.  
  2779.  
  2780. Example:
  2781. -------
  2782.  
  2783. LINK race
  2784.  
  2785. will link to the text command file 'race.txt' and continue
  2786. executing.
  2787.  
  2788.  
  2789. Comments:
  2790. --------
  2791.  
  2792. Since this command requires interpretation of the command itself,
  2793. the loading of a new file, and the interpretation of the second
  2794. file, it has a tendency to slow things down. It is recommended that
  2795. all commands be put into one file before giving a presentation
  2796. using GRASP. This command is useful during development, or if you
  2797. have stored several effects from previous demonstrations and want
  2798. to link them together.
  2799.  
  2800.  
  2801.  
  2802.  
  2803.  
  2804.  
  2805.  
  2806.  
  2807.  
  2808.  
  2809.  
  2810.  
  2811. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2812. Page: 43
  2813.  
  2814.  
  2815.  
  2816.  
  2817.  
  2818. LOOP LOOP
  2819.  
  2820.  
  2821. Summary:
  2822. -------
  2823.  
  2824. This command causes the GRASP interpreter to loop back to the
  2825. previous mark. This will happen n number of times, where n is the
  2826. number specified in the previous MARK command.
  2827.  
  2828.  
  2829. Syntax:
  2830. ------
  2831.  
  2832. LOOP
  2833.  
  2834.  
  2835. Example:
  2836. -------
  2837.  
  2838. LOOP
  2839.  
  2840. will loop to previous mark.
  2841.  
  2842.  
  2843. Comments:
  2844. --------
  2845.  
  2846. MARK/LOOP pairs may be nested up to 16 levels deep.
  2847.  
  2848.  
  2849.  
  2850.  
  2851.  
  2852.  
  2853.  
  2854.  
  2855.  
  2856.  
  2857.  
  2858.  
  2859.  
  2860.  
  2861.  
  2862.  
  2863.  
  2864.  
  2865.  
  2866.  
  2867.  
  2868.  
  2869.  
  2870.  
  2871. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2872. Page: 44
  2873.  
  2874.  
  2875.  
  2876.  
  2877.  
  2878. MARK MARK
  2879.  
  2880.  
  2881. Summary:
  2882. -------
  2883.  
  2884. This command is used to mark a position which will be the top of a
  2885. loop. Coupled with the LOOP command, MARK allows you to repeat the
  2886. same steps in your GRASP command file a specified number of times.
  2887.  
  2888.  
  2889. Syntax:
  2890. ------
  2891.  
  2892. MARK xxx
  2893.  
  2894. where 'xxx' is the number of times you wish to loop back to this
  2895. mark.
  2896.  
  2897.  
  2898. Example:
  2899. -------
  2900.  
  2901. MARK 10
  2902.  
  2903. will place a mark at this point so that the next time a LOOP
  2904. command is encountered, the program will loop back to this point.
  2905. This process will occur ten times.
  2906.  
  2907.  
  2908. Comments:
  2909. --------
  2910.  
  2911. MARK/LOOP pairs may be nested up to 16 levels deep. The maximum
  2912. number of times you can loop is 65535.
  2913.  
  2914.  
  2915.  
  2916.  
  2917.  
  2918.  
  2919.  
  2920.  
  2921.  
  2922.  
  2923.  
  2924.  
  2925.  
  2926.  
  2927.  
  2928.  
  2929.  
  2930.  
  2931. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2932. Page: 45
  2933.  
  2934.  
  2935.  
  2936.  
  2937.  
  2938. MODE MODE
  2939.  
  2940.  
  2941. Summary:
  2942. -------
  2943.  
  2944. Mode is used in IBM CGA 4 color mode and IBM CGA 2 color mode only.
  2945. It is used to set the palette and border color in these modes.
  2946.  
  2947.  
  2948. Syntax:
  2949. ------
  2950.  
  2951. MODE border color, palette
  2952.  
  2953. where 'border color' refers to the background color in IBM CGA 4
  2954. color mode and foreground color in IBM CGA 2 color mode. 'Border
  2955. color' can be in the range 0-15. Palette affects only IBM CGA 4
  2956. color mode and is in the range 0-5. Refer to the following tables
  2957. for specifics.
  2958.  
  2959.  
  2960. Border Color Table
  2961. Color Color Palette 1 2 3
  2962. ----- ----- ------- -----------------------------------
  2963. 0 Black 0 Green Red Brown
  2964. 1 Blue 1 Cyan Magenta White
  2965. 2 Green 2 Cyan Red White
  2966. 3 Cyan 3 Bright Green Bright Red Yellow
  2967. 4 Red 4 Bright Cyan Bright Magenta White
  2968. 5 Magenta 5 Bright Cyan Bright Red White
  2969. 6 Brown -------------------------------------------
  2970. 7 Grey
  2971. 8 Dark Grey (Bright Black)
  2972. 9 Bright Blue
  2973. 10 Bright Green
  2974. 11 Bright Cyan
  2975. 12 Bright Red
  2976. 13 Bright Magenta
  2977. 14 Yellow (Bright Brown)
  2978. 15 White (Bright Grey)
  2979.  
  2980.  
  2981. In the above Palette table, color 0 is the currently selected
  2982. Border Color.
  2983.  
  2984.  
  2985. Example:
  2986. -------
  2987.  
  2988. Mode 1,4
  2989.  
  2990.  
  2991. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2992. Page: 46
  2993.  
  2994.  
  2995.  
  2996.  
  2997.  
  2998. will yield the following: (Assuming we are in IBM CGA 4 color
  2999. mode), border color is blue (Drawing Color 0), and the palette will
  3000. be bright cyan, bright magenta, and white. (Drawing colors 1,2 and
  3001. 3, respectively) in IBM CGA 4 color mode. In IBM CGA 2 color mode,
  3002. The foreground color will be blue.
  3003.  
  3004.  
  3005. Comments:
  3006. --------
  3007.  
  3008. This command was intended for use only in IBM CGA 4 color and IBM
  3009. CGA 2 color modes. Use in any other mode may result in an error
  3010. message.
  3011.  
  3012.  
  3013.  
  3014.  
  3015.  
  3016.  
  3017.  
  3018.  
  3019.  
  3020.  
  3021.  
  3022.  
  3023.  
  3024.  
  3025.  
  3026.  
  3027.  
  3028.  
  3029.  
  3030.  
  3031.  
  3032.  
  3033.  
  3034.  
  3035.  
  3036.  
  3037.  
  3038.  
  3039.  
  3040.  
  3041.  
  3042.  
  3043.  
  3044.  
  3045.  
  3046.  
  3047.  
  3048.  
  3049.  
  3050.  
  3051. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3052. Page: 47
  3053.  
  3054.  
  3055.  
  3056.  
  3057.  
  3058. NOISE NOISE
  3059.  
  3060.  
  3061. Summary:
  3062. -------
  3063.  
  3064. NOISE allows you to make music in GRASP. By specifying starting and
  3065. ending frequencies, as well as a duration, you can make single
  3066. notes, or complex sounds.
  3067.  
  3068.  
  3069. Syntax:
  3070. ------
  3071.  
  3072. NOISE startfreq, endfreq, duration
  3073.  
  3074. where 'startfreq' and 'startfreq' are the starting frequencies for
  3075. the noise and 'duration' is the overall length of the noise.
  3076.  
  3077.  
  3078. Example:
  3079. -------
  3080.  
  3081. NOISE 440,440,100
  3082.  
  3083. will play the note with a frequency 440 for duration 100.
  3084.  
  3085.  
  3086. Comments:
  3087. --------
  3088.  
  3089.  
  3090.  
  3091.  
  3092.  
  3093.  
  3094.  
  3095.  
  3096.  
  3097.  
  3098.  
  3099.  
  3100.  
  3101.  
  3102.  
  3103.  
  3104.  
  3105.  
  3106.  
  3107.  
  3108.  
  3109.  
  3110.  
  3111. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3112. Page: 48
  3113.  
  3114.  
  3115.  
  3116.  
  3117.  
  3118. OFFSET OFFSET
  3119.  
  3120.  
  3121. Summary:
  3122. -------
  3123.  
  3124. The OFFSET command allows you to treat coordinates in other
  3125. commands (like putup, line, box, cfade, etc...) as relative
  3126. coordinates rather than absolute. If the OFFSET is set to 0,0, then
  3127. the coordinates you enter in the other commands are relative to the
  3128. screen as a whole which appears to be absolute. This command is
  3129. used when you want to repeat a series of operations but don't want
  3130. to have to alter all the coordinates in order to use a different
  3131. region of the screen.
  3132.  
  3133.  
  3134. Syntax:
  3135. ------
  3136.  
  3137. OFFSET x,y
  3138.  
  3139. where 'x' and 'y' are the x and y offset values.
  3140.  
  3141.  
  3142. Example:
  3143. -------
  3144.  
  3145. OFFSET 40,32
  3146.  
  3147. will set the offset to x=40, y=32. This means that if you specify
  3148. that you want a line drawn from 0,0 to 10,10, it will actually draw
  3149. it from 40,32 to 50,42. In other words, the offset values are added
  3150. to the coordinate data you type in the command.
  3151.  
  3152.  
  3153. Comments:
  3154. --------
  3155.  
  3156.  
  3157.  
  3158.  
  3159.  
  3160.  
  3161.  
  3162.  
  3163.  
  3164.  
  3165.  
  3166.  
  3167.  
  3168.  
  3169.  
  3170.  
  3171. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3172. Page: 49
  3173.  
  3174.  
  3175.  
  3176.  
  3177.  
  3178. PALETTE PALETTE
  3179.  
  3180.  
  3181. Summary:
  3182. -------
  3183.  
  3184. Palette is used to set the current palette to that of the specified
  3185. picture which has been loaded into a buffer. This sets the 16
  3186. colors out of 64 on EGA 16 color modes and the border-palette
  3187. combination of CGA 4 color mode.
  3188.  
  3189.  
  3190. Syntax:
  3191. ------
  3192.  
  3193. PALETTE buffer number
  3194.  
  3195. Where 'buffer number' is the number of the buffer in which the
  3196. picture resides.
  3197.  
  3198.  
  3199. Example:
  3200. -------
  3201.  
  3202. PALETTE 2
  3203.  
  3204. will set the current palette to the palette used for the picture
  3205. which was loaded into buffer 2 with the PLOAD command.
  3206.  
  3207.  
  3208. Comments:
  3209. --------
  3210.  
  3211. This command was intended for use in EGA 16 color mode and CGA 4
  3212. color mode only. Use in other modes may cause unpredictable
  3213. results. Use with caution.
  3214.  
  3215.  
  3216.  
  3217.  
  3218.  
  3219.  
  3220.  
  3221.  
  3222.  
  3223.  
  3224.  
  3225.  
  3226.  
  3227.  
  3228.  
  3229.  
  3230.  
  3231. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3232. Page: 50
  3233.  
  3234.  
  3235.  
  3236.  
  3237.  
  3238. PAN PAN
  3239.  
  3240.  
  3241. Summary:
  3242. -------
  3243.  
  3244. This command allows you to perform a hardware pan if you are
  3245. operating in one of the EGA modes. If the picture you want to pan
  3246. around on is larger than a screen then the following rules apply:
  3247. 1) You MUST use PFADE number 0 to put up the picture, 2) when you
  3248. are finished panning and scrolling, you MUST PFREE the picture,
  3249. clear the screen with CLEARSCR, then do a RESETSCR before using any
  3250. other pictures. This is so that the EGA will be able to keep track
  3251. of which picture you are using and how to best display it. Also,
  3252. sequences of PAN commands should always return you to the
  3253. coordinate 0,0 when you are done. Think of the picture as being a
  3254. very large screen with the upper left corner being coordinate 0,0.
  3255. Pan then allows you to change upper left corner to be any
  3256. coordinate in the valid coordinate space.
  3257.  
  3258.  
  3259. Syntax:
  3260. ------
  3261.  
  3262. PAN x0,y0,x1,y1,buffer
  3263.  
  3264. where 'x0', 'y0' is the starting coordinate for panning and 'x1',
  3265. 'y1' is the ending coordinate. 'Buffer' is the picture buffer that
  3266. the command will look into to get real picture coordinates and set
  3267. the EGA display modes to coincide to.
  3268.  
  3269.  
  3270. Example:
  3271. -------
  3272.  
  3273. PAN 0,0,100,100,1
  3274. PAN 100,100,0,0,1
  3275.  
  3276. will smoothly pan the screen diagonally from the upper left corner
  3277. to 100,100 and back again.
  3278.  
  3279.  
  3280. Comments:
  3281. --------
  3282.  
  3283. This is a complicated command and requires some thought to use
  3284. effectively. Be careful.
  3285.  
  3286. CAUTION: It is imperative that you free the oversize picture buffer
  3287. BEFORE you perform the CLEARSCR and RESETSCR functions!
  3288.  
  3289.  
  3290.  
  3291. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3292. Page: 51
  3293.  
  3294.  
  3295.  
  3296.  
  3297.  
  3298. PFADE PFADE
  3299.  
  3300. Summary:
  3301. -------
  3302.  
  3303. Pfade is the heart of GRASP. It allows you to dissolve a picture to
  3304. the screen. You may specify one of several dissolves, the speed for
  3305. that dissolve, and a delay after the dissolve.
  3306.  
  3307.  
  3308. Syntax:
  3309. ------
  3310.  
  3311. PFADE fade number, buffer number, speed, delay
  3312.  
  3313. where 'fade number' is the number of the fade you want to use,
  3314. 'buffer number' is the picture buffer number where the picture you
  3315. want to fade has been loaded, 'speed' is the speed of the fade and
  3316. 'delay' is the time to wait after the delay. Speed can be in the
  3317. range 0-10000. Check Appendix B for a list of fades.
  3318.  
  3319.  
  3320. Example:
  3321. -------
  3322.  
  3323. PFADE 12,1,500,1000
  3324.  
  3325. will fade the picture in buffer 1 using fade 12 at speed 500 and
  3326. then wait 1000. The delay works the same as using the WAITKEY
  3327. command.
  3328.  
  3329.  
  3330. Comments:
  3331. --------
  3332.  
  3333. The first 25 fades in GRASP are the same in all video modes. Fades
  3334. beyond 25 may be mode specific and must be used with caution.
  3335. Specifying buffer 0 will cause a blank screen of current drawing
  3336. color to be generated and faded to the screen. Transparent mode
  3337. does NOT apply to PFADE.
  3338.  
  3339.  
  3340.  
  3341.  
  3342.  
  3343.  
  3344.  
  3345.  
  3346.  
  3347.  
  3348.  
  3349.  
  3350.  
  3351. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3352. Page: 52
  3353.  
  3354.  
  3355.  
  3356.  
  3357.  
  3358. PFREE PFREE
  3359.  
  3360.  
  3361. Summary:
  3362. -------
  3363.  
  3364. PFREE is used to free-up a picture buffer. Sometimes, you may run
  3365. out of memory and need to clear up some buffers you have full of
  3366. pictures you have already used.
  3367.  
  3368.  
  3369. Syntax:
  3370. ------
  3371.  
  3372. PFREE buf1, buf2, buf3...
  3373.  
  3374. where 'buf1' and other buffers are buffers you want to free-up.
  3375.  
  3376.  
  3377. Example:
  3378. -------
  3379.  
  3380. PFREE 1,2
  3381.  
  3382. will free-up picture buffers 1 and 2.
  3383.  
  3384.  
  3385. Comments:
  3386. --------
  3387.  
  3388. This is especially useful in EGA 16 color mode where space is
  3389. critical.
  3390.  
  3391.  
  3392.  
  3393.  
  3394.  
  3395.  
  3396.  
  3397.  
  3398.  
  3399.  
  3400.  
  3401.  
  3402.  
  3403.  
  3404.  
  3405.  
  3406.  
  3407.  
  3408.  
  3409.  
  3410.  
  3411. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3412. Page: 53
  3413.  
  3414.  
  3415.  
  3416.  
  3417.  
  3418. PLOAD PLOAD
  3419.  
  3420.  
  3421. Summary:
  3422. -------
  3423.  
  3424. This command is used to load a picture into a buffer. There are 16
  3425. buffers available for pictures in GRASP. It is advised, for memory
  3426. reasons, that the user try to manage using only one buffer. A
  3427. picture must be loaded into a buffer before it can be dissolved
  3428. onto the screen.
  3429.  
  3430.  
  3431. Syntax:
  3432. ------
  3433.  
  3434. PLOAD picture,buffer number
  3435.  
  3436. where 'picture' is the name of the picture you want to load (the
  3437. file name extension is optional) and 'buffer number' is the number
  3438. of the buffer you want to load in to. Valid buffer numbers are 1
  3439. through 16. Buffer 0 is a dummy buffer used for solid color wipes
  3440. and changes, and thus, no picture may be loaded into it.
  3441.  
  3442.  
  3443. Example:
  3444. -------
  3445.  
  3446. PLOAD mypic,1
  3447.  
  3448. will load the picture myfile.pic into picture buffer number 1.
  3449.  
  3450.  
  3451. Comments:
  3452. --------
  3453.  
  3454.  
  3455.  
  3456.  
  3457.  
  3458.  
  3459.  
  3460.  
  3461.  
  3462.  
  3463.  
  3464.  
  3465.  
  3466.  
  3467.  
  3468.  
  3469.  
  3470.  
  3471. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3472. Page: 54
  3473.  
  3474.  
  3475.  
  3476.  
  3477.  
  3478. POINT POINT
  3479.  
  3480.  
  3481. Summary:
  3482. -------
  3483.  
  3484. POINT allows you to draw a single pixel on the screen in the
  3485. current drawing color. If a second point is indicated, a random
  3486. point is drawn in the rectangular region defined by the 4
  3487. coordinates.
  3488.  
  3489.  
  3490. Syntax:
  3491. ------
  3492.  
  3493. POINT startx, starty, <endx, endy>
  3494.  
  3495. where 'startx' and 'starty' is the location for the point and
  3496. 'endx' and 'endy' define the region for randomization.
  3497.  
  3498.  
  3499. Example:
  3500. -------
  3501.  
  3502. POINT 50,50
  3503.  
  3504. will draw a point in the current drawing color at x=50, y=50.
  3505.  
  3506. POINT 100,100,150,150
  3507.  
  3508. will draw a random point in the region defined by 100,100,150,150.
  3509.  
  3510.  
  3511. Comments:
  3512. --------
  3513.  
  3514. Transparent mode does not affect this command.
  3515.  
  3516.  
  3517.  
  3518.  
  3519.  
  3520.  
  3521.  
  3522.  
  3523.  
  3524.  
  3525.  
  3526.  
  3527.  
  3528.  
  3529.  
  3530.  
  3531. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3532. Page: 55
  3533.  
  3534.  
  3535.  
  3536.  
  3537.  
  3538. PUTUP PUTUP
  3539.  
  3540.  
  3541. Summary:
  3542. -------
  3543.  
  3544. PUTUP allows you to place a clipping on the screen. PUTUP is
  3545. similar to CFADE 0, but allows placement at any x and y location
  3546. and supports transparent mode.
  3547.  
  3548.  
  3549. Syntax:
  3550. ------
  3551.  
  3552. PUTUP x ,y, <buffer number>, <delay>
  3553.  
  3554. where 'x' and 'y' are the location where the lower left corner of
  3555. the clipping will be placed, 'buffer number' is the clipping buffer
  3556. number where the clipping you want to put up resides and delay is
  3557. the time to wait after the putup in hundredths of a second.
  3558.  
  3559.  
  3560. Example:
  3561. -------
  3562.  
  3563. PUTUP 25,50,1,1000
  3564.  
  3565. will put the clipping in buffer 1 up on the screen at x=25, y=50
  3566. and then wait for time 1000 (10 seconds). Remember that the x and y
  3567. coordinates correspond to the current video mode. Exceeding these
  3568. coordinates may result in an error message.
  3569.  
  3570.  
  3571. Comments:
  3572. --------
  3573.  
  3574. Also see CFREE.
  3575.  
  3576.  
  3577.  
  3578.  
  3579.  
  3580.  
  3581.  
  3582.  
  3583.  
  3584.  
  3585.  
  3586.  
  3587.  
  3588.  
  3589.  
  3590.  
  3591. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3592. Page: 56
  3593.  
  3594.  
  3595.  
  3596.  
  3597.  
  3598. RESETSCR RESETSCR
  3599.  
  3600.  
  3601. Summary:
  3602. -------
  3603.  
  3604. This command is used to reset the virtual screen back to display
  3605. screen size after a PAN command with a larger-than-screen picture.
  3606.  
  3607.  
  3608. Syntax:
  3609. ------
  3610.  
  3611. RESETSCR
  3612.  
  3613.  
  3614. Example:
  3615. -------
  3616.  
  3617. RESETSCR
  3618.  
  3619. will reset the virtual screen image.
  3620.  
  3621.  
  3622. Comments:
  3623. --------
  3624.  
  3625. Works only with EGA modes and PAN command.
  3626.  
  3627.  
  3628.  
  3629.  
  3630.  
  3631.  
  3632.  
  3633.  
  3634.  
  3635.  
  3636.  
  3637.  
  3638.  
  3639.  
  3640.  
  3641.  
  3642.  
  3643.  
  3644.  
  3645.  
  3646.  
  3647.  
  3648.  
  3649.  
  3650.  
  3651. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3652. Page: 57
  3653.  
  3654.  
  3655.  
  3656.  
  3657.  
  3658. RETURN RETURN
  3659.  
  3660.  
  3661. Summary:
  3662. -------
  3663.  
  3664. This command causes execution of the current sub-program to halt
  3665. and return control to the calling program.
  3666.  
  3667.  
  3668. Syntax:
  3669. ------
  3670.  
  3671. RETURN
  3672.  
  3673.  
  3674. Example:
  3675. -------
  3676.  
  3677. RETURN
  3678.  
  3679. will return control to calling program.
  3680.  
  3681.  
  3682. Comments:
  3683. --------
  3684.  
  3685. Also see command GOSUB.
  3686.  
  3687.  
  3688.  
  3689.  
  3690.  
  3691.  
  3692.  
  3693.  
  3694.  
  3695.  
  3696.  
  3697.  
  3698.  
  3699.  
  3700.  
  3701.  
  3702.  
  3703.  
  3704.  
  3705.  
  3706.  
  3707.  
  3708.  
  3709.  
  3710.  
  3711. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3712. Page: 58
  3713.  
  3714.  
  3715.  
  3716.  
  3717.  
  3718. SETCOLOR SETCOLOR
  3719.  
  3720.  
  3721. Summary:
  3722. -------
  3723.  
  3724. Setcolor is used to set the color palette registers in IBM EGA 16
  3725. color modes. On the EGA, there are 16 possible colors, called an
  3726. 'index', and each of these color indices may be one of 64 color
  3727. 'values'. SETCOLOR differs from CHGCOLOR in that SETCOLOR sets all
  3728. 16 color indices at once. This is faster and is useful for
  3729. animation effects.
  3730.  
  3731.  
  3732. Syntax:
  3733. ------
  3734.  
  3735. SETCOLOR color value 1, color value 2, ... color value 16
  3736.  
  3737. where 'color value n' lies in the range 0-63.
  3738.  
  3739.  
  3740. Example:
  3741. -------
  3742.  
  3743. SETCOLOR 3,32,23,53,12,11,10,21,35,2,4,8,30,40,61,63
  3744.  
  3745. will set the current palette registers to the 16 color values
  3746. specified.
  3747.  
  3748.  
  3749. Comments:
  3750. --------
  3751.  
  3752. Remember, this only works in EGA 16 color modes and requires an
  3753. Enhanced Color Display (ECD).
  3754.  
  3755.  
  3756.  
  3757.  
  3758.  
  3759.  
  3760.  
  3761.  
  3762.  
  3763.  
  3764.  
  3765.  
  3766.  
  3767.  
  3768.  
  3769.  
  3770.  
  3771. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3772. Page: 59
  3773.  
  3774.  
  3775.  
  3776.  
  3777.  
  3778. TEXT TEXT
  3779.  
  3780.  
  3781. Summary:
  3782. -------
  3783.  
  3784. TEXT allows you to put-up a string of text in the font loaded with
  3785. FLOAD in the current drawing color.
  3786.  
  3787.  
  3788. Syntax:
  3789. ------
  3790.  
  3791. TEXT x, y, string, <delay>
  3792.  
  3793. where 'x' and 'y' is the location of the lower left corner of the
  3794. first character in the string, 'string' is the string to put up and
  3795. 'delay' is the time to wait after the put-up in hundredths of a
  3796. second.
  3797.  
  3798.  
  3799. Example:
  3800. -------
  3801.  
  3802. TEXT 4,4,"This is a text string..."
  3803.  
  3804. will put the string indicated between the quotes up at x=4, y=4,
  3805. using the current drawing color.
  3806.  
  3807.  
  3808. Comments:
  3809. --------
  3810.  
  3811. The string to be put must be in double quotes.
  3812.  
  3813.  
  3814.  
  3815.  
  3816.  
  3817.  
  3818.  
  3819.  
  3820.  
  3821.  
  3822.  
  3823.  
  3824.  
  3825.  
  3826.  
  3827.  
  3828.  
  3829.  
  3830.  
  3831. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3832. Page: 60
  3833.  
  3834.  
  3835.  
  3836.  
  3837.  
  3838. TRAN TRAN
  3839.  
  3840.  
  3841. Summary:
  3842. -------
  3843.  
  3844. TRAN allows you to set transparent mode on or off, and to specify
  3845. which colors to make transparent. This is used for overlaying
  3846. objects or floating objects across complex backgrounds.
  3847.  
  3848.  
  3849. Syntax:
  3850. ------
  3851.  
  3852. TRAN on/off, color1, color2,...colorn
  3853.  
  3854. where 'on/off' specifies whether you want transparent mode turned
  3855. on or off and color1-colorn indicate which colors you want to make
  3856. transparent. Color1-colorn may have the values 0 to maxcolor where
  3857. maxcolor is the highest color number available in your current
  3858. video mode.
  3859.  
  3860.  
  3861. Example:
  3862. -------
  3863.  
  3864. TRAN on 2,14
  3865.  
  3866. will turn transparent mode on and make the colors 2 and 14
  3867. transparent.
  3868.  
  3869. TRAN off
  3870.  
  3871. will turn transparent mode off.
  3872.  
  3873.  
  3874. Comments:
  3875. --------
  3876.  
  3877. If you turn transparent mode on and off, the next time you turn it
  3878. on, you must re-specify which colors you want to be transparent.
  3879. Transparent does not work in EGA 16 color modes.
  3880.  
  3881.  
  3882.  
  3883.  
  3884.  
  3885.  
  3886.  
  3887.  
  3888.  
  3889.  
  3890.  
  3891. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3892. Page: 61
  3893.  
  3894.  
  3895.  
  3896.  
  3897.  
  3898. VIDEO VIDEO
  3899.  
  3900.  
  3901. Summary:
  3902. -------
  3903.  
  3904. Video is used to set the video mode. Video should be used at the
  3905. beginning of the GRASP text file. Video modes may be changed
  3906. during the demo, but caution is advised. Damage may be done to a
  3907. monitor if the wrong video mode is requested for your system. The
  3908. default video mode is A, (see table below).
  3909.  
  3910.  
  3911. Syntax:
  3912. ------
  3913.  
  3914. VIDEO vidmode
  3915.  
  3916. where 'vidmode' is one of the following...
  3917.  
  3918. Maximum Picture Memory
  3919. Vidmode Resolution # of Colors Requirement
  3920. --------------------------------------------------------
  3921. 0 40x25 16 2K (IBM 40 column text)
  3922. 1 80x25 16 4K (IBM 80 column text)
  3923. 2 80x25 2 4K (IBM 80 column text)
  3924. A 320x200 4 16K (IBM CGA)
  3925. B 320x200 16 32K (IBM PCjr/STB)
  3926. C 640x200 2 16K (IBM CGA)
  3927. D 640x200 16/64 64K (IBM EGA)
  3928. E 640x350 2 32K (IBM EGA monochrome)
  3929. F 640x350 4 64K (IBM EGA)
  3930. G 640x350 16/64 128K (IBM EGA)
  3931. H 720x348 2 32K (Hercules monochrome)
  3932. I 320x200 16 32K (Plantronics/AST CGP)
  3933. J 320x200 16 32K (IBM EGA)
  3934.  
  3935. These modes, (with the exception of the text modes) correspond to
  3936. PCPAINT video modes.
  3937.  
  3938.  
  3939. Example:
  3940. -------
  3941.  
  3942. VIDEO G
  3943.  
  3944. Will set up GRASP to use the high resolution mode of the EGA
  3945. adapter in 16 out of 64 colors.
  3946.  
  3947.  
  3948.  
  3949.  
  3950.  
  3951. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3952. Page: 62
  3953.  
  3954.  
  3955.  
  3956.  
  3957.  
  3958. Comments:
  3959. --------
  3960.  
  3961. Memory requirement in the table above is the approximate amount of
  3962. memory required for the buffer to hold EACH picture you load in for
  3963. use. Also, pay attention to the size of the screen in each video
  3964. mode. Attempting to FADE pictures other that this size may yield
  3965. unpredictable results. The exception to this is when using the PAN
  3966. command on an EGA.
  3967.  
  3968.  
  3969.  
  3970.  
  3971.  
  3972.  
  3973.  
  3974.  
  3975.  
  3976.  
  3977.  
  3978.  
  3979.  
  3980.  
  3981.  
  3982.  
  3983.  
  3984.  
  3985.  
  3986.  
  3987.  
  3988.  
  3989.  
  3990.  
  3991.  
  3992.  
  3993.  
  3994.  
  3995.  
  3996.  
  3997.  
  3998.  
  3999.  
  4000.  
  4001.  
  4002.  
  4003.  
  4004.  
  4005.  
  4006.  
  4007.  
  4008.  
  4009.  
  4010.  
  4011. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4012. Page: 63
  4013.  
  4014.  
  4015.  
  4016.  
  4017.  
  4018. WAITKEY WAITKEY
  4019.  
  4020.  
  4021. Summary:
  4022. -------
  4023.  
  4024. This command instructs the demonstration or presentation to pause
  4025. until a key is pressed, or until timeout value, if specified. If
  4026. timeout occurs, conditional branching is allowed.
  4027.  
  4028.  
  4029. Syntax:
  4030. ------
  4031.  
  4032. WAITKEY <timeout>, <label>
  4033.  
  4034. where 'timeout' is the time to wait before timeout in 100ths of a
  4035. second and 'label' is the label to go to if timeout occurs.
  4036.  
  4037.  
  4038. Example:
  4039. -------
  4040.  
  4041. WAITKEY 600,myline
  4042.  
  4043. will wait until a key is pressed, or until delay of 6 seconds. If
  4044. delay of 6 seconds is reached, goto label 'myline'.
  4045.  
  4046.  
  4047. Comments:
  4048. --------
  4049.  
  4050. If no timeout is specified, WAITKEY will wait forever until a key
  4051. is pressed. The key that is pressed to abort the wait is saved and
  4052. may be tested by IFKEY.
  4053.  
  4054.  
  4055.  
  4056.  
  4057.  
  4058.  
  4059.  
  4060.  
  4061.  
  4062.  
  4063.  
  4064.  
  4065.  
  4066.  
  4067.  
  4068.  
  4069.  
  4070.  
  4071. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4072. Page: 64
  4073.  
  4074.  
  4075.  
  4076.  
  4077.  
  4078. WINDOW WINDOW
  4079.  
  4080.  
  4081. Summary:
  4082. -------
  4083.  
  4084. This command is used to restrict a picture fade to a particular
  4085. portion of the screen. The coordinates you pass are in pixels, but
  4086. they are rounded to the nearest byte, or usually 8 pixels.
  4087.  
  4088.  
  4089. Syntax:
  4090. ------
  4091.  
  4092. WINDOW x,y,x1,y1
  4093.  
  4094. where 'x', 'y', 'x1' and 'y1' are the lower left and upper right
  4095. corner of the window to set for clipping.
  4096.  
  4097.  
  4098. Example:
  4099. -------
  4100.  
  4101. WINDOW 40,40,100,160
  4102.  
  4103. will set the fade window to 40,40,100,160. The PFADE command will
  4104. only fade that portion of the screen that lies in this region.
  4105.  
  4106.  
  4107. Comments:
  4108. --------
  4109.  
  4110. WINDOW has no effect on the CFADE command.
  4111.  
  4112.  
  4113.  
  4114.  
  4115.  
  4116.  
  4117.  
  4118.  
  4119.  
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  4130.  
  4131. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4132. Page: 65
  4133.  
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  4191. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4192. Page: 66
  4193.  
  4194.  
  4195.  
  4196.  
  4197.  
  4198. Tips, Hints, Examples and Demo Programs
  4199.  
  4200.  
  4201.  
  4202.  
  4203.  
  4204.  
  4205.  
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  4250.  
  4251. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4252. Page: 67
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  4259.  
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  4308.  
  4309.  
  4310.  
  4311. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4312. Page: 68
  4313.  
  4314.  
  4315.  
  4316.  
  4317.  
  4318. Example Program #1 - Slide Show
  4319. -------------------------------
  4320.  
  4321. A simple slideshow can be constructed by creating a grasp command
  4322. file as follows:
  4323.  
  4324.  
  4325. ; Slideshow demo for GRASP
  4326. ;
  4327. ; This program will load and display 4 pictures, alternating
  4328. ; between fade #1 and fade #2, waiting for a count of 500 between
  4329. ; each fade.
  4330. ;
  4331. video a ; set medium res 4 color CGA mode (this can
  4332. ; be whatever mode you want to use)
  4333. ;
  4334. load pic1 ; load pic1 into buffer 1
  4335. fade 1 ; fade using fade number 1
  4336. waitkey 500 ; wait for a count of 500
  4337. ;
  4338. load pic2 ; load pic2 into buffer 1
  4339. fade 2 ; but use fade #2 this time.
  4340. waitkey 500 ; etc...
  4341. ;
  4342. load pic3
  4343. fade 1
  4344. waitkey 500
  4345. ;
  4346. load pic4
  4347. fade 2
  4348. waitkey 500
  4349. ;
  4350. exit ; quit the program
  4351.  
  4352.  
  4353.  
  4354.  
  4355.  
  4356.  
  4357.  
  4358.  
  4359.  
  4360.  
  4361.  
  4362.  
  4363.  
  4364.  
  4365.  
  4366.  
  4367.  
  4368.  
  4369.  
  4370.  
  4371. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4372. Page: 69
  4373.  
  4374.  
  4375.  
  4376.  
  4377.  
  4378. Example Program #2 - How to animate using FLY
  4379. ---------------------------------------------
  4380.  
  4381. Let's say you have 2 clippings which are a flock of birds with
  4382. wings up and wings down. To fly them across the screen, (from 0,160
  4383. to 300,160 issue the following sequence:
  4384.  
  4385.  
  4386. tran on 3 ; turn transparent mode on
  4387. ; (this assumes the background is color 3.)
  4388. ;
  4389. cload birds1,1 ; load in first clip
  4390. cload birds2,2 ; load in second clip
  4391. fly 0,160,300,160,3,4,1,2 ; fly 'em!
  4392. ;
  4393. tran off ; turn off transparent mode
  4394.  
  4395. The parameters in the fly command are x1,y1,x2,y2,step(number of
  4396. pixels between each putup),delay(time of delay between each putup),
  4397. and list of clippings, in this case, 1 and 2.
  4398.  
  4399.  
  4400.  
  4401.  
  4402.  
  4403.  
  4404.  
  4405.  
  4406.  
  4407.  
  4408.  
  4409.  
  4410.  
  4411.  
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  4421.  
  4422.  
  4423.  
  4424.  
  4425.  
  4426.  
  4427.  
  4428.  
  4429.  
  4430.  
  4431. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4432. Page: 70
  4433.  
  4434.  
  4435.  
  4436.  
  4437.  
  4438. APPENDIX A - Command Summary
  4439.  
  4440.  
  4441. Notes:
  4442. -----
  4443.  
  4444. Each command's arguments (if any) are separated by commas or
  4445. spaces, whichever is preferable.
  4446.  
  4447. Comments begin at a semicolon and continue for the rest of the
  4448. line.
  4449.  
  4450. Line labels are up to 16 characters long and end with a
  4451. colon,i.e.,<label>:.
  4452.  
  4453. Subroutines can be nested up to 16 levels deep.
  4454.  
  4455. There can be up to 16 levels of nesting in MARK,LOOP constructions.
  4456.  
  4457. CAPITAL letters are the command name. It must be spelled correctly,
  4458. but capitals are not required.
  4459.  
  4460. LOWERCASE letters and numbers are parameters. You must specify all
  4461. required parameters, (those not enclosed in <>), or you will get an
  4462. error message indicating too few parameters.
  4463.  
  4464.  
  4465.  
  4466.  
  4467.  
  4468.  
  4469.  
  4470.  
  4471.  
  4472.  
  4473.  
  4474.  
  4475.  
  4476.  
  4477.  
  4478.  
  4479.  
  4480.  
  4481.  
  4482.  
  4483.  
  4484.  
  4485.  
  4486.  
  4487.  
  4488.  
  4489.  
  4490.  
  4491. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4492. Page: 71
  4493.  
  4494.  
  4495.  
  4496.  
  4497.  
  4498. Command Summary:
  4499. ---------------
  4500. BOX x,y,x2,y2,<width> - draw a box
  4501. CFADE #,x,y,<buffer>,<speed>,<delay> - fade a clipping to screen
  4502. CFREE buffer,<buffer>,... - free up clipping buffer(s)
  4503. CHGCOLOR from,to,<from,to>,... - EGA, change color index
  4504. CIRCLE x,y,rx,<ry> - draw an ellipse
  4505. CLEARSCR - clear screen
  4506. CLOAD clipping filename,<buffer> - load a clipping
  4507. COLOR color1,<color2> - set color 1 & color 2
  4508. EXEC program,<parameters> - execute program from GRASP
  4509. EXIT - quit program
  4510. FFREE - free the font buffer
  4511. FGAPS <char_gap, space_gap> - set text gaps
  4512. FLOAD character set filename - load a font
  4513. FLOAT xs,ys,xe,ye,step,delay,clp1... - float clip across screen
  4514. FLY xs,ys,xe,ye,step,delay,clp1... - fly clip across screen
  4515. FSTYLE style - set text style
  4516. GOSUB label - execute subroutine
  4517. GOTO label - goto label
  4518. IFKEY key,label - if key match, goto label
  4519. LINE x,y,x2,y2 - draw line
  4520. LINK textfile filename - link to another text file
  4521. LOOP - loop to previous mark
  4522. MARK loop count - mark for looping
  4523. MODE border color,<palette> - CGA border & palette set
  4524. NOISE freq1,freq2,duration - make some noise
  4525. OFFSET x,y - set x and y offsets
  4526. PALETTE buffer - EGA mode set palette
  4527. PAN x0,y0,x1,y1,<buffer> - EGA pan from x0,y0 to x1,y1
  4528. PFADE #,<buffer>,<speed>,<delay> - fade a picture to screen
  4529. PFREE buffer,<buffer>,... - free up picture buffer(s)
  4530. PLOAD picture filename,<buffer> - load a picture
  4531. POINT x,y,<x2,y2> - draw a point
  4532. PUTUP x,y,<buffer>,<delay> - put a clip to screen @ x,y
  4533. RESETSCR - reset screen to default
  4534. RETURN - return from subroutine
  4535. SETCOLOR c1,c2,c3...c16 - EGA mode set 16 colors
  4536. TEXT x,y,"some text",<delay> - put up text @ x,y
  4537. TRAN on/off, color - transparent mode on/off
  4538. VIDEO vidmode - set video mode
  4539. WAITKEY <timeout>, <label> - wait for a keypress
  4540. WINDOW x0,y0,x1,y1 - set clip window
  4541.  
  4542.  
  4543.  
  4544.  
  4545.  
  4546.  
  4547.  
  4548.  
  4549.  
  4550.  
  4551. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4552. Page: 72
  4553.  
  4554.  
  4555.  
  4556.  
  4557.  
  4558. APPENDIX B - Fade Table
  4559.  
  4560. There are 25 fades in GRASP which must be called by number. All
  4561. fades work on graphics screens, graphics screens in a window,
  4562. clippings and text screens. This list is also accessable by
  4563. pressing F3 while in the GRASP editor.
  4564.  
  4565. Fade # Description
  4566. ------ -------------------------------------------------------
  4567. 0 Quick snap wipe
  4568. 1 Horizontal left to right wipe
  4569. 2 Horizontal right to left wipe
  4570. 3 Horizontal edge to center wipe
  4571. 4 Horizontal center to edge wipe
  4572. 5 Horizontal 1 pass filter wipe - both sides simultaneously
  4573. 6 Horizontal 2 pass filter wipe - from left, then from right
  4574. 7 Horizontal halves wipe - left to right, then right to left
  4575. 8 Horizontal halves wipe - left and right simultaneously
  4576. 9 Vertical top to bottom wipe
  4577. 10 Vertical bottom to top wipe
  4578. 11 Vertical edge to center wipe
  4579. 12 Vertical center to egde wipe
  4580. 13 Vertical filter wipe, top and bottom simultaneously
  4581. 14 Vertical halves wipe, top and bottom simultaneously
  4582. 15 Vertical halves wipe, left down, right up
  4583. 16 Vertical quarters wipe
  4584. 17 Vertical fingers wipe
  4585. 18 Vertcial fingers/filter combination wipe
  4586. 19 Slither from top to bottom
  4587. 20 Sparkle fade (random)
  4588. 21 Diagonal wipe
  4589. 22 Aperature dissolve - edge to center
  4590. 23 Aperature dissolve - center to edge
  4591. 24 Clockwise clock dissolve
  4592. 25 Double slant dissolve
  4593.  
  4594.  
  4595.  
  4596.  
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  4598.  
  4599.  
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  4610.  
  4611. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4612. Page: 73
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  4669.  
  4670.  
  4671. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4672. Page: 74
  4673.  
  4674.  
  4675.  
  4676.  
  4677.  
  4678. APPENDIX C - Error Messages
  4679.  
  4680. The following is a list of messages you may get while executing
  4681. GRASP and some of their causes and solutions.
  4682.  
  4683.  
  4684. MOST COMMON ERRORS:
  4685.  
  4686.  
  4687. I. The most common error is not a grasp program error but a
  4688. system error. The screen will clear, and you will get an
  4689. error like
  4690.  
  4691. External Memory allocation overflow, xxxxk requested, yyyyk free.
  4692.  
  4693. This means that you have tried to load a picture or clipping
  4694. that is too large for the memory you have left. There are
  4695. several fixes for this problem.
  4696. 1) Buy more memory. EGA 16 color demos usually take most of a
  4697. 640K machine
  4698. 2) Check your code and use PFREE, CFREE and FFREE to clean up
  4699. memory when you are through using particular pictures,
  4700. clippings and fonts. See the section of the manual on these
  4701. commands.
  4702. 3) Use the special parameter, ',1' on clipping loads that
  4703. don't make the shifted copies. In order to be able to PUTUP a
  4704. clipping at any single-pixel coordinate, GRASP needs to make
  4705. up to 8 shifted copies of the clipping. If you are going to
  4706. be using CFADE or putting it up at a byte boundary, then the
  4707. shifted copies aren't necessary. You can keep them from being
  4708. generated by typing:
  4709.  
  4710. CLOAD clip,1,1 ;note the extra ',1'
  4711.  
  4712. If you do specify the extra parameter, and you try to put up
  4713. the clipping at a non-byte boundary, no putup will occur.
  4714. Remember, FLY, FLOAT and PUTUP can put clippings at any
  4715. coordinate. CFADE can only putup at a byte boundary.
  4716.  
  4717. If none of the above three work, then call the GRASP and
  4718. PCPAINT BBS for more advice.
  4719.  
  4720.  
  4721.  
  4722.  
  4723.  
  4724.  
  4725.  
  4726.  
  4727.  
  4728.  
  4729.  
  4730.  
  4731. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4732. Page: 75
  4733.  
  4734.  
  4735.  
  4736.  
  4737.  
  4738. II. System Errors
  4739.  
  4740. The following is a list of the GRASP system errors that you may
  4741. encounter. These will appear on the top of the screen while running
  4742. your demo along with a line number where the error occurred. When
  4743. you press a key, you will be returned to that line in your program.
  4744. If you get the error while running under the runtime version, the
  4745. program will stop.
  4746.  
  4747.  
  4748.  
  4749. DUPLICATE LABEL
  4750.  
  4751. - You have used the same label name more than once in your demo and
  4752. GRASP is confused.
  4753.  
  4754.  
  4755. ERROR IN LOOP COUNT
  4756.  
  4757. - Loop count must be a positive number. This error occurs if a
  4758. negative number was specified.
  4759.  
  4760.  
  4761. ERROR IN NAME
  4762.  
  4763. - You have used an invalid character in a filename, or the file
  4764. GRASP was trying to load was not found.
  4765.  
  4766.  
  4767. ERROR IN PACKED CLIPPING
  4768.  
  4769. - sometimes, clippings may be trashed or someone tries to load
  4770. some other file with a .CLP extension. If GRASP does not recognize
  4771. a clipping as being a valid clipping file, you will get this
  4772. message.
  4773.  
  4774.  
  4775. ERROR IN XCOORD
  4776.  
  4777. - The Y-coordinate lies off the screen. This may occur after an
  4778. OFFSET command. If you specify 0 for the Y coordinate, but Y offset
  4779. is set to -5, you will get this error.
  4780.  
  4781.  
  4782. ERROR IN YCOORD
  4783.  
  4784. - The Y-coordinate lies off the screen. This may occur after an
  4785. OFFSET command. If you specify 0 for the Y coordinate, but Y offset
  4786. is set to -5, you will get this error.
  4787.  
  4788.  
  4789.  
  4790.  
  4791. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4792. Page: 76
  4793.  
  4794.  
  4795.  
  4796.  
  4797.  
  4798. ERROR LOADING FONT
  4799.  
  4800. - GRASP doesn't recognize the font you are trying to load. Also
  4801. could be too large for memory or hardware error during load.
  4802.  
  4803.  
  4804. ERROR LOADING PICTURE
  4805.  
  4806. - GRASP doesn't recognize the picture you are trying to load. Also
  4807. could be hardware error during load.
  4808.  
  4809.  
  4810. ERROR LOADING TEXT
  4811.  
  4812. - GRASP doesn't recognize the text file you are trying to link to.
  4813. Also could be hardware during load.
  4814.  
  4815.  
  4816. ILLEGAL ARGUMENT(S)
  4817.  
  4818. - One of the arguments for the current command is invalid.
  4819. Examples are invalid video mode, etc.
  4820.  
  4821.  
  4822. ILLEGAL BUFFER
  4823.  
  4824. - You have specified a buffer number that is outside of valid
  4825. range. Buffers are 1-16 for pictures and 1-128 for clippings. Also
  4826. may get this when an error occurs trying to allocate a new buffer
  4827. during load.
  4828.  
  4829.  
  4830. ILLEGAL COLOR
  4831.  
  4832. - You have specified an invalid color number for this video mode.
  4833.  
  4834.  
  4835. ILLEGAL FADE
  4836.  
  4837. - You have specified an invalid fade number. Valid fades are 0-25.
  4838.  
  4839.  
  4840. ILLEGAL PALETTE
  4841.  
  4842. - You have specified an invalid palette number for CGA 4 color
  4843. mode. Valid palettes are 0-5.
  4844.  
  4845.  
  4846. ILLEGAL SPEED
  4847.  
  4848. - You have specified an invalid speed for a fade. Valid speeds are
  4849. 0-10000.
  4850.  
  4851. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4852. Page: 77
  4853.  
  4854.  
  4855.  
  4856.  
  4857.  
  4858. INVALID FONT STYLE
  4859.  
  4860. - You have specified an invalid font style number. Valid styles
  4861. are 0-6.
  4862.  
  4863.  
  4864. INVALID GAP VALUE
  4865.  
  4866. - You have specified an invalid GAP value. Range is 0-255.
  4867.  
  4868.  
  4869. LABEL NOT FOUND
  4870.  
  4871. - You have tried to reference a label which was not previously
  4872. defined.
  4873.  
  4874.  
  4875. MEMORY ERROR
  4876.  
  4877. - When trying to allocate the memory for your GRASP command file,
  4878. an error was encountered. Usually only happens when a command file
  4879. is too large.
  4880.  
  4881.  
  4882. NOT ENOUGH ARGUMENTS
  4883.  
  4884. - Certain commands require a minimum number of arguments. You need
  4885. to specify some more.
  4886.  
  4887.  
  4888. THIS COMMAND REQUIRES AN EGA
  4889.  
  4890. - Just like it says, this particular command requires an EGA card
  4891. and EGA video mode to operate.
  4892.  
  4893.  
  4894. TOO MANY LOOPS
  4895.  
  4896. - You have nested your loops deeper than the maximum, which is 16,
  4897. or you have more loop commands that mark commands.
  4898.  
  4899.  
  4900. TOO MANY MARKS
  4901.  
  4902. - You have nested your loops deeper than the maximum, which is 16,
  4903. or you have more mark commands than loop commands.
  4904.  
  4905.  
  4906. UNKNOWN COMMAND
  4907.  
  4908. - GRASP found something that was not a comment, not a label and
  4909. couldn't recognize as a valid command. Check your spelling.
  4910.  
  4911. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4912. Page: 78
  4913.  
  4914.  
  4915.  
  4916.  
  4917.  
  4918. APPENDIX D - Picture Swap Line
  4919.  
  4920.  
  4921. There is a public domain electronic bulletin board which operates
  4922. 24 hours a day with the sole purpose of providing a method by which
  4923. users of PCPAINT and GRASP may exchange pictures, clippings, fonts,
  4924. effects and ideas. This help eliminate the extra cost of providing
  4925. artwork for many of the GRASP demos you may want to create. The
  4926. most current version of GRASP will be avaliable this system.
  4927.  
  4928. All uploads and downloads are free and may be used by anyone. We
  4929. encourage you to contribute any artwork you feel could be used by
  4930. someone else. Of course there will be proprietary artwork you
  4931. either pay to have developed, or need to keep confidential. But
  4932. your discards may be another's joy...
  4933.  
  4934. The BBS is located in Costa Mesa, California, and the number is
  4935.  
  4936. *** (714) 545-8100 ***
  4937.  
  4938. You will be limited to 1 hour of use per day. We suggest that you
  4939. use 1200 or 2400 baud modems set at 8 bits, 1 stop bit, no parity.
  4940. You will be transferring binary files so the 8 bit mode is a must.
  4941. There are several utility programs you will want to download first
  4942. which allow you to squeeze and unsqueeze the pic files so that they
  4943. will not take as much time to upload and download. You will find
  4944. them in the UTILITY file area.
  4945.  
  4946.  
  4947. Thanks in advance for your support and contributions to the board.
  4948.  
  4949.  
  4950.  
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  4971. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4972. Page: 79
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  4977.  
  4978. This page intentionally left blank
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  5000.  
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  5030.  
  5031. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  5032. Page: 80
  5033.  
  5034.  
  5035.  
  5036.  
  5037.  
  5038. APPENDIX E - GRASP Order Form
  5039.  
  5040. GRASP is distributed in the USEware format. If you are going to USE
  5041. it, please check the appropriate box below and enclose a check or
  5042. purchase order. If you find the program unUSEable, please drop us a
  5043. line telling us why. If you pay for the program by sending in this
  5044. registration form with a check or money order, you will be added to
  5045. our mailing list and be kept notified of new releases and new
  5046. utilities.
  5047.  
  5048. ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5049. Single-User Order Form
  5050. ======================
  5051. If you are going to pay for less than 50 copies, use this form. The
  5052. single user price is $50.00. California residents please add 6%
  5053. sales tax. You must pay for EACH copy you plan to use.
  5054.  
  5055. Full Name:__________________________ ___ Copies @ $50.00=_________
  5056.  
  5057. Address :__________________________ 6% Sales Tax =_________
  5058.  
  5059. :__________________________ Total Enclosed =_________
  5060.  
  5061. City, St.:_________________ _____ Zip:_________________
  5062.  
  5063. ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5064. Corporate Site License Order Form
  5065. =================================
  5066. If you are going to be using in excess of 50 copies of GRASP within
  5067. your company at one site, (5 mile radius from licensing party), you
  5068. need only pay for the first 50 copies. You may then make and
  5069. distribute to your employees an unlimited number of copies of the
  5070. software and manual. We have 45 day billing if you include a P.O.
  5071. number instead of a check or money order.
  5072.  
  5073. Primary Corporate Contact for updates, etc.:
  5074.  
  5075. Full Name :_________________________ 50 Copies @ $50.00 = $2500.00
  5076.  
  5077. Address :_________________________ 6% Sales Tax =_________
  5078.  
  5079. :_________________________ Total Enclosed =_________
  5080.  
  5081. Department:_________________________ P.O. Number:________________
  5082.  
  5083. City, St. :_________________ _____ Zip:_________________
  5084.  
  5085. Authorized Signature:______________________________ Date:_________
  5086.  
  5087. ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5088.  
  5089.  
  5090.  
  5091. GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  5092. Page: 81
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