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  15.                                      G R A S P
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  17.                          GRAphical System for Presentation
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  48.  
  49.                            Another USEware product from:
  50.  
  51.                              Microtex Industries, Inc.
  52.                             2091 Business Center Drive
  53.                                 Irvine, Ca.  92715
  54.                                   (714) 476-0777
  55.  
  56.                     (714) 545-8100 - PCPaint Picture Swap Line
  57.  
  58.         Current release number: 1.10            Current release date :05/86
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  122.                              GRASP - Table of Contents
  123.                              =========================
  124.  
  125.          Overview of Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1
  126.  
  127.               What is GRASP? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3
  128.               What is on the GRASP disk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    4
  129.               Making a working copy of the GRASP disk  . . . . . . . .    6
  130.               Installing GRASP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    7
  131.               GRASP Installation Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8
  132.               How do I use GRASP?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    9
  133.               Running GRASP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
  134.               The Grasp Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12
  135.               Simple GRASP Tutorial  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   15
  136.               Running the library file version - GRASPRT . . . . . . .   18
  137.               Using the GRASP Graphics Librarian - GLIB  . . . . . . .   19
  138.  
  139.          The commands of GRASP - Detailed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21
  140.  
  141.               BOX  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   23
  142.               CFADE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24
  143.               CFREE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   25
  144.               CHGCOLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   26
  145.               CIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   27
  146.               CLEARSCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   28
  147.               CLOAD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   29
  148.               COLOR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   30
  149.               EXEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   31
  150.               EXIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32
  151.               FFREE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   33
  152.               FGAPS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   34
  153.               FLOAD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   35
  154.               FLOAT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   36
  155.               FLY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   37
  156.               FSTYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   38
  157.               GOSUB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   39
  158.               GOTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   40
  159.               IFKEY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   41
  160.               LINE   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   42
  161.               LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   43
  162.               LOOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   44
  163.               MARK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   45
  164.               MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   46
  165.               NOISE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   48
  166.               OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   49
  167.               PALETTE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   50
  168.               PAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   51
  169.               PFADE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   52
  170.               PFREE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   53
  171.               PLOAD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   54
  172.               POINT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   55
  173.               PUTUP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   56
  174.  
  175.                                           i
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  180.               RESETSCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   57
  181.               RETURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   58
  182.               SETCOLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   59
  183.               TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   60
  184.               TRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   61
  185.               VIDEO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   62
  186.               WAITKEY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   64
  187.               WINDOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   65
  188.  
  189.          Tips, Hints, Examples and Demo Programs . . . . . . . . . . .   67
  190.  
  191.               Example Program #1 - Slide Show  . . . . . . . . . . . .   69
  192.               Example Program #2 - How to animate using FLY  . . . . .   70
  193.  
  194.          APPENDIX A - Command Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   71
  195.  
  196.          APPENDIX B - Fade Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   73
  197.  
  198.          APPENDIX C - Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   75
  199.  
  200.          APPENDIX D - Picture Swap Line  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   79
  201.  
  202.          APPENDIX E - GRASP Order Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   81
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  233.                                          ii
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  237.  
  238.                                 Overview of Product
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  291.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  292.                                    Page:  1
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  351.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  352.                                    Page:  2
  353.  
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  357.  
  358.  
  359.                                   What is GRASP?
  360.  
  361.         GRASP is a simple graphics programming pseudo-language which can be
  362.         used to create and run animated graphics demonstrations, tutorials,
  363.         and  presentations  on  an  IBM  PC/XT/AT or respective compatible.
  364.         GRASP requires that the user make use of  some other  tool, such as
  365.         Mouse Systems'  PCPAINT PLUS, to create PCPAINT PLUS packed page or
  366.         BSAVE format pictures, or 'capture' screens from any other graphics
  367.         software with  the provided  capture utility  program. This product
  368.         was developed by the folks at  Microtex Industries,  the authors of
  369.         PCPAINT PLUS, so it is patterned to take advantage of the pictures,
  370.         clippings and fonts  created  with  PCPAINT  PLUS  and  its related
  371.         utilities, like FONTASIA and ARTOOLS.
  372.  
  373.         GRASP was  designed to  be the  base for many other products. GRASP
  374.         files can be generated by programs  written in  virtually any other
  375.         language. This  allows great flexibility to users in many different
  376.         areas. It is  this  flexibility  that  sets  GRASP  apart  from its
  377.         competitors. GRASP  in its  raw form,  as you  have it here, is not
  378.         indended to be a  user-friendly,  end-user  tool.  It  is, however,
  379.         simple enough  that any  user can  quickly learn  how to manipulate
  380.         GRASP files with ease.
  381.  
  382.  
  383.         Features:
  384.  
  385.         * Supports IBM CGA, IBM EGA, HERCULES, AST ColorGraphPlus,
  386.           Plantronics, AST Preview, 3 text modes.
  387.  
  388.         * 16 Picture Buffers
  389.  
  390.         * 128 Clipping Buffers
  391.  
  392.         * Single command to control animation sequences
  393.  
  394.         * 25 different fades with limitless combinations
  395.  
  396.         * Simple ASCII file format
  397.  
  398.         * FONTRIX(tm) font compatible
  399.  
  400.         * Fully PCPAINT PLUS from MOUSE SYSTEMS(tm) compatible
  401.  
  402.         * Run Custom Programs from within GRASP program
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  411.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  412.                                    Page:  3
  413.  
  414.  
  415.  
  416.  
  417.  
  418.                             What is on the GRASP disk?
  419.  
  420.  
  421.         The following files are on the GRASP disk
  422.  
  423.         GRASP.EXE -
  424.  
  425.         This is the main GRASP program.  This   version  of GRASP  gets the
  426.         pictures, character  sets, clippings  and text  files it needs from
  427.         the current directory on your current disk drive,  unless otherwise
  428.         specified in  the text  files. This  program allows  you to create,
  429.         edit and execute your GRASP programs.
  430.  
  431.         GRASPRT.EXE -
  432.  
  433.         This is the run-time version of GRASP. This  version of  GRASP gets
  434.         the pictures,  character sets,  clippings, and text it needs from a
  435.         graphics library  created with  the GRASP  graphics librarian GLIB.
  436.         This version only allows you to execute completed programs that are
  437.         in library form. No  editing of  the files  is possible.  This .EXE
  438.         file, along  with your .GL file, may be distributed without license
  439.         fees or other compensation.
  440.  
  441.         GLIB.COM -
  442.  
  443.         Library  manager  for  version  GRASPRT  of  GRASP  product. Allows
  444.         management of  all necessary  files in a library environment rather
  445.         than as files in a subdirectory on a disk.
  446.  
  447.         CAP.COM -
  448.  
  449.         Capture program for capturing screens and  clippings from  all your
  450.         favorite software.
  451.  
  452.         WHATPIC.EXE -
  453.  
  454.         Utility program to determine size and color combinations of PCPAINT
  455.         PLUS pictures.
  456.  
  457.         WHATCLP.EXE -
  458.  
  459.         Utility program to determine size and color combinations of PCPAINT
  460.         PLUS clippings.
  461.  
  462.         *.SET -
  463.  
  464.         Some fonts for you to use in your demo.  
  465.  
  466.         *.HLP -
  467.  
  468.         Various help files.
  469.  
  470.  
  471.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  472.                                    Page:  4
  473.  
  474.  
  475.  
  476.  
  477.  
  478.         GRASP.PIC -
  479.  
  480.         A 4 color CGA picture to use for testing and learning about GRASP.
  481.  
  482.         ALLFADES.TXT -
  483.  
  484.         A sample  GRASP text  file that uses GRASP.PIC and demonstrates all
  485.         the different fades.
  486.  
  487.         GRASP.MAN -
  488.  
  489.         The GRASP manual. You are reading it right now!
  490.  
  491.         CAP.MAN -
  492.  
  493.         A short manual on CAP, the resident capture utility.
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  531.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  532.                                    Page:  5
  533.  
  534.  
  535.  
  536.  
  537.  
  538.                       Making a working copy of the GRASP disk
  539.  
  540.  
  541.         The GRASP disk is not copy protected in any way. You should back up
  542.         the disk  using the DOS diskcopy command, or you may perform a file
  543.         by file backup to a hard disk using the DOS copy command. There are
  544.         several different  ways to  copy disks under DOS, but the following
  545.         will  work  on  almost  any  hardware  configuration  since  all it
  546.         requires is access to the DOS master disk and 1 floppy disk drive.
  547.  
  548.         For PCs with 1 or 2 floppys, or an XT or AT with 1 floppy:
  549.  
  550.         Put your  DOS master  disk in  drive A  and turn  on the machine or
  551.         press CTRL-ALT-DEL to re-boot the system.  Enter the  Date and Time
  552.         when prompted and you should see the system prompt:
  553.  
  554.         A>_
  555.  
  556.         Type:
  557.  
  558.         A>DISKCOPY A: A:
  559.  
  560.         and press  the return  key. You  will be prompted to put the SOURCE
  561.         disk in drive A. Remove the DOS master disk from  drive A,  put the
  562.         GRASP distribution  disk in,  close the  door and  press the return
  563.         key. After it reads some information, DOS will  ask you  to put the
  564.         TARGET disk in drive A. Put a blank disk (formatted or unformatted)
  565.         into drive A, close the door and press return. If  your machine has
  566.         less than  512K of memory, you may be prompted to perform this disk
  567.         exchange several times. When the process is complete, put the GRASP
  568.         disk away in a safe place and use the backup copy for your work.
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  591.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  592.                                    Page:  6
  593.  
  594.  
  595.  
  596.  
  597.  
  598.                                  Installing GRASP
  599.  
  600.  
  601.         Simple Set-Up
  602.         -------------
  603.  
  604.         To  develop  demos  under  the  grasp  system, you need to have the
  605.         following GRASP files and programs accessible:
  606.  
  607.         GRASP.EXE
  608.         CM1.HLP
  609.         CM2.HLP
  610.         ED1.HLP
  611.         FD1.HLP
  612.         FD2.HLP
  613.         RP1.HLP
  614.  
  615.         as well as your pictures, clippings and fonts.
  616.  
  617.         With all of these files in  one subdirectory,  you will  be able to
  618.         create and  edit your  demo program and have access to the help. If
  619.         you do not need the help files, you may omit them. If you are going
  620.         to be  creating a  library version of your demo, you will also need
  621.         access to the librarian utility, GLIB.EXE.
  622.  
  623.  
  624.  
  625.         Advanced Set-Up
  626.         ---------------
  627.  
  628.         The following is an example of a well set-up system on a hard disk,
  629.         including PCPAINT,  so that you can edit pictures and clippings and
  630.         create your demo with a minimum of effort.
  631.  
  632.         From the root directory, create a sub-directory called PAINTLIB and
  633.         put all  the PCPAINT  files in  it. (This is the recommended method
  634.         for installing PCPAINT). In addition, be  sure your  PATH statement
  635.         points to  PAINTLIB and  set up an environment variable to point to
  636.         PAINTLIB as well with the command:
  637.  
  638.         SET PAINTLIB=C:\PAINTLIB
  639.  
  640.         Also make a sub-directory off the root called GRASP. Copy the GRASP
  641.         disk contents  to the  sub-directory GRASP. Add the GRASP directory
  642.         to your PATH command. Then create a DEMO  directory, change  to it,
  643.         and run  GRASP by  typing GRASP at the command prompt. When you are
  644.         in the GRASP editor, you can  run PCPAINT  by pressing  ALT-F10 and
  645.         your previous  PATH and  SET statements will help DOS know where to
  646.         find it. The following diagram is an example:
  647.  
  648.  
  649.  
  650.  
  651.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  652.                                    Page:  7
  653.  
  654.  
  655.  
  656.  
  657.  
  658.                             GRASP Installation Diagram
  659.  
  660.  
  661.         This diagram  shows the  proper structure  for your sub-directories
  662.         for GRASP  to perform  in the  above stated  manner. This  is not a
  663.         requirement, just an example.
  664.                                        
  665.                                    ___________
  666.                                   |           |
  667.                                   |  C:\Root  |
  668.                                   |___________|
  669.                 ________________________|________________________ . . . .
  670.          ______|_______    ______|______    __________|__________    
  671.         |              |  |             |  |                     |
  672.         |   PAINTLIB   |  |    GRASP    |  |    DOS or OTHER     |
  673.         |______________|  |_____________|  |_____________________|  
  674.             :                  :      |          :
  675.         PCPAINT.EXE        GRASP.EXE  |      DOS files
  676.         PxPAINT.OVR        ED1.HLP    |      Various batch files
  677.         CAP.COM            CM1.HLP    |
  678.                            CM2.HLP    |
  679.                            CM3.HLP    |
  680.                            FD1.HLP    |
  681.                            FD2.HLP    |
  682.                            RP1.HLP    |
  683.                                       |
  684.                            ___________|_
  685.                           |             |
  686.                           |    Demos    |
  687.                           |_____________|
  688.  
  689.         Then these statements would be in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
  690.  
  691.         SET PAINTLIB=C:\PAINTLIB
  692.         PATH C:\PAINTLIB;C:\GRASP;C:\whateverelseyouwant...
  693.  
  694.         With this  set-up, you  can be  in any  directory and  run GRASP by
  695.         typing GRASP and PCPAINT by typing PCPAINT. You have full access to
  696.         all help files and the  PCPAINT  system.  The  auto-run  feature in
  697.         GRASP (ALT-F10)  allows you to run PCPAINT while in GRASP. It looks
  698.         for PCPAINT in the \PAINTLIB directory.  The  GRASP help  files are
  699.         only accessible if they are in one of three places:
  700.  
  701.         1) In the current directory
  702.         2) In the directory pointed to by the environment string 'PAINTLIB'
  703.         3) In a sub-directory off the root called 'GRASP'
  704.  
  705.         GRASP performs  a search  for the help files in this order. If they
  706.         are not found, a message  will  appear  when  you  first  run grasp
  707.         telling you so. You may run GRASP without access to the help files,
  708.         but you will get a beep if you try to access them.
  709.  
  710.  
  711.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  712.                                    Page:  8
  713.  
  714.  
  715.  
  716.  
  717.  
  718.                                 How do I use GRASP?
  719.  
  720.  
  721.         To use GRASP you need to do 3 things.
  722.  
  723.  
  724.         1) Create the pictures and clippings you want  to use  with PCPAINT
  725.         PLUS, or capture them the the CAP utility.
  726.  
  727.         2) Use the built-in GRASP editor to create an GRASP 'program' which
  728.         is nothing more than a list of GRASP commands and some comments.
  729.  
  730.         3) Run your demonstration  by pressing  F10 from  the editor  or by
  731.         selecting EXECUTE FILE from the main GRASP menu.
  732.  
  733.  
  734.         It's that  simple. If you want to give your demo away, you must put
  735.         the .PIC, .CLP, .SET and .TXT  files into  a library  with the GLIB
  736.         utility, and distribute the library file with GRASPRT.EXE.
  737.  
  738.  
  739.  
  740.  
  741.  
  742.  
  743.  
  744.  
  745.  
  746.  
  747.  
  748.  
  749.  
  750.  
  751.  
  752.  
  753.  
  754.  
  755.  
  756.  
  757.  
  758.  
  759.  
  760.  
  761.  
  762.  
  763.  
  764.  
  765.  
  766.  
  767.  
  768.  
  769.  
  770.  
  771.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  772.                                    Page:  9
  773.  
  774.  
  775.  
  776.  
  777.  
  778.                                    Running GRASP
  779.  
  780.         To run the GRASP, enter at the command prompt:
  781.  
  782.         A:>GRASP
  783.  
  784.         You will be presented with a screen that looks something like this:
  785.  
  786.                                      G R A S P
  787.                          GRAphical System for Presentation
  788.                              Version 1.10* - May, 1986
  789.                   Copyright (C) 1986 - Microtex Industries, Inc.
  790.  
  791.                                     Edit File      
  792.                                     Execute File  
  793.                                     Load File      
  794.                                     Save File      
  795.                                     Quit GRASP    
  796.  
  797.                                Current File: TMPFILE
  798.  
  799.         To select  an option from this menu, use the up and down arrow keys
  800.         until the option you want to select is highlighted. Then just press
  801.         return  and  the  option  is  selected. Each of these options has a
  802.         special meaning to GRASP.
  803.  
  804.         Edit File: The Edit File option tells GRASP that you want to  go to
  805.         the editor and create or modify your GRASP program file.
  806.  
  807.         Execute File:  The Execute  File option  tells GRASP to execute the
  808.         currently loaded GRASP program file.
  809.  
  810.         Load File: The Load File option allows you to tell GRASP to load in
  811.         an existing  file, or  to create  a new one. Notice that just below
  812.         the menu there is an area  with the  current filename  listed. When
  813.         you  first  run  GRASP,  the  system  will  default to a file named
  814.         TMPFILE. This is the name that GRASP will use unless  you specify a
  815.         new one.  To specify  a new one, just type in the name you want. DO
  816.         NOT specify  the filename  extension. GRASP  will automatically use
  817.         the extension  .TXT for you. To create a new file, just perform the
  818.         load as though the  file you  want already  exists. GRASP  is smart
  819.         enough to  understand and  create a  new file for you. If a file is
  820.         already loaded, and changes have been  made, GRASP  will prompt you
  821.         for saving before allowing you to load another. This keeps you from
  822.         trashing your current file.
  823.  
  824.         Save File: The Save File option tells GRASP that you want to save
  825.         the current working GRASP program file. It works  much the  same as
  826.         the load  command. Just  specify the name you want to save the file
  827.         under and press return. The  system  will  default  to  the current
  828.         working name.
  829.  
  830.  
  831.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  832.                                    Page:  10
  833.  
  834.  
  835.  
  836.  
  837.  
  838.         Quit GRASP: The Quit GRASP option tells the system that you want to
  839.         exit GRASP. If a file is loaded and has been changed since the last
  840.         save, GRASP will prompt you for saving before allowing you to quit.
  841.  
  842.         Be sure to save your file before quitting!
  843.  
  844.  
  845.         Of these  options, the only one that requires special consideration
  846.         is the first one, Edit File. Select that  option and  let's explore
  847.         the world of the GRASP editor...
  848.  
  849.  
  850.  
  851.  
  852.  
  853.  
  854.  
  855.  
  856.  
  857.  
  858.  
  859.  
  860.  
  861.  
  862.  
  863.  
  864.  
  865.  
  866.  
  867.  
  868.  
  869.  
  870.  
  871.  
  872.  
  873.  
  874.  
  875.  
  876.  
  877.  
  878.  
  879.  
  880.  
  881.  
  882.  
  883.  
  884.  
  885.  
  886.  
  887.  
  888.  
  889.  
  890.  
  891.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  892.                                    Page:  11
  893.  
  894.  
  895.  
  896.  
  897.  
  898.  
  899.                                  The Grasp Editor
  900.  
  901.  
  902.         If you  have selected  the Edit File option from the main menu, you
  903.         will now be in the GRASP editor. The screen should have a blue line
  904.         across the top that looks like the following:
  905.  
  906.  
  907.         TMPFILE         COL:1     LINE:1     POS:0     LEN:0      INSERT ON
  908.  
  909.         These are  just information  items about  the current  file you are
  910.         working on and the mode you are operating in. Starting  at the left
  911.         is the  name of  the current  file, which defaults to TMPFILE. Next
  912.         comes the current cursor column  number,  the  current  cursor line
  913.         number,  the  current  cursor's  character position relative to the
  914.         entire file, and the total  number  of  characters  in  the current
  915.         file.  At  the  far  right  is  the  status  of the INS key on your
  916.         keyboard. If INSERT mode is ON,  then characters  you type  will be
  917.         inserted before  the character  just to the right of the cursor. If
  918.         INSERT mode is OFF, then characters to the right of the cursor will
  919.         be overwritten.  This second  mode, INSERT  OFF, is commonly called
  920.         OVERSTRIKE mode. This information is just there for  reference, and
  921.         with the  exception of  the INSERT  mode signal, you probably won't
  922.         need to refer to it too often.
  923.  
  924.         The first three function keys are the most important keys  to learn
  925.         in  the  GRASP  editor.  GRASP  provides  'Quick  Help'  for  three
  926.         different areas and is accessable by pressing F1, F2 or F3.
  927.  
  928.         NOTE: If you press one of these function keys and  hear a  low tone
  929.         from  your  computer  and  no  help  appears,  it  means that GRASP
  930.         couldn't find the .HLP files that  were on  your distribution disk.
  931.         If you  want to use the help. the .HLP files must be on the current
  932.         drive and directory, in a directory called 'GRASP' directly off the
  933.         root directory,  or in  a directory  pointed to  by the environment
  934.         string 'PAINTLIB'. See INSTALLING GRASP for more details.
  935.  
  936.         F1 - Provides help in using the GRASP Editor. This  includes a list
  937.         of the  most commonly  used editing  keys and a description of what
  938.         each function key is used for.
  939.  
  940.         F2 - Provides  a  quick  summary  listing  of  all  available GRASP
  941.         commands.  This  information  is  not  a  complete reference on the
  942.         commands of GRASP, but  rather a  command syntax  reference so that
  943.         you  can   insure  proper  useage  of  the  commands  and  a  brief
  944.         description of what the command is used for.
  945.  
  946.         F3 - Provides a  summary listing  of the  25 GRASP  fades and their
  947.         respective  numbers.  Remember  that  all  fades  can  be  used for
  948.         graphics  pictures,  text  pictures,  pictures  in   a  window  and
  949.         clippings.
  950.  
  951.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  952.                                    Page:  12
  953.  
  954.  
  955.  
  956.  
  957.  
  958.  
  959.         If this  is your  first time  running GRASP and you are too lazy or
  960.         too bored  to  read  the  entire  manual,  you  should  find enough
  961.         information in these help keys to get you started.
  962.  
  963.         If you want to learn a little more about the editor, here is a full
  964.         description of all the keys available in the GRASP editor.
  965.  
  966.         F1  - Quick help with the editor.
  967.         F2  - Quick help with the commands.
  968.         F3  - Quick help with the fades and video modes.
  969.         F4  - Start/End highlighting a block.
  970.         F5  - Copy a highlighted block.
  971.         F6  - Move a highlighted block.
  972.         F7  - Read a block in from disk.
  973.         F8  - Write a highlighted block to disk.
  974.         F9  - Save current file and run from current line.
  975.         F10 - Save current file and run from the top.
  976.  
  977.         ALT/F1   - Quick exit to DOS. Typing EXIT at the DOS propmt returns
  978.                    you to the GRASP editor.
  979.  
  980.         ALT/F10  - Run  PCPAINT  from  within the GRASP editor. PCPAINT.EXE
  981.                    and  its  overlays  must  be  in  a  subdirectory called
  982.                    PAINTLIB off the root directory on the current drive.
  983.  
  984.         CTRL-K-X or
  985.         ESC      - Quit the  editor. Do  not save file. Leave flag set that
  986.                    indicates changes if they have been made.
  987.  
  988.         CTRL-K-Q - Quit  the  editor.  Do  not  save  file.  Reset  flag to
  989.                    indicate no changes have been made.
  990.  
  991.         CTRL-K-D or
  992.         ALT/X    - Quit the editor, save file if changes have been made.
  993.  
  994.         CTRL-K-S or
  995.         ALT/S or
  996.         ALT/W    - Save the current file and continue editing.
  997.  
  998.         ALT/L or
  999.         ALT/R    - Reload   the   current   file   and   continue  editing,
  1000.                    overwriting any changes made.
  1001.  
  1002.         CTRL-Y or
  1003.         ALT/D    - Delete current line.
  1004.  
  1005.         CTRL-N   - Insert a carriage return  and  leave  cursor  at current
  1006.                    line.
  1007.  
  1008.         CTRL-K-B - Mark block beginnng. Same as the first time you hit F4.
  1009.  
  1010.  
  1011.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1012.                                    Page:  13
  1013.  
  1014.  
  1015.  
  1016.  
  1017.  
  1018.         CTRL-K-K - Mark block end. Same as the second time you hit F4.
  1019.  
  1020.         CTRL-Q-B - Go to block beginning.
  1021.  
  1022.         CTRL-Q-K - Go to block end.
  1023.  
  1024.         CTRL-K-C - Copy a block. Same as F5.
  1025.  
  1026.         CTRL-K-V - Move a block. Same as F6.
  1027.  
  1028.         CTRL-K-R - Read block at cursor position. Same as F7.
  1029.  
  1030.         CTRL-K-W - Write block. Same as F8.
  1031.  
  1032.         CTRL-K-Y - Delete highlighted block.
  1033.  
  1034.         CTRL-HOME or
  1035.         CTRL-Q-R - Go to top of file.
  1036.  
  1037.         CTRL-END or
  1038.         CTRL-Q-C - Go to end of file.
  1039.  
  1040.         CTRL-RIGHT ARROW or
  1041.         CTRL-F   - Skip word right.
  1042.  
  1043.         CTRL-LEFT ARROW or
  1044.         CTRL-A   - Skip word left.
  1045.  
  1046.         CTRL-Q-S or
  1047.         HOME     - Go to beginning of line.
  1048.  
  1049.         CTRL-Q-D or
  1050.         END      - Go to end of line.
  1051.  
  1052.         INS      - Turns insert mode on and off.
  1053.  
  1054.         DEL      - Deletes character under cursor and adjusts text.
  1055.  
  1056.         ARROW  KEYS  /  PGUP  / PGDN and Wordstar(tm) 'Diamond' equivalents
  1057.         move cursor around document.
  1058.  
  1059.         Now that you know how to use the editor, let's  see exactly  how to
  1060.         make a demo...
  1061.  
  1062.  
  1063.  
  1064.  
  1065.  
  1066.  
  1067.  
  1068.  
  1069.  
  1070.  
  1071.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1072.                                    Page:  14
  1073.  
  1074.  
  1075.  
  1076.  
  1077.  
  1078.                                Simple GRASP Tutorial
  1079.  
  1080.         Loading and displaying a picture:
  1081.  
  1082.         It  is  important  to  understand  that  GRASP  is very much a LINE
  1083.         oriented programming pseudo-language.  It  is  called  this because
  1084.         inter-line  dependencies  have  been  kept to a minimum. In simpler
  1085.         terms, GRASP interprets one line at a time, executes it,  then goes
  1086.         and  gets  the  next  line.  Except  for  a few special cases, what
  1087.         happens on each line is relatively independent of the previous line
  1088.         or the next line. This is important because if you understand this,
  1089.         then creating a GRASP  program  will  be  easier  to  understand in
  1090.         concept.
  1091.  
  1092.         Each line can start with only one of three things:
  1093.  
  1094.         1) A GRASP command. (PRESS F2 to see all the GRASP commands)
  1095.  
  1096.         2) A semicolon - ';'. This indicates the beginning of a comment.
  1097.  
  1098.         3) A  label. This  can be any continuous string of ASCII characters
  1099.         with the exception of space, and must be followed by a colon - ':'.
  1100.  
  1101.         This keeps  the GRASP  interpreter's job  simple. It  either sees a
  1102.         command,  and  immediately  looks  for  possible  parameters,  or a
  1103.         semicolon, in which case  it ignores  the rest  of that  line, or a
  1104.         label, which it puts into a list so it can find it later if needed.
  1105.         Any  variation  from  these  three  options  will  result  in GRASP
  1106.         thinking that what you typed was  a GRASP  command which  it cannot
  1107.         understand, and results in an 'INVALID COMMAND IN LINE XXX' message
  1108.         when you try to execute the program.
  1109.  
  1110.         Usually, you will want to start you GRASP  program with  a comment,
  1111.         like a title of your program or your name, etc. Type:
  1112.  
  1113.         ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1114.  
  1115.         and press return. You now have written a 1-line GRASP program.
  1116.  
  1117.         Exciting huh? I'll bet you can't wait for more.
  1118.  
  1119.         The very  first command  in every  GRASP program  should be a VIDEO
  1120.         command which tells GRASP which video mode you want to  use. If you
  1121.         select a  video mode  that is not available on your computer, GRASP
  1122.         will try to understand and tell you so.  If you  get wierd results,
  1123.         or  the  screen  seems  to  go  crazy,  don't worry, just check the
  1124.         reference section of this manual to be sure  you are  using a valid
  1125.         video mode.  For this  tutorial, we  will assume that your computer
  1126.         has an IBM Color Graphics Adapter  or compatible,  and we  will use
  1127.         the standard 4 color 320x200 mode, which GRASP understands as video
  1128.         mode A. Type the  following (exactly  as spelled  below, with upper
  1129.         case):
  1130.  
  1131.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1132.                                    Page:  15
  1133.  
  1134.  
  1135.  
  1136.  
  1137.  
  1138.  
  1139.         ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1140.         ;
  1141.         video Q
  1142.  
  1143.         Now press F10 to execute the program. (By the way, all this does is
  1144.         set the video mode and come  back to  the editor.  Not too exciting
  1145.         yet, but we're getting there...)
  1146.  
  1147.         You should get a message that says
  1148.  
  1149.                            Illegal argument(s) at line 3
  1150.                                  File TMPFILE.TXT
  1151.                              Press any Key to Continue
  1152.  
  1153.         Any time you see the message, it means that the command you entered
  1154.         was correct, but one of the arguments you entered was incorrect.
  1155.         Press a key and you will  be returned  back to  the editor,  to the
  1156.         line where  the error  occured. The  problem here  is that  Q is an
  1157.         invalid video mode. Change it to A (which stands for  CGA 320x200 4
  1158.         color mode)  and press  F10 again. Your screen should blink and the
  1159.         you will be put back in the editor.  
  1160.  
  1161.         Now we have named the program and set up a video mode, so it's time
  1162.         to try  out some  graphics commands.  On the distribution disk is a
  1163.         picture named  GRASP.PIC.  This  is  a  4  color  picture  from the
  1164.         CGADEMO.GL file.  Let's load  it into  GRASP and display it using a
  1165.         variety of fades.
  1166.  
  1167.         ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1168.         ;
  1169.         video A
  1170.         ;
  1171.         pload grasp,1                    ; load picture into buffer #1
  1172.         pfade 0,1,0,0                    ; fade it to the screen using fade
  1173.                                          ;  #0
  1174.         waitkey                           ; wait for a keypress before    
  1175.                                          ;  returning to the editor.
  1176.  
  1177.         now, press F10 and you should see the GRASP.PIC picture  loaded and
  1178.         displayed.
  1179.  
  1180.         Change  the  first  parameter  of  the  pfade command to any number
  1181.         between 0 and 25 and watch all the different special  effects. Then
  1182.         to slow  things down, try a number like 50 for the third parameter,
  1183.         which is the speed of the fade. Speed  seems to  have no  effect on
  1184.         some fades,  while on others, it makes a lot of difference. This is
  1185.         because of the nature of  each  individual  fade.  To  optimize the
  1186.         performance of GRASP, it was decided that speed would be a relative
  1187.         number, that is, relative to the actual fade.  This way,  each fade
  1188.         may be accurately controlled from its fastest speed to its slowest.
  1189.  
  1190.  
  1191.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1192.                                    Page:  16
  1193.  
  1194.  
  1195.  
  1196.  
  1197.  
  1198.         Let's do one more command, the  WINDOW command.  Window means don't
  1199.         allow  any  part  of  the  picture  that lies outside of a specific
  1200.         rectangle to be faded to the screen. Add the window command to your
  1201.         demo program as follows:
  1202.  
  1203.         ; DEMO Program for GRASP
  1204.         ;
  1205.         video A
  1206.         ;
  1207.         pload grasp,1                    ; load picture into buffer #1
  1208.         window 0,0,100,100               ; set fade clip window
  1209.         pfade 0,1,0,0                    ; fade it to the screen using fade
  1210.                                          ;  #0
  1211.         waitkey                          ; wait for a keypress before
  1212.                                          ;  returning to the editor.
  1213.  
  1214.         now press F10 and watch the  difference. You  should see  that only
  1215.         the lower  left part  of your picture was actually dissolved to the
  1216.         screen. Change the coordinates of the window command  and watch the
  1217.         results.
  1218.  
  1219.         One  other  note:  The  window  command  can  only  operate on byte
  1220.         boundaries. For most video modes, this means every 8 pixels  in the
  1221.         x  direction.   You  don't   have  to  worry  because  WINDOW  will
  1222.         automatically adjust itself to a byte boundary.
  1223.          
  1224.         This concludes this lesson.  Other  commands  in  GRASP  work  in a
  1225.         similar fashion.  Experiment with them. Just remember to keep track
  1226.         of your video modes and buffers.  You may  also want  to take apart
  1227.         the demo program, CGADEMO.GL using the GLIB.EXE utility and look at
  1228.         the code for more examples.
  1229.  
  1230.  
  1231.  
  1232.  
  1233.  
  1234.  
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  1248.  
  1249.  
  1250.  
  1251.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1252.                                    Page:  17
  1253.  
  1254.  
  1255.  
  1256.  
  1257.  
  1258.                     Running the library file version - GRASPRT
  1259.  
  1260.  
  1261.         The Library file, or runtime version of the program is identical to
  1262.         the  text  file  version  except  that  the  interpreter  gets  its
  1263.         information from  a library  file instead  of the  current disk and
  1264.         directory. The  GLIB utility  will put all of your .PIC, .CLP, .SET
  1265.         and .TXT files into a library  with the  extension GL.  To run your
  1266.         demo execute the command:
  1267.  
  1268.         GRASPRT <libfile> <textfile>
  1269.  
  1270.         If  the  textfile  is  omitted  from  the  command line, GRASP will
  1271.         execute the first text file it finds in the library.
  1272.  
  1273.         To run the demo that comes with GRASP, type:
  1274.  
  1275.         GRASPRT CGADEMO
  1276.  
  1277.  
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  1310.  
  1311.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1312.                                    Page:  18
  1313.  
  1314.  
  1315.  
  1316.  
  1317.  
  1318.                      Using the GRASP Graphics Librarian - GLIB
  1319.  
  1320.         The Graphics LIBrarian, GLIB.EXE, is used in the following manner:
  1321.  
  1322.         GLIB [-dstuea] libname [files...]  
  1323.  
  1324.         where the following commands are supported:
  1325.  
  1326.          -d   delete file from library
  1327.          -s   extended file list
  1328.          -t   quick file list
  1329.          -u   update (add) file to library
  1330.          -e   extract file from library
  1331.          -a   extract all files from library
  1332.  
  1333.         For example, if you  wanted to  put all  of the  .PIC files  in the
  1334.         current directory into a library file named MYFILE, you would type:
  1335.  
  1336.         GLIB -u MYFILE *.PIC
  1337.  
  1338.         Or if you wanted to extract GRASP.PIC from the library CGADEMO, you
  1339.         would type:
  1340.  
  1341.         GLIB -e CGADEMO GRASP.PIC
  1342.  
  1343.         Be  sure that all files  needed for  your demo  are in  the library
  1344.         file  before  you  try  to  run  it.  Otherwise,  you may get error
  1345.         messages.
  1346.  
  1347.         NOTE:
  1348.         You cannot use  wild  cards  for  extracting  or  deleting  in this
  1349.         version (1.0)  of GLIB.  However, you may use wild cards for adding
  1350.         to or updating the library.
  1351.  
  1352.         More Examples:
  1353.  
  1354.         GLIB -d DEMO FRED.TXT
  1355.  
  1356.         will delete the file 'fred.txt' from library file DEMO.GL
  1357.  
  1358.         GLIB -e DEMO LOGO.CLP
  1359.  
  1360.         will extract the clipping 'logo.clp' from library file DEMO.GL
  1361.  
  1362.         GLIB -u DEMO MTX.CLP
  1363.  
  1364.         will add/replace the picture 'mtx.pic' to library file DEMO.GL
  1365.  
  1366.  
  1367.  
  1368.  
  1369.  
  1370.  
  1371.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1372.                                    Page:  19
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  1431.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
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  1438.  
  1439.                          The commands of GRASP - Detailed
  1440.  
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  1491.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
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  1551.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1552.                                    Page:  22
  1553.  
  1554.  
  1555.  
  1556.  
  1557.  
  1558.         BOX                                                            BOX
  1559.  
  1560.  
  1561.         Summary:
  1562.         -------
  1563.  
  1564.         BOX allows you to draw a box on the screen  in the  current drawing
  1565.         color.
  1566.  
  1567.  
  1568.         Syntax:
  1569.         ------
  1570.  
  1571.         BOX startx, starty, endx, endy, <width>
  1572.  
  1573.         where 'startx'  and 'starty'  is the point of one corner of the box
  1574.         and 'endx' and endy'  is the  point of  the opposite  corner of the
  1575.         box. Width  is the  number of  pixels wide  you want the box to be.
  1576.         Width is drawn 'inward' from the original box.
  1577.  
  1578.  
  1579.         Example:
  1580.         -------
  1581.  
  1582.         BOX 0,0,100,100
  1583.  
  1584.         will draw a box in the  current  drawing  color  from  x=0,  y=0 to
  1585.         x=100, y=100.
  1586.  
  1587.  
  1588.         Comments:
  1589.         --------
  1590.  
  1591.         Transparent mode  does not affect this command. Default width is 1.
  1592.         BOX is not available in text modes.
  1593.  
  1594.  
  1595.  
  1596.  
  1597.  
  1598.  
  1599.  
  1600.  
  1601.  
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  1610.  
  1611.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1612.                                    Page:  23
  1613.  
  1614.  
  1615.  
  1616.  
  1617.  
  1618.         CFADE                                                        CFADE
  1619.  
  1620.  
  1621.         Summary:
  1622.         -------
  1623.  
  1624.         CFADE allows you to dissolve or fade a clipping to  the screen. You
  1625.         may specify  one of several dissolves, the speed for that dissolve,
  1626.         and a delay after the dissolve. This command  is similar  to PFADE,
  1627.         but applies  to clippings. The same 25 fades that apply to pictures
  1628.         also apply to clippings.
  1629.  
  1630.  
  1631.         Syntax:
  1632.         ------
  1633.  
  1634.         CFADE fade number, x, y, <buffer number>, <speed>, <delay>
  1635.  
  1636.         where 'fade  number' is  the number  of the  fade you  want to use,
  1637.         'buffer number'  is the  clipping buffer  number where the clipping
  1638.         you want to fade has been loaded, 'x' and 'y' are the  location for
  1639.         the clipping  to be  faded, 'speed'  is the  speed of  the fade and
  1640.         'delay' is the time to wait after the  delay. Speed  can be  in the
  1641.         range 0-10000. Check Appendix B for a list of fades.
  1642.  
  1643.  
  1644.         Example:
  1645.         -------
  1646.  
  1647.         CFADE 2,20,40,5,500,1000
  1648.  
  1649.         will fade  the clipping  in buffer 5 using fade 2 at location x=24,
  1650.         y=40 at speed 500, and then  wait 10  seconds. The  delay works the
  1651.         same as using the WAITKEY command.
  1652.  
  1653.  
  1654.         Comments:
  1655.         --------
  1656.  
  1657.         Note: CFADE only fades byte-width clippings and puts them up at the
  1658.         nearest byte boundary to the x  and  y  specified  in  the command.
  1659.         Deviations may cause unpredictable results. Use the utility WHATCLP
  1660.         to obtain the needed  information  about  your  clippings.  If your
  1661.         clipping  is  not  byte-width,  it  will  fill  the  right  edge to
  1662.         byte-width with white (highest  color available).  Transparent mode
  1663.         does NOT apply to CFADE.
  1664.  
  1665.         Default values for optional parameters:
  1666.  
  1667.         buffer number: 1
  1668.         speed:         0
  1669.         delay:         0
  1670.  
  1671.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1672.                                    Page:  24
  1673.  
  1674.  
  1675.  
  1676.  
  1677.  
  1678.         CFREE                                                        CFREE
  1679.  
  1680.  
  1681.         Summary:
  1682.         -------
  1683.  
  1684.         CFREE is  used to free-up a clipping buffer. Sometimes, you may run
  1685.         out of memory and need to clear up  some buffers  you have  full of
  1686.         clippings you have already used.
  1687.  
  1688.  
  1689.         Syntax:
  1690.         ------
  1691.  
  1692.         CFREE buf1, <buf2>, <buf3>...
  1693.  
  1694.         where 'buf1' and other buffers are buffers you want to free-up.
  1695.  
  1696.  
  1697.         Example:
  1698.         -------
  1699.  
  1700.         CFREE 1,4,12
  1701.  
  1702.         will free-up clipping buffers 1, 4 and 12.
  1703.  
  1704.         CFREE 1,-,16
  1705.  
  1706.         will free-up buffers 1 through 16. You MUST use commas or spaces to
  1707.         separate these parameters.
  1708.  
  1709.  
  1710.         Comments:
  1711.         --------
  1712.  
  1713.         This is especially useful in  EGA  16  color  mode  where  space is
  1714.         critical.
  1715.  
  1716.  
  1717.  
  1718.  
  1719.  
  1720.  
  1721.  
  1722.  
  1723.  
  1724.  
  1725.  
  1726.  
  1727.  
  1728.  
  1729.  
  1730.  
  1731.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1732.                                    Page:  25
  1733.  
  1734.  
  1735.  
  1736.  
  1737.  
  1738.         CHGCOLOR                                                  CHGCOLOR
  1739.  
  1740.  
  1741.         Summary:
  1742.         -------
  1743.  
  1744.         Chgcolor is  used to  set the color palette registers in IBM EGA 16
  1745.         color mode. On the  EGA, there  are 16  possible colors,  called an
  1746.         'index', and  each of  these color  indices may  be one of 64 color
  1747.         'values'.
  1748.  
  1749.  
  1750.         Syntax:
  1751.         ------
  1752.  
  1753.         CHGCOLOR color index, color value,...
  1754.  
  1755.         where 'color index' refers to the color number  you want  to change
  1756.         in the range 0-15 and 'color value' lies in the range 0-63.
  1757.  
  1758.  
  1759.         Example:
  1760.         -------
  1761.  
  1762.         CHGCOLOR 3,32
  1763.  
  1764.         will change color index 3 to color value 32.
  1765.  
  1766.  
  1767.         Comments:
  1768.         --------
  1769.  
  1770.         Remember, this only works in EGA 16 color modes.
  1771.  
  1772.  
  1773.  
  1774.  
  1775.  
  1776.  
  1777.  
  1778.  
  1779.  
  1780.  
  1781.  
  1782.  
  1783.  
  1784.  
  1785.  
  1786.  
  1787.  
  1788.  
  1789.  
  1790.  
  1791.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1792.                                    Page:  26
  1793.  
  1794.  
  1795.  
  1796.  
  1797.  
  1798.         CIRCLE                                                      CIRCLE
  1799.  
  1800.  
  1801.         Summary:
  1802.         -------
  1803.  
  1804.         CIRCLE allows  you to draw a circle or ellipse on the screen in the
  1805.         current drawing color. The  color parameters  must be  specified in
  1806.         pairs, as in the example.
  1807.  
  1808.  
  1809.         Syntax:
  1810.         ------
  1811.  
  1812.         CIRCLE centerx, centery, xradius, <yradius>
  1813.  
  1814.         where 'centerx'  and 'centery' is the center point of the circle or
  1815.         ellipse, xradius' is the radius in the x-direction and 'yradius' is
  1816.         the radius in the y direction.
  1817.  
  1818.  
  1819.         Example:
  1820.         -------
  1821.  
  1822.         CIRCLE 100,100,100,20
  1823.  
  1824.         will draw a circle centered at x=100, y=100 with x radius=100 and y
  1825.         radius=20.
  1826.  
  1827.  
  1828.         Comments:
  1829.         --------
  1830.  
  1831.         Transparent mode does not affect this command. Failure to specify a
  1832.         yradius assumes yradius=xradius and a circle is produced. Note also
  1833.         that circle  here implies  xradius=yradius which,  depending on the
  1834.         aspect  ratio  of  your  current  video  mode, may not be a circle.
  1835.         CIRCLE is not available in text modes.
  1836.  
  1837.  
  1838.  
  1839.  
  1840.  
  1841.  
  1842.  
  1843.  
  1844.  
  1845.  
  1846.  
  1847.  
  1848.  
  1849.  
  1850.  
  1851.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1852.                                    Page:  27
  1853.  
  1854.  
  1855.  
  1856.  
  1857.  
  1858.         CLEARSCR                                                  CLEARSCR
  1859.  
  1860.  
  1861.         Summary:
  1862.         -------
  1863.  
  1864.         Clearscr is used to clear the screen to the current drawing color.
  1865.  
  1866.  
  1867.         Syntax:
  1868.         ------
  1869.  
  1870.         CLEARSCR
  1871.  
  1872.  
  1873.         Example:
  1874.         -------
  1875.  
  1876.         CLEARSCR
  1877.  
  1878.         will clear the screen to the current drawing  color (the  color set
  1879.         with the last COLOR command).
  1880.  
  1881.  
  1882.         Comments:
  1883.         --------
  1884.  
  1885.  
  1886.  
  1887.  
  1888.  
  1889.  
  1890.  
  1891.  
  1892.  
  1893.  
  1894.  
  1895.  
  1896.  
  1897.  
  1898.  
  1899.  
  1900.  
  1901.  
  1902.  
  1903.  
  1904.  
  1905.  
  1906.  
  1907.  
  1908.  
  1909.  
  1910.  
  1911.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1912.                                    Page:  28
  1913.  
  1914.  
  1915.  
  1916.  
  1917.  
  1918.         CLOAD                                                        CLOAD
  1919.  
  1920.  
  1921.         Summary:
  1922.         -------
  1923.  
  1924.         This command  is used  to load  a clipping into a buffer. There are
  1925.         128 buffers available for  clippings in  GRASP. It  is advised, for
  1926.         memory  reasons,  that  the  user  try  to  manage  using as few as
  1927.         possible. A clipping must be loaded into a buffer before  it can be
  1928.         dissolved or put up onto the screen.
  1929.  
  1930.  
  1931.         Syntax:
  1932.         ------
  1933.  
  1934.         CLOAD clipping, buffer number, <shiftparm>
  1935.  
  1936.         where 'clipping'  is the name of the clipping you want to load (the
  1937.         file name extension is optional) and 'buffer number'  is the number
  1938.         of the  buffer you  want to  load in to. Valid buffer numbers are 1
  1939.         through 128. Buffer 0 is non-existent  for clippings,  and thus, no
  1940.         clipping may  be loaded  into it.  'Shiftparm' indicates whether or
  1941.         not to create the  shifted copies  necessary to  place clippings at
  1942.         non-byte boundaries. Default for shiftparm is 0 or YES. Placing a 1
  1943.         here will cause GRASP  not to  create the  shifted copies  and thus
  1944.         saving memory.  This is useful if you know that you are going to be
  1945.         using CFADE on this clipping and therefore couldn't use the shifted
  1946.         copies anyway.
  1947.  
  1948.  
  1949.         Example:
  1950.         -------
  1951.  
  1952.         CLOAD myclip,5
  1953.  
  1954.         will load the clipping myclip.clp into clipping buffer number 5.
  1955.  
  1956.  
  1957.         Comments:
  1958.         --------
  1959.  
  1960.         If you  do not understand the concept of shifted copies, it is best
  1961.         not to fool around with the shiftparm parameter.  Note also  that a
  1962.         file extension  is not  necessary in  your GRASP file. Drive letter
  1963.         and path may be specified.
  1964.  
  1965.  
  1966.  
  1967.  
  1968.  
  1969.  
  1970.  
  1971.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  1972.                                    Page:  29
  1973.  
  1974.  
  1975.  
  1976.  
  1977.  
  1978.         COLOR                                                        COLOR
  1979.  
  1980.  
  1981.         Summary:
  1982.         -------
  1983.  
  1984.         COLOR allows you to choose a drawing color.  Drawing color  is used
  1985.         for  drawing  primitives  (such  as  line,  box, circle, or point),
  1986.         transparent mode selection, text  strings and  clearing the screen.
  1987.         Secondary color is used for background color in text mode or shadow
  1988.         color for font styles in graphics modes.
  1989.  
  1990.  
  1991.         Syntax:
  1992.         ------
  1993.  
  1994.         COLOR n1,<n2>
  1995.  
  1996.         where 'n1' is the drawing color and 'n2' is the secondary color.
  1997.  
  1998.  
  1999.         Example:
  2000.         -------
  2001.  
  2002.         COLOR 3,0
  2003.  
  2004.         will set the current  drawing color  to color  3 and  the secondary
  2005.         color to 0.
  2006.  
  2007.  
  2008.         Comments:
  2009.         --------
  2010.  
  2011.         Related  commands  are  LINE,  BOX,  CIRCLE, POINT, TRAN, CLEARSCR,
  2012.         PALETTE, MODE and PFADE. The secondary color is used for the bottom
  2013.         character in  shadow text strings and the background color for text
  2014.         screens. Secondary color defaults to color 0 if not specified.
  2015.  
  2016.  
  2017.  
  2018.  
  2019.  
  2020.  
  2021.  
  2022.  
  2023.  
  2024.  
  2025.  
  2026.  
  2027.  
  2028.  
  2029.  
  2030.  
  2031.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2032.                                    Page:  30
  2033.  
  2034.  
  2035.  
  2036.  
  2037.  
  2038.         EXEC                                                          EXEC
  2039.  
  2040.  
  2041.         Summary:
  2042.         -------
  2043.         This command allows you to execute another program from within your
  2044.         GRASP program.  Useful for utility programs, or custom programs you
  2045.         write that provide a function that GRASP does not.
  2046.  
  2047.  
  2048.         Syntax:
  2049.         ------
  2050.  
  2051.         EXEC program, <parameters>
  2052.  
  2053.         where 'program' is the name of the program you wish to execute. You
  2054.         MUST include  path if  it is  in a  different path, and all program
  2055.         names must include the extension. 'Parameters' are any command line
  2056.         parameters you would normally pass to the program.
  2057.  
  2058.  
  2059.         Example:
  2060.         -------
  2061.  
  2062.         EXEC \PAINTLIB\PCPAINT.EXE, /O
  2063.  
  2064.         will execute  pcpaint from  the \paintlib  directory on the current
  2065.         drive passing the /O parameter.
  2066.  
  2067.  
  2068.         Comments:
  2069.         --------
  2070.  
  2071.         You MUST include full path and file extension.
  2072.  
  2073.  
  2074.  
  2075.  
  2076.  
  2077.  
  2078.  
  2079.  
  2080.  
  2081.  
  2082.  
  2083.  
  2084.  
  2085.  
  2086.  
  2087.  
  2088.  
  2089.  
  2090.  
  2091.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2092.                                    Page:  31
  2093.  
  2094.  
  2095.  
  2096.  
  2097.  
  2098.         EXIT                                                          EXIT
  2099.  
  2100.  
  2101.         Summary:
  2102.         --------
  2103.  
  2104.         Exit will  cause the  currently running  GRASP program  to quit and
  2105.         return to DOS or the GRASP editor.
  2106.  
  2107.  
  2108.         Syntax:
  2109.         ------
  2110.  
  2111.         EXIT
  2112.  
  2113.  
  2114.         Example:
  2115.         -------
  2116.  
  2117.         EXIT
  2118.  
  2119.         will  cause  the  currently  running GRASP program to terminate and
  2120.         return to DOS or the GRASP editor.
  2121.  
  2122.  
  2123.         Comments:
  2124.         --------
  2125.  
  2126.         If you are running  GRASPRT, EXIT  returns you  to DOS.  If you are
  2127.         running GRASP,  EXIT returns  you to  the editor  or the main menu,
  2128.         depending on how you ran the program.
  2129.  
  2130.  
  2131.  
  2132.  
  2133.  
  2134.  
  2135.  
  2136.  
  2137.  
  2138.  
  2139.  
  2140.  
  2141.  
  2142.  
  2143.  
  2144.  
  2145.  
  2146.  
  2147.  
  2148.  
  2149.  
  2150.  
  2151.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2152.                                    Page:  32
  2153.  
  2154.  
  2155.  
  2156.  
  2157.  
  2158.         FFREE                                                        FFREE
  2159.  
  2160.  
  2161.         Summary:
  2162.         -------
  2163.  
  2164.         This command will free up the font buffer  so that  more memory may
  2165.         be available for pictures and clippings.
  2166.  
  2167.  
  2168.         Syntax:
  2169.         ------
  2170.  
  2171.         FFREE
  2172.  
  2173.  
  2174.         Example:
  2175.         -------
  2176.  
  2177.         FFREE
  2178.  
  2179.         will free up the font buffer.
  2180.  
  2181.  
  2182.         Comments:
  2183.         --------
  2184.  
  2185.  
  2186.  
  2187.  
  2188.  
  2189.  
  2190.  
  2191.  
  2192.  
  2193.  
  2194.  
  2195.  
  2196.  
  2197.  
  2198.  
  2199.  
  2200.  
  2201.  
  2202.  
  2203.  
  2204.  
  2205.  
  2206.  
  2207.  
  2208.  
  2209.  
  2210.  
  2211.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2212.                                    Page:  33
  2213.  
  2214.  
  2215.  
  2216.  
  2217.  
  2218.         FGAPS                                                        FGAPS
  2219.  
  2220.  
  2221.         Summary:
  2222.         -------
  2223.  
  2224.         This command  allows you  to set the gaps between characters in the
  2225.         text command and also the width of the space character.
  2226.  
  2227.  
  2228.         Syntax:
  2229.         ------
  2230.  
  2231.         FGAPS <char gap, space gap>
  2232.  
  2233.         where 'char gap is the  number  of  pixels  between  characters and
  2234.         'space gap' is the number of pixels wide for the space character.
  2235.  
  2236.  
  2237.         Example:
  2238.         -------
  2239.  
  2240.         FGAPS 3,9
  2241.  
  2242.         will  set  the  inter-character  gap  to  3  pixels  and  the space
  2243.         character to a width of 9 pixels.
  2244.  
  2245.  
  2246.         Comments:
  2247.         --------
  2248.  
  2249.         Note that this has no effect on the TEXT command if you are in TEXT
  2250.         mode. FGAPS  with no parameters resets the gaps to the default gaps
  2251.         for the currently loaded font.
  2252.  
  2253.  
  2254.  
  2255.  
  2256.  
  2257.  
  2258.  
  2259.  
  2260.  
  2261.  
  2262.  
  2263.  
  2264.  
  2265.  
  2266.  
  2267.  
  2268.  
  2269.  
  2270.  
  2271.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2272.                                    Page:  34
  2273.  
  2274.  
  2275.  
  2276.  
  2277.  
  2278.         FLOAD                                                        FLOAD
  2279.  
  2280.  
  2281.         Summary:
  2282.         -------
  2283.  
  2284.         This command is used to load in a  character set.  The GRASP system
  2285.         only allows  1 character set in memory at a time. After a character
  2286.         set has been loaded,  TEXT  commands  (see  command  TEXT)  will be
  2287.         performed using the currently loaded font. Applies only to graphics
  2288.         modes.
  2289.  
  2290.  
  2291.         Syntax:
  2292.         ------
  2293.  
  2294.         FLOAD fontname
  2295.  
  2296.         where 'fontname'  is the  name of  the FONTRIX(tm)  or PCPAINT font
  2297.         file you wish to load. File name extensions are optional.
  2298.  
  2299.  
  2300.         Example:
  2301.         -------
  2302.  
  2303.         FLOAD bocklin
  2304.  
  2305.         will load  the FONTRIX(tm)  font bocklin.set into memory for use by
  2306.         the TEXT command.
  2307.  
  2308.  
  2309.         Comments:
  2310.         --------
  2311.  
  2312.         When a font is loaded with FLOAD, the gaps are reset to the default
  2313.         gaps  for  that  font.  So  be  sure  to reset gaps using the FGAPS
  2314.         command if the default gaps aren't adequate.
  2315.  
  2316.  
  2317.  
  2318.  
  2319.  
  2320.  
  2321.  
  2322.  
  2323.  
  2324.  
  2325.  
  2326.  
  2327.  
  2328.  
  2329.  
  2330.  
  2331.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2332.                                    Page:  35
  2333.  
  2334.  
  2335.  
  2336.  
  2337.  
  2338.         FLOAT                                                        FLOAT
  2339.  
  2340.  
  2341.         Summary:
  2342.         -------
  2343.  
  2344.         FLOAT allows you to  animate  a  clipping  or  series  of clippings
  2345.         between any two points on the screen with one command. It
  2346.         is similar  to FLY  except that it performs an exchange with screen
  2347.         data so that the background may be preserved.
  2348.  
  2349.         Syntax:
  2350.         ------
  2351.  
  2352.         FLOAT startx, starty, endx,  endy, increment,  delay, clip1, clip2,
  2353.         ...clipn
  2354.  
  2355.         where 'startx' and 'starty' indicate the starting point, 'endx' and
  2356.         'endy' indicate  the  ending  point,  'increment'  is  the distance
  2357.         between each  put along  the line, 'delay' is the wait time between
  2358.         each put and 'clip1-clipn' is the list of clippings.
  2359.  
  2360.  
  2361.         Example:
  2362.         -------
  2363.  
  2364.         FLOAT 0,0,200,200,2,10,1,2,3
  2365.  
  2366.         will 'FLOAT' the clippings 1,2 and  3   in that  order from  0,0 to
  2367.         200,200, skipping  2 pixels between each put, waiting a count of 10
  2368.         between each put. For example, clip 1 will  be put  at 0,0,  clip 2
  2369.         will be  put at  clip 2,2, clip 3 will be put a 4,4, clip 1 will be
  2370.         put at 6,6, clip2 will be put at 8,8, etc.
  2371.  
  2372.  
  2373.         Comments:
  2374.         --------
  2375.  
  2376.         This command differs from FLY in that it  preserves the background.
  2377.         Also note  that the  last operation  it performs  is the swap-back,
  2378.         which restores screen data. This means that if  you want  to have a
  2379.         clipping on  the screen after the FLOAT command, you have to follow
  2380.         the FLOAT with a  PUTUP command.  Selective use  of transparent can
  2381.         yield very interesting results.
  2382.  
  2383.  
  2384.  
  2385.  
  2386.  
  2387.  
  2388.  
  2389.  
  2390.  
  2391.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2392.                                    Page:  36
  2393.  
  2394.  
  2395.  
  2396.  
  2397.  
  2398.         FLY                                                            FLY
  2399.  
  2400.  
  2401.         Summary:
  2402.         -------
  2403.  
  2404.         FLY allows you to animate a clipping or series of clippings between
  2405.         any two points on the screen with one command.
  2406.  
  2407.  
  2408.         Syntax:
  2409.         ------
  2410.  
  2411.         FLY startx, starty, endx,  endy,  increment,  delay,  clip1, clip2,
  2412.         ...clipn
  2413.  
  2414.         where 'startx' and 'starty' indicate the starting point, 'endx' and
  2415.         'endy' indicate  the  ending  point,  'increment'  is  the distance
  2416.         between each  put along  the line, 'delay' is the wait time between
  2417.         each put and  'clip1-clipn'  is  the  list  of  clippings.  You may
  2418.         animate up to 10 clippings.
  2419.  
  2420.  
  2421.         Example:
  2422.         -------
  2423.  
  2424.         FLY 0,0,200,200,2,10,1,2,3
  2425.  
  2426.         will  'fly'  the  clippings  1,2  and  3  in that order from 0,0 to
  2427.         200,200, skipping 2 pixels between each put, waiting a count  of 10
  2428.         between each  put. For  example, clip  1 will be put at 0,0, clip 2
  2429.         will be put at clip 2,2, clip 3 will be put a  4,4, clip  1 will be
  2430.         put at 6,6, clip2 will be put at 8,8, etc.
  2431.  
  2432.  
  2433.         Comments:
  2434.         --------
  2435.          
  2436.         Selective use  of slightly larger than necessary clippings (to wipe
  2437.         out  the    previous  put)  and  transparent  mode  can  yield very
  2438.         interesting results.
  2439.  
  2440.  
  2441.  
  2442.  
  2443.  
  2444.  
  2445.  
  2446.  
  2447.  
  2448.  
  2449.  
  2450.  
  2451.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2452.                                    Page:  37
  2453.  
  2454.  
  2455.  
  2456.  
  2457.  
  2458.         FSTYLE                                                       FSTYLE
  2459.  
  2460.  
  2461.         Summary:
  2462.         -------
  2463.  
  2464.         This command allows you to choose a style for the characters in the
  2465.         TEXT command. Styles are as follows:
  2466.  
  2467.         style #    style
  2468.         -------    -----
  2469.            0       Default, normal letters
  2470.            1       Bold up.
  2471.            2       Bold right.
  2472.            3       Shadow up right.
  2473.            4       Shadow up left.
  2474.            5       Shadow up right 2 pixels.
  2475.            6       Shadow up left 2 pixels.
  2476.  
  2477.  
  2478.         Syntax:
  2479.         ------
  2480.  
  2481.         FSTYLE fstyle
  2482.  
  2483.         where fstyle is the number of the desired style.
  2484.  
  2485.  
  2486.         Example:
  2487.         -------
  2488.  
  2489.         FSTYLE 4
  2490.  
  2491.         will set the text style to shadow up left.
  2492.  
  2493.  
  2494.         Comments:
  2495.         --------
  2496.         Use of the command with no parameters will default to style 0.
  2497.  
  2498.  
  2499.  
  2500.  
  2501.  
  2502.  
  2503.  
  2504.  
  2505.  
  2506.  
  2507.  
  2508.  
  2509.  
  2510.  
  2511.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2512.                                    Page:  38
  2513.  
  2514.  
  2515.  
  2516.  
  2517.  
  2518.         GOSUB                                                        GOSUB
  2519.  
  2520.  
  2521.         Summary:
  2522.         -------
  2523.  
  2524.         This command allows the transfer of  control during  execution of a
  2525.         GRASP program  to a  sub-program defined  elsewhere in the program.
  2526.         This is similar to a BASIC gosub command. The subprogram is defined
  2527.         by a  label at the beginning, and a RETURN command at the end. When
  2528.         the  RETURN  is  encountered,  control  is  returned  to  the  line
  2529.         following the line where the GOSUB ocurred.
  2530.  
  2531.  
  2532.         Syntax:
  2533.         ------
  2534.  
  2535.         GOSUB subroutine
  2536.  
  2537.         where 'subroutine'  is a sub-program defined elsewhere in the GRASP
  2538.         program.
  2539.  
  2540.  
  2541.         Example:
  2542.         -------
  2543.  
  2544.         GOSUB myprog
  2545.  
  2546.         will transfer control to  the  sub-program  'myprog'.  Control will
  2547.         return when the statement RETURN in encountered in the sub-program.
  2548.  
  2549.  
  2550.         Comments:
  2551.         --------
  2552.  
  2553.         Also see command RETURN.
  2554.  
  2555.  
  2556.  
  2557.  
  2558.  
  2559.  
  2560.  
  2561.  
  2562.  
  2563.  
  2564.  
  2565.  
  2566.  
  2567.  
  2568.  
  2569.  
  2570.  
  2571.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2572.                                    Page:  39
  2573.  
  2574.  
  2575.  
  2576.  
  2577.  
  2578.         GOTO                                                          GOTO
  2579.  
  2580.  
  2581.         Summary:
  2582.         -------
  2583.  
  2584.         This command  allows you  to transfer control of a GRASP program to
  2585.         another portion of the program,  similar  to  the  same  command in
  2586.         BASIC. You  must first  define a  label at the point you want to go
  2587.         to. Labels are defined  as any  string of  less than  16 characters
  2588.         terminated by a colon (:).
  2589.  
  2590.  
  2591.         Syntax:
  2592.         ------
  2593.  
  2594.         GOTO label
  2595.  
  2596.         where 'label' is defined somewhere else in the program.
  2597.  
  2598.  
  2599.         Example:
  2600.         -------
  2601.  
  2602.         GOTO here
  2603.  
  2604.         will  transfer  control  to  the  line which begins with the string
  2605.         'here:'. There may only be one  label of  a particular  name in one
  2606.         GRASP program.
  2607.  
  2608.  
  2609.         Comments:
  2610.         --------
  2611.  
  2612.         You may have up to 512 labels in a GRASP program.  
  2613.  
  2614.  
  2615.  
  2616.  
  2617.  
  2618.  
  2619.  
  2620.  
  2621.  
  2622.  
  2623.  
  2624.  
  2625.  
  2626.  
  2627.  
  2628.  
  2629.  
  2630.  
  2631.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2632.                                    Page:  40
  2633.  
  2634.  
  2635.  
  2636.  
  2637.  
  2638.         IFKEY                                                        IFKEY
  2639.  
  2640.  
  2641.         Summary:
  2642.         -------
  2643.  
  2644.         IFKEY allows  conditional branching by means of an implied goto. If
  2645.         the key indicated in  the  command  matches  the  last  key pressed
  2646.         during a waitkey command, branching occurs.
  2647.  
  2648.  
  2649.         Syntax:
  2650.         ------
  2651.  
  2652.         IFKEY key label
  2653.  
  2654.         where  key  is  the  key  code  to  compare to and label is a label
  2655.         defined elsewhere in the program.
  2656.  
  2657.  
  2658.         Example:
  2659.         -------
  2660.  
  2661.         IFKEY 1 part1
  2662.  
  2663.         means that if, during  the last  waitkey command,  the '1'  key was
  2664.         pressed, goto label "PART1".
  2665.  
  2666.  
  2667.         Comments:
  2668.         --------
  2669.  
  2670.         Valid keys are all numeric and letter keys, F1-F10, UP, DN, LF, RT,
  2671.         PGUP, PGDN, HOME, END.
  2672.  
  2673.  
  2674.  
  2675.  
  2676.  
  2677.  
  2678.  
  2679.  
  2680.  
  2681.  
  2682.  
  2683.  
  2684.  
  2685.  
  2686.  
  2687.  
  2688.  
  2689.  
  2690.  
  2691.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2692.                                    Page:  41
  2693.  
  2694.  
  2695.  
  2696.  
  2697.  
  2698.         LINE                                                          LINE
  2699.  
  2700.  
  2701.         Summary:
  2702.         -------
  2703.  
  2704.         LINE allows you to draw a single pixel width line on the  screen in
  2705.         the current drawing color.
  2706.  
  2707.  
  2708.         Syntax:
  2709.         ------
  2710.  
  2711.         LINE startx, starty, endx, endy
  2712.  
  2713.         where 'startx'  and 'starty' is the location for the first point in
  2714.         the line and 'endx' and 'endy' is the  location for  the last point
  2715.         in the line.
  2716.  
  2717.  
  2718.         Example:
  2719.         -------
  2720.  
  2721.         LINE 0,0,100,100
  2722.  
  2723.         will draw  a line  in the  current drawing  color from  x=0, y=0 to
  2724.         x=100, y=100.
  2725.  
  2726.  
  2727.         Comments:
  2728.         --------
  2729.  
  2730.         Transparent  mode  does  not  affect  this  command.  LINE  is  not
  2731.         available in text modes.
  2732.  
  2733.  
  2734.  
  2735.  
  2736.  
  2737.  
  2738.  
  2739.  
  2740.  
  2741.  
  2742.  
  2743.  
  2744.  
  2745.  
  2746.  
  2747.  
  2748.  
  2749.  
  2750.  
  2751.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2752.                                    Page:  42
  2753.  
  2754.  
  2755.  
  2756.  
  2757.  
  2758.         LINK                                                          LINK
  2759.  
  2760.  
  2761.         Summary:
  2762.         -------
  2763.  
  2764.         This command  is used  to link to another text command file. IF you
  2765.         wish to have several special  effects,  and  for  editing purposes,
  2766.         keep them  is separate  ASCII files, you may link them during GRASP
  2767.         run time with this command.
  2768.  
  2769.  
  2770.         Syntax:
  2771.         ------
  2772.  
  2773.         LINK txtfile
  2774.  
  2775.         where 'txtfile' is  the  name  of  the  command  file  you  wish to
  2776.         execute.  File  name  extensions  are  not  required,  but all text
  2777.         command files must have an extension of txt.
  2778.  
  2779.  
  2780.         Example:
  2781.         -------
  2782.  
  2783.         LINK race
  2784.  
  2785.         will  link  to  the  text  command  file  'race.txt'  and  continue
  2786.         executing.
  2787.  
  2788.  
  2789.         Comments:
  2790.         --------
  2791.  
  2792.         Since this  command requires  interpretation of the command itself,
  2793.         the loading of a  new file,  and the  interpretation of  the second
  2794.         file, it has a tendency to slow things down. It is recommended that
  2795.         all commands be put into  one  file  before  giving  a presentation
  2796.         using GRASP.  This command  is useful during development, or if you
  2797.         have stored several effects  from previous  demonstrations and want
  2798.         to link them together.
  2799.  
  2800.  
  2801.  
  2802.  
  2803.  
  2804.  
  2805.  
  2806.  
  2807.  
  2808.  
  2809.  
  2810.  
  2811.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2812.                                    Page:  43
  2813.  
  2814.  
  2815.  
  2816.  
  2817.  
  2818.         LOOP                                                          LOOP
  2819.  
  2820.  
  2821.         Summary:
  2822.         -------
  2823.  
  2824.         This  command  causes  the  GRASP  interpreter  to loop back to the
  2825.         previous mark. This will happen n number of  times, where  n is the
  2826.         number specified in the previous MARK command.
  2827.  
  2828.  
  2829.         Syntax:
  2830.         ------
  2831.  
  2832.         LOOP
  2833.  
  2834.  
  2835.         Example:
  2836.         -------
  2837.  
  2838.         LOOP
  2839.  
  2840.         will loop to previous mark.
  2841.  
  2842.  
  2843.         Comments:
  2844.         --------
  2845.  
  2846.         MARK/LOOP pairs may be nested up to 16 levels deep.
  2847.  
  2848.  
  2849.  
  2850.  
  2851.  
  2852.  
  2853.  
  2854.  
  2855.  
  2856.  
  2857.  
  2858.  
  2859.  
  2860.  
  2861.  
  2862.  
  2863.  
  2864.  
  2865.  
  2866.  
  2867.  
  2868.  
  2869.  
  2870.  
  2871.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2872.                                    Page:  44
  2873.  
  2874.  
  2875.  
  2876.  
  2877.  
  2878.         MARK                                                         MARK
  2879.  
  2880.  
  2881.         Summary:
  2882.         -------
  2883.  
  2884.         This command  is used to mark a position which will be the top of a
  2885.         loop. Coupled with the LOOP command, MARK allows you to  repeat the
  2886.         same steps in your GRASP command file a specified number of times.
  2887.  
  2888.  
  2889.         Syntax:
  2890.         ------
  2891.  
  2892.         MARK xxx
  2893.  
  2894.         where 'xxx'  is the  number of  times you wish to loop back to this
  2895.         mark.
  2896.  
  2897.  
  2898.         Example:
  2899.         -------
  2900.  
  2901.         MARK 10
  2902.  
  2903.         will place a mark at this  point  so  that  the  next  time  a LOOP
  2904.         command is  encountered, the  program will loop back to this point.
  2905.         This process will occur ten times.
  2906.  
  2907.  
  2908.         Comments:
  2909.         --------
  2910.  
  2911.         MARK/LOOP pairs may be  nested up  to 16  levels deep.  The maximum
  2912.         number of times you can loop is 65535.
  2913.  
  2914.  
  2915.  
  2916.  
  2917.  
  2918.  
  2919.  
  2920.  
  2921.  
  2922.  
  2923.  
  2924.  
  2925.  
  2926.  
  2927.  
  2928.  
  2929.  
  2930.  
  2931.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2932.                                    Page:  45
  2933.  
  2934.  
  2935.  
  2936.  
  2937.  
  2938.         MODE                                                          MODE
  2939.  
  2940.  
  2941.         Summary:
  2942.         -------
  2943.  
  2944.         Mode is used in IBM CGA 4 color mode and IBM CGA 2 color mode only.
  2945.         It is used to set the palette and border color in these modes.
  2946.  
  2947.  
  2948.         Syntax:
  2949.         ------
  2950.  
  2951.         MODE border color, palette
  2952.  
  2953.         where 'border color' refers to the  background color  in IBM  CGA 4
  2954.         color mode  and foreground  color in  IBM CGA 2 color mode. 'Border
  2955.         color' can be in  the range  0-15. Palette  affects only  IBM CGA 4
  2956.         color mode  and is  in the range 0-5. Refer to the following tables
  2957.         for specifics.
  2958.  
  2959.  
  2960.         Border                                 Color Table
  2961.         Color    Color       Palette   1            2              3
  2962.         -----    -----       ------- -----------------------------------
  2963.           0      Black          0    Green        Red             Brown
  2964.           1      Blue           1    Cyan         Magenta         White
  2965.           2      Green          2    Cyan         Red             White
  2966.           3      Cyan           3    Bright Green Bright Red      Yellow
  2967.           4      Red            4    Bright Cyan  Bright Magenta  White
  2968.           5      Magenta        5    Bright Cyan  Bright Red      White
  2969.           6      Brown       -------------------------------------------
  2970.           7      Grey
  2971.           8      Dark Grey (Bright Black)
  2972.           9      Bright Blue
  2973.          10      Bright Green
  2974.          11      Bright Cyan
  2975.          12      Bright Red
  2976.          13      Bright Magenta
  2977.          14      Yellow (Bright Brown)
  2978.          15      White (Bright Grey)
  2979.  
  2980.  
  2981.         In the above Palette  table,  color  0  is  the  currently selected
  2982.         Border Color.
  2983.          
  2984.  
  2985.         Example:
  2986.         -------
  2987.  
  2988.         Mode 1,4
  2989.  
  2990.  
  2991.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  2992.                                    Page:  46
  2993.  
  2994.  
  2995.  
  2996.  
  2997.  
  2998.         will  yield  the  following:  (Assuming  we  are in IBM CGA 4 color
  2999.         mode), border color is blue (Drawing Color 0), and the palette will
  3000.         be bright  cyan, bright magenta, and white. (Drawing colors 1,2 and
  3001.         3, respectively) in IBM CGA 4 color mode. In IBM CGA 2  color mode,
  3002.         The foreground color will be blue.
  3003.  
  3004.  
  3005.         Comments:
  3006.         --------
  3007.  
  3008.         This command  was intended  for use only in IBM CGA 4 color and IBM
  3009.         CGA 2 color modes. Use in  any other  mode may  result in  an error
  3010.         message.
  3011.  
  3012.  
  3013.  
  3014.  
  3015.  
  3016.  
  3017.  
  3018.  
  3019.  
  3020.  
  3021.  
  3022.  
  3023.  
  3024.  
  3025.  
  3026.  
  3027.  
  3028.  
  3029.  
  3030.  
  3031.  
  3032.  
  3033.  
  3034.  
  3035.  
  3036.  
  3037.  
  3038.  
  3039.  
  3040.  
  3041.  
  3042.  
  3043.  
  3044.  
  3045.  
  3046.  
  3047.  
  3048.  
  3049.  
  3050.  
  3051.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3052.                                    Page:  47
  3053.  
  3054.  
  3055.  
  3056.  
  3057.  
  3058.         NOISE                                                        NOISE
  3059.  
  3060.  
  3061.         Summary:
  3062.         -------
  3063.  
  3064.         NOISE allows you to make music in GRASP. By specifying starting and
  3065.         ending frequencies, as well as  a  duration,  you  can  make single
  3066.         notes, or complex sounds.
  3067.  
  3068.  
  3069.         Syntax:
  3070.         ------
  3071.  
  3072.         NOISE startfreq, endfreq, duration
  3073.  
  3074.         where 'startfreq'  and 'startfreq' are the starting frequencies for
  3075.         the noise and 'duration' is the overall length of the noise.
  3076.  
  3077.  
  3078.         Example:
  3079.         -------
  3080.  
  3081.         NOISE 440,440,100
  3082.  
  3083.         will play the note with a frequency 440 for duration 100.
  3084.  
  3085.  
  3086.         Comments:
  3087.         --------
  3088.  
  3089.  
  3090.  
  3091.  
  3092.  
  3093.  
  3094.  
  3095.  
  3096.  
  3097.  
  3098.  
  3099.  
  3100.  
  3101.  
  3102.  
  3103.  
  3104.  
  3105.  
  3106.  
  3107.  
  3108.  
  3109.  
  3110.  
  3111.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3112.                                    Page:  48
  3113.  
  3114.  
  3115.  
  3116.  
  3117.  
  3118.         OFFSET                                                      OFFSET
  3119.  
  3120.  
  3121.         Summary:
  3122.         -------
  3123.  
  3124.         The  OFFSET  command  allows  you  to  treat  coordinates  in other
  3125.         commands  (like  putup,  line,  box,  cfade,  etc...)  as  relative
  3126.         coordinates rather than absolute. If the OFFSET is set to 0,0, then
  3127.         the coordinates you enter in the other commands are relative to the
  3128.         screen as a whole  which appears  to be  absolute. This  command is
  3129.         used when  you want to repeat a series of operations but don't want
  3130.         to have to alter all the  coordinates in  order to  use a different
  3131.         region of the screen.
  3132.  
  3133.  
  3134.         Syntax:
  3135.         ------
  3136.  
  3137.         OFFSET x,y
  3138.  
  3139.         where 'x' and 'y' are the x and y offset values.
  3140.  
  3141.  
  3142.         Example:
  3143.         -------
  3144.  
  3145.         OFFSET 40,32
  3146.  
  3147.         will set  the offset  to x=40, y=32. This means that if you specify
  3148.         that you want a line drawn from 0,0 to 10,10, it will actually draw
  3149.         it from 40,32 to 50,42. In other words, the offset values are added
  3150.         to the coordinate data you type in the command.
  3151.  
  3152.  
  3153.         Comments:
  3154.         --------
  3155.  
  3156.  
  3157.  
  3158.  
  3159.  
  3160.  
  3161.  
  3162.  
  3163.  
  3164.  
  3165.  
  3166.  
  3167.  
  3168.  
  3169.  
  3170.  
  3171.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3172.                                    Page:  49
  3173.  
  3174.  
  3175.  
  3176.  
  3177.  
  3178.         PALETTE                                                    PALETTE
  3179.  
  3180.  
  3181.         Summary:
  3182.         -------
  3183.  
  3184.         Palette is used to set the current palette to that of the specified
  3185.         picture  which  has  been  loaded  into  a buffer. This sets the 16
  3186.         colors out of 64 on  EGA  16  color  modes  and  the border-palette
  3187.         combination of CGA 4 color mode.
  3188.  
  3189.  
  3190.         Syntax:
  3191.         ------
  3192.  
  3193.         PALETTE buffer number
  3194.  
  3195.         Where  'buffer  number'  is  the  number of the buffer in which the
  3196.         picture resides.
  3197.  
  3198.  
  3199.         Example:
  3200.         -------
  3201.  
  3202.         PALETTE 2
  3203.  
  3204.         will set the current palette to  the palette  used for  the picture
  3205.         which was loaded into buffer 2 with the PLOAD command.
  3206.  
  3207.  
  3208.         Comments:
  3209.         --------
  3210.  
  3211.         This command  was intended  for use  in EGA 16 color mode and CGA 4
  3212.         color  mode  only.  Use  in  other  modes  may  cause unpredictable
  3213.         results. Use with caution.
  3214.  
  3215.  
  3216.  
  3217.  
  3218.  
  3219.  
  3220.  
  3221.  
  3222.  
  3223.  
  3224.  
  3225.  
  3226.  
  3227.  
  3228.  
  3229.  
  3230.  
  3231.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3232.                                    Page:  50
  3233.  
  3234.  
  3235.  
  3236.  
  3237.  
  3238.         PAN                                                           PAN
  3239.  
  3240.  
  3241.         Summary:
  3242.         -------
  3243.  
  3244.         This  command  allows  you  to  perform  a  hardware pan if you are
  3245.         operating in one of the EGA modes. If the picture  you want  to pan
  3246.         around on  is larger  than a screen then the following rules apply:
  3247.         1) You MUST use PFADE number 0 to put up  the picture,  2) when you
  3248.         are  finished  panning  and  scrolling, you MUST PFREE the picture,
  3249.         clear the screen with CLEARSCR, then do a RESETSCR before using any
  3250.         other pictures.  This is so that the EGA will be able to keep track
  3251.         of which picture you are using  and how  to best  display it. Also,
  3252.         sequences  of   PAN  commands  should  always  return  you  to  the
  3253.         coordinate 0,0 when you are done. Think of  the picture  as being a
  3254.         very large  screen with the upper left corner being coordinate 0,0.
  3255.         Pan  then  allows  you  to  change  upper  left  corner  to  be any
  3256.         coordinate in the valid coordinate space.
  3257.  
  3258.  
  3259.         Syntax:
  3260.         ------
  3261.  
  3262.         PAN x0,y0,x1,y1,buffer
  3263.  
  3264.         where 'x0',  'y0' is  the starting coordinate for panning and 'x1',
  3265.         'y1' is the ending coordinate. 'Buffer' is the  picture buffer that
  3266.         the command  will look into to get real picture coordinates and set
  3267.         the EGA display modes to coincide to.
  3268.  
  3269.  
  3270.         Example:
  3271.         -------
  3272.  
  3273.         PAN 0,0,100,100,1
  3274.         PAN 100,100,0,0,1
  3275.  
  3276.         will smoothly pan the screen diagonally from the  upper left corner
  3277.         to 100,100 and back again.
  3278.  
  3279.  
  3280.         Comments:
  3281.         --------
  3282.  
  3283.         This  is  a  complicated  command  and requires some thought to use
  3284.         effectively. Be careful.
  3285.  
  3286.         CAUTION: It is imperative that you free the oversize picture buffer
  3287.         BEFORE you perform the CLEARSCR and RESETSCR functions!
  3288.  
  3289.  
  3290.  
  3291.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3292.                                    Page:  51
  3293.  
  3294.  
  3295.  
  3296.  
  3297.  
  3298.         PFADE                                                        PFADE
  3299.  
  3300.         Summary:
  3301.         -------
  3302.  
  3303.         Pfade is the heart of GRASP. It allows you to dissolve a picture to
  3304.         the screen. You may specify one of several dissolves, the speed for
  3305.         that dissolve, and a delay after the dissolve.
  3306.  
  3307.  
  3308.         Syntax:
  3309.         ------
  3310.  
  3311.         PFADE fade number, buffer number, speed, delay
  3312.  
  3313.         where 'fade  number' is  the number  of the  fade you  want to use,
  3314.         'buffer number' is the picture buffer number where  the picture you
  3315.         want to  fade has been loaded, 'speed' is the speed of the fade and
  3316.         'delay' is the time to wait after the  delay. Speed  can be  in the
  3317.         range 0-10000. Check Appendix B for a list of fades.
  3318.  
  3319.  
  3320.         Example:
  3321.         -------
  3322.  
  3323.         PFADE 12,1,500,1000
  3324.  
  3325.         will fade  the picture  in buffer  1 using fade 12 at speed 500 and
  3326.         then wait 1000. The delay  works  the  same  as  using  the WAITKEY
  3327.         command.
  3328.  
  3329.  
  3330.         Comments:
  3331.         --------
  3332.  
  3333.         The first  25 fades in GRASP are the same in all video modes. Fades
  3334.         beyond 25 may be mode  specific  and  must  be  used  with caution.
  3335.         Specifying buffer  0 will  cause a  blank screen of current drawing
  3336.         color to  be generated  and faded  to the  screen. Transparent mode
  3337.         does NOT apply to PFADE.
  3338.  
  3339.  
  3340.  
  3341.  
  3342.  
  3343.  
  3344.  
  3345.  
  3346.  
  3347.  
  3348.  
  3349.  
  3350.  
  3351.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3352.                                    Page:  52
  3353.  
  3354.  
  3355.  
  3356.  
  3357.  
  3358.         PFREE                                                        PFREE
  3359.  
  3360.  
  3361.         Summary:
  3362.         -------
  3363.  
  3364.         PFREE is  used to  free-up a picture buffer. Sometimes, you may run
  3365.         out of memory and need to clear up  some buffers  you have  full of
  3366.         pictures you have already used.
  3367.  
  3368.  
  3369.         Syntax:
  3370.         ------
  3371.  
  3372.         PFREE buf1, buf2, buf3...
  3373.  
  3374.         where 'buf1' and other buffers are buffers you want to free-up.
  3375.  
  3376.  
  3377.         Example:
  3378.         -------
  3379.  
  3380.         PFREE 1,2
  3381.  
  3382.         will free-up picture buffers 1 and 2.
  3383.  
  3384.  
  3385.         Comments:
  3386.         --------
  3387.  
  3388.         This  is  especially  useful  in  EGA  16 color mode where space is
  3389.         critical.
  3390.  
  3391.  
  3392.  
  3393.  
  3394.  
  3395.  
  3396.  
  3397.  
  3398.  
  3399.  
  3400.  
  3401.  
  3402.  
  3403.  
  3404.  
  3405.  
  3406.  
  3407.  
  3408.  
  3409.  
  3410.  
  3411.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3412.                                    Page:  53
  3413.  
  3414.  
  3415.  
  3416.  
  3417.  
  3418.         PLOAD                                                        PLOAD
  3419.  
  3420.  
  3421.         Summary:
  3422.         -------
  3423.  
  3424.         This command is used to load a picture into a buffer. There are  16
  3425.         buffers available  for pictures in GRASP. It is advised, for memory
  3426.         reasons, that the user try  to  manage  using  only  one  buffer. A
  3427.         picture must  be loaded  into a  buffer before  it can be dissolved
  3428.         onto the screen.
  3429.  
  3430.  
  3431.         Syntax:
  3432.         ------
  3433.  
  3434.         PLOAD picture,buffer number
  3435.  
  3436.         where 'picture' is the name of  the picture  you want  to load (the
  3437.         file name  extension is optional) and 'buffer number' is the number
  3438.         of the buffer you want to load in  to. Valid  buffer numbers  are 1
  3439.         through 16.  Buffer 0  is a dummy buffer used for solid color wipes
  3440.         and changes, and thus, no picture may be loaded into it.
  3441.  
  3442.  
  3443.         Example:
  3444.         -------
  3445.  
  3446.         PLOAD mypic,1
  3447.  
  3448.         will load the picture myfile.pic into picture buffer number 1.
  3449.  
  3450.  
  3451.         Comments:
  3452.         --------
  3453.  
  3454.  
  3455.  
  3456.  
  3457.  
  3458.  
  3459.  
  3460.  
  3461.  
  3462.  
  3463.  
  3464.  
  3465.  
  3466.  
  3467.  
  3468.  
  3469.  
  3470.  
  3471.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3472.                                    Page:  54
  3473.  
  3474.  
  3475.  
  3476.  
  3477.  
  3478.         POINT                                                        POINT
  3479.  
  3480.  
  3481.         Summary:
  3482.         -------
  3483.  
  3484.         POINT allows you to draw  a  single  pixel  on  the  screen  in the
  3485.         current drawing  color. If  a second  point is  indicated, a random
  3486.         point  is  drawn  in  the  rectangular  region  defined  by  the  4
  3487.         coordinates.
  3488.  
  3489.  
  3490.         Syntax:
  3491.         ------
  3492.  
  3493.         POINT startx, starty, <endx, endy>
  3494.  
  3495.         where  'startx'  and  'starty'  is  the  location for the point and
  3496.         'endx' and 'endy' define the region for randomization.
  3497.  
  3498.  
  3499.         Example:
  3500.         -------
  3501.  
  3502.         POINT 50,50
  3503.  
  3504.         will draw a point in the current drawing color at x=50, y=50.
  3505.  
  3506.         POINT 100,100,150,150
  3507.  
  3508.         will draw a random point in the region defined by 100,100,150,150.
  3509.  
  3510.  
  3511.         Comments:
  3512.         --------
  3513.          
  3514.         Transparent mode does not affect this command.
  3515.  
  3516.  
  3517.  
  3518.  
  3519.  
  3520.  
  3521.  
  3522.  
  3523.  
  3524.  
  3525.  
  3526.  
  3527.  
  3528.  
  3529.  
  3530.  
  3531.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3532.                                    Page:  55
  3533.  
  3534.  
  3535.  
  3536.  
  3537.  
  3538.         PUTUP                                                        PUTUP
  3539.  
  3540.  
  3541.         Summary:
  3542.         -------
  3543.  
  3544.         PUTUP allows you to  place  a  clipping  on  the  screen.  PUTUP is
  3545.         similar to  CFADE 0,  but allows  placement at any x and y location
  3546.         and supports transparent mode.
  3547.  
  3548.  
  3549.         Syntax:
  3550.         ------
  3551.  
  3552.         PUTUP x ,y, <buffer number>, <delay>
  3553.  
  3554.         where 'x' and 'y' are the location where  the lower  left corner of
  3555.         the clipping will be placed, 'buffer number' is the clipping buffer
  3556.         number where the clipping you want to put  up resides  and delay is
  3557.         the time to wait after the putup in hundredths of a second.
  3558.  
  3559.  
  3560.         Example:
  3561.         -------
  3562.  
  3563.         PUTUP 25,50,1,1000
  3564.  
  3565.         will put  the clipping  in buffer  1 up on the screen at x=25, y=50
  3566.         and then wait for time 1000 (10 seconds). Remember that the x and y
  3567.         coordinates correspond  to the  current video mode. Exceeding these
  3568.         coordinates may result in an error message.
  3569.  
  3570.  
  3571.         Comments:
  3572.         --------
  3573.  
  3574.         Also see CFREE.
  3575.  
  3576.  
  3577.  
  3578.  
  3579.  
  3580.  
  3581.  
  3582.  
  3583.  
  3584.  
  3585.  
  3586.  
  3587.  
  3588.  
  3589.  
  3590.  
  3591.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3592.                                    Page:  56
  3593.  
  3594.  
  3595.  
  3596.  
  3597.  
  3598.         RESETSCR                                                   RESETSCR
  3599.  
  3600.  
  3601.         Summary:
  3602.         -------
  3603.  
  3604.         This command is used to reset  the virtual  screen back  to display
  3605.         screen size after a PAN command with a larger-than-screen picture.
  3606.  
  3607.  
  3608.         Syntax:
  3609.         ------
  3610.  
  3611.         RESETSCR
  3612.  
  3613.  
  3614.         Example:
  3615.         -------
  3616.  
  3617.         RESETSCR
  3618.  
  3619.         will reset the virtual screen image.
  3620.  
  3621.  
  3622.         Comments:
  3623.         --------
  3624.  
  3625.         Works only with EGA modes and PAN command.
  3626.  
  3627.  
  3628.  
  3629.  
  3630.  
  3631.  
  3632.  
  3633.  
  3634.  
  3635.  
  3636.  
  3637.  
  3638.  
  3639.  
  3640.  
  3641.  
  3642.  
  3643.  
  3644.  
  3645.  
  3646.  
  3647.  
  3648.  
  3649.  
  3650.  
  3651.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3652.                                    Page:  57
  3653.  
  3654.  
  3655.  
  3656.  
  3657.  
  3658.         RETURN                                                       RETURN
  3659.  
  3660.  
  3661.         Summary:
  3662.         -------
  3663.  
  3664.         This command  causes execution  of the  current sub-program to halt
  3665.         and return control to the calling program.
  3666.  
  3667.  
  3668.         Syntax:
  3669.         ------
  3670.  
  3671.         RETURN
  3672.  
  3673.  
  3674.         Example:
  3675.         -------
  3676.  
  3677.         RETURN
  3678.  
  3679.         will return control to calling program.
  3680.  
  3681.  
  3682.         Comments:
  3683.         --------
  3684.  
  3685.         Also see command GOSUB.
  3686.  
  3687.  
  3688.  
  3689.  
  3690.  
  3691.  
  3692.  
  3693.  
  3694.  
  3695.  
  3696.  
  3697.  
  3698.  
  3699.  
  3700.  
  3701.  
  3702.  
  3703.  
  3704.  
  3705.  
  3706.  
  3707.  
  3708.  
  3709.  
  3710.  
  3711.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3712.                                    Page:  58
  3713.  
  3714.  
  3715.  
  3716.  
  3717.  
  3718.         SETCOLOR                                                  SETCOLOR
  3719.  
  3720.  
  3721.         Summary:
  3722.         -------
  3723.  
  3724.         Setcolor is used to set the color palette  registers in  IBM EGA 16
  3725.         color modes.  On the  EGA, there  are 16 possible colors, called an
  3726.         'index', and each of  these color  indices may  be one  of 64 color
  3727.         'values'. SETCOLOR  differs from CHGCOLOR in that SETCOLOR sets all
  3728.         16 color  indices  at  once.  This  is  faster  and  is  useful for
  3729.         animation effects.
  3730.  
  3731.  
  3732.         Syntax:
  3733.         ------
  3734.  
  3735.         SETCOLOR color value 1, color value 2, ... color value 16
  3736.  
  3737.         where 'color value n' lies in the range 0-63.
  3738.  
  3739.  
  3740.         Example:
  3741.         -------
  3742.  
  3743.         SETCOLOR 3,32,23,53,12,11,10,21,35,2,4,8,30,40,61,63
  3744.  
  3745.         will  set  the  current  palette  registers  to the 16 color values
  3746.         specified.
  3747.  
  3748.  
  3749.         Comments:
  3750.         --------
  3751.  
  3752.         Remember, this only works  in EGA  16 color  modes and  requires an
  3753.         Enhanced Color Display (ECD).
  3754.  
  3755.  
  3756.  
  3757.  
  3758.  
  3759.  
  3760.  
  3761.  
  3762.  
  3763.  
  3764.  
  3765.  
  3766.  
  3767.  
  3768.  
  3769.  
  3770.  
  3771.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3772.                                    Page:  59
  3773.  
  3774.  
  3775.  
  3776.  
  3777.  
  3778.         TEXT                                                          TEXT
  3779.  
  3780.  
  3781.         Summary:
  3782.         -------
  3783.  
  3784.         TEXT allows  you to put-up a string of text in the font loaded with
  3785.         FLOAD in the current drawing color.
  3786.  
  3787.  
  3788.         Syntax:
  3789.         ------
  3790.  
  3791.         TEXT x, y, string, <delay>
  3792.  
  3793.         where 'x' and 'y' is the location of the lower  left corner  of the
  3794.         first character in the string, 'string' is the string to put up and
  3795.         'delay' is the time  to wait  after the  put-up in  hundredths of a
  3796.         second.
  3797.  
  3798.  
  3799.         Example:
  3800.         -------
  3801.  
  3802.         TEXT 4,4,"This is a text string..."
  3803.  
  3804.         will put  the string  indicated between  the quotes up at x=4, y=4,
  3805.         using the current drawing color.
  3806.  
  3807.  
  3808.         Comments:
  3809.         --------
  3810.  
  3811.         The string to be put must be in double quotes.
  3812.  
  3813.  
  3814.  
  3815.  
  3816.  
  3817.  
  3818.  
  3819.  
  3820.  
  3821.  
  3822.  
  3823.  
  3824.  
  3825.  
  3826.  
  3827.  
  3828.  
  3829.  
  3830.  
  3831.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3832.                                    Page:  60
  3833.  
  3834.  
  3835.  
  3836.  
  3837.  
  3838.         TRAN                                                          TRAN
  3839.  
  3840.  
  3841.         Summary:
  3842.         -------
  3843.  
  3844.         TRAN allows you to set transparent mode on  or off,  and to specify
  3845.         which  colors  to  make  transparent.  This  is used for overlaying
  3846.         objects or floating objects across complex backgrounds.
  3847.  
  3848.  
  3849.         Syntax:
  3850.         ------
  3851.  
  3852.         TRAN on/off, color1, color2,...colorn
  3853.  
  3854.         where 'on/off' specifies whether  you want  transparent mode turned
  3855.         on or  off and color1-colorn indicate which colors you want to make
  3856.         transparent. Color1-colorn may have the values 0 to  maxcolor where
  3857.         maxcolor  is  the  highest  color  number available in your current
  3858.         video mode.
  3859.  
  3860.  
  3861.         Example:
  3862.         -------
  3863.  
  3864.         TRAN on 2,14
  3865.  
  3866.         will turn  transparent  mode  on  and  make  the  colors  2  and 14
  3867.         transparent.
  3868.  
  3869.         TRAN off
  3870.  
  3871.         will turn transparent mode off.
  3872.  
  3873.  
  3874.         Comments:
  3875.         --------
  3876.  
  3877.         If you  turn transparent mode on and off, the next time you turn it
  3878.         on, you must re-specify  which colors  you want  to be transparent.
  3879.         Transparent does not work in EGA 16 color modes.
  3880.  
  3881.  
  3882.  
  3883.  
  3884.  
  3885.  
  3886.  
  3887.  
  3888.  
  3889.  
  3890.  
  3891.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3892.                                    Page:  61
  3893.  
  3894.  
  3895.  
  3896.  
  3897.  
  3898.         VIDEO                                                        VIDEO
  3899.  
  3900.  
  3901.         Summary:
  3902.         -------
  3903.  
  3904.         Video is  used to  set the video mode. Video should be used  at the
  3905.         beginning of the  GRASP  text  file.  Video  modes  may  be changed
  3906.         during   the  demo, but caution is advised. Damage may be done to a
  3907.         monitor if the wrong video mode is requested  for your  system. The
  3908.         default video mode is A, (see table below).
  3909.  
  3910.  
  3911.         Syntax:
  3912.         ------
  3913.  
  3914.         VIDEO vidmode
  3915.  
  3916.         where 'vidmode' is one of the following...
  3917.  
  3918.                     Maximum       Picture         Memory
  3919.         Vidmode    Resolution   # of Colors     Requirement
  3920.         --------------------------------------------------------
  3921.            0         40x25          16         2K (IBM 40 column text)
  3922.            1         80x25          16         4K (IBM 80 column text)
  3923.            2         80x25          2          4K (IBM 80 column text)
  3924.            A        320x200         4         16K (IBM CGA)
  3925.            B        320x200         16        32K (IBM PCjr/STB)
  3926.            C        640x200         2         16K (IBM CGA)
  3927.            D        640x200       16/64       64K (IBM EGA)
  3928.            E        640x350         2         32K (IBM EGA monochrome)
  3929.            F        640x350         4         64K (IBM EGA)
  3930.            G        640x350       16/64      128K (IBM EGA)
  3931.            H        720x348         2         32K (Hercules monochrome)
  3932.            I        320x200         16        32K (Plantronics/AST CGP)
  3933.            J        320x200         16        32K (IBM EGA)
  3934.  
  3935.         These modes,  (with the  exception of the text modes) correspond to
  3936.         PCPAINT video modes.
  3937.  
  3938.  
  3939.         Example:
  3940.         -------
  3941.  
  3942.         VIDEO G
  3943.  
  3944.         Will set up GRASP to  use  the  high  resolution  mode  of  the EGA
  3945.         adapter in 16 out of 64 colors.
  3946.  
  3947.  
  3948.  
  3949.  
  3950.  
  3951.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  3952.                                    Page:  62
  3953.  
  3954.  
  3955.  
  3956.  
  3957.  
  3958.         Comments:
  3959.         --------
  3960.  
  3961.         Memory requirement in the table above is the approximate amount  of
  3962.         memory required for the buffer to hold EACH picture you load in for
  3963.         use. Also,  pay attention  to the  size of the screen in each video
  3964.         mode. Attempting to FADE  pictures other  that this  size may yield
  3965.         unpredictable results.  The exception to this is when using the PAN
  3966.         command on an EGA.
  3967.  
  3968.  
  3969.  
  3970.  
  3971.  
  3972.  
  3973.  
  3974.  
  3975.  
  3976.  
  3977.  
  3978.  
  3979.  
  3980.  
  3981.  
  3982.  
  3983.  
  3984.  
  3985.  
  3986.  
  3987.  
  3988.  
  3989.  
  3990.  
  3991.  
  3992.  
  3993.  
  3994.  
  3995.  
  3996.  
  3997.  
  3998.  
  3999.  
  4000.  
  4001.  
  4002.  
  4003.  
  4004.  
  4005.  
  4006.  
  4007.  
  4008.  
  4009.  
  4010.  
  4011.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4012.                                    Page:  63
  4013.  
  4014.  
  4015.  
  4016.  
  4017.  
  4018.         WAITKEY                                                    WAITKEY
  4019.  
  4020.  
  4021.         Summary:
  4022.         -------
  4023.  
  4024.         This command instructs the  demonstration or  presentation to pause
  4025.         until a  key is  pressed, or  until timeout value, if specified. If
  4026.         timeout occurs, conditional branching is allowed.
  4027.  
  4028.  
  4029.         Syntax:
  4030.         ------
  4031.  
  4032.         WAITKEY <timeout>, <label>
  4033.  
  4034.         where 'timeout' is the time to wait before  timeout in  100ths of a
  4035.         second and 'label' is the label to go to if timeout occurs.
  4036.  
  4037.  
  4038.         Example:
  4039.         -------
  4040.  
  4041.         WAITKEY 600,myline
  4042.  
  4043.         will wait  until a  key is pressed, or until delay of 6 seconds. If
  4044.         delay of 6 seconds is reached, goto label 'myline'.
  4045.  
  4046.  
  4047.         Comments:
  4048.         --------
  4049.  
  4050.         If no timeout is specified, WAITKEY will wait  forever until  a key
  4051.         is pressed.  The key that is pressed to abort the wait is saved and
  4052.         may be tested by IFKEY.
  4053.  
  4054.  
  4055.  
  4056.  
  4057.  
  4058.  
  4059.  
  4060.  
  4061.  
  4062.  
  4063.  
  4064.  
  4065.  
  4066.  
  4067.  
  4068.  
  4069.  
  4070.  
  4071.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4072.                                    Page:  64
  4073.  
  4074.  
  4075.  
  4076.  
  4077.  
  4078.         WINDOW                                                       WINDOW
  4079.  
  4080.  
  4081.         Summary:
  4082.         -------
  4083.  
  4084.         This command is used  to restrict  a picture  fade to  a particular
  4085.         portion of  the screen. The coordinates you pass are in pixels, but
  4086.         they are rounded to the nearest byte, or usually 8 pixels.
  4087.  
  4088.  
  4089.         Syntax:
  4090.         ------
  4091.  
  4092.         WINDOW x,y,x1,y1
  4093.  
  4094.         where 'x', 'y', 'x1' and 'y1'  are the  lower left  and upper right
  4095.         corner of the window to set for clipping.
  4096.  
  4097.  
  4098.         Example:
  4099.         -------
  4100.  
  4101.         WINDOW 40,40,100,160
  4102.  
  4103.         will set  the fade  window to 40,40,100,160. The PFADE command will
  4104.         only fade that portion of the screen that lies in this region.
  4105.  
  4106.  
  4107.         Comments:
  4108.         --------
  4109.  
  4110.         WINDOW has no effect on the CFADE command.
  4111.  
  4112.  
  4113.  
  4114.  
  4115.  
  4116.  
  4117.  
  4118.  
  4119.  
  4120.  
  4121.  
  4122.  
  4123.  
  4124.  
  4125.  
  4126.  
  4127.  
  4128.  
  4129.  
  4130.  
  4131.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4132.                                    Page:  65
  4133.  
  4134.  
  4135.  
  4136.  
  4137.  
  4138.                         This page intentionally left blank
  4139.  
  4140.  
  4141.  
  4142.  
  4143.  
  4144.  
  4145.  
  4146.  
  4147.  
  4148.  
  4149.  
  4150.  
  4151.  
  4152.  
  4153.  
  4154.  
  4155.  
  4156.  
  4157.  
  4158.  
  4159.  
  4160.  
  4161.  
  4162.  
  4163.  
  4164.  
  4165.  
  4166.  
  4167.  
  4168.  
  4169.  
  4170.  
  4171.  
  4172.  
  4173.  
  4174.  
  4175.  
  4176.  
  4177.  
  4178.  
  4179.  
  4180.  
  4181.  
  4182.  
  4183.  
  4184.  
  4185.  
  4186.  
  4187.  
  4188.  
  4189.  
  4190.  
  4191.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4192.                                    Page:  66
  4193.  
  4194.  
  4195.  
  4196.  
  4197.  
  4198.                       Tips, Hints, Examples and Demo Programs
  4199.  
  4200.  
  4201.  
  4202.  
  4203.  
  4204.  
  4205.  
  4206.  
  4207.  
  4208.  
  4209.  
  4210.  
  4211.  
  4212.  
  4213.  
  4214.  
  4215.  
  4216.  
  4217.  
  4218.  
  4219.  
  4220.  
  4221.  
  4222.  
  4223.  
  4224.  
  4225.  
  4226.  
  4227.  
  4228.  
  4229.  
  4230.  
  4231.  
  4232.  
  4233.  
  4234.  
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  4251.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
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  4311.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4312.                                    Page:  68
  4313.  
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  4317.  
  4318.         Example Program #1 - Slide Show
  4319.         -------------------------------
  4320.  
  4321.         A simple slideshow can be constructed  by creating  a grasp command
  4322.         file as follows:
  4323.  
  4324.  
  4325.         ; Slideshow demo for GRASP
  4326.         ;
  4327.         ; This program will load and display 4 pictures, alternating
  4328.         ; between fade #1 and fade #2, waiting for a count of 500 between
  4329.         ; each fade.
  4330.         ;
  4331.          video a             ; set medium res 4 color CGA mode (this can
  4332.                              ; be whatever mode you want to use)
  4333.         ;
  4334.          load pic1           ; load pic1 into buffer 1
  4335.          fade 1              ; fade using fade number 1
  4336.          waitkey 500         ; wait for a count of 500
  4337.         ;
  4338.          load pic2           ; load pic2 into buffer 1
  4339.          fade 2              ; but use fade #2 this time.
  4340.          waitkey 500         ; etc...
  4341.         ;
  4342.          load pic3
  4343.          fade 1
  4344.          waitkey 500
  4345.         ;
  4346.          load pic4
  4347.          fade 2
  4348.          waitkey 500
  4349.         ;
  4350.          exit                ; quit the program
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  4371.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4372.                                    Page:  69
  4373.  
  4374.  
  4375.  
  4376.  
  4377.  
  4378.         Example Program #2 - How to animate using FLY
  4379.         ---------------------------------------------
  4380.  
  4381.         Let's say  you have  2 clippings  which are  a flock  of birds with
  4382.         wings up and wings down. To fly them across the screen, (from 0,160
  4383.         to 300,160 issue the following sequence:
  4384.  
  4385.  
  4386.          tran on 3      ; turn transparent mode on
  4387.                         ; (this assumes the background is color 3.)
  4388.         ;
  4389.          cload birds1,1                ; load in first clip
  4390.          cload birds2,2                ; load in second clip
  4391.          fly 0,160,300,160,3,4,1,2     ; fly 'em!
  4392.         ;
  4393.          tran off       ; turn off transparent mode
  4394.  
  4395.         The parameters  in the  fly command  are x1,y1,x2,y2,step(number of
  4396.         pixels between each putup),delay(time of delay between each putup),
  4397.         and list of clippings, in this case, 1 and 2.
  4398.  
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  4431.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4432.                                    Page:  70
  4433.  
  4434.  
  4435.  
  4436.  
  4437.  
  4438.         APPENDIX A - Command Summary
  4439.  
  4440.  
  4441.         Notes:
  4442.         -----
  4443.  
  4444.         Each   command's   arguments  (if  any) are separated by commas  or
  4445.         spaces, whichever is preferable.
  4446.  
  4447.         Comments begin at a semicolon and  continue  for  the  rest  of the
  4448.         line.
  4449.  
  4450.         Line  labels   are  up  to  16  characters  long  and  end  with  a
  4451.         colon,i.e.,<label>:.
  4452.  
  4453.         Subroutines can be nested up to 16 levels deep.
  4454.  
  4455.         There can be up to 16 levels of nesting in MARK,LOOP constructions.
  4456.  
  4457.         CAPITAL letters are the command name. It must be spelled correctly,
  4458.         but capitals are not required.
  4459.  
  4460.         LOWERCASE letters  and numbers are parameters. You must specify all
  4461.         required parameters, (those not enclosed in <>), or you will get an
  4462.         error message indicating too few parameters.
  4463.  
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  4491.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4492.                                    Page:  71
  4493.  
  4494.  
  4495.  
  4496.  
  4497.  
  4498.         Command Summary:
  4499.         ---------------
  4500.         BOX x,y,x2,y2,<width>                 - draw a box
  4501.         CFADE #,x,y,<buffer>,<speed>,<delay>  - fade a clipping to screen
  4502.         CFREE buffer,<buffer>,...             - free up clipping buffer(s)
  4503.         CHGCOLOR from,to,<from,to>,...        - EGA, change color index
  4504.         CIRCLE x,y,rx,<ry>                    - draw an ellipse
  4505.         CLEARSCR                              - clear screen
  4506.         CLOAD clipping filename,<buffer>      - load a clipping
  4507.         COLOR color1,<color2>                 - set color 1 & color 2
  4508.         EXEC program,<parameters>             - execute program from GRASP
  4509.         EXIT                                  - quit program
  4510.         FFREE                                 - free the font buffer
  4511.         FGAPS <char_gap, space_gap>           - set text gaps
  4512.         FLOAD character set filename          - load a font
  4513.         FLOAT xs,ys,xe,ye,step,delay,clp1...  - float clip across screen
  4514.         FLY xs,ys,xe,ye,step,delay,clp1...    - fly clip across screen
  4515.         FSTYLE style                          - set text style
  4516.         GOSUB label                           - execute subroutine
  4517.         GOTO label                            - goto label
  4518.         IFKEY key,label                       - if key match, goto label
  4519.         LINE x,y,x2,y2                        - draw line
  4520.         LINK textfile filename                - link to another text file
  4521.         LOOP                                  - loop to previous mark
  4522.         MARK loop count                       - mark for looping
  4523.         MODE border color,<palette>           - CGA border & palette set
  4524.         NOISE freq1,freq2,duration            - make some noise
  4525.         OFFSET x,y                            - set x and y offsets
  4526.         PALETTE buffer                        - EGA mode set palette
  4527.         PAN x0,y0,x1,y1,<buffer>              - EGA pan from x0,y0 to x1,y1
  4528.         PFADE #,<buffer>,<speed>,<delay>      - fade a picture to screen
  4529.         PFREE buffer,<buffer>,...             - free up picture buffer(s)
  4530.         PLOAD picture filename,<buffer>       - load a picture
  4531.         POINT x,y,<x2,y2>                     - draw a point
  4532.         PUTUP x,y,<buffer>,<delay>            - put a clip to screen @ x,y
  4533.         RESETSCR                              - reset screen to default
  4534.         RETURN                                - return from subroutine
  4535.         SETCOLOR c1,c2,c3...c16               - EGA mode set 16 colors
  4536.         TEXT x,y,"some text",<delay>          - put up text @ x,y
  4537.         TRAN on/off, color                    - transparent mode on/off
  4538.         VIDEO vidmode                         - set video mode
  4539.         WAITKEY <timeout>, <label>            - wait for a keypress
  4540.         WINDOW x0,y0,x1,y1                    - set clip window
  4541.  
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  4550.  
  4551.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4552.                                    Page:  72
  4553.  
  4554.  
  4555.  
  4556.  
  4557.  
  4558.         APPENDIX B - Fade Table
  4559.  
  4560.         There are  25 fades  in GRASP  which must  be called by number. All
  4561.         fades work on  graphics  screens,  graphics  screens  in  a window,
  4562.         clippings  and  text  screens.  This  list  is  also  accessable by
  4563.         pressing F3 while in the GRASP editor.
  4564.  
  4565.         Fade # Description
  4566.         ------ -------------------------------------------------------
  4567.           0    Quick snap wipe
  4568.           1    Horizontal left to right wipe
  4569.           2    Horizontal right to left wipe
  4570.           3    Horizontal edge to center wipe
  4571.           4    Horizontal center to edge wipe
  4572.           5    Horizontal 1 pass filter wipe - both sides simultaneously
  4573.           6    Horizontal 2 pass filter wipe - from left, then from right
  4574.           7    Horizontal halves wipe - left to right, then right to left
  4575.           8    Horizontal halves wipe - left and right simultaneously
  4576.           9    Vertical top to bottom wipe
  4577.          10    Vertical bottom to top wipe
  4578.          11    Vertical edge to center wipe
  4579.          12    Vertical center to egde wipe
  4580.          13    Vertical filter wipe, top and bottom simultaneously
  4581.          14    Vertical halves wipe, top and bottom simultaneously
  4582.          15    Vertical halves wipe, left down, right up
  4583.          16    Vertical quarters wipe
  4584.          17    Vertical fingers wipe
  4585.          18    Vertcial fingers/filter combination wipe
  4586.          19    Slither from top to bottom
  4587.          20    Sparkle fade (random)
  4588.          21    Diagonal wipe
  4589.          22    Aperature dissolve - edge to center
  4590.          23    Aperature dissolve - center to edge
  4591.          24    Clockwise clock dissolve
  4592.          25    Double slant dissolve
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  4611.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
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  4671.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4672.                                    Page:  74
  4673.  
  4674.  
  4675.  
  4676.  
  4677.  
  4678.         APPENDIX C - Error Messages
  4679.  
  4680.         The following is a  list of  messages you  may get  while executing
  4681.         GRASP and some of their causes and solutions.
  4682.  
  4683.  
  4684.         MOST COMMON ERRORS:
  4685.  
  4686.  
  4687.         I.    The  most  common  error  is  not a grasp program error but a
  4688.               system error. The screen will  clear,  and  you  will  get an
  4689.               error like
  4690.  
  4691.          External Memory allocation overflow, xxxxk requested, yyyyk free.
  4692.  
  4693.               This means  that you have tried to load a picture or clipping
  4694.               that is too large  for the  memory you  have left.  There are
  4695.               several fixes for this problem.
  4696.               1) Buy more memory. EGA 16 color demos usually take most of a
  4697.               640K machine
  4698.               2) Check your code and use PFREE, CFREE and FFREE to clean up
  4699.               memory  when  you  are  through  using  particular  pictures,
  4700.               clippings and fonts. See the section  of the  manual on these
  4701.               commands.
  4702.               3)  Use  the  special  parameter, ',1' on clipping loads that
  4703.               don't make the shifted copies. In order to be able to PUTUP a
  4704.               clipping at  any single-pixel coordinate, GRASP needs to make
  4705.               up to 8 shifted copies of the clipping.  If you  are going to
  4706.               be using  CFADE or putting it up at a byte boundary, then the
  4707.               shifted copies aren't necessary. You can keep them from being
  4708.               generated by typing:
  4709.  
  4710.               CLOAD clip,1,1 ;note the extra ',1'
  4711.  
  4712.               If you  do specify the extra parameter, and you try to put up
  4713.               the clipping at a non-byte  boundary,  no  putup  will occur.
  4714.               Remember,  FLY,  FLOAT  and  PUTUP  can  put clippings at any
  4715.               coordinate. CFADE can only putup at a byte boundary.
  4716.  
  4717.               If none of the above three  work,  then  call  the  GRASP and
  4718.               PCPAINT BBS for more advice.
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  4730.  
  4731.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4732.                                    Page:  75
  4733.  
  4734.  
  4735.  
  4736.  
  4737.  
  4738.         II. System Errors
  4739.  
  4740.          The following  is a  list of  the GRASP system errors that you may
  4741.         encounter. These will appear on the top of the screen while running
  4742.         your demo  along with  a line number where the error occurred. When
  4743.         you press a key, you will be returned to that line in your program.
  4744.         If you  get the  error while running under the runtime version, the
  4745.         program will stop.
  4746.  
  4747.  
  4748.  
  4749.         DUPLICATE LABEL
  4750.  
  4751.         - You have used the same label name more than once in your demo and
  4752.         GRASP is confused.
  4753.  
  4754.  
  4755.         ERROR IN LOOP COUNT
  4756.  
  4757.          - Loop count  must be  a positive  number. This  error occurs if a
  4758.         negative number was specified.
  4759.  
  4760.  
  4761.         ERROR IN NAME
  4762.  
  4763.          - You have used an invalid character  in a  filename, or  the file
  4764.         GRASP was trying to load was not found.
  4765.  
  4766.  
  4767.         ERROR IN PACKED CLIPPING
  4768.  
  4769.          - sometimes,  clippings  may  be  trashed or someone tries to load
  4770.         some other file with a .CLP extension. If GRASP does  not recognize
  4771.         a  clipping  as  being  a  valid  clipping  file, you will get this
  4772.         message.
  4773.  
  4774.  
  4775.         ERROR IN XCOORD
  4776.  
  4777.          - The Y-coordinate lies off  the screen.  This may  occur after an
  4778.         OFFSET command. If you specify 0 for the Y coordinate, but Y offset
  4779.         is set to -5, you will get this error.
  4780.  
  4781.  
  4782.         ERROR IN YCOORD
  4783.  
  4784.          - The Y-coordinate lies off  the screen.  This may  occur after an
  4785.         OFFSET command. If you specify 0 for the Y coordinate, but Y offset
  4786.         is set to -5, you will get this error.
  4787.  
  4788.  
  4789.  
  4790.  
  4791.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4792.                                    Page:  76
  4793.  
  4794.  
  4795.  
  4796.  
  4797.  
  4798.         ERROR LOADING FONT
  4799.  
  4800.          - GRASP doesn't recognize the  font you  are trying  to load. Also
  4801.         could be too large for memory or hardware error during load.
  4802.  
  4803.  
  4804.         ERROR LOADING PICTURE
  4805.  
  4806.          - GRASP doesn't recognize the picture you are trying to load. Also
  4807.         could be hardware error during load.
  4808.  
  4809.  
  4810.         ERROR LOADING TEXT
  4811.  
  4812.          - GRASP doesn't recognize the text file you are trying to link to.
  4813.         Also could be hardware during load.
  4814.  
  4815.  
  4816.         ILLEGAL ARGUMENT(S)
  4817.  
  4818.          - One  of  the  arguments  for  the  current  command  is invalid.
  4819.         Examples are invalid video mode, etc.
  4820.  
  4821.  
  4822.         ILLEGAL BUFFER
  4823.  
  4824.          - You have specified a buffer  number  that  is  outside  of valid
  4825.         range. Buffers  are 1-16 for pictures and 1-128 for clippings. Also
  4826.         may get this when an error occurs trying  to allocate  a new buffer
  4827.         during load.
  4828.  
  4829.  
  4830.         ILLEGAL COLOR
  4831.  
  4832.          - You have specified an invalid color number for this video mode.
  4833.  
  4834.  
  4835.         ILLEGAL FADE
  4836.  
  4837.          - You have specified an invalid fade number. Valid fades are 0-25.
  4838.  
  4839.  
  4840.         ILLEGAL PALETTE
  4841.  
  4842.          - You have  specified an  invalid palette  number for  CGA 4 color
  4843.         mode. Valid palettes are 0-5.
  4844.  
  4845.  
  4846.         ILLEGAL SPEED
  4847.  
  4848.          - You have specified an invalid speed for a fade. Valid speeds are
  4849.         0-10000.
  4850.  
  4851.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4852.                                    Page:  77
  4853.  
  4854.  
  4855.  
  4856.  
  4857.  
  4858.         INVALID FONT STYLE
  4859.  
  4860.          - You have  specified an  invalid font  style number. Valid styles
  4861.         are 0-6.
  4862.  
  4863.  
  4864.         INVALID GAP VALUE
  4865.  
  4866.          - You have specified an invalid GAP value. Range is 0-255.
  4867.  
  4868.  
  4869.         LABEL NOT FOUND
  4870.  
  4871.          - You have  tried to  reference a  label which  was not previously
  4872.         defined.
  4873.  
  4874.  
  4875.         MEMORY ERROR
  4876.  
  4877.          - When trying  to allocate the memory for your GRASP command file,
  4878.         an error was encountered. Usually only happens when  a command file
  4879.         is too large.
  4880.  
  4881.  
  4882.         NOT ENOUGH ARGUMENTS
  4883.  
  4884.          - Certain commands require a minimum number of arguments. You need
  4885.         to specify some more.
  4886.  
  4887.  
  4888.         THIS COMMAND REQUIRES AN EGA
  4889.  
  4890.          - Just like it says, this particular command requires  an EGA card
  4891.         and EGA video mode to operate.
  4892.  
  4893.  
  4894.         TOO MANY LOOPS
  4895.  
  4896.          - You have nested your loops deeper than the maximum, which is 16,
  4897.         or you have more loop commands that mark commands.
  4898.  
  4899.  
  4900.         TOO MANY MARKS
  4901.  
  4902.          - You have nested your loops deeper than the maximum, which is 16,
  4903.         or you have more mark commands than loop commands.
  4904.  
  4905.  
  4906.         UNKNOWN COMMAND
  4907.  
  4908.          - GRASP found  something that  was not  a comment, not a label and
  4909.         couldn't recognize as a valid command. Check your spelling.
  4910.  
  4911.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4912.                                    Page:  78
  4913.  
  4914.  
  4915.  
  4916.  
  4917.  
  4918.         APPENDIX D - Picture Swap Line
  4919.  
  4920.  
  4921.         There is a public domain electronic  bulletin board  which operates
  4922.         24 hours a day with the sole purpose of providing a method by which
  4923.         users of PCPAINT and GRASP may exchange pictures, clippings, fonts,
  4924.         effects and  ideas. This help eliminate the extra cost of providing
  4925.         artwork for many of  the GRASP  demos you  may want  to create. The
  4926.         most current version of GRASP will be avaliable this system.
  4927.  
  4928.         All uploads  and downloads  are free  and may be used by anyone. We
  4929.         encourage you to contribute any artwork you feel  could be  used by
  4930.         someone  else.  Of  course  there  will  be proprietary artwork you
  4931.         either pay  to have  developed, or  need to  keep confidential. But
  4932.         your discards may be another's joy...
  4933.  
  4934.         The BBS is located in Costa Mesa, California, and the number is
  4935.  
  4936.                            ***    (714) 545-8100    ***
  4937.  
  4938.         You will  be limited  to 1 hour of use per day. We suggest that you
  4939.         use 1200 or 2400 baud modems set at 8 bits, 1 stop  bit, no parity.
  4940.         You will  be transferring binary files so the 8 bit mode is a must.
  4941.         There are several utility programs you will want  to download first
  4942.         which allow you to squeeze and unsqueeze the pic files so that they
  4943.         will not take as much time  to upload  and download.  You will find
  4944.         them in the UTILITY file area.
  4945.  
  4946.  
  4947.         Thanks in advance for your support and contributions to the board.
  4948.  
  4949.  
  4950.  
  4951.  
  4952.  
  4953.  
  4954.  
  4955.  
  4956.  
  4957.  
  4958.  
  4959.  
  4960.  
  4961.  
  4962.  
  4963.  
  4964.  
  4965.  
  4966.  
  4967.  
  4968.  
  4969.  
  4970.  
  4971.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  4972.                                    Page:  79
  4973.  
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  4980.  
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  4985.  
  4986.  
  4987.  
  4988.  
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  4990.  
  4991.  
  4992.  
  4993.  
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  4995.  
  4996.  
  4997.  
  4998.  
  4999.  
  5000.  
  5001.  
  5002.  
  5003.  
  5004.  
  5005.  
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  5007.  
  5008.  
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  5015.  
  5016.  
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  5029.  
  5030.  
  5031.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  5032.                                    Page:  80
  5033.  
  5034.  
  5035.  
  5036.  
  5037.  
  5038.         APPENDIX E - GRASP Order Form
  5039.  
  5040.         GRASP is distributed in the USEware format. If you are going to USE
  5041.         it, please check the appropriate box below and  enclose a  check or
  5042.         purchase order. If you find the program unUSEable, please drop us a
  5043.         line telling us why. If you pay for the program by sending  in this
  5044.         registration form with a check or money order, you will be added to
  5045.         our mailing list and be  kept  notified  of  new  releases  and new
  5046.         utilities.
  5047.  
  5048.         ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5049.         Single-User Order Form
  5050.         ======================
  5051.         If you are going to pay for less than 50 copies, use this form. The
  5052.         single user price is $50.00.  California  residents  please  add 6%
  5053.         sales tax. You must pay for EACH copy you plan to use.
  5054.  
  5055.         Full Name:__________________________  ___ Copies @ $50.00=_________
  5056.  
  5057.         Address  :__________________________      6% Sales Tax   =_________
  5058.  
  5059.                  :__________________________      Total Enclosed =_________
  5060.  
  5061.         City, St.:_________________    _____  Zip:_________________
  5062.  
  5063.         ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5064.         Corporate Site License Order Form
  5065.         =================================
  5066.         If you are going to be using in excess of 50 copies of GRASP within
  5067.         your company at one site, (5 mile radius from licensing party), you
  5068.         need  only  pay  for  the  first  50  copies. You may then make and
  5069.         distribute to your employees an unlimited  number of  copies of the
  5070.         software and  manual. We  have 45 day billing if you include a P.O.
  5071.         number instead of a check or money order.
  5072.  
  5073.         Primary Corporate Contact for updates, etc.:
  5074.  
  5075.         Full Name :_________________________  50 Copies @ $50.00 = $2500.00
  5076.  
  5077.         Address   :_________________________        6% Sales Tax =_________
  5078.  
  5079.                   :_________________________      Total Enclosed =_________
  5080.  
  5081.         Department:_________________________   P.O. Number:________________
  5082.  
  5083.         City, St. :_________________    _____     Zip:_________________
  5084.  
  5085.         Authorized Signature:______________________________  Date:_________
  5086.  
  5087.         ------------------------------------------------------------------
  5088.  
  5089.  
  5090.  
  5091.                    GRASP - Graphical System for Presentation
  5092.                                    Page:  81
  5093.  
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