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Jane (2017)

tpbolon Mar 11th, 2019 155 Never
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  1. 1
  2. 00:02:40,392 --> 00:02:44,095
  3. I think I've read
  4. somewhere, maybe someone told me
  5. that when you were a child
  6.  
  7. 2
  8. 00:02:44,096 --> 00:02:46,998
  9. you used to dream as a man.
  10.  
  11. 3
  12. 00:02:46,999 --> 00:02:48,399
  13. Yeah.
  14.  
  15. 4
  16. 00:02:48,400 --> 00:02:51,235
  17. I was typically a man,
  18. I went on adventures.
  19.  
  20. 5
  21. 00:02:51,236 --> 00:02:53,071
  22. How come?
  23.  
  24. 6
  25. 00:02:53,072 --> 00:02:56,341
  26. Probably because
  27. at the time I wanted to
  28. do things which men did
  29.  
  30. 7
  31. 00:02:56,342 --> 00:02:58,512
  32. and women didn't.
  33.  
  34. 8
  35. 00:03:00,512 --> 00:03:05,357
  36. You know going to Africa,
  37. living with animals, that's
  38. all I ever thought about.
  39.  
  40. 9
  41. 00:03:11,357 --> 00:03:16,761
  42. Everything led in the most
  43. natural way, it seems now,
  44. to that magical invitation to
  45.  
  46. 10
  47. 00:03:16,762 --> 00:03:21,700
  48. Africa in 1957 where I
  49. would meet Dr. Louis Leakey,
  50.  
  51. 11
  52. 00:03:22,700 --> 00:03:26,907
  53. who had sent me on
  54. my way to Gombe
  55. and the chimpanzees.
  56.  
  57. 12
  58. 00:03:29,907 --> 00:03:33,945
  59. I had no training, no degree.
  60.  
  61. 13
  62. 00:03:33,946 --> 00:03:37,948
  63. But Louis didn't care
  64. about academic credentials.
  65.  
  66. 14
  67. 00:03:37,949 --> 00:03:42,922
  68. What he was looking for was
  69. someone with an open mind,
  70. with a passion for knowledge,
  71.  
  72. 15
  73. 00:03:43,922 --> 00:03:46,603
  74. with a love of animals, and
  75. with monumental patience.
  76.  
  77. 16
  78. 00:03:57,603 --> 00:04:01,574
  79. My mission was to get
  80. close to the chimpanzees,
  81.  
  82. 17
  83. 00:04:02,574 --> 00:04:06,127
  84. to live among them,
  85. to be accepted.
  86.  
  87. 18
  88. 00:04:29,634 --> 00:04:35,812
  89. <i>I wanted to come as close to
  90. talking to animals as I could,
  91. to be like Doctor Doolittle.</i>
  92.  
  93. 19
  94. 00:04:40,812 --> 00:04:44,892
  95. <i>I wanted to move among them
  96. without fear, like Tarzan.</i>
  97.  
  98. 20
  99. 00:04:54,892 --> 00:05:00,906
  100. ♪ ♪
  101.  
  102. 21
  103. 00:05:08,906 --> 00:05:11,009
  104. ♪ ♪
  105.  
  106. 22
  107. 00:05:12,009 --> 00:05:17,648
  108. The huge, gnarled, and ancient
  109. trees, the little streams
  110. chuckling their way through
  111.  
  112. 23
  113. 00:05:17,649 --> 00:05:20,319
  114. rocky pathways to the lake.
  115.  
  116. 24
  117. 00:05:21,319 --> 00:05:23,827
  118. The birds. The insects.
  119.  
  120. 25
  121. 00:05:28,827 --> 00:05:33,867
  122. Since I was eight or nine
  123. years old, I had dreamed
  124. of being in Africa,
  125.  
  126. 26
  127. 00:05:34,867 --> 00:05:37,004
  128. of living in the bush
  129. among wild animals.
  130.  
  131. 27
  132. 00:05:39,004 --> 00:05:43,180
  133. And suddenly, I found I was
  134. actually living in my dream.
  135.  
  136. 28
  137. 00:05:48,180 --> 00:05:51,884
  138. I already felt that I belonged
  139. to this new forest world.
  140.  
  141. 29
  142. 00:05:52,884 --> 00:05:56,031
  143. That this was where
  144. I was meant to be.
  145.  
  146. 30
  147. 00:06:06,031 --> 00:06:11,380
  148. ♪ ♪
  149.  
  150. 31
  151. 00:06:21,380 --> 00:06:27,057
  152. ♪ ♪
  153.  
  154. 32
  155. 00:06:33,057 --> 00:06:38,497
  156. When I arrived in Gombe,
  157. I had no idea what I was
  158. going to do except that
  159.  
  160. 33
  161. 00:06:39,497 --> 00:06:44,234
  162. I was going to try and get
  163. the chimpanzees used to me,
  164. so that I could really learn
  165.  
  166. 34
  167. 00:06:44,235 --> 00:06:46,136
  168. about what they were doing.
  169.  
  170. 35
  171. 00:06:46,137 --> 00:06:49,097
  172. That was, that was in the
  173. back of my mind because
  174. I'd watched other animals,
  175.  
  176. 36
  177. 00:06:50,074 --> 00:06:53,811
  178. and the only way to
  179. learn about them is when
  180. they know you're there but
  181.  
  182. 37
  183. 00:06:53,812 --> 00:06:55,112
  184. they ignore you.
  185.  
  186. 38
  187. 00:06:55,113 --> 00:06:57,250
  188. Except they
  189. can rip your face off.
  190.  
  191. 39
  192. 00:06:58,250 --> 00:06:59,749
  193. -Well, I didn't know that.
  194.  
  195. 40
  196. 00:06:59,750 --> 00:07:01,585
  197. I didn't think about that!
  198.  
  199. 41
  200. 00:07:01,586 --> 00:07:03,921
  201. There was nobody
  202. talking about that.
  203.  
  204. 42
  205. 00:07:03,922 --> 00:07:06,256
  206. There was no fear
  207. of chimpanzees in the wild?
  208.  
  209. 43
  210. 00:07:06,257 --> 00:07:12,331
  211. -You have to realize that back
  212. then, there were no people out
  213. in the field whose research I
  214.  
  215. 44
  216. 00:07:13,331 --> 00:07:18,636
  217. could read about except this
  218. one man, and he saw chimps
  219. once or maybe twice in the
  220.  
  221. 45
  222. 00:07:18,637 --> 00:07:20,604
  223. three months of his study.
  224.  
  225. 46
  226. 00:07:20,605 --> 00:07:24,609
  227. And then much earlier on,
  228. there was this crazy man who
  229. painted himself with
  230.  
  231. 47
  232. 00:07:24,610 --> 00:07:29,024
  233. baboon shit, I think, and sat
  234. in hides, in hopes that
  235. chimps would appear.
  236.  
  237. 48
  238. 00:07:40,024 --> 00:07:43,297
  239. There were plenty of snakes,
  240. many poisonous snakes.
  241.  
  242. 49
  243. 00:07:45,297 --> 00:07:48,867
  244. And to be honest,
  245. I always believed that
  246. if you walk carefully,
  247.  
  248. 50
  249. 00:07:49,867 --> 00:07:53,410
  250. you don't startle a snake,
  251. you don't tread on it,
  252. they're not going to hurt you.
  253.  
  254. 51
  255. 00:07:58,410 --> 00:08:03,226
  256. I had this probably crazy
  257. feeling, 'nothing's going to
  258. hurt me, I'm meant to be here."
  259.  
  260. 52
  261. 00:08:14,226 --> 00:08:19,940
  262. ♪ ♪
  263.  
  264. 53
  265. 00:08:28,940 --> 00:08:34,355
  266. ♪ ♪
  267.  
  268. 54
  269. 00:08:44,355 --> 00:08:49,270
  270. ♪ ♪
  271.  
  272. 55
  273. 00:08:59,270 --> 00:09:04,421
  274. ♪ ♪
  275.  
  276. 56
  277. 00:09:48,086 --> 00:09:53,764
  278. ♪ ♪
  279.  
  280. 57
  281. 00:09:59,764 --> 00:10:05,839
  282. I watched them feeding in
  283. a large fig tree, calling
  284. noisily from time to time.
  285.  
  286. 58
  287. 00:10:07,839 --> 00:10:10,816
  288. The trees came alive.
  289.  
  290. 59
  291. 00:10:17,816 --> 00:10:21,854
  292. And so began one of the most
  293. exciting periods of my life.
  294.  
  295. 60
  296. 00:10:22,854 --> 00:10:25,033
  297. The time of discovery.
  298.  
  299. 61
  300. 00:10:35,033 --> 00:10:38,539
  301. ♪ ♪
  302.  
  303. 62
  304. 00:10:41,539 --> 00:10:44,475
  305. My life fell into a rhythm.
  306.  
  307. 63
  308. 00:10:44,476 --> 00:10:46,177
  309. Day after day.
  310.  
  311. 64
  312. 00:10:46,178 --> 00:10:48,480
  313. In the sun, the
  314. wind and the rain.
  315.  
  316. 65
  317. 00:10:49,480 --> 00:10:53,321
  318. I climbed into the
  319. hills and stayed with the
  320. chimps from dawn...
  321.  
  322. 66
  323. 00:10:56,321 --> 00:10:58,094
  324. until darkness fell.
  325.  
  326. 67
  327. 00:11:02,094 --> 00:11:05,365
  328. Most times I would
  329. encounter a group of
  330. chimps or a single chimp,
  331.  
  332. 68
  333. 00:11:07,365 --> 00:11:10,437
  334. but there were times when I
  335. couldn't find them at all.
  336.  
  337. 69
  338. 00:11:12,437 --> 00:11:17,413
  339. And when I tried to get
  340. closer, they ran off
  341. as soon as they saw me.
  342.  
  343. 70
  344. 00:11:22,413 --> 00:11:25,918
  345. I was an intruder.
  346.  
  347. 71
  348. 00:11:26,918 --> 00:11:29,523
  349. And a strange one at that.
  350.  
  351. 72
  352. 00:11:31,523 --> 00:11:36,696
  353. As I am not a defeatist,
  354. it only made my determination
  355. to succeed stronger.
  356.  
  357. 73
  358. 00:11:37,696 --> 00:11:40,364
  359. I never had any
  360. thought of quitting.
  361.  
  362. 74
  363. 00:11:40,365 --> 00:11:44,376
  364. I should forever have
  365. lost all self respect
  366. if I had given up.
  367.  
  368. 75
  369. 00:11:52,376 --> 00:11:56,716
  370. I became totally absorbed
  371. into this forest existence.
  372.  
  373. 76
  374. 00:11:57,716 --> 00:12:02,755
  375. I could give myself up to
  376. the sheer pleasure of being on
  377. my own in the rugged terrain
  378.  
  379. 77
  380. 00:12:04,755 --> 00:12:08,730
  381. that I was coming to know
  382. as well as I had known the
  383. Bournemouth cliffs as a child.
  384.  
  385. 78
  386. 00:12:12,730 --> 00:12:14,101
  387. It was an unparalleled period.
  388.  
  389. 79
  390. 00:12:16,101 --> 00:12:18,908
  391. When aloneness
  392. was a way of life.
  393.  
  394. 80
  395. 00:12:23,908 --> 00:12:28,282
  396. And even as I was, bit by bit,
  397. piecing together something
  398. of their way of life,
  399.  
  400. 81
  401. 00:12:30,282 --> 00:12:33,763
  402. so they were getting
  403. used to the sight of
  404. the strange white ape.
  405.  
  406. 82
  407. 00:12:44,763 --> 00:12:50,447
  408. ♪ ♪
  409.  
  410. 83
  411. 00:13:14,125 --> 00:13:17,827
  412. In those days,
  413. it was not thought at
  414. all safe for a young,
  415.  
  416. 84
  417. 00:13:17,828 --> 00:13:21,167
  418. single girl to go into
  419. the wilds of Africa.
  420.  
  421. 85
  422. 00:13:22,167 --> 00:13:25,038
  423. I had to choose a companion.
  424.  
  425. 86
  426. 00:13:27,038 --> 00:13:29,914
  427. It was my mother
  428. who volunteered.
  429.  
  430. 87
  431. 00:13:36,914 --> 00:13:42,554
  432. Mom set up a clinic; she
  433. handed out medicine to many
  434. of the local fisherman.
  435.  
  436. 88
  437. 00:13:43,554 --> 00:13:47,666
  438. Patients would walk for
  439. miles to get treatment.
  440.  
  441. 89
  442. 00:13:54,666 --> 00:13:57,235
  443. What was your relationship
  444. like with your father?
  445.  
  446. 90
  447. 00:13:58,235 --> 00:14:00,671
  448. I didn't really
  449. know my father.
  450. He went off to the war.
  451.  
  452. 91
  453. 00:14:00,672 --> 00:14:05,011
  454. When war broke out I
  455. was five and of course
  456. I hugely admired him,
  457.  
  458. 92
  459. 00:14:07,011 --> 00:14:09,513
  460. but he didn't really
  461. care about children.
  462.  
  463. 93
  464. 00:14:09,514 --> 00:14:11,520
  465. So, I couldn't say I had
  466. a relationship with him.
  467.  
  468. 94
  469. 00:14:16,520 --> 00:14:20,394
  470. I think the most important
  471. part about my mother
  472. was that she listened.
  473.  
  474. 95
  475. 00:14:22,394 --> 00:14:24,194
  476. She was always fair.
  477.  
  478. 96
  479. 00:14:24,195 --> 00:14:26,131
  480. She was never angry
  481. without a reason.
  482.  
  483. 97
  484. 00:14:27,131 --> 00:14:29,135
  485. She supported me and
  486. my love of animals.
  487.  
  488. 98
  489. 00:14:31,135 --> 00:14:32,936
  490. She never said,
  491. "Well, you're just a girl.
  492.  
  493. 99
  494. 00:14:32,937 --> 00:14:34,404
  495. You can't do that.
  496.  
  497. 100
  498. 00:14:34,405 --> 00:14:36,907
  499. Why don't you dream about
  500. something you can achieve?"
  501.  
  502. 101
  503. 00:14:36,908 --> 00:14:39,711
  504. Which is what
  505. everybody else told me.
  506.  
  507. 102
  508. 00:14:40,711 --> 00:14:45,788
  509. So it was my mother who really
  510. built up my self-esteem.
  511.  
  512. 103
  513. 00:14:49,788 --> 00:14:55,328
  514. Like most children before
  515. the age of TV and computer
  516. games, I loved being outside.
  517.  
  518. 104
  519. 00:14:57,328 --> 00:15:01,168
  520. Playing in the secrets
  521. places in the garden,
  522. learning about nature.
  523.  
  524. 105
  525. 00:15:04,168 --> 00:15:10,509
  526. I spent many hours high above
  527. the ground at the top of my
  528. favorite tree and
  529.  
  530. 106
  531. 00:15:11,509 --> 00:15:16,582
  532. I would read up there in my
  533. own leafy and private world.
  534.  
  535. 107
  536. 00:15:18,582 --> 00:15:23,420
  537. <i>It was daydreaming about life
  538. in the forest with Tarzan that
  539. lead to my determination to go</i>
  540.  
  541. 108
  542. 00:15:23,421 --> 00:15:28,596
  543. to Africa to live with animals
  544. and write books about them.
  545.  
  546. 109
  547. 00:15:32,596 --> 00:15:36,335
  548. I never had any aspiration
  549. of being married
  550. and having a family.
  551.  
  552. 110
  553. 00:15:37,335 --> 00:15:39,202
  554. It just didn't come
  555. into my way of thinking.
  556.  
  557. 111
  558. 00:15:39,203 --> 00:15:41,474
  559. It simply wasn't there.
  560.  
  561. 112
  562. 00:15:42,474 --> 00:15:45,178
  563. Going to Africa,
  564. living with animals.
  565.  
  566. 113
  567. 00:15:47,178 --> 00:15:50,451
  568. That's all I ever thought about.
  569.  
  570. 114
  571. 00:15:53,451 --> 00:15:58,725
  572. We were by no
  573. means a wealthy family, so
  574. university wasn't an option.
  575.  
  576. 115
  577. 00:16:00,725 --> 00:16:04,631
  578. But I still wanted to
  579. work with animals in
  580. some far off place.
  581.  
  582. 116
  583. 00:16:07,631 --> 00:16:10,300
  584. I got a job as a waitress.
  585.  
  586. 117
  587. 00:16:10,301 --> 00:16:14,174
  588. I saved my wages and my
  589. tips, every penny I could...
  590.  
  591. 118
  592. 00:16:17,174 --> 00:16:20,318
  593. to get me to Africa.
  594.  
  595. 119
  596. 00:16:28,318 --> 00:16:33,662
  597. But even though I was
  598. living my childhood dream, I
  599. couldn't help but be concerned
  600.  
  601. 120
  602. 00:16:37,662 --> 00:16:40,006
  603. because I couldn't get
  604. close to the chimps.
  605.  
  606. 121
  607. 00:16:49,006 --> 00:16:54,184
  608. ♪ ♪
  609.  
  610. 122
  611. 00:17:00,184 --> 00:17:04,890
  612. I didn't know if they
  613. would ever get used to me.
  614.  
  615. 123
  616. 00:17:05,890 --> 00:17:08,036
  617. And time was running out.
  618.  
  619. 124
  620. 00:17:18,036 --> 00:17:22,782
  621. ♪ ♪
  622.  
  623. 125
  624. 00:17:36,287 --> 00:17:41,727
  625. How frustrating
  626. was it trying to study
  627. them in those early days?
  628.  
  629. 126
  630. 00:17:42,727 --> 00:17:45,327
  631. -It was probably mostly
  632. frustrating because
  633. they kept running away.
  634.  
  635. 127
  636. 00:17:47,132 --> 00:17:51,300
  637. And while chimpanzees are
  638. running away from you, you
  639. can't really get down to the
  640.  
  641. 128
  642. 00:17:51,301 --> 00:17:57,141
  643. details of their behavior and
  644. in the back of my mind it was
  645. always the fear if I don't
  646.  
  647. 129
  648. 00:17:57,142 --> 00:17:58,741
  649. find out something exciting.
  650.  
  651. 130
  652. 00:17:58,742 --> 00:18:03,115
  653. The money will
  654. run out cause all my earlier
  655. observations were either chimps
  656.  
  657. 131
  658. 00:18:05,115 --> 00:18:10,187
  659. close up running away
  660. or sitting on the peak
  661. or some other spot and
  662.  
  663. 132
  664. 00:18:10,188 --> 00:18:12,623
  665. watching them
  666. through binoculars.
  667.  
  668. 133
  669. 00:18:12,624 --> 00:18:17,930
  670. And so, you know, from
  671. those early observations
  672.  
  673. 134
  674. 00:18:18,930 --> 00:18:23,376
  675. it was very clear
  676. that I wasn't really
  677. learning anything much.
  678.  
  679. 135
  680. 00:18:39,384 --> 00:18:42,125
  681. I'd been in Gombe
  682. for five months.
  683.  
  684. 136
  685. 00:18:47,125 --> 00:18:50,796
  686. It had been a
  687. frustrating morning.
  688.  
  689. 137
  690. 00:18:51,796 --> 00:18:55,868
  691. I had tramped up and down
  692. three different valleys
  693. in search of chimps,
  694.  
  695. 138
  696. 00:18:57,868 --> 00:18:59,227
  697. but had found none.
  698.  
  699. 139
  700. 00:19:22,227 --> 00:19:26,997
  701. I soon recognized
  702. the adult male less
  703. fearful than the others whom I
  704.  
  705. 140
  706. 00:19:26,998 --> 00:19:32,342
  707. already knew by sight
  708. because of the distinctive
  709. white hair on his chin.
  710.  
  711. 141
  712. 00:19:37,342 --> 00:19:42,923
  713. And unlike the
  714. others, he didn't run.
  715.  
  716. 142
  717. 00:19:52,923 --> 00:19:58,039
  718. ♪ ♪
  719.  
  720. 143
  721. 00:20:09,039 --> 00:20:15,088
  722. ♪ ♪
  723.  
  724. 144
  725. 00:20:25,088 --> 00:20:29,096
  726. ♪ ♪
  727.  
  728. 145
  729. 00:20:41,905 --> 00:20:46,347
  730. After months of patient
  731. and tireless observation,
  732. I had been rewarded.
  733.  
  734. 146
  735. 00:20:50,347 --> 00:20:53,486
  736. The chimps had accepted me.
  737.  
  738. 147
  739. 00:20:55,486 --> 00:21:00,358
  740. And gradually I was able to
  741. penetrate further and further
  742. into a magic world that no
  743.  
  744. 148
  745. 00:21:01,358 --> 00:21:05,429
  746. human had explored before.
  747.  
  748. 149
  749. 00:21:05,430 --> 00:21:08,284
  750. The world of the
  751. wild chimpanzees.
  752.  
  753. 150
  754. 00:21:26,284 --> 00:21:28,128
  755. ♪ ♪
  756.  
  757. 151
  758. 00:21:38,128 --> 00:21:43,144
  759. ♪ ♪
  760.  
  761. 152
  762. 00:21:54,144 --> 00:21:57,984
  763. Finally, I was
  764. allowed to observe the
  765. chimpanzees closely.
  766.  
  767. 153
  768. 00:22:00,984 --> 00:22:04,522
  769. I learned that chimpanzees
  770. spend long hours
  771. in grooming sessions.
  772.  
  773. 154
  774. 00:22:05,522 --> 00:22:08,063
  775. They, like us, need friendly
  776. contact and reassurance.
  777.  
  778. 155
  779. 00:22:12,063 --> 00:22:14,101
  780. As I got to know them as
  781. individuals I named them.
  782.  
  783. 156
  784. 00:22:17,101 --> 00:22:22,172
  785. David Greybeard, with
  786. his calm and dignified
  787. personality and often
  788.  
  789. 157
  790. 00:22:22,173 --> 00:22:26,380
  791. he was accompanied
  792. by the top ranking male
  793. at the time, Goliath.
  794.  
  795. 158
  796. 00:22:29,380 --> 00:22:34,053
  797. Mr. McGregor, a somewhat
  798. belligerent old male,
  799. and then there was Flo,
  800.  
  801. 159
  802. 00:22:36,053 --> 00:22:40,195
  803. with her bulbous nose and
  804. ragged ears along with
  805. her infant daughter Fifi.
  806.  
  807. 160
  808. 00:22:45,195 --> 00:22:49,966
  809. Staring into
  810. the eyes of a chimpanzee,
  811. I saw a thinking,
  812.  
  813. 161
  814. 00:22:49,967 --> 00:22:53,713
  815. reasoning personality
  816. looking back.
  817.  
  818. 162
  819. 00:23:03,713 --> 00:23:08,796
  820. ♪ ♪
  821.  
  822. 163
  823. 00:23:18,796 --> 00:23:20,896
  824. ♪ ♪
  825.  
  826. 164
  827. 00:23:20,897 --> 00:23:25,939
  828. I was learning from some
  829. of the most fascinating
  830. creatures of our times.
  831.  
  832. 165
  833. 00:23:27,939 --> 00:23:30,912
  834. And I realized that they
  835. were all part of one group.
  836.  
  837. 166
  838. 00:23:34,912 --> 00:23:37,489
  839. A community.
  840.  
  841. 167
  842. 00:23:44,489 --> 00:23:46,160
  843. And the more I learned,
  844.  
  845. 168
  846. 00:23:49,160 --> 00:23:55,288
  847. the more I realized how like
  848. us they were in so many ways.
  849.  
  850. 169
  851. 00:24:17,288 --> 00:24:21,227
  852. At that time in the early
  853. 1960's it was held at
  854. least by many scientists
  855.  
  856. 170
  857. 00:24:23,227 --> 00:24:26,129
  858. that only humans had minds.
  859.  
  860. 171
  861. 00:24:26,130 --> 00:24:29,002
  862. Only humans were capable
  863. of rational thought.
  864.  
  865. 172
  866. 00:24:32,002 --> 00:24:36,144
  867. Fortunately, I had not
  868. been to university, and I
  869. did not know these things.
  870.  
  871. 173
  872. 00:24:41,144 --> 00:24:46,850
  873. I felt very much as though
  874. I was learning about fellow
  875. beings capable of joy and
  876.  
  877. 174
  878. 00:24:46,851 --> 00:24:51,510
  879. sorrow, fear, and jealousy.
  880.  
  881. 175
  882. 00:26:26,951 --> 00:26:32,588
  883. Louis Leakey sent me to Gombe
  884. because he believed that an
  885. understanding of chimpanzees
  886.  
  887. 176
  888. 00:26:32,589 --> 00:26:38,144
  889. in the wild would help him to
  890. better guess how our Stone Age
  891. ancestors may have behaved.
  892.  
  893. 177
  894. 00:26:53,144 --> 00:26:57,479
  895. It had long been thought
  896. that we were the only
  897. creatures on earth that used
  898.  
  899. 178
  900. 00:26:57,480 --> 00:26:59,817
  901. and made tools.
  902.  
  903. 179
  904. 00:27:00,817 --> 00:27:03,625
  905. Man the toolmaker is
  906. how we were defined.
  907.  
  908. 180
  909. 00:27:08,625 --> 00:27:12,304
  910. And here was David
  911. Greybeard using a tool.
  912.  
  913. 181
  914. 00:27:20,304 --> 00:27:23,844
  915. It was hard for me to
  916. believe what I had seen.
  917.  
  918. 182
  919. 00:27:26,844 --> 00:27:31,151
  920. A few days later I watched
  921. spellbound as chimps set
  922. off to a termite mound,
  923.  
  924. 183
  925. 00:27:34,151 --> 00:27:38,755
  926. picked a small leafy
  927. twig, then stripped
  928. it of its leaves.
  929.  
  930. 184
  931. 00:27:38,756 --> 00:27:41,257
  932. That was object modification.
  933.  
  934. 185
  935. 00:27:41,258 --> 00:27:43,897
  936. The crude beginning
  937. of tool making.
  938.  
  939. 186
  940. 00:27:47,897 --> 00:27:51,343
  941. It had never been seen before.
  942.  
  943. 187
  944. 00:27:59,343 --> 00:28:01,845
  945. ♪ ♪
  946.  
  947. 188
  948. 00:28:01,846 --> 00:28:07,018
  949. When I telegramed the news to
  950. Louis Leakey he responded that
  951. we must now redefine man
  952.  
  953. 189
  954. 00:28:08,018 --> 00:28:11,557
  955. or accept chimpanzee's as human.
  956.  
  957. 190
  958. 00:28:14,557 --> 00:28:18,963
  959. My observations at Gombe would
  960. challenge human uniqueness and
  961. whenever that happens...
  962.  
  963. 191
  964. 00:28:19,963 --> 00:28:22,902
  965. there is always
  966. a violent uproar.
  967.  
  968. 192
  969. 00:28:24,902 --> 00:28:28,537
  970. There were some who would try to
  971. discredit my observations
  972. because I was a young,
  973.  
  974. 193
  975. 00:28:28,538 --> 00:28:31,779
  976. untrained girl and should,
  977. therefore, be disregarded.
  978.  
  979. 194
  980. 00:28:34,779 --> 00:28:38,781
  981. The result of it all, however,
  982. was that Louis was able
  983. to obtain a grant from the
  984.  
  985. 195
  986. 00:28:38,782 --> 00:28:42,623
  987. National Geographic Society
  988. to continue my study.
  989.  
  990. 196
  991. 00:28:45,623 --> 00:28:50,294
  992. In addition, they would be
  993. sending out a photographer
  994. to document the chimpanzees.
  995.  
  996. 197
  997. 00:29:26,262 --> 00:29:28,198
  998. Hi, I'm Jane.
  999.  
  1000. 198
  1001. 00:29:28,199 --> 00:29:29,270
  1002. -Hugo
  1003.  
  1004. 199
  1005. 00:29:34,270 --> 00:29:38,274
  1006. Jane, for someone who
  1007. enjoyed your solitude,
  1008.  
  1009. 200
  1010. 00:29:38,275 --> 00:29:41,344
  1011. were you concerned
  1012. about bringing another
  1013. person into your...
  1014.  
  1015. 201
  1016. 00:29:41,345 --> 00:29:42,711
  1017. -Yeah.
  1018.  
  1019. 202
  1020. 00:29:42,712 --> 00:29:45,884
  1021. No, I wasn't
  1022. particularly happy, but
  1023. it was part of the deal.
  1024.  
  1025. 203
  1026. 00:29:46,884 --> 00:29:48,684
  1027. Geographic funds you.
  1028.  
  1029. 204
  1030. 00:29:48,685 --> 00:29:50,957
  1031. They must cover the research.
  1032.  
  1033. 205
  1034. 00:29:52,957 --> 00:29:56,392
  1035. It was my project.
  1036.  
  1037. 206
  1038. 00:29:56,393 --> 00:29:59,169
  1039. And he came to, you know,
  1040. document my project.
  1041.  
  1042. 207
  1043. 00:30:05,169 --> 00:30:09,415
  1044. And I just didn't want
  1045. anybody coming into
  1046. my little paradise.
  1047.  
  1048. 208
  1049. 00:30:19,415 --> 00:30:24,991
  1050. ♪ ♪
  1051.  
  1052. 209
  1053. 00:30:27,991 --> 00:30:30,694
  1054. What were your
  1055. first impressions of Hugo?
  1056.  
  1057. 210
  1058. 00:30:31,694 --> 00:30:34,564
  1059. -Well, Hugo smoked.
  1060.  
  1061. 211
  1062. 00:30:34,565 --> 00:30:37,501
  1063. He almost chained smoked.
  1064.  
  1065. 212
  1066. 00:30:38,501 --> 00:30:41,040
  1067. And all the butts on
  1068. the floor, oh I have
  1069. always hated smoking.
  1070.  
  1071. 213
  1072. 00:30:44,040 --> 00:30:46,508
  1073. And he was a perfectionist.
  1074.  
  1075. 214
  1076. 00:30:46,509 --> 00:30:49,513
  1077. It drove me nuts.
  1078.  
  1079. 215
  1080. 00:30:50,513 --> 00:30:55,788
  1081. But at the same time, you know,
  1082. he was a nice looking guy and
  1083. his voice was quiet.
  1084.  
  1085. 216
  1086. 00:30:58,788 --> 00:31:03,692
  1087. -The first evening Hugo
  1088. spent telling me about the
  1089. films that he'd made and his
  1090.  
  1091. 217
  1092. 00:31:03,693 --> 00:31:07,065
  1093. childhood and how he
  1094. had always wanted to
  1095. photograph animals.
  1096.  
  1097. 218
  1098. 00:31:08,065 --> 00:31:10,571
  1099. So we had a lot in common.
  1100.  
  1101. 219
  1102. 00:31:15,571 --> 00:31:21,110
  1103. And I think it was pretty
  1104. obvious to me right from the
  1105. start that I was a subject of
  1106.  
  1107. 220
  1108. 00:31:21,111 --> 00:31:23,163
  1109. interest as well as the chimps.
  1110.  
  1111. 221
  1112. 00:31:39,163 --> 00:31:42,835
  1113. One day we were greeted
  1114. with fantastic news.
  1115.  
  1116. 222
  1117. 00:31:44,835 --> 00:31:49,575
  1118. A chimp had crept into
  1119. my tent and had taken some
  1120. bananas left from my supper.
  1121.  
  1122. 223
  1123. 00:31:51,575 --> 00:31:54,247
  1124. Perhaps he would come again.
  1125.  
  1126. 224
  1127. 00:31:57,247 --> 00:32:01,829
  1128. And so the next day,
  1129. Hugo and I waited.
  1130.  
  1131. 225
  1132. 00:32:12,829 --> 00:32:16,969
  1133. As the hours went by, I
  1134. began to fear that the
  1135. chimp wouldn't come.
  1136.  
  1137. 226
  1138. 00:32:18,969 --> 00:32:23,778
  1139. Then a black shape
  1140. appeared on the other
  1141. side of the clearing.
  1142.  
  1143. 227
  1144. 00:32:27,778 --> 00:32:30,779
  1145. I recognized him at once.
  1146.  
  1147. 228
  1148. 00:32:30,780 --> 00:32:33,785
  1149. It was David Greybeard.
  1150.  
  1151. 229
  1152. 00:32:34,785 --> 00:32:37,720
  1153. I could hardly believe it.
  1154.  
  1155. 230
  1156. 00:32:37,721 --> 00:32:40,157
  1157. For months the chimps had been
  1158. running off when they saw me.
  1159.  
  1160. 231
  1161. 00:32:41,157 --> 00:32:43,067
  1162. Now one had actually
  1163. visited my camp.
  1164.  
  1165. 232
  1166. 00:32:50,067 --> 00:32:53,980
  1167. After that I always had a
  1168. supply of bananas ready.
  1169.  
  1170. 233
  1171. 00:33:02,980 --> 00:33:09,221
  1172. ♪ ♪
  1173.  
  1174. 234
  1175. 00:33:12,221 --> 00:33:15,564
  1176. The chimps often came to
  1177. camp looking for bananas.
  1178.  
  1179. 235
  1180. 00:33:20,564 --> 00:33:25,846
  1181. And gradually they allowed
  1182. me to get closer and closer.
  1183.  
  1184. 236
  1185. 00:33:35,846 --> 00:33:42,362
  1186. ♪ ♪
  1187.  
  1188. 237
  1189. 00:33:52,362 --> 00:33:56,810
  1190. ♪ ♪
  1191.  
  1192. 238
  1193. 00:34:19,422 --> 00:34:25,764
  1194. It was absolutely thrilling to
  1195. have the chimpanzees so close,
  1196.  
  1197. 239
  1198. 00:34:27,764 --> 00:34:30,681
  1199. but the bananas feedings
  1200. were not without problems.
  1201.  
  1202. 240
  1203. 00:34:47,518 --> 00:34:52,092
  1204. As they lost their fear of
  1205. us, the chimps quickly proved
  1206. to be unconscionable thieves.
  1207.  
  1208. 241
  1209. 00:34:55,092 --> 00:34:59,764
  1210. They would steal blankets,
  1211. cloths from the kitchen,
  1212. shirts and pillows,
  1213.  
  1214. 242
  1215. 00:35:00,764 --> 00:35:03,509
  1216. and cardboard boxes-
  1217. wonderful things to chew on.
  1218.  
  1219. 243
  1220. 00:35:37,000 --> 00:35:40,472
  1221. No longer did the chimpanzees
  1222. arrive in small quiet parties.
  1223.  
  1224. 244
  1225. 00:35:42,472 --> 00:35:48,877
  1226. Instead, they invaded
  1227. our camp in huge groups and
  1228. aggressive competition between
  1229.  
  1230. 245
  1231. 00:35:48,878 --> 00:35:51,257
  1232. chimpanzees increased.
  1233.  
  1234. 246
  1235. 00:36:05,661 --> 00:36:09,369
  1236. Occasionally, we
  1237. had to seek shelter.
  1238.  
  1239. 247
  1240. 00:36:13,369 --> 00:36:15,182
  1241. And the aggression
  1242. became more serious.
  1243.  
  1244. 248
  1245. 00:36:26,182 --> 00:36:31,798
  1246. ♪ ♪
  1247.  
  1248. 249
  1249. 00:36:42,798 --> 00:36:48,807
  1250. ♪ ♪
  1251.  
  1252. 250
  1253. 00:36:51,807 --> 00:36:56,882
  1254. In order to stop the
  1255. aggression, we decided to
  1256. create the feeding station.
  1257.  
  1258. 251
  1259. 00:36:58,882 --> 00:37:03,099
  1260. With the hope that it would
  1261. control their aggressive
  1262. tendencies and bring peace.
  1263.  
  1264. 252
  1265. 00:37:17,099 --> 00:37:22,077
  1266. Now, using hand operated steel
  1267. boxes we could manage the
  1268. feeding in an organized way.
  1269.  
  1270. 253
  1271. 00:37:27,077 --> 00:37:32,992
  1272. As a result, we were able
  1273. to make closer observations
  1274. than ever before.
  1275.  
  1276. 254
  1277. 00:37:41,992 --> 00:37:48,932
  1278. ♪ ♪
  1279.  
  1280. 255
  1281. 00:37:49,932 --> 00:37:53,206
  1282. Old Flo was easy to
  1283. identify, she had a bulbous
  1284. nose and ragged ears.
  1285.  
  1286. 256
  1287. 00:37:56,206 --> 00:37:59,010
  1288. Flo was the top ranked
  1289. female of her community
  1290. and could dominate all
  1291.  
  1292. 257
  1293. 00:38:00,010 --> 00:38:02,611
  1294. the other females.
  1295.  
  1296. 258
  1297. 00:38:02,612 --> 00:38:04,014
  1298. But none of the adult males.
  1299.  
  1300. 259
  1301. 00:38:05,014 --> 00:38:08,487
  1302. For in chimpanzee society
  1303. males are the dominant sex.
  1304.  
  1305. 260
  1306. 00:38:11,487 --> 00:38:14,960
  1307. One day she came to camp
  1308. with a pink swelling
  1309. on her backside.
  1310.  
  1311. 261
  1312. 00:38:16,960 --> 00:38:20,364
  1313. It was a sign that she
  1314. was ready for mating.
  1315.  
  1316. 262
  1317. 00:38:21,364 --> 00:38:25,478
  1318. Many of the males
  1319. quickly realized and
  1320. began their pursuit.
  1321.  
  1322. 263
  1323. 00:38:35,478 --> 00:38:39,521
  1324. She was followed by a
  1325. long line of suitors.
  1326.  
  1327. 264
  1328. 00:38:45,521 --> 00:38:49,558
  1329. It was from Flo
  1330. that I first learned that
  1331. in the wild female chimps do
  1332.  
  1333. 265
  1334. 00:38:49,559 --> 00:38:52,262
  1335. not just have one mate.
  1336.  
  1337. 266
  1338. 00:38:53,262 --> 00:38:55,000
  1339. She allowed them all
  1340. to mate with her.
  1341.  
  1342. 267
  1343. 00:38:57,000 --> 00:38:59,179
  1344. And Fifi hated it.
  1345.  
  1346. 268
  1347. 00:39:09,179 --> 00:39:14,894
  1348. ♪ ♪
  1349.  
  1350. 269
  1351. 00:39:24,894 --> 00:39:27,196
  1352. It must
  1353. have been exciting to have
  1354. been joined by someone who
  1355.  
  1356. 270
  1357. 00:39:27,197 --> 00:39:29,198
  1358. shared your passions.
  1359.  
  1360. 271
  1361. 00:39:29,199 --> 00:39:31,034
  1362. -No, that's right.
  1363.  
  1364. 272
  1365. 00:39:32,034 --> 00:39:36,708
  1366. We both loved being out in
  1367. nature and we both loved
  1368. the work we were doing.
  1369.  
  1370. 273
  1371. 00:39:38,708 --> 00:39:42,289
  1372. We just got on very well.
  1373.  
  1374. 274
  1375. 00:39:52,289 --> 00:39:58,304
  1376. ♪ ♪
  1377.  
  1378. 275
  1379. 00:40:08,304 --> 00:40:14,286
  1380. ♪ ♪
  1381.  
  1382. 276
  1383. 00:40:23,286 --> 00:40:27,358
  1384. ♪ ♪
  1385.  
  1386. 277
  1387. 00:40:28,358 --> 00:40:32,697
  1388. Hugo's time in Gombe
  1389. was almost over.
  1390.  
  1391. 278
  1392. 00:40:33,697 --> 00:40:37,369
  1393. I cared for him, and I
  1394. knew that I would miss him,
  1395.  
  1396. 279
  1397. 00:40:39,369 --> 00:40:43,372
  1398. but then after he had left I
  1399.  
  1400. 280
  1401. 00:40:43,373 --> 00:40:46,460
  1402. received a telegram.
  1403.  
  1404. 281
  1405. 00:41:03,460 --> 00:41:09,876
  1406. ♪ ♪
  1407.  
  1408. 282
  1409. 00:41:19,876 --> 00:41:25,923
  1410. ♪ ♪
  1411.  
  1412. 283
  1413. 00:41:33,923 --> 00:41:39,662
  1414. ♪ ♪
  1415.  
  1416. 284
  1417. 00:41:39,663 --> 00:41:44,436
  1418. When you and
  1419. Hugo decided to get married,
  1420. what were your plans?
  1421.  
  1422. 285
  1423. 00:41:46,436 --> 00:41:50,538
  1424. You know honestly, we
  1425. didn't really make long term
  1426. plans, we really didn't.
  1427.  
  1428. 286
  1429. 00:41:50,539 --> 00:41:55,960
  1430. We just wanted to go back
  1431. to Gombe and make films.
  1432.  
  1433. 287
  1434. 00:42:09,960 --> 00:42:14,800
  1435. When we returned to Gombe,
  1436. there was wonderful news.
  1437.  
  1438. 288
  1439. 00:42:16,800 --> 00:42:20,371
  1440. Flo gave birth to a son.
  1441.  
  1442. 289
  1443. 00:42:21,371 --> 00:42:24,378
  1444. I called him Flint.
  1445.  
  1446. 290
  1447. 00:42:29,378 --> 00:42:35,584
  1448. When Flint was born it gave
  1449. Hugo and I the opportunity to
  1450. initiate a study that could
  1451.  
  1452. 291
  1453. 00:42:35,585 --> 00:42:39,888
  1454. last 50 years.
  1455.  
  1456. 292
  1457. 00:42:39,889 --> 00:42:44,892
  1458. And it was the first time
  1459. an infant chimpanzee and the
  1460. relationship between parent
  1461.  
  1462. 293
  1463. 00:42:44,893 --> 00:42:48,507
  1464. and child could be observed
  1465. so closely in the wild.
  1466.  
  1467. 294
  1468. 00:42:58,507 --> 00:43:04,583
  1469. ♪ ♪
  1470.  
  1471. 295
  1472. 00:43:06,583 --> 00:43:11,623
  1473. As a mother Flo was
  1474. affectionate,
  1475. tolerant, and nurturing
  1476.  
  1477. 296
  1478. 00:43:13,623 --> 00:43:17,302
  1479. and used distraction
  1480. rather than punishment
  1481. to teach her small infant.
  1482.  
  1483. 297
  1484. 00:43:27,302 --> 00:43:32,110
  1485. ♪ ♪
  1486.  
  1487. 298
  1488. 00:43:34,110 --> 00:43:37,782
  1489. Fifi soon became
  1490. utterly preoccupied
  1491. with her infant brother.
  1492.  
  1493. 299
  1494. 00:43:39,782 --> 00:43:41,984
  1495. She tried to handle him.
  1496.  
  1497. 300
  1498. 00:43:41,985 --> 00:43:45,460
  1499. But Flo very gently
  1500. prevented her.
  1501.  
  1502. 301
  1503. 00:43:50,460 --> 00:43:55,997
  1504. Eventually though as soon as
  1505. she was allowed she played
  1506. with him, groomed him,
  1507.  
  1508. 302
  1509. 00:43:55,998 --> 00:43:58,034
  1510. and carried him around.
  1511.  
  1512. 303
  1513. 00:43:59,034 --> 00:44:02,382
  1514. Indeed, she became a
  1515. real help to her mother.
  1516.  
  1517. 304
  1518. 00:44:12,382 --> 00:44:17,663
  1519. ♪ ♪
  1520.  
  1521. 305
  1522. 00:44:26,663 --> 00:44:31,010
  1523. ♪ ♪
  1524.  
  1525. 306
  1526. 00:44:42,010 --> 00:44:47,960
  1527. ♪ ♪
  1528.  
  1529. 307
  1530. 00:44:57,960 --> 00:45:04,710
  1531. ♪ ♪
  1532.  
  1533. 308
  1534. 00:45:13,710 --> 00:45:19,579
  1535. ♪ ♪
  1536.  
  1537. 309
  1538. 00:45:49,579 --> 00:45:53,617
  1539. What was it
  1540. about Flo that you admired?
  1541.  
  1542. 310
  1543. 00:45:54,617 --> 00:45:58,422
  1544. - Well, she was all things
  1545. that a chimp mother should be.
  1546.  
  1547. 311
  1548. 00:45:59,422 --> 00:46:02,193
  1549. She was protective, but
  1550. not over protective.
  1551.  
  1552. 312
  1553. 00:46:03,193 --> 00:46:07,097
  1554. She was affectionate, she was
  1555. playful, but being supportive.
  1556.  
  1557. 313
  1558. 00:46:09,097 --> 00:46:13,535
  1559. That was the key and of course
  1560. that is what my mother was.
  1561.  
  1562. 314
  1563. 00:46:13,536 --> 00:46:18,009
  1564. She supported me.
  1565.  
  1566. 315
  1567. 00:46:20,009 --> 00:46:26,217
  1568. And there is no question that
  1569. those close contacts with
  1570. Flo and her family were very
  1571.  
  1572. 316
  1573. 00:46:27,217 --> 00:46:31,389
  1574. important to my own development.
  1575.  
  1576. 317
  1577. 00:46:33,389 --> 00:46:39,239
  1578. It was just so amazing to have
  1579. this sort of relationship.
  1580.  
  1581. 318
  1582. 00:46:49,239 --> 00:46:54,518
  1583. ♪ ♪
  1584.  
  1585. 319
  1586. 00:47:03,518 --> 00:47:08,400
  1587. ♪ ♪
  1588.  
  1589. 320
  1590. 00:47:18,400 --> 00:47:22,581
  1591. ♪ ♪
  1592.  
  1593. 321
  1594. 00:47:31,581 --> 00:47:37,529
  1595. ♪ ♪
  1596.  
  1597. 322
  1598. 00:47:46,529 --> 00:47:51,600
  1599. Together, the chimpanzees
  1600. and the birds and the insects,
  1601.  
  1602. 323
  1603. 00:47:51,601 --> 00:47:55,106
  1604. the teeming life
  1605. of the vibrant forest,
  1606. formed one whole.
  1607.  
  1608. 324
  1609. 00:47:57,106 --> 00:48:00,207
  1610. All part of the great mystery.
  1611.  
  1612. 325
  1613. 00:48:00,208 --> 00:48:03,951
  1614. And I was part of it too.
  1615.  
  1616. 326
  1617. 00:48:07,951 --> 00:48:13,123
  1618. All the time, I was
  1619. getting closer to animals
  1620. and nature and as a result,
  1621.  
  1622. 327
  1623. 00:48:15,123 --> 00:48:20,405
  1624. closer to myself and more
  1625. in tune with the spiritual
  1626. power that I felt all around.
  1627.  
  1628. 328
  1629. 00:48:30,405 --> 00:48:36,356
  1630. ♪ ♪
  1631.  
  1632. 329
  1633. 00:48:46,356 --> 00:48:51,804
  1634. ♪ ♪
  1635.  
  1636. 330
  1637. 00:49:02,804 --> 00:49:07,308
  1638. ♪ ♪
  1639.  
  1640. 331
  1641. 00:49:07,309 --> 00:49:13,817
  1642. I thought, as I have so
  1643. often since, what an amazing
  1644. privilege it was to be utterly
  1645.  
  1646. 332
  1647. 00:49:14,817 --> 00:49:18,623
  1648. accepted thus by a
  1649. wild, free animal.
  1650.  
  1651. 333
  1652. 00:49:20,623 --> 00:49:24,331
  1653. -Truth is stranger than
  1654. fiction and fiction can be
  1655. transformed into prophecy.
  1656.  
  1657. 334
  1658. 00:49:28,331 --> 00:49:32,466
  1659. Here we have a perfect example
  1660. of that evolution, with this
  1661. lovely English lady called
  1662.  
  1663. 335
  1664. 00:49:32,467 --> 00:49:37,973
  1665. Jane and likewise traded her
  1666. comfortable home in England
  1667. for the primitive life of the
  1668.  
  1669. 336
  1670. 00:49:37,974 --> 00:49:40,710
  1671. African wilderness
  1672. among the African apes.
  1673.  
  1674. 337
  1675. 00:49:41,710 --> 00:49:43,988
  1676. And now I give myself
  1677. the rewarding pleasure
  1678. of presenting to you
  1679.  
  1680. 338
  1681. 00:49:44,012 --> 00:49:45,550
  1682. Miss Jane Goodall.
  1683.  
  1684. 339
  1685. 00:49:47,550 --> 00:49:50,510
  1686. David Graybeard is
  1687. a chimpanzee who has put
  1688. his complete trust in man.
  1689.  
  1690. 340
  1691. 00:49:51,154 --> 00:49:56,725
  1692. Surely it's up to us to see
  1693. that at least some of these
  1694. nearly human creatures survive
  1695.  
  1696. 341
  1697. 00:49:56,726 --> 00:49:58,005
  1698. in their natural habitat.
  1699.  
  1700. 342
  1701. 00:50:10,005 --> 00:50:12,540
  1702. - Jane Goodall tall,
  1703. blonde and beautiful.
  1704.  
  1705. 343
  1706. 00:50:12,541 --> 00:50:15,512
  1707. Jane Goodall living
  1708. with the chimpanzees in
  1709. the wilds of Africa...
  1710.  
  1711. 344
  1712. 00:50:16,512 --> 00:50:19,046
  1713. I was the
  1714. Geographic covergirl.
  1715.  
  1716. 345
  1717. 00:50:19,047 --> 00:50:21,850
  1718. And people said well my
  1719. fame was due to my legs.
  1720.  
  1721. 346
  1722. 00:50:21,851 --> 00:50:25,123
  1723. Well, I mean, it was so
  1724. stupid, it didn't bother me.
  1725.  
  1726. 347
  1727. 00:50:27,123 --> 00:50:31,027
  1728. It was really very useful
  1729. because by this time I was
  1730. needing to raise money myself,
  1731.  
  1732. 348
  1733. 00:50:32,027 --> 00:50:34,699
  1734. so I made use of it.
  1735.  
  1736. 349
  1737. 00:50:36,699 --> 00:50:40,201
  1738. Hugo and
  1739. I successfully applied
  1740. for additional funding,
  1741.  
  1742. 350
  1743. 00:50:40,202 --> 00:50:42,740
  1744. to build up a research
  1745. station in Gombe.
  1746.  
  1747. 351
  1748. 00:50:45,740 --> 00:50:50,880
  1749. And we accepted students so
  1750. that we could take advantage
  1751. of the increased opportunity
  1752.  
  1753. 352
  1754. 00:50:51,880 --> 00:50:54,550
  1755. for collecting data.
  1756.  
  1757. 353
  1758. 00:50:55,550 --> 00:50:58,085
  1759. Jane Goodall
  1760. came back from Africa just
  1761. a few weeks ago.
  1762.  
  1763. 354
  1764. 00:50:58,086 --> 00:51:00,646
  1765. Since then, she's been
  1766. traveling around Europe
  1767. and across America,
  1768.  
  1769. 355
  1770. 00:51:01,257 --> 00:51:03,225
  1771. telling zoologists.
  1772.  
  1773. 356
  1774. 00:51:03,226 --> 00:51:06,895
  1775. It is a very great
  1776. pleasure for Hugo and me
  1777. to be with you here tonight.
  1778.  
  1779. 357
  1780. 00:51:06,896 --> 00:51:08,296
  1781. -Dr. Goodall and her husband
  1782.  
  1783. 358
  1784. 00:51:08,297 --> 00:51:09,997
  1785. have been filming
  1786. and studying...
  1787.  
  1788. 359
  1789. 00:51:09,998 --> 00:51:14,903
  1790. -Hugo, a Dutchman, came
  1791. to Africa to film her studies
  1792. and they later married.
  1793.  
  1794. 360
  1795. 00:51:14,904 --> 00:51:18,806
  1796. -She and her Husband, Baron
  1797. Hugo van Lawick, are now the
  1798. leading experts in the study
  1799.  
  1800. 361
  1801. 00:51:18,807 --> 00:51:22,579
  1802. of chimpanzees, their research
  1803. station in Gombe in Tanzania.
  1804.  
  1805. 362
  1806. 00:51:23,579 --> 00:51:25,913
  1807. -I am absolutely
  1808. full of admiration for
  1809. somebody who can go and live
  1810.  
  1811. 363
  1812. 00:51:25,914 --> 00:51:28,616
  1813. alone in a jungle and do this
  1814. sort of work that you did.
  1815.  
  1816. 364
  1817. 00:51:28,617 --> 00:51:30,685
  1818. Were you ever really
  1819. very frightened?
  1820.  
  1821. 365
  1822. 00:51:30,686 --> 00:51:33,921
  1823. -Sometimes I was
  1824. frightened especially
  1825. of things like leopards,
  1826.  
  1827. 366
  1828. 00:51:33,922 --> 00:51:37,826
  1829. but it was the
  1830. kind of life I had always
  1831. dreamed of myself living.
  1832.  
  1833. 367
  1834. 00:51:37,827 --> 00:51:41,597
  1835. And it was so fascinating
  1836. that nothing could deter me.
  1837.  
  1838. 368
  1839. 00:51:42,597 --> 00:51:45,434
  1840. What about
  1841. the actual significance
  1842. of the studies?
  1843.  
  1844. 369
  1845. 00:51:46,434 --> 00:51:51,772
  1846. We feel quite strongly
  1847. that one of the goals
  1848. of continuing work is to
  1849.  
  1850. 370
  1851. 00:51:51,773 --> 00:51:56,447
  1852. increasingly relate our
  1853. understanding of chimpanzee
  1854. behavior to human behavior.
  1855.  
  1856. 371
  1857. 00:51:58,447 --> 00:52:01,327
  1858. How long are
  1859. you going to be associated
  1860. with the chimpanzees?
  1861.  
  1862. 372
  1863. 00:52:02,050 --> 00:52:05,352
  1864. Oh I should say it's
  1865. a rough guess until I die,
  1866. but I can't tell you how
  1867.  
  1868. 373
  1869. 00:52:05,353 --> 00:52:07,858
  1870. many years that will be.
  1871.  
  1872. 374
  1873. 00:52:09,858 --> 00:52:13,138
  1874. But I think one of the most
  1875. valuable things has been this
  1876. film record which has been
  1877.  
  1878. 375
  1879. 00:52:14,030 --> 00:52:18,668
  1880. kept and we are hoping
  1881. that Hugo will be able to
  1882. come back and carry on.
  1883.  
  1884. 376
  1885. 00:52:19,668 --> 00:52:22,671
  1886. Especially as the
  1887. last three months gave
  1888. such fantastic film,
  1889.  
  1890. 377
  1891. 00:52:22,672 --> 00:52:24,805
  1892. better than all the
  1893. rest put together.
  1894.  
  1895. 378
  1896. 00:52:24,806 --> 00:52:28,655
  1897. It seems to me vitally
  1898. important that somebody
  1899. should be there.
  1900.  
  1901. 379
  1902. 00:52:39,655 --> 00:52:42,695
  1903. -Unless there is something
  1904. else to discuss we
  1905. will adjourn the meeting.
  1906.  
  1907. 380
  1908. 00:52:45,695 --> 00:52:48,565
  1909. - Geographic ended the funding
  1910. for Hugo just like that.
  1911.  
  1912. 381
  1913. 00:52:50,565 --> 00:52:53,767
  1914. But it was
  1915. always an assignment and
  1916. assignments when you're a
  1917.  
  1918. 382
  1919. 00:52:53,768 --> 00:52:56,407
  1920. cameraman come to an end.
  1921.  
  1922. 383
  1923. 00:52:58,407 --> 00:53:02,713
  1924. It was very upsetting,
  1925. unfortunate and sad.
  1926.  
  1927. 384
  1928. 00:53:03,713 --> 00:53:06,513
  1929. And it was like,
  1930. well what do we do?
  1931. You know, how do we?
  1932.  
  1933. 385
  1934. 00:53:06,514 --> 00:53:09,018
  1935. Cause I wanted to go on
  1936. at Gombe and he couldn't.
  1937.  
  1938. 386
  1939. 00:53:10,018 --> 00:53:13,592
  1940. It was simple like that.
  1941.  
  1942. 387
  1943. 00:53:16,592 --> 00:53:20,802
  1944. So then I had to change
  1945. everything actually.
  1946.  
  1947. 388
  1948. 00:53:27,802 --> 00:53:33,378
  1949. We had to find other work to
  1950. do, which we did of course.
  1951.  
  1952. 389
  1953. 00:53:36,378 --> 00:53:38,322
  1954. On the Serengeti.
  1955.  
  1956. 390
  1957. 00:53:46,322 --> 00:53:51,225
  1958. We had students at Gombe
  1959. and we used to talk to them on
  1960. the radio telephone just about
  1961.  
  1962. 391
  1963. 00:53:51,226 --> 00:53:53,730
  1964. every day I think.
  1965.  
  1966. 392
  1967. 00:53:54,730 --> 00:53:59,943
  1968. So I would write books,
  1969. and Hugo would make films.
  1970.  
  1971. 393
  1972. 00:54:08,943 --> 00:54:15,619
  1973. ♪ ♪
  1974.  
  1975. 394
  1976. 00:54:17,619 --> 00:54:21,257
  1977. Was it difficult
  1978. for you to not be at Gombe?
  1979.  
  1980. 395
  1981. 00:54:22,257 --> 00:54:26,995
  1982. Well, because I had a
  1983. jolly good team of students
  1984. at Gombe and I heard what
  1985.  
  1986. 396
  1987. 00:54:26,996 --> 00:54:31,771
  1988. was happening all the time,
  1989. it wasn't too bad at all.
  1990.  
  1991. 397
  1992. 00:54:36,771 --> 00:54:40,642
  1993. I had all this
  1994. finding out to do.
  1995.  
  1996. 398
  1997. 00:54:40,643 --> 00:54:46,381
  1998. So, I was getting on with
  1999. writing and I was able to
  2000. watch other animals and that
  2001.  
  2002. 399
  2003. 00:54:46,382 --> 00:54:49,119
  2004. gave me a wider perspective.
  2005.  
  2006. 400
  2007. 00:54:51,119 --> 00:54:55,568
  2008. I understood more
  2009. animals better than if
  2010. I hadn't left Gombe.
  2011.  
  2012. 401
  2013. 00:55:05,568 --> 00:55:11,648
  2014. ♪ ♪
  2015.  
  2016. 402
  2017. 00:55:20,648 --> 00:55:24,819
  2018. ♪ ♪
  2019.  
  2020. 403
  2021. 00:55:24,820 --> 00:55:30,558
  2022. From the moment when we stood
  2023. on the Serengeti plains, it
  2024. had been as though an unseen
  2025.  
  2026. 404
  2027. 00:55:30,559 --> 00:55:33,235
  2028. hand had drawn back a curtain.
  2029.  
  2030. 405
  2031. 00:55:39,235 --> 00:55:42,275
  2032. The mystery of evolution
  2033. was all around us.
  2034.  
  2035. 406
  2036. 00:55:47,275 --> 00:55:51,222
  2037. I was awed by the beauty.
  2038.  
  2039. 407
  2040. 00:56:01,222 --> 00:56:07,373
  2041. ♪ ♪
  2042.  
  2043. 408
  2044. 00:56:17,373 --> 00:56:22,623
  2045. ♪ ♪
  2046.  
  2047. 409
  2048. 00:56:34,623 --> 00:56:38,459
  2049. We didn't sit
  2050. down and talk about
  2051. shall we have children or
  2052.  
  2053. 410
  2054. 00:56:38,460 --> 00:56:40,727
  2055. anything like that.
  2056.  
  2057. 411
  2058. 00:56:40,728 --> 00:56:43,235
  2059. But Grub came along
  2060. so, that was that.
  2061.  
  2062. 412
  2063. 00:56:46,235 --> 00:56:49,937
  2064. It was just one of the things
  2065. that happened, you know.
  2066.  
  2067. 413
  2068. 00:56:49,938 --> 00:56:53,112
  2069. You got married and you got
  2070. pregnant, and you had a baby.
  2071.  
  2072. 414
  2073. 00:56:57,112 --> 00:57:02,616
  2074. I don't remember contemplating
  2075. what this would do
  2076. to me, what it would do to us,
  2077.  
  2078. 415
  2079. 00:57:02,617 --> 00:57:08,958
  2080. how it would be, but the
  2081. idea of having a baby after
  2082. Flo had a baby and I thought
  2083.  
  2084. 416
  2085. 00:57:09,958 --> 00:57:13,362
  2086. I would watch my baby and
  2087. see the difference.
  2088.  
  2089. 417
  2090. 00:57:14,362 --> 00:57:18,610
  2091. And of course, Grub would
  2092. be with us on the Serengeti.
  2093.  
  2094. 418
  2095. 00:57:27,610 --> 00:57:32,513
  2096. I had planned to do a
  2097. decent study and keep
  2098. notes and everything,
  2099.  
  2100. 419
  2101. 00:57:32,514 --> 00:57:36,286
  2102. watching for the development
  2103. stages in Grub, just as
  2104. I had done with the chimps.
  2105.  
  2106. 420
  2107. 00:57:38,286 --> 00:57:43,223
  2108. And catching it on film
  2109. seemed a jolly good idea,
  2110. but it doesn't work with
  2111.  
  2112. 421
  2113. 00:57:43,224 --> 00:57:46,660
  2114. your own child.
  2115.  
  2116. 422
  2117. 00:57:46,661 --> 00:57:49,861
  2118. I just found that I didn't
  2119. want to do it, I wanted just
  2120. to be there in the moment.
  2121.  
  2122. 423
  2123. 00:57:53,235 --> 00:57:58,640
  2124. For the first three years
  2125. of his life, I wasn't
  2126. away one single night.
  2127.  
  2128. 424
  2129. 00:57:58,641 --> 00:58:02,646
  2130. I was always there.
  2131.  
  2132. 425
  2133. 00:58:04,646 --> 00:58:09,186
  2134. Of course, like all mothers,
  2135. I wanted to give my son the
  2136. best possible start in life,
  2137.  
  2138. 426
  2139. 00:58:11,186 --> 00:58:14,090
  2140. and I had to choose between
  2141. various sources of advice.
  2142.  
  2143. 427
  2144. 00:58:16,090 --> 00:58:21,070
  2145. There was my own mother,
  2146. there was Dr. Spock,
  2147. and there was Flo.
  2148.  
  2149. 428
  2150. 00:58:29,070 --> 00:58:32,339
  2151. There is no doubt that
  2152. my observations of the
  2153. chimpanzees helped me to
  2154.  
  2155. 429
  2156. 00:58:32,340 --> 00:58:35,042
  2157. be a better mother.
  2158.  
  2159. 430
  2160. 00:58:35,043 --> 00:58:39,546
  2161. But I found also that the
  2162. experience of being myself
  2163. a mother helped me better
  2164.  
  2165. 431
  2166. 00:58:39,547 --> 00:58:43,853
  2167. understand chimpanzee
  2168. maternal behavior.
  2169.  
  2170. 432
  2171. 00:58:44,853 --> 00:58:48,522
  2172. It was not until
  2173. Grub came along, for example,
  2174. that I began to understand
  2175.  
  2176. 433
  2177. 00:58:48,523 --> 00:58:51,760
  2178. the basic powerful
  2179. instincts of mother love.
  2180.  
  2181. 434
  2182. 00:58:52,760 --> 00:58:56,599
  2183. How much more easily I could
  2184. now understand the feelings
  2185. of a chimpanzee mother who
  2186.  
  2187. 435
  2188. 00:58:57,599 --> 00:59:02,072
  2189. furiously waved her
  2190. arms and barked out threats
  2191. to any who approached her
  2192.  
  2193. 436
  2194. 00:59:03,072 --> 00:59:06,813
  2195. infant too closely.
  2196.  
  2197. 437
  2198. 00:59:10,813 --> 00:59:15,784
  2199. When Grub was little,
  2200. it was dangerous
  2201. for him at Gombe.
  2202.  
  2203. 438
  2204. 00:59:16,784 --> 00:59:20,224
  2205. Chimpanzees eat other primates.
  2206.  
  2207. 439
  2208. 00:59:22,224 --> 00:59:23,957
  2209. We are a primate.
  2210.  
  2211. 440
  2212. 00:59:23,958 --> 00:59:26,130
  2213. They have been known
  2214. to take infant humans.
  2215.  
  2216. 441
  2217. 00:59:28,130 --> 00:59:31,967
  2218. I wasn't going to risk
  2219. my little precious son.
  2220.  
  2221. 442
  2222. 00:59:32,967 --> 00:59:36,572
  2223. So when we went to
  2224. Gombe, it was a cage.
  2225.  
  2226. 443
  2227. 00:59:37,572 --> 00:59:41,779
  2228. It had been made at a time
  2229. when some of the chimps became
  2230. very aggressive towards Hugo.
  2231.  
  2232. 444
  2233. 00:59:43,779 --> 00:59:46,815
  2234. And so Grub sat in a cage.
  2235.  
  2236. 445
  2237. 00:59:47,815 --> 00:59:51,055
  2238. But it was painted blue and
  2239. there were mobiles hanging
  2240. down and it was very lovely.
  2241.  
  2242. 446
  2243. 00:59:56,958 --> 01:00:02,118
  2244. I had thought that I could
  2245. raise a child and carry on
  2246. with my work at the same time.
  2247.  
  2248. 447
  2249. 01:00:03,297 --> 01:00:05,300
  2250. It was not so.
  2251.  
  2252. 448
  2253. 01:00:06,300 --> 01:00:10,043
  2254. I stopped following the
  2255. chimps; the students and
  2256. field staff did that.
  2257.  
  2258. 449
  2259. 01:00:14,043 --> 01:00:17,182
  2260. I merely administered
  2261. the research station.
  2262.  
  2263. 450
  2264. 01:00:21,182 --> 01:00:25,889
  2265. Eventually, we spent the
  2266. bulk of our time working
  2267. on the Serengeti.
  2268.  
  2269. 451
  2270. 01:00:26,889 --> 01:00:33,798
  2271. I was Hugo's assistant
  2272. and I was mother to Grub.
  2273.  
  2274. 452
  2275. 01:00:36,798 --> 01:00:39,634
  2276. From Nairobi,
  2277. in a small bush plane
  2278. it's a two hour flight to
  2279.  
  2280. 453
  2281. 01:00:39,635 --> 01:00:41,535
  2282. en Dudu Tanzania.
  2283.  
  2284. 454
  2285. 01:00:41,536 --> 01:00:44,404
  2286. Our purpose was to meet Grub,
  2287. the three and a half year old
  2288.  
  2289. 455
  2290. 01:00:44,405 --> 01:00:46,908
  2291. son of Doctor Jane Goodall
  2292. and Hugo van Lawick.
  2293.  
  2294. 456
  2295. 01:00:46,909 --> 01:00:51,313
  2296. Born and raised in Africa,
  2297. who speaks to animals,
  2298. English to his parents,
  2299.  
  2300. 457
  2301. 01:00:52,313 --> 01:00:56,485
  2302. and perfect Swahili
  2303. to his only playmate,
  2304. a 40-year-old African.
  2305.  
  2306. 458
  2307. 01:00:57,485 --> 01:00:59,725
  2308. This child has spent
  2309. three quarters of
  2310. his life in Africa,
  2311.  
  2312. 459
  2313. 01:01:00,188 --> 01:01:01,756
  2314. and I don't mean in
  2315. a Nairobian cities.
  2316.  
  2317. 460
  2318. 01:01:01,757 --> 01:01:03,890
  2319. I mean in really remote areas.
  2320.  
  2321. 461
  2322. 01:01:03,891 --> 01:01:06,993
  2323. You'll make a sound for me?
  2324.  
  2325. 462
  2326. 01:01:06,994 --> 01:01:09,196
  2327. -What does a zebra say, Grub?
  2328.  
  2329. 463
  2330. 01:01:10,599 --> 01:01:11,679
  2331. A bit louder. That's right.
  2332.  
  2333. 464
  2334. 01:01:12,000 --> 01:01:13,734
  2335. And what about a hyena?
  2336.  
  2337. 465
  2338. 01:01:15,436 --> 01:01:16,504
  2339. That's a beauty.
  2340.  
  2341. 466
  2342. 01:01:16,505 --> 01:01:17,538
  2343. Now lion?
  2344.  
  2345. 467
  2346. 01:01:19,173 --> 01:01:21,509
  2347. Tell me
  2348. some stories about raising
  2349. the child here, Hugo.
  2350.  
  2351. 468
  2352. 01:01:21,510 --> 01:01:25,178
  2353. -Well, one of the first things
  2354. we had to do when he was tiny
  2355. was teach him of the dangers in
  2356.  
  2357. 469
  2358. 01:01:25,179 --> 01:01:29,783
  2359. the bush, so we showed them
  2360. to him and say, "Ow, ow," and
  2361. teach him that he was to stay
  2362.  
  2363. 470
  2364. 01:01:29,784 --> 01:01:31,518
  2365. away from these animals.
  2366.  
  2367. 471
  2368. 01:01:31,519 --> 01:01:34,355
  2369. Did you
  2370. learn anything from watching
  2371. chimps and raising children?
  2372.  
  2373. 472
  2374. 01:01:34,356 --> 01:01:36,556
  2375. I'm told that a chimp baby
  2376. is just given so much love.
  2377.  
  2378. 473
  2379. 01:01:36,557 --> 01:01:39,359
  2380. Is that a good, do you
  2381. think you could transfer
  2382. that to our lives?
  2383.  
  2384. 474
  2385. 01:01:39,360 --> 01:01:41,395
  2386. Does it have a meaning?
  2387.  
  2388. 475
  2389. 01:01:41,396 --> 01:01:44,531
  2390. -With Grub, we gave him
  2391. immense amounts of love and
  2392. security, and everyone said,
  2393.  
  2394. 476
  2395. 01:01:44,532 --> 01:01:46,366
  2396. "Oh, he'll be so
  2397. dependent on you.
  2398.  
  2399. 477
  2400. 01:01:46,367 --> 01:01:48,201
  2401. He'll never make his
  2402. own way in the world."
  2403.  
  2404. 478
  2405. 01:01:48,202 --> 01:01:50,705
  2406. It seems to myself,
  2407. the opposite.
  2408.  
  2409. 479
  2410. 01:01:50,706 --> 01:01:52,973
  2411. When
  2412. he reaches six, Grublin
  2413. will have to be taken to
  2414.  
  2415. 480
  2416. 01:01:52,974 --> 01:01:54,609
  2417. England for schooling.
  2418.  
  2419. 481
  2420. 01:01:54,610 --> 01:01:57,779
  2421. I hope, in the process
  2422. of being educated,
  2423. he never forgets what he
  2424.  
  2425. 482
  2426. 01:01:57,780 --> 01:01:59,557
  2427. has already learned.
  2428.  
  2429. 483
  2430. 01:02:09,557 --> 01:02:15,740
  2431. ♪ ♪
  2432.  
  2433. 484
  2434. 01:02:25,740 --> 01:02:29,253
  2435. ♪ ♪
  2436.  
  2437. 485
  2438. 01:02:38,253 --> 01:02:42,256
  2439. ♪ ♪
  2440.  
  2441. 486
  2442. 01:02:42,257 --> 01:02:45,862
  2443. Hello, hello, hello.
  2444. Anynews with you? Any news
  2445. with you? Over.
  2446.  
  2447. 487
  2448. 01:02:47,862 --> 01:02:50,931
  2449. <i>- I just talked to and I think they are coming.
  2450. -  Over.</i>
  2451.  
  2452. 488
  2453. 01:02:50,932 --> 01:02:55,770
  2454. Ok, ok,
  2455. have received you.
  2456.  
  2457. 489
  2458. 01:02:55,771 --> 01:02:58,605
  2459. I'll be joining you soon.
  2460.  
  2461. 490
  2462. 01:02:58,606 --> 01:03:00,512
  2463. Over and out, over and out.
  2464.  
  2465. 491
  2466. 01:03:35,677 --> 01:03:41,820
  2467. ♪ ♪
  2468.  
  2469. 492
  2470. 01:03:44,820 --> 01:03:47,821
  2471. It was a horrible time,
  2472. one after the other.
  2473.  
  2474. 493
  2475. 01:03:47,822 --> 01:03:50,764
  2476. Chimpanzees came
  2477. in, dragging limbs.
  2478.  
  2479. 494
  2480. 01:03:56,764 --> 01:03:59,836
  2481. Some of them were okay.
  2482.  
  2483. 495
  2484. 01:04:01,836 --> 01:04:06,179
  2485. But McGregor, both legs gone.
  2486.  
  2487. 496
  2488. 01:04:11,179 --> 01:04:15,192
  2489. Unable to use even one arm.
  2490.  
  2491. 497
  2492. 01:04:24,192 --> 01:04:29,802
  2493. ♪ ♪
  2494.  
  2495. 498
  2496. 01:04:34,802 --> 01:04:37,547
  2497. It was awful.
  2498.  
  2499. 499
  2500. 01:04:45,547 --> 01:04:49,716
  2501. We immediately found that we
  2502. could vaccinate the chimps.
  2503.  
  2504. 500
  2505. 01:04:49,717 --> 01:04:54,898
  2506. It was a bit late, but
  2507. maybe it would have
  2508. gone on if we hadn't.
  2509.  
  2510. 501
  2511. 01:05:03,898 --> 01:05:10,677
  2512. But, McGregor, he
  2513. had to be shot.
  2514.  
  2515. 502
  2516. 01:05:16,677 --> 01:05:19,680
  2517. Did someone say,
  2518. "Let nature take its course?"
  2519.  
  2520. 503
  2521. 01:05:19,681 --> 01:05:21,281
  2522. -Sorry.
  2523.  
  2524. 504
  2525. 01:05:21,282 --> 01:05:23,652
  2526. I didn't care what anybody said.
  2527.  
  2528. 505
  2529. 01:05:24,652 --> 01:05:28,122
  2530. I was going to help
  2531. the chimps if I could.
  2532.  
  2533. 506
  2534. 01:05:28,123 --> 01:05:32,859
  2535. I couldn't watch an animal
  2536. suffering anymore than I
  2537. could watch a human suffering
  2538.  
  2539. 507
  2540. 01:05:32,860 --> 01:05:34,627
  2541. and not help if I could.
  2542.  
  2543. 508
  2544. 01:05:34,628 --> 01:05:37,768
  2545. I see no difference
  2546. between helping a human
  2547. and helping an animal.
  2548.  
  2549. 509
  2550. 01:05:40,768 --> 01:05:43,971
  2551. I mean, yes we could
  2552. have gone on and fed him
  2553. everyday and kept him alive
  2554.  
  2555. 510
  2556. 01:05:43,972 --> 01:05:46,874
  2557. for what reason?
  2558.  
  2559. 511
  2560. 01:05:46,875 --> 01:05:50,018
  2561. To be honest, if that
  2562. happens to me, I do not wish
  2563. to be kept alive either.
  2564.  
  2565. 512
  2566. 01:05:56,018 --> 01:05:59,621
  2567. Were you
  2568. ever concerned that you
  2569. might've carried it in?
  2570.  
  2571. 513
  2572. 01:06:00,621 --> 01:06:02,156
  2573. -No.
  2574.  
  2575. 514
  2576. 01:06:02,157 --> 01:06:05,527
  2577. The first examples of polio
  2578. were not from our chimps.
  2579.  
  2580. 515
  2581. 01:06:06,527 --> 01:06:10,666
  2582. They were way to the
  2583. south, and that's where
  2584. the human polio was.
  2585.  
  2586. 516
  2587. 01:06:11,666 --> 01:06:14,834
  2588. So I didn't feel responsible
  2589. for introducing it.
  2590.  
  2591. 517
  2592. 01:06:14,835 --> 01:06:19,541
  2593. Although, for sure, it
  2594. could pass on more because
  2595. they were coming together.
  2596.  
  2597. 518
  2598. 01:06:20,541 --> 01:06:25,019
  2599. But it didn't start
  2600. with us which was very
  2601. reassuring, actually.
  2602.  
  2603. 519
  2604. 01:06:32,019 --> 01:06:38,534
  2605. After the incident, it
  2606. was no longer permitted
  2607. to touch the chimpanzees.
  2608.  
  2609. 520
  2610. 01:06:45,534 --> 01:06:50,547
  2611. Gombe would never
  2612. be quite the same.
  2613.  
  2614. 521
  2615. 01:06:59,547 --> 01:07:04,353
  2616. ♪ ♪
  2617.  
  2618. 522
  2619. 01:07:05,353 --> 01:07:09,256
  2620. I wanted nothing more than
  2621. to be with the chimpanzees,
  2622. and I made the decision
  2623.  
  2624. 523
  2625. 01:07:09,257 --> 01:07:12,695
  2626. to spend more time in Gombe.
  2627.  
  2628. 524
  2629. 01:07:13,695 --> 01:07:16,796
  2630. Grub stayed with me.
  2631.  
  2632. 525
  2633. 01:07:16,797 --> 01:07:20,235
  2634. So in the morning, I
  2635. would do analysis of
  2636. data, administration,
  2637.  
  2638. 526
  2639. 01:07:21,235 --> 01:07:23,803
  2640. that sort of thing.
  2641.  
  2642. 527
  2643. 01:07:23,804 --> 01:07:28,110
  2644. Then I would spend about one
  2645. to two hours up in a chimp
  2646. camp with the students and
  2647.  
  2648. 528
  2649. 01:07:29,110 --> 01:07:33,546
  2650. looking at the chimps.
  2651.  
  2652. 529
  2653. 01:07:33,547 --> 01:07:36,956
  2654. And then every afternoon
  2655. was his, totally.
  2656.  
  2657. 530
  2658. 01:07:40,956 --> 01:07:43,290
  2659. And he
  2660. loved chimpanzees?
  2661.  
  2662. 531
  2663. 01:07:43,291 --> 01:07:46,161
  2664. - No, he did not.
  2665. He hated them.
  2666.  
  2667. 532
  2668. 01:07:47,161 --> 01:07:50,969
  2669. He's never loved chimpanzees.
  2670.  
  2671. 533
  2672. 01:07:57,172 --> 01:08:02,576
  2673. I tried to homeschool him.
  2674.  
  2675. 534
  2676. 01:08:04,945 --> 01:08:08,851
  2677. I felt a bit isolated
  2678. at that time.
  2679.  
  2680. 535
  2681. 01:08:09,851 --> 01:08:13,087
  2682. But there were always one
  2683. or two students who would
  2684. come along and provide
  2685.  
  2686. 536
  2687. 01:08:13,088 --> 01:08:18,194
  2688. that sort of, you know,
  2689. emotional support that I think
  2690. sometimes is very important.
  2691.  
  2692. 537
  2693. 01:08:20,194 --> 01:08:25,770
  2694. And of course Hugo was away
  2695. somewhere else filming so he
  2696. wasn't there to, to help.
  2697.  
  2698. 538
  2699. 01:08:28,770 --> 01:08:32,641
  2700. I mean that was
  2701. the deal, that was his work.
  2702.  
  2703. 539
  2704. 01:09:07,641 --> 01:09:13,091
  2705. ♪ ♪
  2706.  
  2707. 540
  2708. 01:09:23,091 --> 01:09:28,073
  2709. ♪ ♪
  2710.  
  2711. 541
  2712. 01:09:38,073 --> 01:09:43,921
  2713. ♪ ♪
  2714.  
  2715. 542
  2716. 01:09:52,921 --> 01:09:58,430
  2717. ♪ ♪
  2718.  
  2719. 543
  2720. 01:10:03,430 --> 01:10:06,604
  2721. Flint was now an adolescent.
  2722.  
  2723. 544
  2724. 01:10:10,604 --> 01:10:14,216
  2725. And old Flo, she was
  2726. now a grandmother.
  2727.  
  2728. 545
  2729. 01:10:22,216 --> 01:10:25,887
  2730. Fifi had an infant of her own.
  2731.  
  2732. 546
  2733. 01:10:26,887 --> 01:10:31,600
  2734. A new generation of
  2735. Flo's family to study.
  2736.  
  2737. 547
  2738. 01:10:38,600 --> 01:10:42,903
  2739. But even though he was at
  2740. an age, when most males begin
  2741. to spend time away from their
  2742.  
  2743. 548
  2744. 01:10:42,904 --> 01:10:47,414
  2745. mothers, Flint was
  2746. still dependent on Flo.
  2747.  
  2748. 549
  2749. 01:10:53,414 --> 01:10:57,917
  2750. By this time she must've
  2751. been close to 50 years old.
  2752.  
  2753. 550
  2754. 01:10:57,918 --> 01:11:00,990
  2755. But Flint insisted
  2756. on riding her back.
  2757.  
  2758. 551
  2759. 01:11:02,990 --> 01:11:06,628
  2760. Flint was still suckling.
  2761.  
  2762. 552
  2763. 01:11:07,628 --> 01:11:12,433
  2764. Flo would push him away, and
  2765. he cried, and he screamed,
  2766. and he got very, very clingy
  2767.  
  2768. 553
  2769. 01:11:12,434 --> 01:11:14,275
  2770. and very, very dependent.
  2771.  
  2772. 554
  2773. 01:11:21,275 --> 01:11:24,457
  2774. She was too old to push
  2775. him to independence.
  2776.  
  2777. 555
  2778. 01:11:35,457 --> 01:11:41,394
  2779. You more than
  2780. anyone knew the importance
  2781. of socialization,
  2782.  
  2783. 556
  2784. 01:11:41,395 --> 01:11:44,332
  2785. were you concerned about Grub?
  2786.  
  2787. 557
  2788. 01:11:45,332 --> 01:11:50,506
  2789. -Well, Grub was school
  2790. age, and I couldn't go on
  2791. homeschooling him anymore.
  2792.  
  2793. 558
  2794. 01:11:52,506 --> 01:11:56,654
  2795. So, it was decided that
  2796. he would start school in
  2797. England and live with Mom.
  2798.  
  2799. 559
  2800. 01:12:07,654 --> 01:12:12,559
  2801. And I quite well remember
  2802. when I had to leave him.
  2803.  
  2804. 560
  2805. 01:12:12,560 --> 01:12:15,533
  2806. And how awful and
  2807. betraying I felt.
  2808.  
  2809. 561
  2810. 01:12:18,533 --> 01:12:22,208
  2811. But, it was better for Grub.
  2812.  
  2813. 562
  2814. 01:12:28,208 --> 01:12:31,579
  2815. In Christmas and Spring,
  2816. I went to the UK.
  2817.  
  2818. 563
  2819. 01:12:32,579 --> 01:12:36,189
  2820. In the summer,
  2821. he came out to Tanzania.
  2822.  
  2823. 564
  2824. 01:12:41,189 --> 01:12:45,528
  2825. Back at Gombe
  2826. now, Dr. Goodall, what kind
  2827. of enterprise is it today?
  2828.  
  2829. 565
  2830. 01:12:46,528 --> 01:12:49,198
  2831. - Well today, it's the Gombe
  2832. Stream Research Center.
  2833.  
  2834. 566
  2835. 01:12:51,198 --> 01:12:56,068
  2836. There are anything between
  2837. six and twelve scientists
  2838. working on different aspects
  2839.  
  2840. 567
  2841. 01:12:56,069 --> 01:12:58,572
  2842. of chimp or baboon behavior.
  2843.  
  2844. 568
  2845. 01:12:58,573 --> 01:13:02,809
  2846. And there are also students
  2847. studying for their PhD degrees
  2848. or doing postdoctoral work on
  2849.  
  2850. 569
  2851. 01:13:02,810 --> 01:13:06,580
  2852. specific aspects
  2853. of chimp behavior, which
  2854. is you know, quite a big
  2855.  
  2856. 570
  2857. 01:13:06,581 --> 01:13:09,893
  2858. little scientific community.
  2859.  
  2860. 571
  2861. 01:13:18,893 --> 01:13:23,740
  2862. ♪ ♪
  2863.  
  2864. 572
  2865. 01:13:33,740 --> 01:13:39,423
  2866. ♪ ♪
  2867.  
  2868. 573
  2869. 01:13:49,423 --> 01:13:55,341
  2870. ♪ ♪
  2871.  
  2872. 574
  2873. 01:14:07,341 --> 01:14:11,518
  2874. Flo died as she crossed
  2875. the clear, fast-flowing
  2876. Kokombe stream.
  2877.  
  2878. 575
  2879. 01:14:16,518 --> 01:14:19,051
  2880. She looked so peaceful.
  2881.  
  2882. 576
  2883. 01:14:19,052 --> 01:14:22,127
  2884. It was as if her heart had
  2885. suddenly just stopped beating.
  2886.  
  2887. 577
  2888. 01:14:27,127 --> 01:14:31,140
  2889. Flint sat on the bank of
  2890. the stream near Flo's body.
  2891.  
  2892. 578
  2893. 01:14:39,140 --> 01:14:44,146
  2894. From time to time he
  2895. approached her as though
  2896. begging her to groom him,
  2897.  
  2898. 579
  2899. 01:14:46,146 --> 01:14:49,029
  2900. to comfort him as
  2901. she had always done
  2902. throughout his life.
  2903.  
  2904. 580
  2905. 01:15:02,029 --> 01:15:08,172
  2906. ♪ ♪
  2907.  
  2908. 581
  2909. 01:15:12,172 --> 01:15:15,579
  2910. Finally, Flint moved away.
  2911.  
  2912. 582
  2913. 01:15:18,579 --> 01:15:20,015
  2914. His depression worsened.
  2915.  
  2916. 583
  2917. 01:15:21,015 --> 01:15:22,582
  2918. He stopped eating.
  2919.  
  2920. 584
  2921. 01:15:22,583 --> 01:15:26,087
  2922. He stayed mostly alone.
  2923.  
  2924. 585
  2925. 01:15:27,087 --> 01:15:30,930
  2926. And in this state of
  2927. grief, he fell sick.
  2928.  
  2929. 586
  2930. 01:15:36,930 --> 01:15:41,974
  2931. It was as though without
  2932. his mother, he no longer
  2933. had the will to live.
  2934.  
  2935. 587
  2936. 01:15:45,974 --> 01:15:51,555
  2937. And about three weeks after
  2938. Flo died, Flint died too.
  2939.  
  2940. 588
  2941. 01:16:00,555 --> 01:16:05,569
  2942. ♪ ♪
  2943.  
  2944. 589
  2945. 01:16:15,569 --> 01:16:20,261
  2946. ♪ ♪
  2947.  
  2948. 590
  2949. 01:16:40,261 --> 01:16:46,433
  2950. After the death of Flo,
  2951. the chimpanzee community,
  2952. whose members I had come to
  2953.  
  2954. 591
  2955. 01:16:46,434 --> 01:16:49,206
  2956. know so well, began to divide.
  2957.  
  2958. 592
  2959. 01:16:52,206 --> 01:16:56,309
  2960. As chimps of one group
  2961. started to spend more time
  2962. in the southern part of
  2963.  
  2964. 593
  2965. 01:16:56,310 --> 01:17:00,717
  2966. the range over which the
  2967. whole community roamed.
  2968.  
  2969. 594
  2970. 01:17:03,717 --> 01:17:08,621
  2971. By separating themselves,
  2972. it was as though they had
  2973. forfeited their right to be
  2974.  
  2975. 595
  2976. 01:17:08,622 --> 01:17:12,828
  2977. treated as community members.
  2978.  
  2979. 596
  2980. 01:17:13,828 --> 01:17:17,225
  2981. Instead, they were
  2982. treated as strangers.
  2983.  
  2984. 597
  2985. 01:18:04,177 --> 01:18:09,622
  2986. Our idyllic world,
  2987. our little paradise, had
  2988. been turned upside down.
  2989.  
  2990. 598
  2991. 01:18:14,622 --> 01:18:19,626
  2992. The once peaceful seeming
  2993. chimpanzees were heavily
  2994. engaged in what amounted to a
  2995.  
  2996. 599
  2997. 01:18:19,627 --> 01:18:22,198
  2998. sort of primitive warfare.
  2999.  
  3000. 600
  3001. 01:18:24,198 --> 01:18:28,045
  3002. The entire community that
  3003. moved south was annihilated.
  3004.  
  3005. 601
  3006. 01:18:38,045 --> 01:18:42,215
  3007. ♪ ♪
  3008.  
  3009. 602
  3010. 01:18:42,216 --> 01:18:44,251
  3011. It must have
  3012. been a very dark time for you.
  3013.  
  3014. 603
  3015. 01:18:44,252 --> 01:18:47,724
  3016. It was a very,
  3017. very dark time, it was.
  3018.  
  3019. 604
  3020. 01:18:49,724 --> 01:18:52,893
  3021. I thought they were like
  3022. us, but nicer than us.
  3023.  
  3024. 605
  3025. 01:18:52,894 --> 01:18:57,432
  3026. I had no idea of the
  3027. brutality that they can show.
  3028.  
  3029. 606
  3030. 01:18:59,432 --> 01:19:02,313
  3031. Took me awhile to come
  3032. to terms with that.
  3033.  
  3034. 607
  3035. 01:19:12,313 --> 01:19:17,654
  3036. ♪ ♪
  3037.  
  3038. 608
  3039. 01:19:19,654 --> 01:19:24,859
  3040. War had always seemed to me
  3041. to be a purely human behavior.
  3042.  
  3043. 609
  3044. 01:19:25,859 --> 01:19:30,599
  3045. I had come to accept that the
  3046. dark and evil side of human
  3047. nature was deeply embedded in
  3048.  
  3049. 610
  3050. 01:19:31,599 --> 01:19:36,646
  3051. our genes, inherited from our
  3052. ancient primate ancestors.
  3053.  
  3054. 611
  3055. 01:19:46,646 --> 01:19:51,188
  3056. ♪ ♪
  3057.  
  3058. 612
  3059. 01:19:54,188 --> 01:19:58,394
  3060. You and Hugo
  3061. had been in different places.
  3062.  
  3063. 613
  3064. 01:20:00,394 --> 01:20:03,832
  3065. Did you feel yourselves
  3066. drifting apart?
  3067.  
  3068. 614
  3069. 01:20:04,832 --> 01:20:09,136
  3070. -Well, you do drift apart
  3071. when you're in two different
  3072. places and you have
  3073.  
  3074. 615
  3075. 01:20:10,136 --> 01:20:13,574
  3076. different goals in a way.
  3077.  
  3078. 616
  3079. 01:20:14,574 --> 01:20:19,381
  3080. Hugo wasn't anymore
  3081. content with just
  3082. being at Gombe for me,
  3083.  
  3084. 617
  3085. 01:20:20,381 --> 01:20:24,661
  3086. he needed to be in
  3087. the Serengeti for him.
  3088.  
  3089. 618
  3090. 01:20:33,661 --> 01:20:38,442
  3091. ♪ ♪
  3092.  
  3093. 619
  3094. 01:20:48,442 --> 01:20:54,082
  3095. ♪ ♪
  3096.  
  3097. 620
  3098. 01:20:55,082 --> 01:20:59,251
  3099. Were you
  3100. struggling to try and keep
  3101. the marriage together?
  3102.  
  3103. 621
  3104. 01:20:59,252 --> 01:21:04,193
  3105. -Well for Grub's sake, but
  3106. we'd begun bickering by then,
  3107. and so you have to weigh up,
  3108.  
  3109. 622
  3110. 01:21:06,193 --> 01:21:10,801
  3111. you know, is it better to stay
  3112. together or to subject your
  3113. child to constant bickering's.
  3114.  
  3115. 623
  3116. 01:21:13,801 --> 01:21:18,375
  3117. He wanted me to leave
  3118. Gombe, because there was no
  3119. way he could stay and work,
  3120.  
  3121. 624
  3122. 01:21:21,375 --> 01:21:23,809
  3123. but I couldn't.
  3124.  
  3125. 625
  3126. 01:21:23,810 --> 01:21:27,161
  3127. It was my life, and he had his.
  3128.  
  3129. 626
  3130. 01:21:40,161 --> 01:21:44,067
  3131. During the trying time of my
  3132. divorce, it was all very sad.
  3133.  
  3134. 627
  3135. 01:21:46,067 --> 01:21:49,404
  3136. Especially for Grub, for
  3137. he of course loved us both.
  3138.  
  3139. 628
  3140. 01:21:51,404 --> 01:21:55,680
  3141. But I realized that my
  3142. experience in the forest
  3143. had given me perspective.
  3144.  
  3145. 629
  3146. 01:21:59,680 --> 01:22:05,188
  3147. In the forest, death
  3148. is not hidden; it's all
  3149. around you, all the time.
  3150.  
  3151. 630
  3152. 01:22:07,188 --> 01:22:10,792
  3153. A part of the endless
  3154. cycle of life.
  3155.  
  3156. 631
  3157. 01:22:11,792 --> 01:22:16,100
  3158. Chimpanzees are born,
  3159. they grow older, they
  3160. get sick, and they die.
  3161.  
  3162. 632
  3163. 01:22:19,100 --> 01:22:23,940
  3164. And always there are the
  3165. young ones that carry on
  3166. the life of the species.
  3167.  
  3168. 633
  3169. 01:22:26,940 --> 01:22:31,512
  3170. Louis Leakey sent me to Gombe
  3171. with the hope that a better
  3172. understanding of chimpanzee
  3173.  
  3174. 634
  3175. 01:22:32,512 --> 01:22:36,952
  3176. behavior might provide us
  3177. with a window on our past.
  3178.  
  3179. 635
  3180. 01:22:37,952 --> 01:22:41,955
  3181. Our study of the chimpanzees
  3182. had helped to pinpoint not
  3183. only the similarities between
  3184.  
  3185. 636
  3186. 01:22:41,956 --> 01:22:46,128
  3187. them and us, but also
  3188. those ways in which
  3189. we are most different.
  3190.  
  3191. 637
  3192. 01:22:48,128 --> 01:22:53,467
  3193. Admittedly, we're not the only
  3194. beings with personalities,
  3195. reasoning powers, altruism,
  3196.  
  3197. 638
  3198. 01:22:54,467 --> 01:23:00,143
  3199. and emotions, nor are we the
  3200. only beings capable of mental
  3201. as well as physical suffering.
  3202.  
  3203. 639
  3204. 01:23:02,143 --> 01:23:06,712
  3205. But our intellect has grown
  3206. mightily in complexity since
  3207. the first true men branched
  3208.  
  3209. 640
  3210. 01:23:06,713 --> 01:23:11,885
  3211. off from the ape men's stalk
  3212. some two million years ago.
  3213.  
  3214. 641
  3215. 01:23:11,886 --> 01:23:16,059
  3216. And we, and only we, have
  3217. developed a sophisticated
  3218. spoken language.
  3219.  
  3220. 642
  3221. 01:23:18,059 --> 01:23:22,528
  3222. For the first time in
  3223. evolution, a species evolved
  3224. that was able to teach its
  3225.  
  3226. 643
  3227. 01:23:22,529 --> 01:23:27,399
  3228. young about objects
  3229. and events not present,
  3230. to pass on wisdom gleaned
  3231.  
  3232. 644
  3233. 01:23:27,400 --> 01:23:31,907
  3234. from the successes and
  3235. the mistakes of the past.
  3236.  
  3237. 645
  3238. 01:23:32,907 --> 01:23:38,243
  3239. With language we can ask
  3240. as can no other living being,
  3241. those questions about who we
  3242.  
  3243. 646
  3244. 01:23:38,244 --> 01:23:41,246
  3245. are and why we are here.
  3246.  
  3247. 647
  3248. 01:23:41,247 --> 01:23:46,086
  3249. And this highly developed
  3250. intellect means surely, that
  3251. we have a responsibility
  3252.  
  3253. 648
  3254. 01:23:46,087 --> 01:23:50,590
  3255. towards the other life forms
  3256. of our planet, whose continued
  3257. existence is threatened by the
  3258.  
  3259. 649
  3260. 01:23:50,591 --> 01:23:54,770
  3261. thoughtless behavior of
  3262. our own human species.
  3263.  
  3264. 650
  3265. 01:24:03,770 --> 01:24:09,880
  3266. ♪ ♪
  3267.  
  3268. 651
  3269. 01:24:12,880 --> 01:24:15,447
  3270. My life, the time, was perfect.
  3271.  
  3272. 652
  3273. 01:24:15,448 --> 01:24:18,054
  3274. I was spending
  3275. time in the field,
  3276. I was writing a book,
  3277.  
  3278. 653
  3279. 01:24:20,054 --> 01:24:24,095
  3280. I had students so the
  3281. research was secure and
  3282. I could be with my son.
  3283.  
  3284. 654
  3285. 01:24:28,095 --> 01:24:30,095
  3286. Who's my life for
  3287. the rest of my life?
  3288.  
  3289. 655
  3290. 01:24:30,096 --> 01:24:33,604
  3291. It was better than
  3292. anything I dreamed of.
  3293.  
  3294. 656
  3295. 01:24:36,604 --> 01:24:40,076
  3296. But I knew that
  3297. the chimpanzees across
  3298. Africa were disappearing.
  3299.  
  3300. 657
  3301. 01:24:42,076 --> 01:24:46,948
  3302. So that's when I realized that
  3303. I had to raise awareness about
  3304. the plight of chimps in Africa
  3305.  
  3306. 658
  3307. 01:24:48,948 --> 01:24:53,920
  3308. and the role that I must
  3309. play is to make sure that
  3310. the next generation are
  3311.  
  3312. 659
  3313. 01:24:53,921 --> 01:24:57,426
  3314. better stewards than we've been.
  3315.  
  3316. 660
  3317. 01:24:59,426 --> 01:25:04,167
  3318. And I needed to take that
  3319. message to the world.
  3320.  
  3321. 661
  3322. 01:25:06,167 --> 01:25:11,805
  3323. And since that time, which
  3324. was October 1986, I haven't
  3325. been more than three weeks
  3326.  
  3327. 662
  3328. 01:25:12,805 --> 01:25:16,948
  3329. consecutively in any one place.
  3330.  
  3331. 663
  3332. 01:25:38,865 --> 01:25:44,585
  3333. ♪ ♪
  3334.  
  3335. 664
  3336. 01:25:57,585 --> 01:26:02,899
  3337. ♪ ♪
  3338.  
  3339. 665
  3340. 01:26:11,899 --> 01:26:17,680
  3341. ♪ ♪
  3342.  
  3343. 666
  3344. 01:26:26,680 --> 01:26:29,725
  3345. ♪ ♪
  3346.  
  3347. 667
  3348. 01:26:38,725 --> 01:26:42,198
  3349. When I look back over my
  3350. life, it seems I've been
  3351. extraordinarily lucky.
  3352.  
  3353. 668
  3354. 01:26:45,198 --> 01:26:49,407
  3355. Although as my mother
  3356. Vanne always says, luck
  3357. was only part of the story.
  3358.  
  3359. 669
  3360. 01:26:53,407 --> 01:26:58,279
  3361. She's always believed
  3362. that success comes through
  3363. determination and hard work
  3364.  
  3365. 670
  3366. 01:26:59,279 --> 01:27:03,086
  3367. and that the fault is not
  3368. in our stars, but in ourselves
  3369. that we are underlings.
  3370.  
  3371. 671
  3372. 01:27:06,086 --> 01:27:09,090
  3373. I certainly believe that's true.
  3374.  
  3375. 672
  3376. 01:27:10,090 --> 01:27:15,161
  3377. Yet though I had worked hard
  3378. all my life, I must admit
  3379. that the stars seemed to have
  3380.  
  3381. 673
  3382. 01:27:15,162 --> 01:27:19,493
  3383. played their part too.
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