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Changements phonétiques du latin au français

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Aug 16th, 2018
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  1. NB: The vowels here marked 〈ó〉 and 〈ò〉 seem to have had some sort of open-close distinction similar to /o ɔ/.
  2.  
  3. Vulgar Latin:
  4. — h → ∅
  5. — V0V0 → V0ː
  6. — n → ∅ / _{f,v,s}
  7. — r → s / _s
  8. — {m,n} → ∅ / _# in polysyllables
  9. — m → n / _#
  10. — u → ∅ / CC_V
  11. — w → ɡu / “from Germanic loanwords”
  12. — V → ”V / ”VSr_
  13. — V → ”V / _C*”{i,e}V
  14. — {i,e} → j / _V
  15.  
  16. Stressed vowels:
  17. — aː → a
  18. — (a)e → è
  19. — {eː,i,oe} → é
  20. — iː oː → i ó
  21. — o → ò
  22. — u → ó / !_iː
  23. — uː → u
  24.  
  25. Initial vowels (first vowel of a word):
  26. — aː → a
  27. — {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
  28. — iː → i
  29. — {o(ː),u} → o
  30.  
  31. Final vowels:
  32. — aː → a
  33. — {e(ː),i,ae,oe} → e
  34. — iː oː → i o
  35. — u(ː) → o / except _V (?)
  36.  
  37. k ɡ → tj dj / _E
  38. è → iɛ / in U[+open]
  39. è → iɛ / _C#
  40. è → ɛ / in U[+closed]
  41. ò → uo → uɛ / in U[+open] ! _N
  42. ò → ɔ / in U[+closed]
  43. dj → dʒ / r_
  44. d → ∅ / _j
  45. j → ∅ / V_”E
  46. j tj → dʒ ts / #_
  47. j → dʒ / V_V (rare)
  48. ∅ → s / t_j
  49. t → s / s_j
  50. {ɡn,nj} → ɲ
  51. nk → ɲ / _t
  52. V → ∅ / in the unstressed penult
  53. V → ∅ / intertonic ! V = a
  54. a → ə / intertonic
  55. ∅ → b / m_{r,l}
  56. ∅ → d / {n,l,ɲ,z_r
  57. ∅ → t / s_r
  58. k ɡ → t d / {n,r}_r
  59. n → r / {ɡ,p}_
  60.  
  61. “[T]wo obstruents in contact with different voicing assimilate to the voicing of the second”
  62.  
  63. C → ∅ / C1_C2 ! C2 = {r,l}
  64. t → s / _{n,m}
  65. {kl,ɡl,lj} → ʎ
  66. {p,b} {t,d} → v ð / V_{V,r}
  67. v → ∅ / V_B
  68. p → b / _l
  69. ð → ∅ / _r
  70. (t)s → (d)z / V_V
  71. k → js / V_sV
  72. k → j / _s#
  73. {k,ɡ} → ∅ / V_B
  74. {k,ɡ} → ∅ / B_a
  75. {k,ɡ} → j / _{a,C}
  76. kʷ → {v,u} / V_E
  77. kʷ → j{v,u} / V_a
  78.  
  79. “[N]ote that the [following] clusters are the only case where a consonant does not receive intervocalic treatment before /j/”:
  80. — (k)kj → ts
  81. — ɡ → ∅ / _j
  82. — pj → tʃ
  83. — {b,v}j → dʒ
  84. — m{ɲ,j} → ndʒ
  85.  
  86. V”e → ”Vi
  87. V0V0 → V0
  88. ∅ → e / #_sC
  89. k ɡ → tʃ dʒ / _a
  90. t → ∅ / {ʃ,s}
  91. d → ∅ / _{z,ʒ}
  92. ɛ ɔ → iɛ uɛ / _{Cj,jC}
  93. ∅ → j / {ʃ,ʒ,sj,zj}”{a,é}_ in U[+open]
  94. sːj zj rj → jsː jz jr
  95. j → ∅ / s_ (sː_?)
  96. ɛ → ɛa / _l{C,#}
  97. l → u / _{C,#}
  98. l → ∅ / {i,u}_
  99. {lːe,lːo} → u / {e,o}_# “[this is actually an analogical development, but it applies as regularly as a sound law]”
  100. (ɛ)au → ɔ
  101. é → ɛi / in U[+open]
  102. é → ɛ / in U[+closed]
  103. ó → ou → ɛu / in U[+open]
  104. ó → ɔ / _N
  105. ó → ou / in U[+closed]
  106. e → ə / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+open]
  107. e → ɛ / #(C…)_(%…)” in U[+closed] or _V (?)
  108. o → {ou,ɔ} “(the outcome fluctuates, but ɔ is often the result of analogy rather than strict sound change; always ou before another vowel)”
  109. a → ə / #{tʃ,dʒ}_(%…)” in U[+open]
  110. a → ɛ / in U[+open] “(but a following ʎ creates a [closed] syllable)”
  111. kʷ ɡʷ → k ɡ
  112. C0C0 → C0
  113. t → ∅ / V_#
  114. ɛ → i / _C(C…)i#
  115. V → ∅ / _# “(except in monosyllables or after another vowel)” ! V = a
  116. a → ə
  117. V → ə / _{CC,tʃ,dʒ} ! _{nt,nɡ,mp,rt,rd}
  118. s → ∅ / _C
  119. {p,b} → ∅ / _{t,d}
  120. v → ∅ / _C
  121. v → ∅ / C_
  122. ð → ∅
  123. uɛ → ɛu
  124. ai → e / _#
  125. ai iɛɪ → ɛ i
  126. ou ɛu u uɛi → u œ y yi
  127. {ei,ɔi} → oi / C[-nas]
  128. ɔ → u / _”V
  129. V[-high] → ə → ∅ / _V “(except that a is kept before o)”
  130. ɲ → in / _{C,#}
  131. V{n,m} / V[+nas] / _{C,#}
  132. ɛ̃ → ã
  133. {aı̃,eı̃} → ɛ̃
  134. ỹ → œ̃
  135. O[+voiced] → O[-voiced] / _#
  136. {t,s} → ∅ / _#
  137. k → ∅ / V[+nas]_#
  138. {n,m} → ∅ / C_#
  139. j → ∅ / {ʃ,ʒ}_V[-nas]
  140. ʎ r → j ʁ
  141. oi → wɛ → wa
  142. oı̃ → wɛ̃
  143.  
  144. “([pharazon has] omitted the loss of ə in various contexts, since it often resurfaces)”
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