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  69.  
  70. \hypersetup{%
  71.     pdfinfo={%
  72.     Title={Homework No. 7 -- Dyirbal},
  73.     Author={***}
  74.    }
  75. }
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  113.  
  114. % Macros
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  116. \newcommand{\q}[1]{\enquote{#1}} % Quotation shortcut
  117. \newcommand{\qq}[1]{\enquote*{#1}} % Explicit sublevel quotation
  118. \newcommand{\mor}[1]{\textsc{\lowercase{\onum #1}}} % Small caps for morpheme glossing
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  131.  
  132. %% BIBLIOGRAPHY DATABASE %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  133.  
  134. \begin{filecontents*}{\jobname.bib}
  135.     @book{payne1997,
  136.         author = {Thomas E. Payne},
  137.         title = {Describing Morphosyntax},
  138.         subtitle = {A Guide for Field Linguists},
  139.         publisher = {Cambridge UP},
  140.         location = {Cambridge},
  141.         year = {1997},
  142.         pages = {133--135, 149--156},
  143.     }
  144.     @book{pereltsvaig2012,
  145.         author = {Asya Pereltsvaig},
  146.         title = {Languages of the World},
  147.         subtitle = {An Introduction},
  148.         publisher = {Cambridge UP},
  149.         location = {Cambridge},
  150.         year = {2012},
  151.         pages = {177--182},
  152.     }  
  153. \end{filecontents*}
  154. \addbibresource{\jobname.bib}
  155.  
  156. %% END OF PREAMBLE %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  157.  
  158. \begin{document}
  159.  
  160. %% MAIN PART %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  161.    
  162. \begin{flushleft}
  163. *** \\
  164. Prof. Dr. *** \\
  165. VL Sprachen der Welt \\
  166. \today
  167. \end{flushleft}
  168.  
  169. \begin{mytitle}
  170. Homework No. 7 -- Dyirbal
  171. \end{mytitle}
  172.  
  173. \section{Preliminary Considerations}
  174.  
  175. According to the chapter on Australian languages in \citeauthor{pereltsvaig2012}'s \citetitle{pereltsvaig2012}, Dyirbal exhibits a split-ergative syntactic alignment where first- and second-person pronouns are aligned as nominative-accusative while third-person referents are aligned as ergative-absolutive \autocites[155--156]{payne1997}[179]{pereltsvaig2012}. This preknowledge has been applied in the glossing below, as it might help in figuring out who did what to whom. \citeauthor{pereltsvaig2012} also mentions that \textquote{despite the nominative-accusative case marking on pronouns, there is evidence that Dyirbal pronouns, like Dyirbal nouns, follow an underlying ergative pattern}, however \autocite[180]{pereltsvaig2012}. Taking the glossing in example 9.16~b in \citeauthor{pereltsvaig2012} into account, the verb in example 3 and 4 below should also show antipassive marking, yet the verb form is given as \fw{baniɲu} \q{is coming} for all examples 1--4, which is somewhat confusing given the quoted information \autocite[182]{pereltsvaig2012}.
  176.  
  177. \section{Glossing the Data}
  178.  
  179. \begin{multicols}{2}
  180. %\begin{multicols*}{2}
  181.  
  182. \ex %1
  183.     \begingl
  184.         \gla ŋada baniɲu //
  185.         \glb {I (\Sarg{}/\Aarg{})} be.coming //
  186.         \glc \Fsg{}.\Nom{} be.coming //
  187.         \glft \qq{I am coming.} //
  188.     \endgl
  189. \xe
  190.  
  191. \ex %2
  192.     \begingl
  193.         \gla ŋinda baniɲu //
  194.         \glb {you (\Sarg{}/\Aarg{})} be.coming //
  195.         \glc \Ssg{}.\Nom{} be.coming //
  196.         \glft \qq{You are coming.} //
  197.     \endgl
  198. \xe
  199.  
  200. \ex %3
  201.     \begingl
  202.         \gla {balan dugumbil} baniɲu //
  203.         \glb {the woman (\Sarg{}/\Aarg{})} be.coming //
  204.         \glc {the woman.\Abs{}} be.coming //
  205.         \glft \qq{The woman is coming.} //
  206.     \endgl
  207. \xe
  208.  
  209. %\vfill
  210. %\columnbreak
  211.  
  212. \ex %4
  213.     \begingl
  214.         \gla {bayi yara} baniɲu //
  215.         \glb {the man (\Sarg{}/\Aarg{})} be.coming //
  216.         \glc {the man.\Abs{}} be.coming //
  217.         \glft \qq{The man is coming.} //
  218.     \endgl
  219. \xe
  220.  
  221. \ex %5
  222.     \begingl
  223.         \gla ŋada ŋinu-na balgan //
  224.         \glb {I (\Aarg{})} {you (\Parg{})} be.hitting //
  225.         \glc \Fsg{}.\Nom{} \Ssg{}-\Acc{} be.hitting //
  226.         \glft \qq{I'm hitting you.} //
  227.     \endgl
  228. \xe
  229.  
  230. \ex %6
  231.     \begingl
  232.         \gla ŋinda ŋaygu-na balgan //
  233.         \glb {you (\Aarg{})} {me (\Parg{})} be.hitting //
  234.         \glc \Ssg{}.\Nom{} \Fsg{}-\Acc{} be.hitting //
  235.         \glft \qq{You're hitting me.} //
  236.     \endgl
  237. \xe
  238.  
  239. \vfill
  240.  
  241. %\end{multicols*}
  242. \end{multicols}
  243.  
  244. \ex %7
  245.     \begingl
  246.         \gla {balan dugumbil} {baŋgul yara-ŋgu} balgan //
  247.         \glb {the woman (\Parg{})} {the man (\Aarg{})} be.hitting //
  248.         \glc {the woman.\Abs{}} {the man-\Erg{}} be.hitting //
  249.         \glft \qq{The man is hitting the woman.} //
  250.     \endgl
  251. \xe
  252.  
  253. \ex %8
  254.     \begingl
  255.         \gla {bayi yara} {baŋgun dugumbiru} balgan //
  256.         \glb {the man (\Parg{})} {the woman (\Aarg{})} be.hitting //
  257.         \glc {the man.\Abs{}} {the woman.\Erg{}} be.hitting //
  258.         \glft \qq{The woman is hitting the man.} //
  259.     \endgl
  260. \xe
  261.  
  262. %\end{multicols}
  263.  
  264. %\newpage
  265.  
  266. \section{Filling in the Blanks}
  267.  
  268. \begin{multicols}{2}
  269.    
  270. \ex %9
  271.     \begingl
  272.         \gla ŋaygu-na {baŋgul yara-ŋgu} balgan //
  273.         \glc \Fsg{}-\Acc{} {the man-\Erg{}} be.hitting //
  274.         \glft \qq{The man is hitting me.} //
  275.     \endgl
  276. \xe
  277.  
  278. \ex \deftagex{ex:10} %10
  279.     \begingl
  280.         \gla {balan dugumbil} balgan //
  281.         \glc {the woman.\Abs{}} be.hitting //
  282.         \glft \qq{The woman is being hit} \\ or \qq{The woman is hitting}? //
  283.     \endgl
  284. \xe
  285.  
  286. \columnbreak
  287.  
  288. \ex %11
  289.     \begingl
  290.         \gla {ŋada} {bayi yara} balgan //
  291.         \glc \Fsg{}.\Nom{} {the man.\Abs{}} be.hitting //
  292.         \glft {I am hitting the man.} //
  293.     \endgl
  294. \xe
  295.  
  296. \end{multicols}
  297.  
  298. As stated initially, I assume that \fw{baniɲu} \q{is coming} shows antipassive voice marking and therefore exhibits a different shape than the other verbs in \citeauthor{pereltsvaig2012}'s examples, which all follow the pattern \textsc{stem}~+~\emph{n}~\qq{\mor{NFUT}} when unmarked. Since \fw{balgan} also follows this pattern and antipassive marking does not make sense in the other examples (of transitive sentences) given as data, I further suppose that \qq{the woman} in example \getref{ex:10} is a patient rather than an agent. Since \fw{balan dugumbil} is also the form used in other contexts where this noun phrase is the patient of the action expressed by the verb and thus ought to be in the absolutive case, the correct reading of example \getref{ex:10} should be \qq{The woman is being hit}.
  299.  
  300. %% BIBLIOGRAPHY %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
  301.  
  302. \vfill
  303. \printbibliography
  304.  
  305. \end{document}
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