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  1. Question 1
  2. 1 out of 1 points
  3. Correct
  4. Brittany is daydreaming in class when her instructor asks her a question. Brittany finds herself replaying in her “mind's ear” the instructor's last words, taking advantage of a process called:
  5. Answer
  6. Selected Answer:         
  7. echoic memory.
  8. Correct Answer:  
  9. echoic memory.
  10. Question 2
  11. 1 out of 1 points
  12. Correct
  13. Research has shown that different aspects of a single memory are stored:
  14. Answer
  15. Selected Answer:         
  16. in different places in the brain.
  17. Correct Answer:  
  18. in different places in the brain.
  19. Question 3
  20. 1 out of 1 points
  21. Correct
  22. Sensation and perception:
  23. Answer
  24. Selected Answer:         
  25. are related but separate processes.
  26. Correct Answer:  
  27. are related but separate processes.
  28. Question 4
  29. 1 out of 1 points
  30. Correct
  31. After practicing how to tie her shoes for months with her mother, Sara can now easily tie her shoes by herself without purposely thinking about the steps. This capability is an example of:
  32. Answer
  33. Selected Answer:         
  34. procedural memory.
  35. Correct Answer:  
  36. procedural memory.
  37. Question 5
  38. 0 out of 1 points
  39. Incorrect      
  40. The tendency to reconstruct the past according to what is believed or known today is:
  41. Answer
  42. Selected Answer:         
  43. change bias.
  44. Correct Answer:  
  45. consistency bias.
  46. Question 6
  47. 0 out of 1 points
  48. Incorrect      
  49. A mother tells her teenage son to turn down his music. The son tells his mom that he will do so and turns the volume down slightly. A minute later, the mother cannot tell that her son complied with her request, and so she yells at him. Apparently, the decrease in volume did not meet the mother's:
  50. Answer
  51. Selected Answer:         
  52. absolute threshold.
  53. Correct Answer:  
  54. difference threshold.
  55. Question 7
  56. 1 out of 1 points
  57. Correct
  58. When recalling the morning of September 11, 2001, Rob is able to describe in great detail what he was doing and saying at the moment the principal of his middle school opened the classroom door to advise the class to turn on the television. Rob's ability to describe the day's events in such great detail is an example of:
  59. Answer
  60. Selected Answer:         
  61. flashbulb memory.
  62. Correct Answer:  
  63. flashbulb memory.
  64. Question 8
  65. 1 out of 1 points
  66. Correct
  67. There are two types of explicit memory, ________ memory, which is for facts and knowledge, and ________ memory for experienced events.
  68. Answer
  69. Selected Answer:         
  70. semantic; episodic
  71. Correct Answer:  
  72. semantic; episodic
  73. Question 9
  74. 1 out of 1 points
  75. Correct
  76. Courtney is called to the witness stand to testify as an eyewitness against a man accused of first-degree murder. The lawyer interrogating her asks a series of questions about the alleged murderer. The lawyer throws in a question, asking Courtney to describe the tattoo on the left shoulder of the accused man. This question is false—there is no tattoo. The lawyer is using the question to try to discredit Courtney, who says that the tattoo was small and hard to see in detail. The most likely reason for Courtney's mistake is:
  77. Answer
  78. Selected Answer:         
  79. suggestibility.
  80. Correct Answer:  
  81. suggestibility.
  82. Question 10
  83. 1 out of 1 points
  84. Correct
  85. Steven asked me a question while we were eating dinner at the dining hall. Just after he finished asking the question, my attention was distracted by Thomas, who stood up, walked to the dessert area, and came back with my favorite cheesecake. While I was looking at Thomas's plate, I turned back to Steven. However, I no longer could remember what he asked me just 45 seconds earlier. The reason I could no longer remember was probably that the memory was lost from the ________ memory store because I was not able to ________ the information.
  86. Answer
  87. Selected Answer:         
  88. short-term; rehearse
  89. Correct Answer:  
  90. short-term; rehearse
  91. Question 11
  92. 1 out of 1 points
  93. Correct
  94. Robert, a successful businessman, was driving to work one day when he was in a terrible car accident. He now cannot remember any new pieces of information for more than a few seconds. However, he is able to remember everything before the accident perfectly clearly. Robert's condition is an example of:
  95. Answer
  96. Selected Answer:         
  97. anterograde amnesia.
  98. Correct Answer:  
  99. anterograde amnesia.
  100. Question 12
  101. 0 out of 1 points
  102. Incorrect      
  103. Which of the following is not a reason why sensory adaptation is a useful process?
  104. Answer
  105. Selected Answer:         
  106. An unchanging stimulus is less likely to require immediate action.
  107. Correct Answer:  
  108. Stimuli that change frequently usually are of no consequence and therefore not important to sense.
  109. Question 13
  110. 1 out of 1 points
  111. Correct
  112. A psychologist is questioning Hunter about his childhood memories. Hunter is telling the psychologist the story of his favorite Christmas present, a trip to Disneyland. His memories of the present and the trip itself are very clear; however, Hunter believes that the present came from his Uncle Charley, when in fact it was from his Aunt Bertha. This type of error in memory is known as:
  113. Answer
  114. Selected Answer:         
  115. misattribution.
  116. Correct Answer:  
  117. misattribution.
  118. Question 14
  119. 1 out of 1 points
  120. Correct
  121. The absolute threshold is the:
  122. Answer
  123. Selected Answer:         
  124. minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus.
  125. Correct Answer:  
  126. minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus.
  127. Question 15
  128. 1 out of 1 points
  129. Correct
  130. Chad recalls that Jack the Ripper was a serial killer who terrorized London in 1888, but he has no idea if he originally learned this information from a book, a television show, a movie, or a story from another person. Chad is experiencing a failure of ________ memory.
  131. Answer
  132. Selected Answer:         
  133. source
  134. Correct Answer:  
  135. source
  136. Question 16
  137. 1 out of 1 points
  138. Correct
  139. Hafa just completed a course in calculus. Based on knowledge about the curve of forgetting, we can predict that:
  140. Answer
  141. Selected Answer:         
  142. most of what Hafa will forget about calculus will occur shortly after completing the course.
  143. Correct Answer:  
  144. most of what Hafa will forget about calculus will occur shortly after completing the course.
  145. Question 17
  146. 0 out of 1 points
  147. Incorrect      
  148. Sensation occurs:
  149. Answer
  150. Selected Answer:         
  151. when the brain interprets a perception.
  152. Correct Answer:  
  153. as the body interacts with the physical world.
  154. Question 18
  155. 1 out of 1 points
  156. Correct
  157. The process of organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation is called:
  158. Answer
  159. Selected Answer:         
  160. perception.
  161. Correct Answer:  
  162. perception.
  163. Question 19
  164. 1 out of 1 points
  165. Correct
  166. The process of converting physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system is called:
  167. Answer
  168. Selected Answer:         
  169. transduction.
  170. Correct Answer:  
  171. transduction.
  172. Question 20
  173. 1 out of 1 points
  174. Correct
  175. Danielle is playing Trivial Pursuit and is asked to name the seven castaways on the Gilligan's Island TV show. She names all but one. She feels sure she knows the name and thinks the first initial is G, but she cannot come up with the answer. Danielle is experiencing:
  176. Answer
  177. Selected Answer:         
  178. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
  179. Correct Answer:  
  180. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
  181. Question 1
  182. 1 out of 1 points
  183. Correct
  184. According to Shelley Taylor, the female response to stress is to ________, whereas the male response more often is ________.
  185. Answer
  186. Selected Answer:         
  187. tend-and-befriend; fight-or-flight
  188. Correct Answer:  
  189. tend-and-befriend; fight-or-flight
  190. Question 2
  191. 1 out of 1 points
  192. Correct
  193. After Sally was raped, she had recurring nightmares of the event and began to avoid men. She received a diagnosis of:
  194. Answer
  195. Selected Answer:         
  196. post-traumatic stress disorder.
  197. Correct Answer:  
  198. post-traumatic stress disorder.
  199. Question 3
  200. 1 out of 1 points
  201. Correct
  202. After working for 15 years as an emergency room technician, Ralph is physically, mentally, and emotionally exhausted. Ralph probably suffers from:
  203. Answer
  204. Selected Answer:         
  205. burnout.
  206. Correct Answer:  
  207. burnout.
  208. Question 4
  209. 1 out of 1 points
  210. Correct
  211. Bea was under a great deal of stress at work, and her health had started to suffer. Her doctor treated her using ________; Bea had sensors attached to various parts of her body and watched her vital signs on a computer screen until she learned to relax.
  212. Answer
  213. Selected Answer:         
  214. biofeedback
  215. Correct Answer:  
  216. biofeedback
  217. Question 5
  218. 1 out of 1 points
  219. Correct
  220. Because Estevan had studied well ahead of time, he regarded the final exam as a(n) ________ instead of a ________.
  221. Answer
  222. Selected Answer:         
  223. challenge; threat
  224. Correct Answer:  
  225. challenge; threat
  226. Question 6
  227. 1 out of 1 points
  228. Correct
  229. Chronic stressors ________ the immune system.
  230. Answer
  231. Selected Answer:         
  232. wear down
  233. Correct Answer:  
  234. wear down
  235. Question 7
  236. 1 out of 1 points
  237. Correct
  238. In order to avoid burnout, people in high-stress jobs would be advised to do any of the following EXCEPT:
  239. Answer
  240. Selected Answer:         
  241. arrive at work an hour early to be better prepared for daily challenges.
  242. Correct Answer:  
  243. arrive at work an hour early to be better prepared for daily challenges.
  244. Question 8
  245. 1 out of 1 points
  246. Correct
  247. Meditation, prayer, and yoga have elements in common with:
  248. Answer
  249. Selected Answer:         
  250. relaxation therapy.
  251. Correct Answer:  
  252. relaxation therapy.
  253. Question 9
  254. 1 out of 1 points
  255. Correct
  256. Stress is to a ________ as a stressor is to a ________.
  257. Answer
  258. Selected Answer:         
  259. response; stimulus
  260. Correct Answer:  
  261. response; stimulus
  262. Question 10
  263. 1 out of 1 points
  264. Correct
  265. Susan's husband took her to the doctor because she woke up unable to see. After exhaustive tests, the physician found nothing physically wrong. After a few months, Susan regained her sight. She had likely been suffering from:
  266. Answer
  267. Selected Answer:         
  268. conversion disorder.
  269. Correct Answer:  
  270. conversion disorder.
  271. Question 11
  272. 1 out of 1 points
  273. Correct
  274. Suzanne Kobasa studied a group of stress-resistant business executives, suggesting that they shared a trait she called:
  275. Answer
  276. Selected Answer:         
  277. hardiness.
  278. Correct Answer:  
  279. hardiness.
  280. Question 12
  281. 1 out of 1 points
  282. Correct
  283. The ________ refers to an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases our readiness for action.
  284. Answer
  285. Selected Answer:         
  286. fight-or-flight response
  287. Correct Answer:  
  288. fight-or-flight response
  289. Question 13
  290. 1 out of 1 points
  291. Correct
  292. The behavior pattern characterized by a tendency toward easily aroused anger, impatience, a sense of urgency, and competition is called:
  293. Answer
  294. Selected Answer:         
  295. Type A.
  296. Correct Answer:  
  297. Type A.
  298. Question 14
  299. 1 out of 1 points
  300. Correct
  301. The phase of the general adaptation syndrome in which the body uses energy to draw on its stores of fat and muscle is called:
  302. Answer
  303. Selected Answer:         
  304. alarm.
  305. Correct Answer:  
  306. alarm.
  307. Question 15
  308. 1 out of 1 points
  309. Correct
  310. Those who react with ________ to stress are most likely to develop premature heart disease.
  311. Answer
  312. Selected Answer:         
  313. anger and hostility
  314. Correct Answer:  
  315. anger and hostility
  316. Question 16
  317. 1 out of 1 points
  318. Correct
  319. What makes a placebo effective is the:
  320. Answer
  321. Selected Answer:         
  322. patient's belief that it will work.
  323. Correct Answer:  
  324. patient's belief that it will work.
  325. Question 17
  326. 1 out of 1 points
  327. Correct
  328. When faced with a stressor, people report that the level of stress is ________ when they ________.
  329. Answer
  330. Selected Answer:         
  331. greatest; perceive that they cannot control stressful events
  332. Correct Answer:  
  333. greatest; perceive that they cannot control stressful events
  334. Question 18
  335. 0 out of 1 points
  336. Incorrect      
  337. Which of the following people would be expected to have the lowest levels of anger, depression, and stress?
  338. Answer
  339. Selected Answer:         
  340. James, who stretches for 5 minutes each morning upon waking
  341. Correct Answer:  
  342. Julie, who walks briskly for 30 minutes five times per week
  343. Question 19
  344. 1 out of 1 points
  345. Correct
  346. Which of the following senior citizens is most likely to suffer from poor health?
  347. Answer
  348. Selected Answer:         
  349. a man who does not exercise and who lives alone
  350. Correct Answer:  
  351. a man who does not exercise and who lives alone
  352. Question 20
  353. 1 out of 1 points
  354. Correct
  355. Which of the following statements best fits the definition of reframing as a stress control technique?
  356. Answer
  357. Selected Answer:         
  358. Julie reduces her anxiety about public speaking by imagining that she is evaluating her audience.
  359. Correct Answer:  
  360. Julie reduces her anxiety about public speaking by imagining that she is evaluating her audience.
  361. Question 1
  362. 1 out of 1 points
  363. Correct
  364. A behavioral therapy would treat an undesirable behavior by:
  365. Answer
  366. Selected Answer:         
  367. decreasing the reinforcement for that behavior.
  368. Correct Answer:  
  369. decreasing the reinforcement for that behavior.
  370. Question 2
  371. 1 out of 1 points
  372. Correct
  373. A disorder or symptom that occurs as a result of the treatment itself is called a(n):
  374. Answer
  375. Selected Answer:         
  376. iatrogenic illness.
  377. Correct Answer:  
  378. iatrogenic illness.
  379. Question 3
  380. 0 out of 1 points
  381. Incorrect      
  382. A major complication involving combining medication and psychotherapy is that:
  383. Answer
  384. Selected Answer:         
  385. they often alter brain function in opposing ways.
  386. Correct Answer:  
  387. it usually requires coordination among several mental health care providers.
  388. Question 4
  389. 1 out of 1 points
  390. Correct
  391. Alfred Adler proposed that emotional conflicts often are the result of:
  392. Answer
  393. Selected Answer:         
  394. feelings of inferiority.
  395. Correct Answer:  
  396. feelings of inferiority.
  397. Question 5
  398. 1 out of 1 points
  399. Correct
  400. All of the following are major reasons that people use herbal products EXCEPT:
  401. Answer
  402. Selected Answer:         
  403. documented effectiveness.
  404. Correct Answer:  
  405. documented effectiveness.
  406. Question 6
  407. 1 out of 1 points
  408. Correct
  409. An ancient biological treatment for mental disorders, evidenced by holes in the skulls, was known as:
  410. Answer
  411. Selected Answer:         
  412. trepanning.
  413. Correct Answer:  
  414. trepanning.
  415. Question 7
  416. 1 out of 1 points
  417. Correct
  418. Antipsychotic medications work well on ________ symptoms associated with schizophrenia but are less effective on ________ symptoms.
  419. Answer
  420. Selected Answer:         
  421. positive; negative
  422. Correct Answer:  
  423. positive; negative
  424. Question 8
  425. 1 out of 1 points
  426. Correct
  427. Audrey is suffering from depression that was triggered by a breakup with her boyfriend. She tells her therapist that no man will ever love her. Her therapist challenges the validity of her belief by stating that just because one person broke up with her doesn't mean that all of her relationships will fail. The therapist then has Audrey make a list of all the guys she knows who would probably go out with her on a date. To her surprise, Audrey is able to name a handful and realizes that her belief that no one will love her probably is distorted by the emotional pain from her breakup. Audrey's therapist is using:
  428. Answer
  429. Selected Answer:         
  430. cognitive restructuring.
  431. Correct Answer:  
  432. cognitive restructuring.
  433. Question 9
  434. 1 out of 1 points
  435. Correct
  436. Culturally determined symbols and myths present in the unconscious and shared by all persons is termed the:
  437. Answer
  438. Selected Answer:         
  439. collective unconscious.
  440. Correct Answer:  
  441. collective unconscious.
  442. Question 10
  443. 1 out of 1 points
  444. Correct
  445. Dr. Martin uses systematic desensitization to help persons overcome phobias, cognitive restructuring to help alleviate the symptoms of depression, and free association to help people gain insight into their unconscious. Dr. Martin takes a(n) ________ approach to psychotherapy.
  446. Answer
  447. Selected Answer:         
  448. eclectic
  449. Correct Answer:  
  450. eclectic
  451. Question 11
  452. 1 out of 1 points
  453. Correct
  454. In their interactions with clients, person-centered therapists are encouraged to demonstrate three basic qualities, ________, ________, and ________, in order for growth to occur.
  455. Answer
  456. Selected Answer:         
  457. congruence; empathy; unconditional positive regard
  458. Correct Answer:  
  459. congruence; empathy; unconditional positive regard
  460. Question 12
  461. 1 out of 1 points
  462. Correct
  463. Larry tends to descend into a depression beginning every December when the weather is cold and the sky is usually gray. He is likely suffering from ________; a possible treatment is ________.
  464. Answer
  465. Selected Answer:         
  466. seasonal affective disorder; phototherapy
  467. Correct Answer:  
  468. seasonal affective disorder; phototherapy
  469. Question 13
  470. 1 out of 1 points
  471. Correct
  472. Psychoanalysts use all the following methods to access the unconscious EXCEPT:
  473. Answer
  474. Selected Answer:         
  475. desensitization.
  476. Correct Answer:  
  477. desensitization.
  478. Question 14
  479. 0 out of 1 points
  480. Incorrect      
  481. Psychodynamic approaches to therapy emphasize ________; humanistic and existential approaches emphasize ________.
  482. Answer
  483. Selected Answer:         
  484. unconscious drives; the effect of the past on current feelings
  485. Correct Answer:  
  486. a negative view of human nature; a positive view
  487. Question 15
  488. 1 out of 1 points
  489. Correct
  490. Psychotherapy has a risk of being harmful. However, psychotherapists adhere to the ________ to minimize the risk of harm to their patients.
  491. Answer
  492. Selected Answer:         
  493. APA Ethical Standards
  494. Correct Answer:  
  495. APA Ethical Standards
  496. Question 16
  497. 1 out of 1 points
  498. Correct
  499. Scott is having relationship problems with his wife, Samantha. Scott's therapist directs Scott to pretend that Samantha is sitting in an empty chair across from him. Scott is instructed to say whatever he wants to say to Samantha. Then Scott must switch chairs, assume the role of Samantha, and provide her reply. Scott's therapist is using a ________ technique.
  500. Answer
  501. Selected Answer:         
  502. Gestalt
  503. Correct Answer:  
  504. Gestalt
  505. Question 17
  506. 0 out of 1 points
  507. Incorrect      
  508. The main reason why the practice of lobotomy ended was:
  509. Answer
  510. Selected Answer:         
  511. the publication of the Code of Ethics by the American Psychological Association.
  512. Correct Answer:  
  513. the development of antipsychotic medication.
  514. Question 18
  515. 1 out of 1 points
  516. Correct
  517. Virtual reality therapy is a new therapy often used to treat:
  518. Answer
  519. Selected Answer:         
  520. phobias.
  521. Correct Answer:  
  522. phobias.
  523. Question 19
  524. 1 out of 1 points
  525. Correct
  526. Which of these treatments for psychological problems is most commonly associated with dangerous side effects?
  527. Answer
  528. Selected Answer:         
  529. drug treatment
  530. Correct Answer:  
  531. drug treatment
  532. Question 20
  533. 1 out of 1 points
  534. Correct
  535. ________ focuses only on the client's behavior and the situation, whereas ________ focuses on helping a client identify and correct distorted thinking.
  536. Answer
  537. Selected Answer:         
  538. Behavior therapy; cognitive therapy
  539. Correct Answer:  
  540. Behavior therapy; cognitive therapy
  541. Question 1
  542. 0 out of 1 points
  543. Incorrect      
  544. “You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours” illustrates the principle of:
  545. Answer
  546. Selected Answer:         
  547. social exchange.
  548. Correct Answer:  
  549. reciprocal altruism.
  550. Question 2
  551. 1 out of 1 points
  552. Correct
  553. A ________ is a simple shortcut or “rule of thumb.”
  554. Answer
  555. Selected Answer:         
  556. heuristic
  557. Correct Answer:  
  558. heuristic
  559. Question 3
  560. 1 out of 1 points
  561. Correct
  562. Another term for correspondence bias is:
  563. Answer
  564. Selected Answer:         
  565. the fundamental attribution error.
  566. Correct Answer:  
  567. the fundamental attribution error.
  568. Question 4
  569. 1 out of 1 points
  570. Correct
  571. Customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture are called:
  572. Answer
  573. Selected Answer:         
  574. norms.
  575. Correct Answer:  
  576. norms.
  577. Question 5
  578. 1 out of 1 points
  579. Correct
  580. In the Milgram obedience studies, participants rarely obeyed the instructions when the:
  581. Answer
  582. Selected Answer:         
  583. experimenter wasn't wearing a lab coat.
  584. Correct Answer:  
  585. experimenter wasn't wearing a lab coat.
  586. Question 6
  587. 1 out of 1 points
  588. Correct
  589. Inferences about the causes of people's behavior are termed:
  590. Answer
  591. Selected Answer:         
  592. attributions.
  593. Correct Answer:  
  594. attributions.
  595. Question 7
  596. 1 out of 1 points
  597. Correct
  598. People in a mob situation are more likely to stray from their own moral values, illustrating the phenomenon of:
  599. Answer
  600. Selected Answer:         
  601. deindividuation.
  602. Correct Answer:  
  603. deindividuation.
  604. Question 8
  605. 1 out of 1 points
  606. Correct
  607. Producers of TV comedy shows have sometimes used laugh tracks. These producers were subjecting viewers to:
  608. Answer
  609. Selected Answer:         
  610. informational influence.
  611. Correct Answer:  
  612. informational influence.
  613. Question 9
  614. 1 out of 1 points
  615. Correct
  616. Professor Anderson believes that Mary's failing grade on the examination was due to her having three other examinations that day. Professor Anderson is making a(n) ________ attribution.
  617. Answer
  618. Selected Answer:         
  619. situational
  620. Correct Answer:  
  621. situational
  622. Question 10
  623. 1 out of 1 points
  624. Correct
  625. Social behavior has evolved primarily:
  626. Answer
  627. Selected Answer:         
  628. because it aids in survival and reproduction.
  629. Correct Answer:  
  630. because it aids in survival and reproduction.
  631. Question 11
  632. 1 out of 1 points
  633. Correct
  634. The ________ motive states that we are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
  635. Answer
  636. Selected Answer:         
  637. hedonic motive
  638. Correct Answer:  
  639. hedonic motive
  640. Question 12
  641. 1 out of 1 points
  642. Correct
  643. The disturbing state that arises when you recognize the inconsistency of your actions, attitudes, or beliefs is called:
  644. Answer
  645. Selected Answer:         
  646. cognitive dissonance.
  647. Correct Answer:  
  648. cognitive dissonance.
  649. Question 13
  650. 1 out of 1 points
  651. Correct
  652. The hypothesis that people stay in relationships as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits is known as:
  653. Answer
  654. Selected Answer:         
  655. social exchange.
  656. Correct Answer:  
  657. social exchange.
  658. Question 14
  659. 1 out of 1 points
  660. Correct
  661. The study of social behavior is best described as:
  662. Answer
  663. Selected Answer:         
  664. studying how people interact with each other.
  665. Correct Answer:  
  666. studying how people interact with each other.
  667. Question 15
  668. 1 out of 1 points
  669. Correct
  670. The tendency to do what others are doing simply because they are doing it is:
  671. Answer
  672. Selected Answer:         
  673. conformity.
  674. Correct Answer:  
  675. conformity.
  676. Question 16
  677. 1 out of 1 points
  678. Correct
  679. The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others is called:
  680. Answer
  681. Selected Answer:         
  682. the actor-observer effect.
  683. Correct Answer:  
  684. the actor-observer effect.
  685. Question 17
  686. 1 out of 1 points
  687. Correct
  688. When Jimmy was growing up, his parents frequently told him he was “no good” and wouldn't amount to anything. Jimmy grew up to be a bitter, angry, destructive adult. His parents said, “We always knew this would happen.” This result is an example of:
  689. Answer
  690. Selected Answer:         
  691. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
  692. Correct Answer:  
  693. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
  694. Question 18
  695. 1 out of 1 points
  696. Correct
  697. When people's goals are thwarted, they often harm others. This phenomenon is referred to as:
  698. Answer
  699. Selected Answer:         
  700. the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
  701. Correct Answer:  
  702. the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
  703. Question 19
  704. 1 out of 1 points
  705. Correct
  706. Which old proverb best describes the research findings concerning attraction?
  707. Answer
  708. Selected Answer:         
  709. “Birds of a feather flock together.”
  710. Correct Answer:  
  711. “Birds of a feather flock together.”
  712. Question 20
  713. 0 out of 1 points
  714. Incorrect      
  715. Which statement about aggression by women is TRUE?
  716. Answer
  717. Selected Answer:         
  718. Women are more likely than men to aggress in ways that cause psychological injury.
  719. Correct Answer:  
  720. Women are more likely than males to aggress by causing social harm.
  721. Question 1
  722. 1 out of 1 points
  723. Correct
  724. Emily is working with a psychologist who focuses on Emily's positive characteristics and her potential for growth. To which type of orientation does this psychologist subscribe?
  725. Answer
  726. Selected Answer:         
  727. humanistic
  728. Correct Answer:  
  729. humanistic
  730. Question 2
  731. 1 out of 1 points
  732. Correct
  733. At work, Christine's boss yelled at her. Christine came home from work and yelled at her kids. Which defense mechanism was Christine using?
  734. Answer
  735. Selected Answer:         
  736. displacement
  737. Correct Answer:  
  738. displacement
  739. Question 3
  740. 1 out of 1 points
  741. Correct
  742. The id operates on the ________ principle.
  743. Answer
  744. Selected Answer:         
  745. pleasure
  746. Correct Answer:  
  747. pleasure
  748. Question 4
  749. 1 out of 1 points
  750. Correct
  751. A key feature of projective techniques to assess personality is the use of:
  752. Answer
  753. Selected Answer:         
  754. ambiguous objects designed to elicit unique responses.
  755. Correct Answer:  
  756. ambiguous objects designed to elicit unique responses.
  757. Question 5
  758. 1 out of 1 points
  759. Correct
  760. When Lisa received a paper with a D grade, she immediately told her friends (and herself) that it didn't matter because she had intended to drop the course all along. Which of the following defense mechanisms was Lisa using?
  761. Answer
  762. Selected Answer:         
  763. rationalization
  764. Correct Answer:  
  765. rationalization
  766. Question 6
  767. 1 out of 1 points
  768. Correct
  769. A ________ can be described as a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way.
  770. Answer
  771. Selected Answer:         
  772. trait
  773. Correct Answer:  
  774. trait
  775. Question 7
  776. 1 out of 1 points
  777. Correct
  778. Abby is a psychologist who studies personality. Which type of instrument would she most likely use in asking people about how they act or think in particular situations?
  779. Answer
  780. Selected Answer:         
  781. self-report inventory
  782. Correct Answer:  
  783. self-report inventory
  784. Question 8
  785. 1 out of 1 points
  786. Correct
  787. The ________ states that the personality differences between men and women result from cultural standards and expectations.
  788. Answer
  789. Selected Answer:         
  790. social role theory
  791. Correct Answer:  
  792. social role theory
  793. Question 9
  794. 1 out of 1 points
  795. Correct
  796. When her roommate asked Connie why she wasn't studying for a big test scheduled for the next day, Connie replied, “It doesn't make any difference whether I study or not. I just know I'll make a low grade because I have such bad luck.” It is likely that Connie has a(n):
  797. Answer
  798. Selected Answer:         
  799. external locus of control.
  800. Correct Answer:  
  801. external locus of control.
  802. Question 10
  803. 1 out of 1 points
  804. Correct
  805. ________ is an active system struggling to control a lifetime of hidden memories, instincts, and desires.
  806. Answer
  807. Selected Answer:         
  808. The dynamic unconscious
  809. Correct Answer:  
  810. The dynamic unconscious
  811. Question 11
  812. 1 out of 1 points
  813. Correct
  814. In junior high school, Tyler really liked Jada and would have liked to date her. Instead, Tyler was mean to Jada and teased her. Which defense mechanism was Tyler using?
  815. Answer
  816. Selected Answer:         
  817. reaction formation
  818. Correct Answer:  
  819. reaction formation
  820. Question 12
  821. 1 out of 1 points
  822. Correct
  823. Freud thought people went through a series of distinct early life stages through which personality was formed. What were these stages called?
  824. Answer
  825. Selected Answer:         
  826. psychosexual stages of development
  827. Correct Answer:  
  828. psychosexual stages of development
  829. Question 13
  830. 1 out of 1 points
  831. Correct
  832. The ________ is a personality test that reveals underlying motives and concerns of respondents and how the respondents see the social world through the stories they create about ambiguous pictures of people.
  833. Answer
  834. Selected Answer:         
  835. Thematic Apperception Test
  836. Correct Answer:  
  837. Thematic Apperception Test
  838. Question 14
  839. 1 out of 1 points
  840. Correct
  841. Which of the following statements about gender and personality is FALSE?
  842. Answer
  843. Selected Answer:         
  844. Men engage in more social relationship aggression (e.g., ignoring someone) than women.
  845. Correct Answer:  
  846. Men engage in more social relationship aggression (e.g., ignoring someone) than women.
  847. Question 15
  848. 1 out of 1 points
  849. Correct
  850. All of the following are aspects of personality EXCEPT:
  851. Answer
  852. Selected Answer:         
  853. sensing.
  854. Correct Answer:  
  855. sensing.
  856. Question 16
  857. 1 out of 1 points
  858. Correct
  859. Psychoanalytic theory says that when a person's pleasure-seeking drives become psychologically stuck, or arrested, at a particular psychosexual stage, they are:
  860. Answer
  861. Selected Answer:         
  862. fixated.
  863. Correct Answer:  
  864. fixated.
  865. Question 17
  866. 1 out of 1 points
  867. Correct
  868. Presented as a continuum, which of these Big Five personality factor ranges from worried to calm?
  869. Answer
  870. Selected Answer:         
  871. neuroticism
  872. Correct Answer:  
  873. neuroticism
  874. Question 18
  875. 1 out of 1 points
  876. Correct
  877. Defense mechanisms are ________ because they ________.
  878. Answer
  879. Selected Answer:         
  880. useful; help us overcome anxiety
  881. Correct Answer:  
  882. useful; help us overcome anxiety
  883. Question 19
  884. 1 out of 1 points
  885. Correct
  886. According to Freud, a different bodily region dominates the child's subjective experience during each stage of development. He called this region a(n):
  887. Answer
  888. Selected Answer:         
  889. erotogenic zone.
  890. Correct Answer:  
  891. erotogenic zone.
  892. Question 20
  893. 1 out of 1 points
  894. Correct
  895. According to Freud, personality is largely determined by:
  896. Answer
  897. Selected Answer:         
  898. interactions between the id, ego, and superego.
  899. Correct Answer:  
  900. interactions between the id, ego, and superego.
  901. Question 1
  902. 1 out of 1 points
  903. Correct
  904. Daniel does not communicate well with others. As a result, he has few friends and does not understand the emotions of others. Although he has profound social deficits, his score on a standardized intelligence test was in the normal range. Daniel probably has which of the following disorders?
  905. Answer
  906. Selected Answer:         
  907. autism
  908. Correct Answer:  
  909. autism
  910. Question 2
  911. 1 out of 1 points
  912. Correct
  913. In the strange situation, 1-year-old Mei Ling mildly protests her mother's departure, seeks interaction with her mother when the two are reunited, and is readily comforted by her mother. Mei Ling is showing a(n) ________ attachment style.
  914. Answer
  915. Selected Answer:         
  916. secure
  917. Correct Answer:  
  918. secure
  919. Question 3
  920. 1 out of 1 points
  921. Correct
  922. About ________ percent of the growth of the brain occurs outside of the womb.
  923. Answer
  924. Selected Answer:         
  925. 75
  926. Correct Answer:  
  927. 75
  928. Question 4
  929. 1 out of 1 points
  930. Correct
  931. Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental skills that allow children to learn from others?
  932. Answer
  933. Selected Answer:         
  934. assimilation
  935. Correct Answer:  
  936. assimilation
  937. Question 5
  938. 1 out of 1 points
  939. Correct
  940. According to John Bowlby, babies are born with behaviors such as crying, smiling, and cooing in order to:
  941. Answer
  942. Selected Answer:         
  943. make it more likely that the primary caregiver remains close to them.
  944. Correct Answer:  
  945. make it more likely that the primary caregiver remains close to them.
  946. Question 6
  947. 1 out of 1 points
  948. Correct
  949. Anthony is able to think about “what might be,” not only about “what is.” According to Piaget, Anthony is in which stage of cognitive development?
  950. Answer
  951. Selected Answer:         
  952. formal operational
  953. Correct Answer:  
  954. formal operational
  955. Question 7
  956. 0 out of 1 points
  957. Incorrect      
  958. Babies whose mothers smoke tobacco during pregnancy are more likely to have all of these EXCEPT:
  959. Answer
  960. Selected Answer:         
  961. perceptual problems.
  962. Correct Answer:  
  963. distinctive facial features.
  964. Question 8
  965. 1 out of 1 points
  966. Correct
  967. Beatriz is 2 years old; when her brother tells her to hide, she covers her face with a blanket. This is a good example of:
  968. Answer
  969. Selected Answer:         
  970. egocentrism.
  971. Correct Answer:  
  972. egocentrism.
  973. Question 9
  974. 1 out of 1 points
  975. Correct
  976. Five-year-old Latoya watches her father place a ball in each of six bowls. She agrees that there are just as many balls as bowls. Her father then removes the balls and spreads them out in a row that extends beyond the row of bowls. Latoya says there are now more balls than bowls. According to Piaget, Latoya lacks the concept of:
  977. Answer
  978. Selected Answer:         
  979. conservation.
  980. Correct Answer:  
  981. conservation.
  982. Question 10
  983. 1 out of 1 points
  984. Correct
  985. For Lawrence Kohlberg, moral development unfolds in the following sequence: emphasis on ________, then emphasis on ________, and finally, emphasis on ________.
  986. Answer
  987. Selected Answer:         
  988. consequences; social roles; ethical principles
  989. Correct Answer:  
  990. consequences; social roles; ethical principles
  991. Question 11
  992. 0 out of 1 points
  993. Incorrect      
  994. Harry Harlow found that the social and cognitive deficits exhibited by monkeys raised in isolation for their first six months of life:
  995. Answer
  996. Selected Answer:         
  997. were evident in monkeys raised with a wire mother surrogate but not in monkeys raised with a terry-cloth mother surrogate.
  998. Correct Answer:  
  999. were severe and long-lasting.
  1000. Question 12
  1001. 1 out of 1 points
  1002. Correct
  1003. How do researchers know that infants can tell the difference between a physically impossible and physically possible event?
  1004. Answer
  1005. Selected Answer:         
  1006. Infants will stare longer at the impossible event than the possible event.
  1007. Correct Answer:  
  1008. Infants will stare longer at the impossible event than the possible event.
  1009. Question 13
  1010. 1 out of 1 points
  1011. Correct
  1012. In Piaget's view, ________ are theories about or models of the way the world works.
  1013. Answer
  1014. Selected Answer:         
  1015. schemas
  1016. Correct Answer:  
  1017. schemas
  1018. Question 14
  1019. 1 out of 1 points
  1020. Correct
  1021. Infants learn to control their elbows and knees before their hands and feet, which illustrates the ________ rule.
  1022. Answer
  1023. Selected Answer:         
  1024. proximodistal
  1025. Correct Answer:  
  1026. proximodistal
  1027. Question 15
  1028. 1 out of 1 points
  1029. Correct
  1030. Isabel, a newborn, turns her head toward a stimulus that strokes her cheek. Isabel is showing the ________ reflex.
  1031. Answer
  1032. Selected Answer:         
  1033. rooting
  1034. Correct Answer:  
  1035. rooting
  1036. Question 16
  1037. 1 out of 1 points
  1038. Correct
  1039. Isabel, who just had her first birthday, sees a butterfly and exclaims, “Bird!” “No, that's a butterfly,” says her grandmother. The next time Isabel sees a butterfly, she says, “Butterfly!” According to Piaget, Isabel has just shown:
  1040. Answer
  1041. Selected Answer:         
  1042. accommodation.
  1043. Correct Answer:  
  1044. accommodation.
  1045. Question 17
  1046. 1 out of 1 points
  1047. Correct
  1048. Jack is an infant who loves to play peek-a-boo with his father. He seems amazed that his father “reappears” after hiding his face behind his hands. Jack probably enjoys peek-a-boo because he does not yet understand:
  1049. Answer
  1050. Selected Answer:         
  1051. object permanence.
  1052. Correct Answer:  
  1053. object permanence.
  1054. Question 18
  1055. 1 out of 1 points
  1056. Correct
  1057. Maria and Carlos purchase a mobile for their newborn's crib to keep his attention. After a period of time, the infant may stop paying attention to the mobile. This is an example of which of the following processes?
  1058. Answer
  1059. Selected Answer:         
  1060. habituation
  1061. Correct Answer:  
  1062. habituation
  1063. Question 19
  1064. 1 out of 1 points
  1065. Correct
  1066. The word teratogen refers to the:
  1067. Answer
  1068. Selected Answer:         
  1069. agent that can damage the process of development.
  1070. Correct Answer:  
  1071. agent that can damage the process of development.
  1072. Question 20
  1073. 1 out of 1 points
  1074. Correct
  1075. Two-year-old Peter has short eye openings, a flat midface, an indistinct ridge under his nose, and a thin upper lip. An alert pediatrician is likely to diagnose:
  1076. Answer
  1077. Selected Answer:         
  1078. fetal alcohol syndrome.
  1079. Correct Answer:  
  1080. fetal alcohol syndrome.
  1081. Question 1
  1082. 1 out of 1 points
  1083. Correct
  1084. Men typically outscore women on tests that involve:
  1085. Answer
  1086. Selected Answer:         
  1087. spatial memory.
  1088. Correct Answer:  
  1089. spatial memory.
  1090. Question 2
  1091. 0 out of 1 points
  1092. Incorrect      
  1093. Intelligence scores among identical twins are ________ correlated when the twins are raised in the same household, and are ________ correlated when the twins are separated at birth and raised in different households.
  1094. Answer
  1095. Selected Answer:           [None Given]
  1096. Correct Answer:  
  1097. strongly; strongly
  1098. Question 3
  1099. 1 out of 1 points
  1100. Correct
  1101. Suzie displays the mental ability typical of a 6-year-old child. Therefore, her mental age is:
  1102. Answer
  1103. Selected Answer:         
  1104. 6.
  1105. Correct Answer:  
  1106. 6.
  1107. Question 4
  1108. 1 out of 1 points
  1109. Correct
  1110. Robert Sternberg suggested that there are three kinds of intelligence, which include all of the following EXCEPT:
  1111. Answer
  1112. Selected Answer:         
  1113. emotional intelligence.
  1114. Correct Answer:  
  1115. emotional intelligence.
  1116. Question 5
  1117. 1 out of 1 points
  1118. Correct
  1119. Research suggests the reason why first-born children have higher IQs than their siblings is that first-born children:
  1120. Answer
  1121. Selected Answer:         
  1122. have exclusive access to their parents' child-rearing until siblings are born.
  1123. Correct Answer:  
  1124. have exclusive access to their parents' child-rearing until siblings are born.
  1125. Question 6
  1126. 0 out of 1 points
  1127. Incorrect      
  1128. Studies suggest that practical, analytic, and creative intelligence are:
  1129. Answer
  1130. Selected Answer:         
  1131. very highly related to each other.
  1132. Correct Answer:  
  1133. independent of each other.
  1134. Question 7
  1135. 1 out of 1 points
  1136. Correct
  1137. Deanna has an intelligence score of 98. At 10 years of age, she is a classically trained professional singer performing in opera houses around the world. It is likely that:
  1138. Answer
  1139. Selected Answer:         
  1140. Deanna is a prodigy.
  1141. Correct Answer:  
  1142. Deanna is a prodigy.
  1143. Question 8
  1144. 0 out of 1 points
  1145. Incorrect      
  1146. The two-factor theory of intelligence predicts a ________ correlation between solving algebra problems and musical ability.
  1147. Answer
  1148. Selected Answer:         
  1149. perfect
  1150. Correct Answer:  
  1151. positive
  1152. Question 9
  1153. 0 out of 1 points
  1154. Incorrect      
  1155. In the three-level hierarchy of intelligence tests, ________ is/are at the top, ________ is/are in the middle, and ________ is/are at the bottom.
  1156. Answer
  1157. Selected Answer:         
  1158. group factors; general factor; specific factors
  1159. Correct Answer:  
  1160. general factor; group factors; specific factors
  1161. Question 10
  1162. 0 out of 1 points
  1163. Incorrect      
  1164. Modern intelligence tests:
  1165. Answer
  1166. Selected Answer:         
  1167. remain highly culturally biased.
  1168. Correct Answer:  
  1169. have few, if any, questions with a clear cultural bias.
  1170. Question 11
  1171. 0 out of 1 points
  1172. Incorrect      
  1173. Intelligence tests measure:
  1174. Answer
  1175. Selected Answer:         
  1176. the correlation between the ability to answer questions and perform tasks and intelligence.
  1177. Correct Answer:  
  1178. the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated with the consequences of intelligence.
  1179. Question 12
  1180. 0 out of 1 points
  1181. Incorrect      
  1182. Alfred Binet believed that, over the lifetime, intelligence:
  1183. Answer
  1184. Selected Answer:         
  1185. tended to reliably increase.
  1186. Correct Answer:  
  1187. could be altered based on experiences.
  1188. Question 13
  1189. 1 out of 1 points
  1190. Correct
  1191. The ability to apply and implement solutions in everyday settings is called:
  1192. Answer
  1193. Selected Answer:         
  1194. practical intelligence.
  1195. Correct Answer:  
  1196. practical intelligence.
  1197. Question 14
  1198. 1 out of 1 points
  1199. Correct
  1200. Deshawn has an English test where he has to provide the definitions of vocabulary words. This test requires ________ intelligence.
  1201. Answer
  1202. Selected Answer:         
  1203. crystallized
  1204. Correct Answer:  
  1205. crystallized
  1206. Question 15
  1207. 1 out of 1 points
  1208. Correct
  1209. Poverty experienced during ________ will be most likely to have deleterious effects on intelligence.
  1210. Answer
  1211. Selected Answer:         
  1212. early childhood
  1213. Correct Answer:  
  1214. early childhood
  1215. Question 16
  1216. 1 out of 1 points
  1217. Correct
  1218. Asian and African cultures are more likely than Western cultures to include ________ in their conceptualization of intelligence.
  1219. Answer
  1220. Selected Answer:         
  1221. social cooperativeness
  1222. Correct Answer:  
  1223. social cooperativeness
  1224. Question 17
  1225. 1 out of 1 points
  1226. Correct
  1227. The Flynn Effect predicts that:
  1228. Answer
  1229. Selected Answer:         
  1230. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
  1231. Correct Answer:  
  1232. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
  1233. Question 18
  1234. 1 out of 1 points
  1235. Correct
  1236. Rose has an intelligence score of 70, but has a remarkable memory for musical performance even when she hears them for the first time. It is likely that:
  1237. Answer
  1238. Selected Answer:         
  1239. Rose is a savant.
  1240. Correct Answer:  
  1241. Rose is a savant.
  1242. Question 19
  1243. 1 out of 1 points
  1244. Correct
  1245. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about emotionally intelligent people?
  1246. Answer
  1247. Selected Answer:         
  1248. They exhibit high levels of neural activity when engaged in recognizing facial expressions.
  1249. Correct Answer:  
  1250. They exhibit high levels of neural activity when engaged in recognizing facial expressions.
  1251. Question 20
  1252. 1 out of 1 points
  1253. Correct
  1254. The first intelligence test was developed in order to:
  1255. Answer
  1256. Selected Answer:         
  1257. identify children who needed remedial education.
  1258. Correct Answer:  
  1259. identify children who needed remedial education.
  1260. Question 1
  1261. 1 out of 1 points
  1262. Correct
  1263. A survival strategy used by our ancestors to avoid starvation was:
  1264. Answer
  1265. Selected Answer:         
  1266. storing excess calories as fat.
  1267. Correct Answer:  
  1268. storing excess calories as fat.
  1269. Question 2
  1270. 1 out of 1 points
  1271. Correct
  1272. According to Abraham Maslow, ________ needs are the first to be satisfied, while ________ needs are the last.
  1273. Answer
  1274. Selected Answer:         
  1275. physiological; self-actualization
  1276. Correct Answer:  
  1277. physiological; self-actualization
  1278. Question 3
  1279. 1 out of 1 points
  1280. Correct
  1281. According to Gestalt psychologists, insights reflect:
  1282. Answer
  1283. Selected Answer:         
  1284. a spontaneous restructuring of a problem.
  1285. Correct Answer:  
  1286. a spontaneous restructuring of a problem.
  1287. Question 4
  1288. 1 out of 1 points
  1289. Correct
  1290. America's most pernicious and pervasive eating-related problem is:
  1291. Answer
  1292. Selected Answer:         
  1293. obesity.
  1294. Correct Answer:  
  1295. obesity.
  1296. Question 5
  1297. 1 out of 1 points
  1298. Correct
  1299. Amir is of the Islamic faith. According to the mortality-salience hypothesis, if reminded of the inevitability of his own physical death, Amir probably will:
  1300. Answer
  1301. Selected Answer:         
  1302. grow stronger in the Islamic faith.
  1303. Correct Answer:  
  1304. grow stronger in the Islamic faith.
  1305. Question 6
  1306. 1 out of 1 points
  1307. Correct
  1308. An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality is called a(n):
  1309. Answer
  1310. Selected Answer:         
  1311. drive.
  1312. Correct Answer:  
  1313. drive.
  1314. Question 7
  1315. 1 out of 1 points
  1316. Correct
  1317. Because he is a hopeless romantic, Chad buys his wife a single red rose for no particular reason while grocery shopping. Realizing that he doesn't own a vase, he also buys the only one the supermarket has in stock, which is rather expensive. Upon coming home, his wife says, “Thanks for the rose, but is the vase really necessary? We can just put it in one of your many empty wine bottles that litter the kitchen.” Chad's failure to realize that a wine bottle can serve as a makeshift, yet romantic, vase is an example of:
  1318. Answer
  1319. Selected Answer:         
  1320. functional fixedness.
  1321. Correct Answer:  
  1322. functional fixedness.
  1323. Question 8
  1324. 1 out of 1 points
  1325. Correct
  1326. Existential terror deals with the:
  1327. Answer
  1328. Selected Answer:         
  1329. inevitability of death.
  1330. Correct Answer:  
  1331. inevitability of death.
  1332. Question 9
  1333. 1 out of 1 points
  1334. Correct
  1335. Gisela is anorexic. It is likely that she can be described by all the following EXCEPT:
  1336. Answer
  1337. Selected Answer:         
  1338. “impulsive.”
  1339. Correct Answer:  
  1340. “impulsive.”
  1341. Question 10
  1342. 1 out of 1 points
  1343. Correct
  1344. Items that are more accessible in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently. This mindbug of decision making is called the:
  1345. Answer
  1346. Selected Answer:         
  1347. availability bias.
  1348. Correct Answer:  
  1349. availability bias.
  1350. Question 11
  1351. 1 out of 1 points
  1352. Correct
  1353. Mark puts in long hours studying for his psychology tests. He already has an A in the course, but he really has a desire to know the material well. Mark's behavior is characteristic of:
  1354. Answer
  1355. Selected Answer:         
  1356. intrinsic motivation.
  1357. Correct Answer:  
  1358. intrinsic motivation.
  1359. Question 12
  1360. 1 out of 1 points
  1361. Correct
  1362. Paul is deep in credit card debt. His goal state is to be debt-free, but he doesn't have nearly enough money to pay off his debt at the moment. According to a means-end analysis, Paul should:
  1363. Answer
  1364. Selected Answer:         
  1365. take small steps to move from his current situation to one that is closer to his end goal; by meeting small goals, eventually he will be debt-free.
  1366. Correct Answer:  
  1367. take small steps to move from his current situation to one that is closer to his end goal; by meeting small goals, eventually he will be debt-free.
  1368. Question 13
  1369. 1 out of 1 points
  1370. Correct
  1371. People who frequently engage in risky behaviors are extremely insensitive to the ________ of their behavior.
  1372. Answer
  1373. Selected Answer:         
  1374. future consequences
  1375. Correct Answer:  
  1376. future consequences
  1377. Question 14
  1378. 1 out of 1 points
  1379. Correct
  1380. Research suggests that, all else being equal, ________ tends to be more powerful than ________.
  1381. Answer
  1382. Selected Answer:         
  1383. avoidance motivation; approach motivation
  1384. Correct Answer:  
  1385. avoidance motivation; approach motivation
  1386. Question 15
  1387. 1 out of 1 points
  1388. Correct
  1389. Shannon has been married for 20 years. She feels miserable in her marriage but refuses to consider getting a divorce; she feels that a divorce would completely waste all of the hard work she has put into making the marriage work for 20 years. Shannon's line of reasoning best illustrates the:
  1390. Answer
  1391. Selected Answer:         
  1392. sunk-cost fallacy.
  1393. Correct Answer:  
  1394. sunk-cost fallacy.
  1395. Question 16
  1396. 1 out of 1 points
  1397. Correct
  1398. Some school districts across the United States are considering paying children to attend school. This strategy is likely to ________ because ________.
  1399. Answer
  1400. Selected Answer:         
  1401. fail; it makes an intrinsic activity into an extrinsic activity
  1402. Correct Answer:  
  1403. fail; it makes an intrinsic activity into an extrinsic activity
  1404. Question 17
  1405. 1 out of 1 points
  1406. Correct
  1407. Tom is considering moving to a new city. He reads that the employment rate in that city is 90%, which he thinks is very favorable. Ted is considering moving to the same city, but he reads that the unemployment rate is 10%, which he thinks is unacceptably high. Why would Tom and Ted reach such different conclusions based on the same statistics?
  1408. Answer
  1409. Selected Answer:         
  1410. Tom received information that was framed in a favorable way, whereas Ted received the exact same information but framed in an unfavorable way.
  1411. Correct Answer:  
  1412. Tom received information that was framed in a favorable way, whereas Ted received the exact same information but framed in an unfavorable way.
  1413. Question 18
  1414. 1 out of 1 points
  1415. Correct
  1416. When presented with a problem, the first step in means-ends analysis is to:
  1417. Answer
  1418. Selected Answer:         
  1419. analyze the final goal state that you would like to achieve.
  1420. Correct Answer:  
  1421. analyze the final goal state that you would like to achieve.
  1422. Question 19
  1423. 1 out of 1 points
  1424. Correct
  1425. When we solve a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution (and then apply it), we are engaged in:
  1426. Answer
  1427. Selected Answer:         
  1428. analogical problem solving.
  1429. Correct Answer:  
  1430. analogical problem solving.
  1431. Question 20
  1432. 1 out of 1 points
  1433. Correct
  1434. ________ are “mental shortcuts” that may or may not be effective, whereas ________ are well-defined rules that guarantee a solution to a problem.
  1435. Answer
  1436. Selected Answer:         
  1437. Heuristics; algorithms
  1438. Correct Answer:  
  1439. Heuristics; algorithms
  1440. Question 1
  1441. 1 out of 1 points
  1442. Correct
  1443. When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response, the result is an example of which of the following phenomena?
  1444. Answer
  1445. Selected Answer:         
  1446. classical conditioning
  1447. Correct Answer:  
  1448. classical conditioning
  1449. Question 2
  1450. 1 out of 1 points
  1451. Correct
  1452. When your 3-year-old sister threw a tantrum over the candy she wanted, your mother gave it to her so that she would calm down. Although counterproductive in the long-run, in that moment, your mother's behavior was being ________ by ________.
  1453. Answer
  1454. Selected Answer:         
  1455. negatively reinforced; the end of the tantrum
  1456. Correct Answer:  
  1457. negatively reinforced; the end of the tantrum
  1458. Question 3
  1459. 1 out of 1 points
  1460. Correct
  1461. A shy and timid child works up the courage to raise his hand to answer a question. The teacher calls on him and the child delivers an excellent answer. The teacher exclaims, “That is the best answer I have heard all week! Great job! Come up to the front of the room to get a sticker!” Unfortunately, the child found all of this attention unpleasant, and no longer answers questions in class. His behavior of answering questions was:
  1462. Answer
  1463. Selected Answer:         
  1464. positively punished.
  1465. Correct Answer:  
  1466. positively punished.
  1467. Question 4
  1468. 1 out of 1 points
  1469. Correct
  1470. Molly's mail carrier delivers the mail promptly at noon each day. Molly never checks her mailbox in the morning, but always checks it at 12:05 p.m. Molly's mail carrier has her on what kind of schedule?
  1471. Answer
  1472. Selected Answer:         
  1473. fixed interval
  1474. Correct Answer:  
  1475. fixed interval
  1476. Question 5
  1477. 1 out of 1 points
  1478. Correct
  1479. A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether or not it will be repeated is called:
  1480. Answer
  1481. Selected Answer:         
  1482. operant conditioning.
  1483. Correct Answer:  
  1484. operant conditioning.
  1485. Question 6
  1486. 1 out of 1 points
  1487. Correct
  1488. Reinforcers ________ and punishers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
  1489. Answer
  1490. Selected Answer:         
  1491. increase; decrease
  1492. Correct Answer:  
  1493. increase; decrease
  1494. Question 7
  1495. 1 out of 1 points
  1496. Correct
  1497. Extinction in operant conditioning involves:
  1498. Answer
  1499. Selected Answer:         
  1500. no longer presenting the reinforcer when the response occurs.
  1501. Correct Answer:  
  1502. no longer presenting the reinforcer when the response occurs.
  1503. Question 8
  1504. 1 out of 1 points
  1505. Correct
  1506. The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period is called:
  1507. Answer
  1508. Selected Answer:         
  1509. spontaneous recovery.
  1510. Correct Answer:  
  1511. spontaneous recovery.
  1512. Question 9
  1513. 1 out of 1 points
  1514. Correct
  1515. Positive reinforcers ________ and negative reinforcers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
  1516. Answer
  1517. Selected Answer:         
  1518. increase; increase
  1519. Correct Answer:  
  1520. increase; increase
  1521. Question 10
  1522. 1 out of 1 points
  1523. Correct
  1524. When your dog's veterinarian advised you to feed your dog in the morning instead of in the evening, it took several days for your dog to stop salivating late in the afternoon as you stirred around in the kitchen. This is an example of:
  1525. Answer
  1526. Selected Answer:         
  1527. extinction.
  1528. Correct Answer:  
  1529. extinction.
  1530. Question 11
  1531. 1 out of 1 points
  1532. Correct
  1533. Billy Bob's Big Burger Barn is your favorite restaurant, and lately you've noticed that every time you walk by there on your way to class, your mouth starts to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, the sight of the restaurant is the ________; your salivation is the ________.
  1534. Answer
  1535. Selected Answer:         
  1536. CS; CR
  1537. Correct Answer:  
  1538. CS; CR
  1539. Question 12
  1540. 1 out of 1 points
  1541. Correct
  1542. When external rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior, the ________ is operating.
  1543. Answer
  1544. Selected Answer:         
  1545. overjustification effect
  1546. Correct Answer:  
  1547. overjustification effect
  1548. Question 13
  1549. 1 out of 1 points
  1550. Correct
  1551. In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show that:
  1552. Answer
  1553. Selected Answer:         
  1554. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.
  1555. Correct Answer:  
  1556. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.
  1557. Question 14
  1558. 1 out of 1 points
  1559. Correct
  1560. B. F. Skinner believed that superstitions:
  1561. Answer
  1562. Selected Answer:         
  1563. resulted from the unintended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior.
  1564. Correct Answer:  
  1565. resulted from the unintended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior.
  1566. Question 15
  1567. 1 out of 1 points
  1568. Correct
  1569. Slot machines pay off on schedules that are determined by the random number generator that controls the play of the machine. For example, on average, the machine might pay off every 100 pulls, but sometimes two pulls are required and sometimes several hundred pulls are required. Slot machines are a real-world example of a ________ schedule.
  1570. Answer
  1571. Selected Answer:         
  1572. variable ratio
  1573. Correct Answer:  
  1574. variable ratio
  1575. Question 16
  1576. 1 out of 1 points
  1577. Correct
  1578. A parent spanked a child for misbehaving, and the misbehavior stopped. By definition, the spanking served as a ________ for the misbehavior.
  1579. Answer
  1580. Selected Answer:         
  1581. positive punisher
  1582. Correct Answer:  
  1583. positive punisher
  1584. Question 17
  1585. 1 out of 1 points
  1586. Correct
  1587. The learning process involves the ________ of new knowledge, skills, or responses as a function of ________.
  1588. Answer
  1589. Selected Answer:         
  1590. acquisition; experience
  1591. Correct Answer:  
  1592. acquisition; experience
  1593. Question 18
  1594. 1 out of 1 points
  1595. Correct
  1596. Not only did Little Albert learn to fear white rats, he also cried when presented with a Santa Claus mask or a seal-fur coat. This behavior was the result of:
  1597. Answer
  1598. Selected Answer:         
  1599. stimulus generalization.
  1600. Correct Answer:  
  1601. stimulus generalization.
  1602. Question 19
  1603. 1 out of 1 points
  1604. Correct
  1605. Tammy ate raw oysters for the first time and, four hours later, became extremely sick to her stomach. Now, the smell of oysters makes her stomach queasy. What is the CR?
  1606. Answer
  1607. Selected Answer:         
  1608. stomach queasiness at the smell of oysters
  1609. Correct Answer:  
  1610. stomach queasiness at the smell of oysters
  1611. Question 20
  1612. 1 out of 1 points
  1613. Correct
  1614. In second-order conditioning, what is the US?
  1615. Answer
  1616. Selected Answer:         
  1617. a previously established CS
  1618. Correct Answer:  
  1619. a previously established CS
  1620. Question 1
  1621. 1 out of 1 points
  1622. Correct
  1623. As a newly graduated registered nurse, Monica works the night shift. Her struggle to stay alert at work is probably due to an interruption of her usual:
  1624. Answer
  1625. Selected Answer:         
  1626. circadian rhythm.
  1627. Correct Answer:  
  1628. circadian rhythm.
  1629. Question 2
  1630. 1 out of 1 points
  1631. Correct
  1632. The most commonly reported sleep disorder is:
  1633. Answer
  1634. Selected Answer:         
  1635. insomnia.
  1636. Correct Answer:  
  1637. insomnia.
  1638. Question 3
  1639. 1 out of 1 points
  1640. Correct
  1641. The primary problem with Freud's approach to dream analysis is that:
  1642. Answer
  1643. Selected Answer:         
  1644. the latent content of a dream can be interpreted in many ways.
  1645. Correct Answer:  
  1646. the latent content of a dream can be interpreted in many ways.
  1647. Question 4
  1648. 1 out of 1 points
  1649. Correct
  1650. In the middle of a conversation, your friend suddenly falls deeply asleep. When he awakens, he informs you that this has happened on several occasions when he becomes excited. Your friend probably has a disorder known as:
  1651. Answer
  1652. Selected Answer:         
  1653. narcolepsy.
  1654. Correct Answer:  
  1655. narcolepsy.
  1656. Question 5
  1657. 1 out of 1 points
  1658. Correct
  1659. ________ is a sleep disorder associated with an interruption in breathing for short periods of time.
  1660. Answer
  1661. Selected Answer:         
  1662. Sleep apnea
  1663. Correct Answer:  
  1664. Sleep apnea
  1665. Question 6
  1666. 1 out of 1 points
  1667. Correct
  1668. A criticism of Freud's interpretations of Freudian slips is that:
  1669. Answer
  1670. Selected Answer:         
  1671. they reflect the after-the-fact interpretation of the listener, instead of the thoughts of the speaker.
  1672. Correct Answer:  
  1673. they reflect the after-the-fact interpretation of the listener, instead of the thoughts of the speaker.
  1674. Question 7
  1675. 1 out of 1 points
  1676. Correct
  1677. Which of the following statements about sleepwalking is TRUE?
  1678. Answer
  1679. Selected Answer:         
  1680. Sleepwalkers can hurt themselves while walking.
  1681. Correct Answer:  
  1682. Sleepwalkers can hurt themselves while walking.
  1683. Question 8
  1684. 1 out of 1 points
  1685. Correct
  1686. The four basic properties of consciousness are:
  1687. Answer
  1688. Selected Answer:         
  1689. intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience.
  1690. Correct Answer:  
  1691. intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience.
  1692. Question 9
  1693. 1 out of 1 points
  1694. Correct
  1695. Freud described the ________ as an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, a person's deepest instincts and desires, and that person's inner struggle to control these forces.
  1696. Answer
  1697. Selected Answer:         
  1698. dynamic unconscious
  1699. Correct Answer:  
  1700. dynamic unconscious
  1701. Question 10
  1702. 0 out of 1 points
  1703. Incorrect      
  1704. Katie is in the school gym talking to a group of her friends. All of a sudden, her attention is diverted to another group of people talking in the opposite corner of the gym when someone mentions her name in their conversation. This is an example of:
  1705. Answer
  1706. Selected Answer:         
  1707. dichotic listening.
  1708. Correct Answer:  
  1709. the cocktail party phenomenon.
  1710. Question 11
  1711. 1 out of 1 points
  1712. Correct
  1713. Disapproving of her friend Amy's fiancé, Mindy told her boyfriend that she dreaded going to Amy's funeral when she meant to say “Amy's wedding.” This speech error is an example of:
  1714. Answer
  1715. Selected Answer:         
  1716. a Freudian slip.
  1717. Correct Answer:  
  1718. a Freudian slip.
  1719. Question 12
  1720. 0 out of 1 points
  1721. Incorrect      
  1722. REM sleep deprivation results in:
  1723. Answer
  1724. Selected Answer:         
  1725. difficulty processing new information and hyposensitivity to pain.
  1726. Correct Answer:  
  1727. memory problems and excessive aggression.
  1728. Question 13
  1729. 1 out of 1 points
  1730. Correct
  1731. Jenny is trying to study for her psychology exam while listening to her favorite music on the radio. She feels distracted and doesn't understand why. The inability to study and listen to music simultaneously is an example of:
  1732. Answer
  1733. Selected Answer:         
  1734. the unity of consciousness.
  1735. Correct Answer:  
  1736. the unity of consciousness.
  1737. Question 14
  1738. 1 out of 1 points
  1739. Correct
  1740. Jeremy did not recall that he had been abused as a child until he was 35 years old. This is an example of:
  1741. Answer
  1742. Selected Answer:         
  1743. repression.
  1744. Correct Answer:  
  1745. repression.
  1746. Question 15
  1747. 1 out of 1 points
  1748. Correct
  1749. Six-year-old Jake awakened from stage 4 sleep with signs of intense arousal, including a racing pulse, rapid respiration, and powerful feelings of fear. Jake has probably experienced:
  1750. Answer
  1751. Selected Answer:         
  1752. night terrors.
  1753. Correct Answer:  
  1754. night terrors.
  1755. Question 16
  1756. 1 out of 1 points
  1757. Correct
  1758. A form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind is called:
  1759. Answer
  1760. Selected Answer:         
  1761. an altered state of consciousness.
  1762. Correct Answer:  
  1763. an altered state of consciousness.
  1764. Question 17
  1765. 1 out of 1 points
  1766. Correct
  1767. ________ influence consciousness by altering brain neurotransmission.
  1768. Answer
  1769. Selected Answer:         
  1770. Psychoactive drugs
  1771. Correct Answer:  
  1772. Psychoactive drugs
  1773. Question 18
  1774. 0 out of 1 points
  1775. Incorrect      
  1776. The mental technique of thought suppression:
  1777. Answer
  1778. Selected Answer:         
  1779. is an unconscious technique.
  1780. Correct Answer:  
  1781. is the conscious avoidance of a thought.
  1782. Question 19
  1783. 1 out of 1 points
  1784. Correct
  1785. Sometimes people experience sensations of falling ________, a phenomenon termed:
  1786. Answer
  1787. Selected Answer:         
  1788. while falling asleep; hypnic jerk.
  1789. Correct Answer:  
  1790. while falling asleep; hypnic jerk.
  1791. Question 20
  1792. 1 out of 1 points
  1793. Correct
  1794. Patrick used to only have to drink 2 cups of coffee in the morning to feel energized. Now, 2 months later, Patrick needs 4 cups of coffee to feel the same amount of energy. Patrick is likely experiencing:
  1795. Answer
  1796. Selected Answer:         
  1797. drug tolerance.
  1798. Correct Answer:  
  1799. drug tolerance.
  1800. Question 1
  1801. 1 out of 1 points
  1802. Correct
  1803. When walking home alone late one night, you are startled by a moving shadow that you glimpse out of the corner of your eye. The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes your body's defenses. When you see that the shadow is just the neighbor's cat, the ________ division lessens your physiological arousal.
  1804. Answer
  1805. Selected Answer:         
  1806. sympathetic; parasympathetic
  1807. Correct Answer:  
  1808. sympathetic; parasympathetic
  1809. Question 2
  1810. 1 out of 1 points
  1811. Correct
  1812. A(n) ________ is a drug that increases the action of a neurotransmitter.
  1813. Answer
  1814. Selected Answer:         
  1815. agonist
  1816. Correct Answer:  
  1817. agonist
  1818. Question 3
  1819. 1 out of 1 points
  1820. Correct
  1821. Losing some areas of brain structure is incompatible with survival, ending basic life functions such as regulation of breathing and heart rate. For this reason, you may not survive damage to your:
  1822. Answer
  1823. Selected Answer:         
  1824. hindbrain.
  1825. Correct Answer:  
  1826. hindbrain.
  1827. Question 4
  1828. 1 out of 1 points
  1829. Correct
  1830. The flow of information within a neuron is ________, whereas the flow of information between neurons is ________.
  1831. Answer
  1832. Selected Answer:         
  1833. electrical; chemical
  1834. Correct Answer:  
  1835. electrical; chemical
  1836. Question 5
  1837. 1 out of 1 points
  1838. Correct
  1839. An electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to a synapse is called a(n):
  1840. Answer
  1841. Selected Answer:         
  1842. action potential.
  1843. Correct Answer:  
  1844. action potential.
  1845. Question 6
  1846. 1 out of 1 points
  1847. Correct
  1848. The gap between one neuron's axon and a dendrite or cell body of another neuron is part of the:
  1849. Answer
  1850. Selected Answer:         
  1851. synapse.
  1852. Correct Answer:  
  1853. synapse.
  1854. Question 7
  1855. 1 out of 1 points
  1856. Correct
  1857. In the age-old debate between the influences of nature vs. nurture on human behavior, the general consensus is that:
  1858. Answer
  1859. Selected Answer:         
  1860. both nature and nurture are important determinants of human behavior.
  1861. Correct Answer:  
  1862. both nature and nurture are important determinants of human behavior.
  1863. Question 8
  1864. 1 out of 1 points
  1865. Correct
  1866. Boyd was jumped from behind by a group of attackers and was struck in the head. As a result of the attack, Boyd suffered from partial blindness even though his eyes were not physically damaged. Boyd most likely suffered damage to which cortical lobe?
  1867. Answer
  1868. Selected Answer:         
  1869. occipital
  1870. Correct Answer:  
  1871. occipital
  1872. Question 9
  1873. 1 out of 1 points
  1874. Correct
  1875. ________ are cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
  1876. Answer
  1877. Selected Answer:         
  1878. Neurons
  1879. Correct Answer:  
  1880. Neurons
  1881. Question 10
  1882. 1 out of 1 points
  1883. Correct
  1884. While Jane was running hot water for her son's bath, she touched the hot water pouring out and immediately pulled back her hand. This reaction resulted from activation of:
  1885. Answer
  1886. Selected Answer:         
  1887. a spinal reflex.
  1888. Correct Answer:  
  1889. a spinal reflex.
  1890. Question 11
  1891. 1 out of 1 points
  1892. Correct
  1893. Which type of neuron receives information from the external world and conveys this information to the brain?
  1894. Answer
  1895. Selected Answer:         
  1896. sensory neuron
  1897. Correct Answer:  
  1898. sensory neuron
  1899. Question 12
  1900. 1 out of 1 points
  1901. Correct
  1902. The left brain hemisphere receives sensory input from the ________ and sends motor commands to the ________.
  1903. Answer
  1904. Selected Answer:         
  1905. right side of the body; right side of the body
  1906. Correct Answer:  
  1907. right side of the body; right side of the body
  1908. Question 13
  1909. 1 out of 1 points
  1910. Correct
  1911. The ________ is the largest commissure connecting the two hemispheres of the brain.
  1912. Answer
  1913. Selected Answer:         
  1914. corpus callosum
  1915. Correct Answer:  
  1916. corpus callosum
  1917. Question 14
  1918. 1 out of 1 points
  1919. Correct
  1920. The somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex has more area devoted to processing:
  1921. Answer
  1922. Selected Answer:         
  1923. more sensitive areas of the body, like the mouth.
  1924. Correct Answer:  
  1925. more sensitive areas of the body, like the mouth.
  1926. Question 15
  1927. 1 out of 1 points
  1928. Correct
  1929. Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke provided some of the earliest evidence that:
  1930. Answer
  1931. Selected Answer:         
  1932. there are separate areas of the brain for speech production and for speech comprehension.
  1933. Correct Answer:  
  1934. there are separate areas of the brain for speech production and for speech comprehension.
  1935. Question 16
  1936. 1 out of 1 points
  1937. Correct
  1938. Every morning after a vigorous workout in which he swims laps at the local YMCA, Jim feels great. His aches and pains are reduced and his mood is elevated. This is probably due to the release of ________ in the brain.
  1939. Answer
  1940. Selected Answer:         
  1941. endorphins
  1942. Correct Answer:  
  1943. endorphins
  1944. Question 17
  1945. 1 out of 1 points
  1946. Correct
  1947. The ________ releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body.
  1948. Answer
  1949. Selected Answer:         
  1950. pituitary gland
  1951. Correct Answer:  
  1952. pituitary gland
  1953. Question 18
  1954. 1 out of 1 points
  1955. Correct
  1956. The communication chemicals that actually cross the synaptic gap between axons and dendrites are:
  1957. Answer
  1958. Selected Answer:         
  1959. neurotransmitters.
  1960. Correct Answer:  
  1961. neurotransmitters.
  1962. Question 19
  1963. 0 out of 1 points
  1964. Incorrect      
  1965. A copper wire is to wire insulation as a(n) ________ is to a(n) ________.
  1966. Answer
  1967. Selected Answer:         
  1968. myelin sheath; glial cell
  1969. Correct Answer:  
  1970. axon; myelin sheath
  1971. Question 20
  1972. 1 out of 1 points
  1973. Correct
  1974. The ________ receive information; the ________ transmit information.
  1975. Answer
  1976. Selected Answer:         
  1977. dendrites; axons
  1978. Correct Answer:  
  1979. dendrites; axons
  1980. Question 1
  1981. 1 out of 1 points
  1982. Correct
  1983. A reliable measure is one that:
  1984. Answer
  1985. Selected Answer:         
  1986. tends to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
  1987. Correct Answer:  
  1988. tends to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
  1989. Question 2
  1990. 1 out of 1 points
  1991. Correct
  1992. A testable prediction derived from a theory is termed a(n):
  1993. Answer
  1994. Selected Answer:         
  1995. hypothesis.
  1996. Correct Answer:  
  1997. hypothesis.
  1998. Question 3
  1999. 1 out of 1 points
  2000. Correct
  2001. Dr. Sardonicus learned of a woman whose tongue turned a bright shade of green whenever she felt stressed. Although this is a rare event in the general population, Dr. Sardonicus nonetheless interviewed the woman at great length and made detailed observations about her behavior. Dr. Sardonicus was using ________ to gather data.
  2002. Answer
  2003. Selected Answer:         
  2004. the case method
  2005. Correct Answer:  
  2006. the case method
  2007. Question 4
  2008. 1 out of 1 points
  2009. Correct
  2010. According to your textbook, what three things make people especially difficult to study?
  2011. Answer
  2012. Selected Answer:         
  2013. variability, reactivity, and complexity
  2014. Correct Answer:  
  2015. variability, reactivity, and complexity
  2016. Question 5
  2017. 1 out of 1 points
  2018. Correct
  2019. The closer an experiment is to the real world, the more psychologists can claim it has:
  2020. Answer
  2021. Selected Answer:         
  2022. external validity.
  2023. Correct Answer:  
  2024. external validity.
  2025. Question 6
  2026. 1 out of 1 points
  2027. Correct
  2028. What does the third-variable problem indicate?
  2029. Answer
  2030. Selected Answer:         
  2031. Two of the variables are correlated with each other only because each is causally related to a third variable.
  2032. Correct Answer:  
  2033. Two of the variables are correlated with each other only because each is causally related to a third variable.
  2034. Question 7
  2035. 1 out of 1 points
  2036. Correct
  2037. An experiment in which the true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant is called a:
  2038. Answer
  2039. Selected Answer:         
  2040. double-blind experiment.
  2041. Correct Answer:  
  2042. double-blind experiment.
  2043. Question 8
  2044. 1 out of 1 points
  2045. Correct
  2046. Researchers wanted to see if adults were actually afraid of the dark by exposing them to different levels of light in a room while measuring their heart rates. In this experiment, what are the heart rates of the participants?
  2047. Answer
  2048. Selected Answer:         
  2049. dependent variable
  2050. Correct Answer:  
  2051. dependent variable
  2052. Question 9
  2053. 1 out of 1 points
  2054. Correct
  2055. People are difficult to study because they often behave differently when they know that they are being observed, a phenomenon known as:
  2056. Answer
  2057. Selected Answer:         
  2058. reactivity.
  2059. Correct Answer:  
  2060. reactivity.
  2061. Question 10
  2062. 1 out of 1 points
  2063. Correct
  2064. When aspects of a setting cause participants to behave the way they think an observer wants them to behave, the problem of ________ is present.
  2065. Answer
  2066. Selected Answer:         
  2067. demand characteristics
  2068. Correct Answer:  
  2069. demand characteristics
  2070. Question 11
  2071. 0 out of 1 points
  2072. Incorrect      
  2073. What is the best way to make it less likely that people will be influenced by demand characteristics?
  2074. Answer
  2075. Selected Answer:         
  2076. have them respond anonymously
  2077. Correct Answer:  
  2078. keep them from knowing the true purpose of the observation
  2079. Question 12
  2080. 1 out of 1 points
  2081. Correct
  2082. The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observations of it is called:
  2083. Answer
  2084. Selected Answer:         
  2085. empiricism.
  2086. Correct Answer:  
  2087. empiricism.
  2088. Question 13
  2089. 1 out of 1 points
  2090. Correct
  2091. A researcher wants to assess the effects of varying amounts of alcohol on ratings of perception of friendliness. Three groups of people are given either 1, 3, or 5 beers to drink. Three more groups of people are given either 1, 3, or 5 non-alcoholic beers to drink. Then, all participants are shown a series of pictures of people's faces and are asked to rank the perceived friendliness of each face on a scale from 1 to 10. In this experiment, the independent variable is:
  2092. Answer
  2093. Selected Answer:         
  2094. the amount of alcohol consumed.
  2095. Correct Answer:  
  2096. the amount of alcohol consumed.
  2097. Question 14
  2098. 0 out of 1 points
  2099. Incorrect      
  2100. Which of the following statements about divulging the true purpose of an experiment is TRUE?
  2101. Answer
  2102. Selected Answer:         
  2103. The psychologist never has to divulge the true purpose of an experiment.
  2104. Correct Answer:  
  2105. The psychologist must divulge the true purpose of the experiment after the person participates.
  2106. Question 15
  2107. 1 out of 1 points
  2108. Correct
  2109. Research has shown that there is a correlation between the amount of violence a child sees on TV and the aggressiveness of the child's behavior. One explanation of this correlation is that children who watch a great deal of violence on television have a lack of adult supervision. This explanation is an example of what kind of correlation?
  2110. Answer
  2111. Selected Answer:         
  2112. third-variable
  2113. Correct Answer:  
  2114. third-variable
  2115. Question 16
  2116. 0 out of 1 points
  2117. Incorrect      
  2118. What is typically the ultimate goal of the experimental method?
  2119. Answer
  2120. Selected Answer:         
  2121. to observe as many events as possible in a domain of interest
  2122. Correct Answer:  
  2123. to discover causal relationships between events
  2124. Question 17
  2125. 1 out of 1 points
  2126. Correct
  2127. Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding deception in psychological research?
  2128. Answer
  2129. Selected Answer:         
  2130. Deception can never be used if it puts participants at risk of harm or pain.
  2131. Correct Answer:  
  2132. Deception can never be used if it puts participants at risk of harm or pain.
  2133. Question 18
  2134. 1 out of 1 points
  2135. Correct
  2136. In an experiment, researchers exposed half the children to 2 hours of violence on television every day for a month and made sure the other half saw no violence on television at all. At the end of the month, they measured the level of aggressiveness in the children. What is(are) the independent variable(s)?
  2137. Answer
  2138. Selected Answer:         
  2139. amount of violence watched on television
  2140. Correct Answer:  
  2141. amount of violence watched on television
  2142. Question 19
  2143. 1 out of 1 points
  2144. Correct
  2145. What is the main advantage of experimentation over correlation in determining causal relationships?
  2146. Answer
  2147. Selected Answer:         
  2148. Experimentation offers the possibility of controlling for all potential third variables at once.
  2149. Correct Answer:  
  2150. Experimentation offers the possibility of controlling for all potential third variables at once.
  2151. Question 20
  2152. 1 out of 1 points
  2153. Correct
  2154. Dr. Strangelove made it clear to his psychology students that if they didn't participate in his research, they would receive a failing grade. What ethical principle has Dr. Strangelove violated?
  2155. Answer
  2156. Selected Answer:         
  2157. freedom from coercion
  2158. Correct Answer:  
  2159. freedom from coercion
  2160. Question 1
  2161. 1 out of 1 points
  2162. Correct
  2163. Some early philosophers believed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or inborn, a theory known as:
  2164. Answer
  2165. Selected Answer:         
  2166. nativism.
  2167. Correct Answer:  
  2168. nativism.
  2169. Question 2
  2170. 1 out of 1 points
  2171. Correct
  2172. A temporary loss of cognitive or motor function, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences, can be defined as:
  2173. Answer
  2174. Selected Answer:         
  2175. hysteria.
  2176. Correct Answer:  
  2177. hysteria.
  2178. Question 3
  2179. 1 out of 1 points
  2180. Correct
  2181. An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior is called:
  2182. Answer
  2183. Selected Answer:         
  2184. behaviorism.
  2185. Correct Answer:  
  2186. behaviorism.
  2187. Question 4
  2188. 1 out of 1 points
  2189. Correct
  2190. A cognitive psychologist who studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in order to gain insight into the nature and development of the human mind was:
  2191. Answer
  2192. Selected Answer:         
  2193. Jean Piaget.
  2194. Correct Answer:  
  2195. Jean Piaget.
  2196. Question 5
  2197. 1 out of 1 points
  2198. Correct
  2199. Dr. Jones touches specific bumps on a patient's skull and then indicates specific character traits for the patient, for example, “This patient is cautious.” Dr. Jones is engaging in:
  2200. Answer
  2201. Selected Answer:         
  2202. phrenology.
  2203. Correct Answer:  
  2204. phrenology.
  2205. Question 6
  2206. 1 out of 1 points
  2207. Correct
  2208. Freud emphasized that the problems of many patients could be traced to:
  2209. Answer
  2210. Selected Answer:         
  2211. effects of early childhood experiences that could not be remembered.
  2212. Correct Answer:  
  2213. effects of early childhood experiences that could not be remembered.
  2214. Question 7
  2215. 1 out of 1 points
  2216. Correct
  2217. Freud's view of human nature was largely ________, whereas the view of humanistic psychologists was largely ________.
  2218. Answer
  2219. Selected Answer:         
  2220. negative; positive
  2221. Correct Answer:  
  2222. negative; positive
  2223. Question 8
  2224. 1 out of 1 points
  2225. Correct
  2226. Gestalt psychologists believed that:
  2227. Answer
  2228. Selected Answer:         
  2229. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  2230. Correct Answer:  
  2231. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  2232. Question 9
  2233. 1 out of 1 points
  2234. Correct
  2235. If you are having trouble finding your cat, you may try shaking the can that contains his treats. The sound of the treats as you shake the can would be:
  2236. Answer
  2237. Selected Answer:         
  2238. a stimulus.
  2239. Correct Answer:  
  2240. a stimulus.
  2241. Question 10
  2242. 1 out of 1 points
  2243. Correct
  2244. Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, is best known for:
  2245. Answer
  2246. Selected Answer:         
  2247. his experiments with salivating dogs.
  2248. Correct Answer:  
  2249. his experiments with salivating dogs.
  2250. Question 11
  2251. 0 out of 1 points
  2252. Incorrect      
  2253. John Watson was interested in how ________ controlled behavior and B. F. Skinner focused on how ________ controlled behavior.
  2254. Answer
  2255. Selected Answer:         
  2256. responses; reinforcers
  2257. Correct Answer:  
  2258. stimuli prior to the response; consequences following the response
  2259. Question 12
  2260. 1 out of 1 points
  2261. Correct
  2262. Mariah is a teacher and believes that all her students have an inherent need to develop, grow, and reach their full potential. Mariah's beliefs are best characterized by which approach?
  2263. Answer
  2264. Selected Answer:         
  2265. humanism
  2266. Correct Answer:  
  2267. humanism
  2268. Question 13
  2269. 1 out of 1 points
  2270. Correct
  2271. Nature is to nurture as nativism is to:
  2272. Answer
  2273. Selected Answer:         
  2274. experience.
  2275. Correct Answer:  
  2276. experience.
  2277. Question 14
  2278. 1 out of 1 points
  2279. Correct
  2280. Psychology is the scientific study of:
  2281. Answer
  2282. Selected Answer:         
  2283. mind and behavior.
  2284. Correct Answer:  
  2285. mind and behavior.
  2286. Question 15
  2287. 1 out of 1 points
  2288. Correct
  2289. Rats are more likely to form a smell-sickness association than a light-sickness association, demonstrating that:
  2290. Answer
  2291. Selected Answer:         
  2292. natural associations are formed more quickly than artificial associations.
  2293. Correct Answer:  
  2294. natural associations are formed more quickly than artificial associations.
  2295. Question 16
  2296. 1 out of 1 points
  2297. Correct
  2298. Solomon Asch was a social psychologist whose research interests were shaped, in part, by:
  2299. Answer
  2300. Selected Answer:         
  2301. his experiences in Nazi Germany.
  2302. Correct Answer:  
  2303. his experiences in Nazi Germany.
  2304. Question 17
  2305. 1 out of 1 points
  2306. Correct
  2307. The scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning, is called:
  2308. Answer
  2309. Selected Answer:         
  2310. cognitive psychology.
  2311. Correct Answer:  
  2312. cognitive psychology.
  2313. Question 18
  2314. 0 out of 1 points
  2315. Incorrect      
  2316. The unpredictable nature of results from introspection contributed to the decline of:
  2317. Answer
  2318. Selected Answer:         
  2319. functionalism.
  2320. Correct Answer:  
  2321. structuralism.
  2322. Question 19
  2323. 1 out of 1 points
  2324. Correct
  2325. Using ________, Krings et al. (2000) demonstrated that the brains of professional piano plays were ________ active than novice players because both groups made finger movements like those involved in piano play.
  2326. Answer
  2327. Selected Answer:         
  2328. fMRI; less
  2329. Correct Answer:  
  2330. fMRI; less
  2331. Question 20
  2332. 1 out of 1 points
  2333. Correct
  2334. What type of psychology explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time?
  2335. Answer
  2336. Selected Answer:         
  2337. evolutionary psychology
  2338. Correct Answer:  
  2339. evolutionary psychology
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