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  1.  
  2. Question 1
  3. 1 out of 1 points
  4. Correct
  5. A survival strategy used by our ancestors to avoid starvation was:
  6. Answer
  7. Selected Answer:         
  8. storing excess calories as fat.
  9. Correct Answer:  
  10. storing excess calories as fat.
  11. Question 2
  12. 1 out of 1 points
  13. Correct
  14. According to Abraham Maslow, ________ needs are the first to be satisfied, while ________ needs are the last.
  15. Answer
  16. Selected Answer:         
  17. physiological; self-actualization
  18. Correct Answer:  
  19. physiological; self-actualization
  20. Question 3
  21. 1 out of 1 points
  22. Correct
  23. According to Gestalt psychologists, insights reflect:
  24. Answer
  25. Selected Answer:         
  26. a spontaneous restructuring of a problem.
  27. Correct Answer:  
  28. a spontaneous restructuring of a problem.
  29. Question 4
  30. 1 out of 1 points
  31. Correct
  32. America's most pernicious and pervasive eating-related problem is:
  33. Answer
  34. Selected Answer:         
  35. obesity.
  36. Correct Answer:  
  37. obesity.
  38. Question 5
  39. 1 out of 1 points
  40. Correct
  41. Amir is of the Islamic faith. According to the mortality-salience hypothesis, if reminded of the inevitability of his own physical death, Amir probably will:
  42. Answer
  43. Selected Answer:         
  44. grow stronger in the Islamic faith.
  45. Correct Answer:  
  46. grow stronger in the Islamic faith.
  47. Question 6
  48. 1 out of 1 points
  49. Correct
  50. An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality is called a(n):
  51. Answer
  52. Selected Answer:         
  53. drive.
  54. Correct Answer:  
  55. drive.
  56. Question 7
  57. 1 out of 1 points
  58. Correct
  59. Because he is a hopeless romantic, Chad buys his wife a single red rose for no particular reason while grocery shopping. Realizing that he doesn't own a vase, he also buys the only one the supermarket has in stock, which is rather expensive. Upon coming home, his wife says, “Thanks for the rose, but is the vase really necessary? We can just put it in one of your many empty wine bottles that litter the kitchen.” Chad's failure to realize that a wine bottle can serve as a makeshift, yet romantic, vase is an example of:
  60. Answer
  61. Selected Answer:         
  62. functional fixedness.
  63. Correct Answer:  
  64. functional fixedness.
  65. Question 8
  66. 1 out of 1 points
  67. Correct
  68. Existential terror deals with the:
  69. Answer
  70. Selected Answer:         
  71. inevitability of death.
  72. Correct Answer:  
  73. inevitability of death.
  74. Question 9
  75. 1 out of 1 points
  76. Correct
  77. Gisela is anorexic. It is likely that she can be described by all the following EXCEPT:
  78. Answer
  79. Selected Answer:         
  80. “impulsive.”
  81. Correct Answer:  
  82. “impulsive.”
  83. Question 10
  84. 1 out of 1 points
  85. Correct
  86. Items that are more accessible in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently. This mindbug of decision making is called the:
  87. Answer
  88. Selected Answer:         
  89. availability bias.
  90. Correct Answer:  
  91. availability bias.
  92. Question 11
  93. 1 out of 1 points
  94. Correct
  95. Mark puts in long hours studying for his psychology tests. He already has an A in the course, but he really has a desire to know the material well. Mark's behavior is characteristic of:
  96. Answer
  97. Selected Answer:         
  98. intrinsic motivation.
  99. Correct Answer:  
  100. intrinsic motivation.
  101. Question 12
  102. 1 out of 1 points
  103. Correct
  104. Paul is deep in credit card debt. His goal state is to be debt-free, but he doesn't have nearly enough money to pay off his debt at the moment. According to a means-end analysis, Paul should:
  105. Answer
  106. Selected Answer:         
  107. take small steps to move from his current situation to one that is closer to his end goal; by meeting small goals, eventually he will be debt-free.
  108. Correct Answer:  
  109. take small steps to move from his current situation to one that is closer to his end goal; by meeting small goals, eventually he will be debt-free.
  110. Question 13
  111. 1 out of 1 points
  112. Correct
  113. People who frequently engage in risky behaviors are extremely insensitive to the ________ of their behavior.
  114. Answer
  115. Selected Answer:         
  116. future consequences
  117. Correct Answer:  
  118. future consequences
  119. Question 1
  120. 1 out of 1 points
  121. Correct
  122. When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response, the result is an example of which of the following phenomena?
  123. Answer
  124. Selected Answer:         
  125. classical conditioning
  126. Correct Answer:  
  127. classical conditioning
  128. Question 2
  129. 1 out of 1 points
  130. Correct
  131. When your 3-year-old sister threw a tantrum over the candy she wanted, your mother gave it to her so that she would calm down. Although counterproductive in the long-run, in that moment, your mother's behavior was being ________ by ________.
  132. Answer
  133. Selected Answer:         
  134. negatively reinforced; the end of the tantrum
  135. Correct Answer:  
  136. negatively reinforced; the end of the tantrum
  137. Question 3
  138. 1 out of 1 points
  139. Correct
  140. A shy and timid child works up the courage to raise his hand to answer a question. The teacher calls on him and the child delivers an excellent answer. The teacher exclaims, “That is the best answer I have heard all week! Great job! Come up to the front of the room to get a sticker!” Unfortunately, the child found all of this attention unpleasant, and no longer answers questions in class. His behavior of answering questions was:
  141. Answer
  142. Selected Answer:         
  143. positively punished.
  144. Correct Answer:  
  145. positively punished.
  146. Question 4
  147. 1 out of 1 points
  148. Correct
  149. Molly's mail carrier delivers the mail promptly at noon each day. Molly never checks her mailbox in the morning, but always checks it at 12:05 p.m. Molly's mail carrier has her on what kind of schedule?
  150. Answer
  151. Selected Answer:         
  152. fixed interval
  153. Correct Answer:  
  154. fixed interval
  155. Question 5
  156. 1 out of 1 points
  157. Correct
  158. A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether or not it will be repeated is called:
  159. Answer
  160. Selected Answer:         
  161. operant conditioning.
  162. Correct Answer:  
  163. operant conditioning.
  164. Question 6
  165. 1 out of 1 points
  166. Correct
  167. Reinforcers ________ and punishers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
  168. Answer
  169. Selected Answer:         
  170. increase; decrease
  171. Correct Answer:  
  172. increase; decrease
  173. Question 7
  174. 1 out of 1 points
  175. Correct
  176. Extinction in operant conditioning involves:
  177. Answer
  178. Selected Answer:         
  179. no longer presenting the reinforcer when the response occurs.
  180. Correct Answer:  
  181. no longer presenting the reinforcer when the response occurs.
  182. Question 8
  183. 1 out of 1 points
  184. Correct
  185. The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period is called:
  186. Answer
  187. Selected Answer:         
  188. spontaneous recovery.
  189. Correct Answer:  
  190. spontaneous recovery.
  191. Question 9
  192. 1 out of 1 points
  193. Correct
  194. Positive reinforcers ________ and negative reinforcers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
  195. Answer
  196. Selected Answer:         
  197. increase; increase
  198. Correct Answer:  
  199. increase; increase
  200. Question 10
  201. 1 out of 1 points
  202. Correct
  203. When your dog's veterinarian advised you to feed your dog in the morning instead of in the evening, it took several days for your dog to stop salivating late in the afternoon as you stirred around in the kitchen. This is an example of:
  204. Answer
  205. Selected Answer:         
  206. extinction.
  207. Correct Answer:  
  208. extinction.
  209. Question 11
  210. 1 out of 1 points
  211. Correct
  212. Billy Bob's Big Burger Barn is your favorite restaurant, and lately you've noticed that every time you walk by there on your way to class, your mouth starts to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, the sight of the restaurant is the ________; your salivation is the ________.
  213. Answer
  214. Selected Answer:         
  215. CS; CR
  216. Correct Answer:  
  217. CS; CR
  218. Question 12
  219. 1 out of 1 points
  220. Correct
  221. When external rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior, the ________ is operating.
  222. Answer
  223. Selected Answer:         
  224. overjustification effect
  225. Correct Answer:  
  226. overjustification effect
  227. Question 13
  228. 1 out of 1 points
  229. Correct
  230. In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show that:
  231. Answer
  232. Selected Answer:         
  233. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.
  234. Correct Answer:  
  235. fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning.
  236. Question 14
  237. 1 out of 1 points
  238. Correct
  239. B. F. Skinner believed that superstitions:
  240. Answer
  241. Selected Answer:         
  242. resulted from the unintended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior.
  243. Correct Answer:  
  244. resulted from the unintended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior.
  245. Question 15
  246. 1 out of 1 points
  247. Correct
  248. Slot machines pay off on schedules that are determined by the random number generator that controls the play of the machine. For example, on average, the machine might pay off every 100 pulls, but sometimes two pulls are required and sometimes several hundred pulls are required. Slot machines are a real-world example of a ________ schedule.
  249. Answer
  250. Selected Answer:         
  251. variable ratio
  252. Correct Answer:  
  253. variable ratio
  254. Question 16
  255. 1 out of 1 points
  256. Correct
  257. A parent spanked a child for misbehaving, and the misbehavior stopped. By definition, the spanking served as a ________ for the misbehavior.
  258. Answer
  259. Selected Answer:         
  260. positive punisher
  261. Correct Answer:  
  262. positive punisher
  263. Question 17
  264. 1 out of 1 points
  265. Correct
  266. The learning process involves the ________ of new knowledge, skills, or responses as a function of ________.
  267. Answer
  268. Selected Answer:         
  269. acquisition; experience
  270. Correct Answer:  
  271. acquisition; experience
  272. Question 18
  273. 1 out of 1 points
  274. Correct
  275. Not only did Little Albert learn to fear white rats, he also cried when presented with a Santa Claus mask or a seal-fur coat. This behavior was the result of:
  276. Answer
  277. Selected Answer:         
  278. stimulus generalization.
  279. Correct Answer:  
  280. stimulus generalization.
  281. Question 19
  282. 1 out of 1 points
  283. Correct
  284. Tammy ate raw oysters for the first time and, four hours later, became extremely sick to her stomach. Now, the smell of oysters makes her stomach queasy. What is the CR?
  285. Answer
  286. Selected Answer:         
  287. stomach queasiness at the smell of oysters
  288. Correct Answer:  
  289. stomach queasiness at the smell of oysters
  290. Question 20
  291. 1 out of 1 points
  292. Correct
  293. In second-order conditioning, what is the US?
  294. Answer
  295. Selected Answer:         
  296. a previously established CS
  297. Correct Answer:  
  298. a previously established CS
  299.  
  300. Question 14
  301. 1 out of 1 points
  302. Correct
  303. Research suggests that, all else being equal, ________ tends to be more powerful than ________.
  304. Answer
  305. Selected Answer:         
  306. avoidance motivation; approach motivation
  307. Correct Answer:  
  308. avoidance motivation; approach motivation
  309. Question 15
  310. 1 out of 1 points
  311. Correct
  312. Shannon has been married for 20 years. She feels miserable in her marriage but refuses to consider getting a divorce; she feels that a divorce would completely waste all of the hard work she has put into making the marriage work for 20 years. Shannon's line of reasoning best illustrates the:
  313. Answer
  314. Selected Answer:         
  315. sunk-cost fallacy.
  316. Correct Answer:  
  317. sunk-cost fallacy.
  318. Question 16
  319. 1 out of 1 points
  320. Correct
  321. Some school districts across the United States are considering paying children to attend school. This strategy is likely to ________ because ________.
  322. Answer
  323. Selected Answer:         
  324. fail; it makes an intrinsic activity into an extrinsic activity
  325. Correct Answer:  
  326. fail; it makes an intrinsic activity into an extrinsic activity
  327. Question 17
  328. 1 out of 1 points
  329. Correct
  330. Tom is considering moving to a new city. He reads that the employment rate in that city is 90%, which he thinks is very favorable. Ted is considering moving to the same city, but he reads that the unemployment rate is 10%, which he thinks is unacceptably high. Why would Tom and Ted reach such different conclusions based on the same statistics?
  331. Answer
  332. Selected Answer:         
  333. Tom received information that was framed in a favorable way, whereas Ted received the exact same information but framed in an unfavorable way.
  334. Correct Answer:  
  335. Tom received information that was framed in a favorable way, whereas Ted received the exact same information but framed in an unfavorable way.
  336. Question 18
  337. 1 out of 1 points
  338. Correct
  339. When presented with a problem, the first step in means-ends analysis is to:
  340. Answer
  341. Selected Answer:         
  342. analyze the final goal state that you would like to achieve.
  343. Correct Answer:  
  344. analyze the final goal state that you would like to achieve.
  345. Question 19
  346. 1 out of 1 points
  347. Correct
  348. When we solve a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution (and then apply it), we are engaged in:
  349. Answer
  350. Selected Answer:         
  351. analogical problem solving.
  352. Correct Answer:  
  353. analogical problem solving.
  354. Question 20
  355. 1 out of 1 points
  356. Correct
  357. ________ are “mental shortcuts” that may or may not be effective, whereas ________ are well-defined rules that guarantee a solution to a problem.
  358. Answer
  359. Selected Answer:         
  360. Heuristics; algorithms
  361. Correct Answer:  
  362. Heuristics; algorithms
  363.  
  364. Question 1
  365. 1 out of 1 points
  366. Correct
  367. Men typically outscore women on tests that involve:
  368. Answer
  369. Selected Answer:         
  370. spatial memory.
  371. Correct Answer:  
  372. spatial memory.
  373. Question 2
  374. 0 out of 1 points
  375. Incorrect      
  376. Intelligence scores among identical twins are ________ correlated when the twins are raised in the same household, and are ________ correlated when the twins are separated at birth and raised in different households.
  377. Answer
  378. Selected Answer:           [None Given]
  379. Correct Answer:  
  380. strongly; strongly
  381. Question 3
  382. 1 out of 1 points
  383. Correct
  384. Suzie displays the mental ability typical of a 6-year-old child. Therefore, her mental age is:
  385. Answer
  386. Selected Answer:         
  387. 6.
  388. Correct Answer:  
  389. 6.
  390. Question 4
  391. 1 out of 1 points
  392. Correct
  393. Robert Sternberg suggested that there are three kinds of intelligence, which include all of the following EXCEPT:
  394. Answer
  395. Selected Answer:         
  396. emotional intelligence.
  397. Correct Answer:  
  398. emotional intelligence.
  399. Question 5
  400. 1 out of 1 points
  401. Correct
  402. Research suggests the reason why first-born children have higher IQs than their siblings is that first-born children:
  403. Answer
  404. Selected Answer:         
  405. have exclusive access to their parents' child-rearing until siblings are born.
  406. Correct Answer:  
  407. have exclusive access to their parents' child-rearing until siblings are born.
  408. Question 6
  409. 0 out of 1 points
  410. Incorrect      
  411. Studies suggest that practical, analytic, and creative intelligence are:
  412. Answer
  413. Selected Answer:         
  414. very highly related to each other.
  415. Correct Answer:  
  416. independent of each other.
  417. Question 7
  418. 1 out of 1 points
  419. Correct
  420. Deanna has an intelligence score of 98. At 10 years of age, she is a classically trained professional singer performing in opera houses around the world. It is likely that:
  421. Answer
  422. Selected Answer:         
  423. Deanna is a prodigy.
  424. Correct Answer:  
  425. Deanna is a prodigy.
  426. Question 8
  427. 0 out of 1 points
  428. Incorrect      
  429. The two-factor theory of intelligence predicts a ________ correlation between solving algebra problems and musical ability.
  430. Answer
  431. Selected Answer:         
  432. perfect
  433. Correct Answer:  
  434. positive
  435. Question 9
  436. 0 out of 1 points
  437. Incorrect      
  438. In the three-level hierarchy of intelligence tests, ________ is/are at the top, ________ is/are in the middle, and ________ is/are at the bottom.
  439. Answer
  440. Selected Answer:         
  441. group factors; general factor; specific factors
  442. Correct Answer:  
  443. general factor; group factors; specific factors
  444. Question 10
  445. 0 out of 1 points
  446. Incorrect      
  447. Modern intelligence tests:
  448. Answer
  449. Selected Answer:         
  450. remain highly culturally biased.
  451. Correct Answer:  
  452. have few, if any, questions with a clear cultural bias.
  453. Question 11
  454. 0 out of 1 points
  455. Incorrect      
  456. Intelligence tests measure:
  457. Answer
  458. Selected Answer:         
  459. the correlation between the ability to answer questions and perform tasks and intelligence.
  460. Correct Answer:  
  461. the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated with the consequences of intelligence.
  462. Question 12
  463. 0 out of 1 points
  464. Incorrect      
  465. Alfred Binet believed that, over the lifetime, intelligence:
  466. Answer
  467. Selected Answer:         
  468. tended to reliably increase.
  469. Correct Answer:  
  470. could be altered based on experiences.
  471. Question 13
  472. 1 out of 1 points
  473. Correct
  474. The ability to apply and implement solutions in everyday settings is called:
  475. Answer
  476. Selected Answer:         
  477. practical intelligence.
  478. Correct Answer:  
  479. practical intelligence.
  480. Question 14
  481. 1 out of 1 points
  482. Correct
  483. Deshawn has an English test where he has to provide the definitions of vocabulary words. This test requires ________ intelligence.
  484. Answer
  485. Selected Answer:         
  486. crystallized
  487. Correct Answer:  
  488. crystallized
  489. Question 15
  490. 1 out of 1 points
  491. Correct
  492. Poverty experienced during ________ will be most likely to have deleterious effects on intelligence.
  493. Answer
  494. Selected Answer:         
  495. early childhood
  496. Correct Answer:  
  497. early childhood
  498. Question 16
  499. 1 out of 1 points
  500. Correct
  501. Asian and African cultures are more likely than Western cultures to include ________ in their conceptualization of intelligence.
  502. Answer
  503. Selected Answer:         
  504. social cooperativeness
  505. Correct Answer:  
  506. social cooperativeness
  507. Question 17
  508. 1 out of 1 points
  509. Correct
  510. The Flynn Effect predicts that:
  511. Answer
  512. Selected Answer:         
  513. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
  514. Correct Answer:  
  515. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
  516. Question 18
  517. 1 out of 1 points
  518. Correct
  519. Rose has an intelligence score of 70, but has a remarkable memory for musical performance even when she hears them for the first time. It is likely that:
  520. Answer
  521. Selected Answer:         
  522. Rose is a savant.
  523. Correct Answer:  
  524. Rose is a savant.
  525. Question 19
  526. 1 out of 1 points
  527. Correct
  528. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about emotionally intelligent people?
  529. Answer
  530. Selected Answer:         
  531. They exhibit high levels of neural activity when engaged in recognizing facial expressions.
  532. Correct Answer:  
  533. They exhibit high levels of neural activity when engaged in recognizing facial expressions.
  534. Question 20
  535. 1 out of 1 points
  536. Correct
  537. The first intelligence test was developed in order to:
  538. Answer
  539. Selected Answer:         
  540. identify children who needed remedial education.
  541. Correct Answer:  
  542. identify children who needed remedial education.
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