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  1. Levels of social organization in pastoral societies
  2. Level 1 - Parental groups: 2-8 people; mother+children, sometimes with father, sharing a dwelling (yurt, wagon).
  3. Level 2 - Camping groups: 8-50 people; related parental groups that travel together, highly unstable.
  4. Level 3 - Reproductive groups: 50-500; related camping groups that meet periodically; led by individuals or heads of households; control over migration groups, conflicts, et cetera.
  5. Level 4 - Tribes: 500-1000s; alliances of clans, often for military defense; loose leadership structure.
  6. Level 5 - Supra-tribal association: 1000s-10000s; alliances of tribes, usually for military emergencies, temporary, supra-tribal leaders.
  7. Level 6 - Pastoralist states/empires: 100000s-millions; stable political structure formed by distribution of prestige goods acquired from agricultural regions through trade, extortion, or warfare; destruction of tribal ties; bureaucratization.
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