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  1. A typical case is that of the "Juke family," which was first investigated in the year 1877, and re-investigated in 1915. To quote from the original study: "From one lazy vagabond nicknamed 'Juke,' born in rural New York in 1720, whose two sons married five degenerate sisters, six generations numbering about 1,200 persons of every grade of idleness, viciousness, lewdness, pauperism, disease, idiocy, insanity, and criminality were traced. Of the total seven generations, 300 died in infancy; 310 were professional paupers, kept in alms- houses a total of 2,300 years; 440 were physically wrecked by their own 'diseased wickedness'; more than half the woman fell into prostitution; 130 were convicted criminals; 60 were thieves; 7 were murderers; only 20 learned a trade, 10 of these in state prison, and all at a state cost of over $1,250,000."(1)
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  3. By the year 1915, the clan had reached its ninth generation, and had greatly lengthened Its evil record. It then numbered 2,820 individuals, half of whom were alive. About the year 1880 the Jukes had left their original home and had scattered widely over the country, but change of environment had made no material change in their natures, for they still showed "the same feeble-mindedness, indolence licentiousness, and dishonesty, even when not handicapped by the associations of their bad family name and despite the fact of their being surrounded by better social conditions." (2) The cost to the state had now risen to about $2,500,000. As the investigator remarks, all this evil might have been averted by preventing the reproduction of the first Jukes. As it is, the Jukes problem is still with us in growing severity, for in 1915, "out of approximately 600 living feeble-minded and epileptic Jukes, there are only three now in custodial care." (1)
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  5. A striking illustration of how superiority and degen- eracy are alike rigidly determined by heredity is afforded by the "Kallikak Family," of New Jersey.(2) During the Revolutionary war, one Martin "Kallikak," a young soldier of good stock, had an illicit affair with a feeble minded servant-girl, by whom he had a son. Some years later, Martin married a woman of good family by whom he had several legitimate children. Now this is what happened: Martin's legitimate children by the woman of good stock all turned out well and founded one of the most distinguished families in New Jersey." In this family and its collateral branches we find nothing but good representative citizenship. There are doctors, law yers, judges, educators, traders, landholders, in short, respectable citizens, men and women prominent in every phase of social life. They have scattered over the United States and are prominent in their communities wherever they have gone. . . . There have been no feebleminded among them; no illegitimate children; no immoral women; only one man was sexually loose." (3) In sharp contrast to this branch of the family stand the descendants of the feebleminded girl. Of those 480 have been traced. Their record is: 143 clearly feebleminded, 36 illegitimate, 33 grossly immoral (mostly prostitutes), 24 confirmed alcoholics, 3 epileptics, 82 died in infancy, 3 criminals, 8 kept houses of ill fame. Here are two family lines, with the same paternal ancestor, living on the same soil, in the same atmosphere, and under the same general environment; "yet the bar sinister has marked every generation of one and has been unknown in the other." (1)
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  7. America needs more families like that old Puritan strain which is one of eugenics' familiar examples: At their head stands Jonathan Edwards, and behind him an array of his descendants numbering, in the year 1900, 1,394, of whom 1,295 were college graduates; 13 presidents of our greatest colleges; 65 professors in colleges, besides many principals of other important educational institutions; 60 physicians, many of whom were eminent; 100 and more clergymen, missionaries, or theo- logical professors; 75 were officers in the army and navy; 60 prominent authors and writers, by whom 135 books of merit were written and published and 18 important periodicals edited, 33 American States and several foreign countries have profited by the beneficent influences of their eminent activity; 100 and more were lawyers, of whom one was our most eminent professor of law; 30 were judges; 80 held public office, of whom one was vice-president of the United States; 3 were United States senators; several were governors, members of Congress, framers of State constitutions, mayors of cities, and ministers to foreign courts; one was president of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company; 15 railroads, many banks, insurance companies, and large industrial enterprises have been indebted to their management. Almost if not every department of social progress, and of the public weal has felt the impulse of this healthy and long-lived family. It is not known that any one of them was ever convicted of crime." (1) Such is the record of the Jonathan Edwards strain.
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  9. Now compare it with the Jukes strain? (1) Edwards vs. Jukes! Faced by such evidence, can public opinion, remain much longer blind to the enormous innate differences between human stocks?
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