cordwellnoblefin Apr 5th, 2020 (edited) 452 Never
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- '''__HOW TO EVALUATE EVIDENCE__'''
- '''When confronted with the unknown, observe what evidence is presented.'''
- __15 Types of Evidence__
- '''1. Analogical Evidence'''
- While not a kind of evidence you’d use in court, this kind of evidence can be useful for increasing credibility by drawing parallels when there isn’t enough information to prove something in an investigation. Analogical evidence uses a comparison of things that are similar to draw an analogy.
- '''2. Anecdotal Evidence'''
- Anecdotal evidence isn’t used in court, but can sometimes help in an investigation to get a better picture of an issue. The biggest problem with this kind of evidence is that it is often “cherry picked” to present only anecdotes that support a particular conclusion. Consider it with skepticism, and in combination with other, more reliable, kinds of evidence.
- '''3. Character Evidence'''
- This is a testimony or document that is used to help prove that someone acted in a particular way based on the person’s character. While this can’t be used to prove that a person’s behavior at a certain time was consistent with his or her character, it can be used in some investigations to prove intent, motive, or opportunity.
- '''4. Circumstantial Evidence'''
- Also known as indirect evidence, this type of evidence is used to infer something based on a series of facts separate from the fact the argument is trying to prove. It requires a deduction of facts from other facts that can be proven and, is not considered to be strong evidence.
- '''5. Demonstrative Evidence'''
- An object or document is considered to be demonstrative evidence when it directly demonstrates a fact. It’s a common and reliable kind of evidence. Examples of this kind of evidence are photographs, video and audio recordings, charts, etc.
- '''6. Digital Evidence'''
- Digital evidence can be any sort of digital file from an electronic source. This includes email, text messages, instant messages, files and documents extracted from hard drives, electronic financial transactions, audio files, video files. Digital evidence can be found on any server or device that stores data, including some lesser-known sources such as home video game consoles, GPS sport watches and internet-enabled devices used in home automation. Digital evidence is often found through internet searches using open source intelligence (OSINT).
- '''7. Direct Evidence'''
- The most powerful type of evidence, direct evidence requires no inference. The evidence alone is the proof.
- '''8. Documentary Evidence'''
- Most commonly considered to be written forms of proof, such as letters or wills, documentary evidence can also include other types of media, such as images, video or audio recordings, etc.
- '''9. Exculpatory Evidence'''
- This type of evidence can exonerate a defendant in a – usually criminal – case. Prosecutors and police are required to disclose to the defendant any exculpatory evidence they find or risk having the case dismissed.
- '''10. Forensic Evidence'''
- Forensic Evidence is scientific evidence, such as DNA, trace evidence, fingerprints or ballistics reports, and can provide proof to establish a person’s guilt or innocence. Forensic evidence is generally considered to be strong and reliable evidence and alongside helping to convict criminals, its role in exonerating the innocent has been well documented. The term “forensic” means “for the courts”.
- '''11. Hearsay Evidence'''
- Hearsay evidence consists of statements made by witnesses who are not present. Hearsay evidence is not admissible in court.
- '''12. Physical Evidence'''
- As would be expected, evidence that is in the form of a tangible object, such as a firearm, fingerprints, rope purportedly used to strangle someone, or tire casts from a crime scene, is considered to be physical evidence. Physical evidence is also known as “real” or “material” evidence. It can be presented in court as an exhibit of a physical object, captured in still or moving images, described in text, audio or video or referred to in documents.
- '''13. Prima Facie Evidence'''
- Meaning “on its first appearance” this is evidence presented before a trial that is enough to prove something until it is successfully disproved or rebutted at trial. This is also called “presumptive evidence”.
- '''14. Statistical Evidence'''
- Evidence that uses numbers (or statistics) to support a position is called statistical evidence. This type of evidence is based on research or polls.
- '''15. Testimonial Evidence'''
- One of the most common forms of evidence, this is either spoken or written evidence given by a witness under oath. It can be gathered in court, at a deposition or through an affidavit.
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