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  11. Scientology Church in the Netherlands
  15. Report of the subcommittee Cults of the
  16. Parliamentary committee on National Health, 1984.
  17. p. 120-160.
  19. (Rapport van de Subcommissie Sektes van de
  20. vaste Tweede Kamer-commissie voor de volksgezondheid.)
  22. Roughly translated and annotated by Trevanon
  27. Contents
  29. Preface by the translator       2
  30. Arise and development   3
  31. The structure of the organisation       8
  32. Concepts        11
  33. Activities in the Netherlands   14
  34. Development pace        14
  35. Organisation    16
  36. Staff members   17
  37. Training and auditing   19
  38. Members 21
  39. Other activities        22
  40. Finances        24
  41. Consideration   27
  43. Preface by the translator
  45. In 1984 the subcommittee Cults of the committee on Health of the Dutch Parliament made a thorough study into new religious movements, under which was the Scientology Curch in the Netherlands.
  48. From this report the part about Scientology can be found on several websites, although (as far as I know) only in Dutch.  Because I thought it to be a thorough study I found it worthwhile to translate it into English.
  50. I did the translation using Yahoo Babel Fish, and after that I edited to make the text readable. I do not pretend to write perfect English though.
  52. The original report is almost 25 years old. So ever since the publication the situation has changed. Therefore I took the liberty to annotate the document while translating it wherever I thought that would be helpful to the reader. I don't pretend to be complete in the annotations. Maybe some other Anonymous can review the text and make further amendments, especially when it concerns the Scientology activities in the Netherlands.
  54. In 1984 the Netherlands used the guilder (short: f from florijn (old name for the guilder), so f 20 means 20 guilders), while since 2002 the country uses the euro. I added amounts in euro for the amounts in guilders (by dividing the amount by 2.20371). The reader should however bear in mind that especially the prices of Scientology courses, books and so on nowadays can be very different from what they were 25 years ago.
  57. Although the subcommittee (which doesn't exist anymore) was rather negative about Scientology the Dutch government decided there were no reasons to act against the cult.
  59. There was some follow up on the report. In 1996 Bert Bakker, then Member of Parliament for D'66, a left liberal party then in the government, asked the government if it remembered this report. The government answered it did, and amended that there still were no reasons to act against the cult. (Dutchfags: look for KVR2794 on http://parlando.sdu.nl/cgi/login/anonymous , choose “Uitgebreid zoeken”)
  61. As far as I know, ever since it has been quiet.
  64. Trevanon
  68. Arise and development
  70. Scientology is the brainchild of the American L. Ron Hubbard, born in 1911 in Tilden, Nebraska. The scarce data concerning his life do not make it possible to portrait  the man in sharp outlines. So much is certain that Hubbard did not follow a specific training and, after having studied at the George Washington University a short time, had numerous jobs. Gradually he made writing tales, mainly in science-fiction genre, his first occupation, an occupation that he has not yet forgotten himself, as can be seen from his recent sf-bestseller Battlefield Earth. How Hubbards interest for the functioning of the human spirit arised, is not certain exactly. According to Hubbard it especially had been awoken because in his young years he came into contact with the oriental world of thought. In the period during the Second World War in which he stayed in a navy hospital, he applied to himself techniques that should have contributed to his own convalescence and which had resulted from his ideas concerning the human spirit. Some years after the war Hubbard put his ideas concerning the treatment of patients with mental problems in a book. In 1950, they were approximately published simultaneously in his book "Dianetics: The modern science or mental health" and partly, shortened in, in the SF-magazine “Astounding science fiction” in which in the preceding years several tales from his hand had appeared.
  72. The psychotherapeutic method, developed in the book and indicated with the term dianetics, already contained important elements of what some time later would be presented as Scientology. Dianetics had been founded on the conception, that each man has a pure, analytical mind that forms his individual core. All impressions of the senses are registered by this mind and are exploited for giving the correct pivots. Equipped with such a flawless computer man is independently able to make good decisions and to live optimally with minimum mental and physical complaints, given the circumstances. This however not alway gets done right, because in the evolution process of man a mechanism has arisen that disturbs seriously the functioning of the analytical mind. This mechanism, the reactive mind, has developed as a lightning protector for pain, which was taken as a threat to the existence. The reactive mind reacts to pivots from outside and fixes impressions of moments of mental or physical pain, so-called engrams. When people later meet circumstances  which call associations with these engrams, then the reactive mind enforces itself and the analytical mind is shut off. Decisions are then stipulated by the circumstances and no longer primary from the inside and they are no longer optimum. In this the most important source of mentally and physical suffering hides.
  74. Dianetic therapy now aims at tracing the stored engrams, impressions of pain. Once an engram has been discovered, then the event concerned is reconstructed and is recapitulated and is thereby transmitted from the reactive to the analytical mind. As more engrams get neutralised, the operations of people in larger degree are stipulated by its analytical mind. In the ideal situation all engrams have been made harmless and then man is "clear".
  76. Hubbard' s idea pace unmistakably contains numerous elements borrowed from other theories, such as psychoanalysis. Also it reminds of the oriental concept that the pure human core is confused by the practice of daily living.
  78. From that viewpoint dianetics could be called neither original nor revolutionist. However the theory in medical ring met more scepticism than appreciation. Much emphasis was laid on the fact that the statements of Hubbard had absolutely no scientific basis. The criticism however did not prevent  dianetics found followers on relatively restricted scale. The book sold well and brought rather a number of people to apply the described method to themselves. Here and there spontaneously dianetics-groups arose that also mutually exchanged experiences and data. Meanwhile Hubbard did not leave it at the publication of his book. To his purpose to spread his theory and gain acceptance in broad ring he in 1950 founded the Hubbard Dianetics research foundation. This organisation introduced some order and soon coordinated in what different local foundations had formed on their own initiatives.
  80. The training of dianetics therapists and treating clients was the main occupation. As yet the pracise of the dianetic method continued however to carry a strong individualistic character. Dianetics in organized link led a pining away existence, which in 1952 resulted in the bankruptcy of the foundation. From the ashes of the bankrupt organisation the same year Scientology arose in the form of the Hubbard Association of Scientology International (HASI).
  82. The HASI, established in Phoenix, Arizona, as "religious fellowship", made Hubbard able to get more seizure gradually on the application of his theory. With the establishment of this organisation the basis was created of what would develop into the wrapped and untransparent network of organisational entities and bureaucratic structures that is called the Scientology Church. In several American states Churches or Scientology were set up, of which the Church of Scientology in California, founded in 1954, became the coordinating institution. These churches, that got just a little attention by religious activities and found much profit from the claimed resulting tax freedom, drew the dianetics practice entirely to themselves in some years, while it was meanwhile further developed and been called Scientology. Private therapists were obliged to adapt to the policy of the church by standardised training and by the many modifications which Hubbard introduced in the dianetics theory. That Hubbard in 1954 regained the copyright on his book Dianetics that he lost two years before because of the bankruptcy was a very important reason for this. Thus in short time arose an apparently decentralised, yet in fact very centralised organisation, in which Hubbard pulled all the strings by the control of the internal communication canals and the property of the rights to the material used by the movement.
  84. In the course of the fifties Scientology church gradually found its way in the United States. From that it spread to other, as yet only English-speaking countries: Canada, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand. The administrative headquarters of the organisation that had been moved already several times (it followed Hubbard), was transmitted in 1959 to the United Kingdom, initially in London and thereafter in East-Grinstead, Sussex, where the domain Saint Hill manor was bought. The legal seat of the organisation remained continuous in Los Angeles, California. Under influence of the negative public opinion Hubbard left the United Kingdom in 1966 and moved the headquarters for some time to sea with him. Thus the Sea Org (anisation), sort of an inspecting corps or brotherhood of sea-going scientologists arose, that still exists, yet apart from its terminology for a long time has nothing to do anymore with the sea. It was in that year that Hubbard, since the establishment uncontested dictator in the organisation, distanced himself of the function of Executive director (the function would be vacant up to 1981).
  86. The development pace of the Scientology church is rich to incidents. The critical sounds concerning the value of its theories, which already accompanied the organisation as from its establishment, by no means died away. On the contrary, they sounded ever more clearly and also aimed at the working method of the organisation, especially concerning bringing in and binding partisans. The church stepped strongly against its critics with a degree of aggressiveness and irreconcilablilty, which in itself formed a new source of criticism. It experienced the attacks of antagonists as a straight threat to its existence and as an undermining of the objectives that were so highly elevated in its own thought. It searched its defense in the attack, thereby recoiling hard, sometimes illegitimate, resources. Thus it could happen that the English branch of the organisation in 1969 undertook an attempt  by means of infiltration to bring about chaos in the National Association for Mental Health, with which they for a long time found themselves arguing. Persons who in public criticized the organisation, could count on violent responses from Scientology, especially aimed to bring the good name in disparagement. lntimidation, anonymous telephone conversations, correspondences and robbery of documents were thereby no exception.
  88. The escalation of actions and reactions did end up getting the organisation more and more in social isolation. That not only expressed itself in a not ceasing aggression against all what was taken as a threat from outside, but also to a sharpening of the internal behaviour rules. Within the organisation an extensive scheme of social control arose. Component of it is what in Scientology jargon is called "ethics", the behaviour rules which one must observe to be able to apply the technology of Scientology. So-called "conditions" have an important place within the ethics-system.
  90. Conditions are so-called "operating states" (states of functioning), to which certain behaviour rules have been linked. They apply both for individuals and for families, components of organisations, organisations and states. Which condition one has become is derived by means of "statistics" (production quota). Candidate scientologists start their career in the condition "non existence" and by operating alright it is possible to rise to higher conditions such as "normal operation" or even the highest condition "power". If one does not operate well, then one can come down to lower conditions such as "enemy" or even to the lowest condition "confusion".
  92. After bad behaviour lower conditions can be granted. Such a granting mostly is experienced as a sentence by the person concerned, allthough in the view of the Scientology church it does not concern a sentence but an appraisal of one's functioning on the scale of "operating states". Higher conditions can be granted after good behaviour which is, however, taken as a reward. There are further measures which can be taken at bad or well behaviour then those in terms of "conditions". These also determine part of the Scientology church "ethics". Especially the forms of bad behaviour and associated measures ("punishments") has been developed in a code of offenses to the tiniest detail.
  94. There four types bad behaviour (always in relation to the Scientology church), namely, mistakes (errors), offences (misdemeanors), crimes (crimes) and heavy assaults (high crimes). In the lighter cases sentences can be imposed by the staff of an organisation, at example a reprimand, low condition, lower salary or long-term and unpleasant work, yet in the heavier cases there is an internal discipline college ("court of ethics"), that can impose punishments as the suspension or even abrogation of obtained certificates, the granting of the lowest conditions or degradation and dismissal. Especially the treatment by the church of "high crimes" strongly drew the attention in the sixties by the relentlessness which was shown thereby. Scientology considered persons or groups that caused damage to the church to be "suppressive persons" (SP) - which for each scientologist implied a licence to harass these persons – "fair game" – and considered scientologists that somehow were related to these people as "potential trouble source" (PTS). A PTS best did to break its relation with SPs – "disconnection". In total this policy led to uncontrolled actions against against ex-members, alleged antagonists, and abrupt breaking up of families and friendships. The picture of the church experienced so much damage from this that it was forced to reconsider the policy slightly in 1968. The most repressive sanctions (fair game and disconnection) were abolished, but moreover the sentence system underwent no substantial changes and it still functions up to today.
  96. Annotation of the translator
  97. Remember the report was written in 1984. The subcommittee on cults maybe wasn't aware of the fact that fair game did NOT stop for those people who were declared SP.
  98. End annotation
  100. It won't raise amazement that which the elaboration of the organisation had an unfavourable development on the public opinion, such as also is understandable that it attracted the attention of the authorities. The Scientology church had already been target in 1958 and 1963 of action of the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (seizure had followed of vitamin preparations and e-meters by legal procedures). In 1965 a committee which established a research for the Australian state Victoria published an extremely critical report  concerning the organisation, after which in the states Victoria, Western-Australia and South-Australia laws were adopted which implied a prohibition on instruction and the application of Scientology. Just like in Australia action from the parliament also led to researches in New Zealand, South Africa, Canada and the United Kingdom in the next years.
  102. The Australian report contained a a destroying judgement concerning Scientology. It condemned its practices and called the organisation in medical, moral and social respect a serious threat to the community. In Victoria the report was shortly followed by the acceptance in 1965 of the Psychological Practices Act. This law provides for the registration of psychologists and aims at protecting the population against unauthorized psychologists and stipulated detrimental practices. Article 30 of the law prohibited the use of, among others, the e-meter and Article 31 puts punishment against the practice or instructing of Scientology. The application of the law ran up against difficulties concerning the provisions in Article 2, paragraph 3 and 4, which exempted religion servers to conformity as long as they were acting along the normal practices of the religion concerned. Similar specific legal measures, which were found in 1968 in the states West-Australia and South-Australia, didn't make it very long. They were withdrawn in 1973 and 1974. Although official pieces about that have not reached us yet, in Victoria the charging provisions for Scientology from the Psychological Practices Act have been recently removed.
  104. In 1969 the Nieuw Zealand parliament decided to establish a research committee to the activities of the Scientology church in New Zealand. The committee still submitted in same year a report. They made particularly objection against the Scientology practice of disconnection and against the participation of courses by minors. By the cooperative attitude of the organisation the research did not lead to legislative measures.
  106. Also in 1969, in South Africa a research committee was appointed. These reported in 1982, and passed on the basis of its findings concerning Scientology recommendations for making legal arrangements to prohibit the practice of psychotherapy by unauthorized person, to prohibit performing of individuality-research at minors without license, to prohibit research by Scientology to the activity of alleged antagonists and to prohibit spreading false and detrimental information on psychiatry and mental health care. Subject to these measures be carried out, they will not consider to order that the activities of the Scientology church were prohibited. To what extent the recommended legislation has been also indeed achieved is not known to us.
  108. In Canada the particular attention of the government for the Scientology church limited itself to the elaboration in 1976, by the research department of the parliament of a report concerning the organisation. (This report does not qualify for publication, yet we have been notified confidentially by the Canadian parliament). Previously the state Ontario had shown interest for Scientology in broader of the alternative health practising. These reports did not lead however to parliamentary action.
  110. In the United Kingdom, where originally the headquarters of the Scientology Church had established, the disorder concerning the activities of the organisation in 1968 led to the request on the government to reduce the development of the organisation. Then in that year it was stipulated, that Scientology was no longer recognised as a training institute with regard to the admission of foreign participants to courses. Thus it made expatriates nearly impossible to give or follow Scientologycourses in the United Kingdom. A year later the government after insisting by the Lower House gave Sir John G. Foster the task to study the practice and functioning of Scientology. The report was published at end of 1971, the author labeled among others the British measures against Scientology as unjustified and Australian legislation as discriminatory. In July 1980 the British government revoke the measures against foreign participants of courses.
  112. The public discussions in these countries clearly reflect the tension between the mostly felt need to protect the population against certain practices of the organisation and the freedom of opinion expression and of religion on which repressive measures appeared a violation already rapidly. Scientology anticipated on this by more strongly than formerly profiling itself as a religion. Thus numerous legal procedures, in which the organisation in the seventies was involved, became a fight about the question to what extent a religious character had be granted to Scientology. The answer on that question differed from country to country, subject or procedure  to subject or procedure, and from approach to approach. We will return on this question more closely later. It's enough here to conclude that governments and judicial agencies are not unanimous in the appraisal of the religious character of Scientology.
  114. As far as known to us the American authorities have never done judgements concerning the presence or absence of religious character of the Scientology church. A report of the Dutch embassy in Washington is affirmative to this. The strict conceptions concerning religion freedom and the separation between church and stands oblige there to extreme reservation. Moreover those principles by no means stand in the way to charge in court members of the organisation because of committed indictable offences. Thus it could happen that in 1979, a federal judge sentenced some kingpins of the organisation, among which Hubbard' s third woman Mary Sue, to long-term stay in prison, because of burgling and theft of documents. The possibility of criminal action because of indictable offences within the framework of the exercise of religion is also recognised by legal agencies in other countries, by example the pronouncement of the Parisian Court d' Appel of 21 December 1981 in the matter against the Scientologiste Valentin and it also respects the concepts given in chapter 2 of this report concerning our country.
  116. Certain decisions of American agencies offer indirect indications for the appraisal of the character of the Scientology church, however these indications are sometimes mutually contrary. Thus was revoked the taxfreedom granted in 1967 to the Washington Church or Scientology, whereas in 1971, a federal judge concluded a case concerning the e-meter that was held for many years in a lot of agencies with the pronouncement that this instrument did not qualify for worldly use, yet, however, lent itself for use in "religious counseling", as long as it was indicated as ineffectively in the treatment of sickness.
  118. In the United Kingdom in 1970 a court stipulated in the case Registrar General versus Segerdal, that a request by Scientology to register the manor of the Chapel of Saint Hill (the headquarters) as a venue for the worship had to be rejected. The Court or Appeal confirmed the nonsuit on the basis of being lacking worship. The majority of the court left in the middle whether Scientology had be considered as a religion, the minority answered that in the negative.
  120. The Australian practice also characterises itself by several insights in the question here discussed. The most of later government decisions show a positive answer to the question. Moreover, Scientology  obtained exemption of salaries tax in the years 1975 and 1977 in several states as a religious organisation and in 1973 was acknowledged as a religion within the framework of the Marriage Act: servers of the church were authorised to contract marriages. The legal judgements show a varied picture. In a very exhaustively motivated sentence the Supreme Court from the state Victoria at the end of 1980 came to a negative judgement concerning the question if the Scientology church, as a religious organisation, got exempted of salaries tax. Other judgements, reminded by the Supreme Court, implied a contrary judgement.
  122. In appeal the High Court or Australia destroyed the sentence of the Supreme Court. On 27 October 1983 it judged unanimous that the Scientology Church could be considered as a religious movement and therefore was not subject to the levy of salaries tax. The High Court however reached that decision by a wide interpretation of the term religious movement based on the composition of three dissenting opinions.
  124. The Scientology Church in Australia were allowed as institution to contract marriages. In Denmark, where all religious organizations established after 4 June 1969 only can contract marriages after ministerial authorisation, the Kirkeministeriet in 1980 rejected an application of the Scientology Church. In Canada some states permitted the Scientology Church to contract marriages, yet the church was not recognised by the federal government as religious body in relation to taxes. Concerning the French jurisdiction it is worth mentioning, that Scientology leaders in1978 were sent to prison because of swindle; the judgements were destroyed by the court of appeal in Paris in 1980 and 1981. In contrast to what was suggested in the press (among others Le Soir, 7 March 1980), the court concluded that Scientology cannot be considered to be an organisation that has adopted a religious form only to acquire the status of a legal protected sanctuary.
  126. It was especially the language barrier which stood in the way the spreading of the Scientology Church to non-english countries. Especially for Scientology language plays an important role. Its writings contain hundreds of neologisms and include a terminology, which shows as a code that shuts out outsiders and both veiling and works as a cloaking device. However in 1969 was decided to start the organisation also in other countries and to this end the necessary translation work was undertaken. The coordinating Church for Europe and Africa was established in Copenhagen, Denmark, and from there it spread to Scandinavia and most of the other West European countries. In Africa and in the middle and the south of the American continent the church got some hold. At present Scientology has established in 30 countries, where it has in total approximately 300 churches and missions. How the number of members developed in the course of the years is extraordinarily difficult to assess. The church itself values its current membership at 9 million in the whole world, yet this figure seems extremely high to us. Only when one counts as a member  everyone who ever bought a Scientology-book or followed a course and moreover one would not take into account the undoubtedly innumererous double counts, then the figure might be correct. We consider a member file of at the most some percents of the estimated number more realistically.
  128. The structure of the organisation
  130. The Scientology Church is a conglomerate of churches and additional organisations, which are independent entities and, at least formal, autonomous with their own governing board and own statutes. In legal sense there is no worldwide organisational entity. What however nevertheless makes these organisations to one whole, Scientology itself has indicated as the ecclesiastical hierarchy. With a more neutral word could be spoken of the hierarchically structured conduct of policy. Scientology compare the advancement of its organisation preferably with those of the Roman Catholic Church: a central body that presides as a worldwide organisation over all, and from which command lines run to regional, national and local bodies. This produces the following organisational picture.
  132. The central control of - to use the ecclesiastical Scientology terminology – the organisation is the Church or Scientology International (CSI), established in Los Angeles, California. This has been functioning as covering body since 1982 a large-scale reorganisation had been carried out. Up to that time the Church or Scientology or California formed the cupola organisation. The reorganisation made an end to the unsatisfactory situation, that the worldwide headquarters had established in East-Grinstead (GB), whereas the legal head seat was in Los Angeles. Moreover the reorganisation introduced a stricter separation between the worldly (management) element of the organisation and the ecclesiastical element. CSI are now at the same time the legal, administrative and ecclesiastical cupola of the organisation. The separation between the worldly and ecclesiastical aspect becomes apparent in the separated responsibilities of the executive bodies, the Board of Directors (the top of the worldly organisation) and the Executive Director (the top of the ecclesiastical organisation). The function of Executive Director, that was vacant since 1966  because of Hubbard withdrawing, is fulfilled since 1981.
  134. In the ecclesiastical hierarchy under the CSI there are the regional areas (this means by continent) so-called FOLO' s (Flag Liaison Operation Offices). These agencies have the task to provide advice and services on behalf of the CSI to the national organisations on their continent and also fulfil a coordinating function. The FOLO for Europe has established in Copenhagen.
  136. On national level three types of organisations ca be distinguished: national churches, local churches and missions. Local churches are hierarchically subordinate to national churches. Between missions and churches however there are no hierarchical lines. Missions operate under Scientology Missions International (SMI), a department of the CSI. Basically each scientologist can start a mission somewhere. Eventually this can develop into a church, if it to the judgement of the CSI satisfies to a number of conditions, especially aimed at the presence of administrative and service capacity. Also amongst the churches there are gradations depending on the scope of the course offer. In case a church is able to offer courses above a certain level, then it is qualified as Advanced Organisation. In Europe this denomination has been given to the settlings in Copenhagen and East-Grinstead. Courses of the highest level are only given by one organisation, namely Flag. Flag stand for “flagship”: some time at the end of the sixties the headquarters of the Scientology Organisation was established on sea. Nowadays this body - with an own legal personality - Sea-Org (anisation), set up in those years (after the interlude on sea) has established in Clearwater, Florida, and now also in Los Angeles. Flag not only takes care of giving the most advanced courses, yet also occupies itself with the further development of the course programme. Formally the body stands outside the ecclesiastical hierarchy and it acts as an advisory body of the CSI. Materially however it is really is important for the policy of the organisation. Sea-Org is a of type brotherhood of the most elite, the most progressed and most devoted scientologists. From their  membership of Sea Org in itself the members have no control concerning other scientologists, but many of them hold important positions within the Scientology Organisation.
  138. The rise of Sea-Org was followed by the gradual decline of a another body that, although it formaly was a component of the Scientology organisation, during its existence formed a more or less autonomous network within the organisation and in fact determined many years the policies: Guardian' s Office (GO). This body, established in 1966, did public relations, external contacts, particularly in legally and financial terms, and was responsible for the protection of the organisation and its members against threats from the inside and from outside. Especially that last branch set the scene of the GO as watchdog of Scientology, always alert and (over)reacting when events occured that were seen as threatening. Since the body in 1971 also became autonomous formally, it developed soon to a state in the state, with own rules and with its own policy. The control of the GO was held by the Guardian, which was directly under the Controller, after the Executive Director the most important executive official (the function was fulfilled by Hubbard' s woman Mary Sue). In each organisation there was an assistant guardian, which actually was in power. His views on how to protect and spread Scientology did get the GO involved (and with it the church) in many civil procedures. In 1979 the body reached a depth when some kingpins in the United States were found guilty of burgling and robbery. The new Executive Director gave the signal for a large clean-up. The church recognised in an internal policy letter that the GO had broken adrift. This, particularly the committed indictable offences, had been contrary to the interests of the church. Top people of the GO were put on a sidetrack and were replaced by others. In 1982 the body (including the function of Controller) was cancelled and its tasks as far as necessary were taken over by other components of the organisation. With that the church expressed its pursuit to bring improvement in its negative image. The church thought it will thrive better in a mild climate without aggressiveness and the escalation of action and response of before. The Church said it would try more than before to get deals in conflicts with (ex-)members and to get in contact with critics. To what extent this new recent development will continue must be proven in the coming years.
  140. Annotation
  141. We all know that this has proven not to be true...
  142. End annotation
  144. The mutual contacts between the different components of the Scientology Organisation are multiple. An important role in this play the policy letters which, together indicated as "policy", meanwhile make up a thick book. Policy letters are originating from the CSI. Moreover churches hierarchically higher give policy indications and - recommendations to lower churches, this being paid for the lower church in most cases. Under special circumstances policies can be rejected by the Governing Board of a national church, by example when they would bring the church on strained foot with the national law. Such an elaboration of a lower church however belongs to the high exceptions, so that one can note that lower bodies are bound within the organisation to what is prescribed from above. Moreover there is a form of supervision of lower churches by churches which are themselves higher in the hierarchy. Would it be proven that a lower church does not stick to the policy or otherwise wishes not to do its job, then it can toed into line. Other contacts between the components of the Scientology Organisation are more business-oriented. Churches can each other grant services in the form of specific training against payment. Books which are used within the courses or which are for sale, the churches - also against payment – get at the scientology publisher, New Era Publications. Moreover the churches pay a percentage of their income (turnover of courses and sale of products) to the coordinating organisation as a contribution in the overhead. As the publisher is a separate legal person, there are still several other legal persons within the Scientology Organisation, by which the clarity of the whole does not get any better. For additional activities that Scientology developed in general new legal persons were set up. Some of these activities, such as the fight for the rights of (psychiatric) patients, narcotics assistance and the reform of the police with regard to the privacy protection of citizens, have had the attention of the organisation through the years. In that respect in numerous countries institutions as the Citizen's committee for Human Rights (CCHR) and Narconon operate. Other additionel activities served rather limited aims as getting funding and growing a favourable image.
  146. Finally of this description of the international structure of the organisation observations still some concerning the position of the founder of Scientology, Hubbard. Since his retreat in 1966 as Executive Director Hubbard has fulfilled no official function in the organisation anymore, whereas he was also no longer seen in public. That gave ground to speculation concerning his death. Because of the Scientology Church such judgements are continuously contradicted, which response finds support in a recent judicial pronouncement in the United States. Hubbard would lead a withdrawn life in California on his domain at Riverside, and has no direct ties with the organisation anymore. However it is out of the question that his authority under the Scientology followers has not lost strength. His actual power also must be larger than his formal position makes one think. The bests that gets illustrated by the decision of the Board of Directors, that no modifications can be introduced in the official policy of the church, then after authorisation by Hubbard. Reasoning thereby, that Hubbard had been established the policies themselves after long reflect and much research, in which he found out that the policies were workable and worked; something like that one cannot change on his own authority.
  148. Concepts
  150. To describe the the Scientology church beliefs briefly is no simple task. The basis of these beliefs are found in extensive and not always accessible contemplative works that Hubbard, the founder, has produced in the course of the years. The book Dianetics, which appeared at the beginning of Scientology was followed by a large number of books in which the developed theory was broadened, developed and completed on numerous points.
  152. If one tries to overlook the whole of Scientology concepts, objectives and practices, then globally indicated there is a triad of distinguished levels. The highest - and also less developed - level includes the concepts of the universe as an orderly whole, a type world declaration which has been defined by Walijs as "cosmology". Slightly to the side of that stand the concepts of man and concepts of good and bad. In the middle level stand a number of theoretical ideas which are considered to be inferred from the cosmological vision and that are used when practising  Scientology. Lowest of the levels here distinguished concerns the practical application and that is the level on which in Scientology lies most of the emphasis. This gets clear from the qualification that the organisation gives itself of its beliefs: an applied religious philosophy.
  154. A description of the leathers of Scientology in the obvious manner, namely descending of highest to the lower levels, would due to that last fact in our opinion be wrong and form an ignorance of the actual development which has experienced these beliefs. Scientology has not developed itself deductive from the principles downward, but the other way around. The beginning was in applying the principles of Dianetics (neutralising engrams, which precipitate forms of traumatic experiences), principles of a more or less psychological nature. In the practical application of Dianetics one finds the start of the development of - what in Scientology was going to be called - theoretical notes and cosmological concepts, the religious-philosophical superstructure lay. For this reason we take the dianetic method to be the a starting point of our research.
  156. People, thus Scientology, go in their lives through numerous experiences of a traumatic nature. Things that happen to them, situations that they find themselves in and assess wrongly,  circumstances that he does not understand make him take decisions which are not the best and cause himself and others damage. This pattern of behaviour is primarily stipulated by the reactive mind, which outstrips the analytical mind. This gives conflicts, because the deeper, analytical mind of man, pursues automatically the optimal decision. Those conflicts can pile up within man in such a way that serious mental and physical complaints develop. Thereby gets clear that, thus Hubbard, the Dianetics practice made clear that people also have traumatic experiences from earlier lives. Thus the concept, that in each man lives a mental core, arose, which is eternal and does not die with the human body. Man is a mental being, thus learns Scientology, and his actions must be as much as possible in agreement with natural (infallible) strive of this being. To this end the reactive mind, as a part of the material sheath that the mental being temporary has as place of residence, must as much as possible be put aside. The Dianetic method gives the solution for that, namely the detection and destruction of the traumatic experiences which stipulate the functioning of the reactive mind. At this point the ways of Dianetics and Scientology split up, at least in theoretical respect.
  158. Basically the distinction is small, because both in Dianetics and Scientology the auditing plays a central role. Auditing is initially the name for the psychotherapeutic method which is applied within Dianetics, but it is also used that for the application of Scientology processes (techniques). In Scientology auditing generally is indicated with the term pastoral counseling.
  160. Auditing is listening to a customer and asking targeted questions by the auditor. The auditor has been trained, the used methods have been standardised and the sessions stand under control of a "case supervisor" , who studies the report the auditor makes of each session and who if necessary corrects the auditor. At the auditing for better precision and higher speed as a rule is used the e-meter (elektropsychometer), an apparatus that measures changes in the electric capacitance of the human body. According to among others Vrolijk the function has been based on the principle of the electrodermal response (EDR), the principle that at emotion the electric capacitance of the skin changes. The Scientology Church deny moreover that the EDR is measured while using the e-meter. Following the argumentation of the church - which bases itself thereby on a description of the e-meter by a German physicist (Dr. Ph. Sonntag, Die Funktion des Hubbard Elektrometers, 1976) - the church does not know the physiological principles of the EDR (to see for that J. Beyk.)
  162. Hubbard were moreover the first who introduced this principle in standardised form in layman therapeutic practice. The official definition of the e-meter (a religious instrument in the Scientology view) we borrow from the description that Scientology Church used in a matter for the European committee for Human Rights (Application no. 7807/77, X and Church or Scientology vs Sweden, Decision of 5 May 1979): "A religous artifact used to measure the state of electrical characteristics or the "staticfield" surrounding the body and believed to reflect or indicate whether or not the confessing person has been relieved of the spiritual impediment or his sins".
  164. Dianetics, according to the Scientology Church a "substudy" of Scientology, is a science which occupies itself with the human spirit is, the human intelligence, whereas Scientology emphasises people as spiritual beings, separated from and differing from body and mind. Let us now follow the Scientology-way and change the subject to the cosmological component of the beliefs.
  166. The mental being that man is, is in Scientology called a thetan. The thetan is truth itself, immortal, omnipotently and all-knowing. Thetans already existed before there was talk of matter, energy, space and time (or, in Scientology jargon: MEST). MEST arose when thetans created worlds to amuse themselves. Attracted by the game with these worlds thetans themselves gradually got less conscious of the fact that they had imposed restrictions on themselves by their own creations. Thus they lost the notion of their own status, their immortality, omnipotence and omniscience and they assumed to be no more than the bodies in which they lived. Also they were no longer aware of the passage of one body to the other. In all that time they gained innumerable traumatic experiences. Scientology has been aimed at making the thetan free, making the thetan regain its complete control over body and spirit. To become "clear" is a step in that direction, because with that the reactive mind is eliminated, but the eventual aim that the Scientologist gets presented is to reach the OT status (Operating Thetan). In that state the thetan has recovered his original control over body and spirit.
  168. The techniques which are applied in Scientology in training courses and auditing have been partly inferred of theories which have been built around the central element in the system, the thetan. Numerous techniques aim at one or more of the objective to reach of bring closer these theories.
  170. The "inferred philosophy" concentrates around a set of four additional terms, which we mention here shortly, namely exteriorization, confrontation, communication and control.
  172. Exteriorization means, that the thetan gets the best of itself if he is in a certain position to the body, not in the body or entirely separated of it, but near the body and consciously mastering it.
  174. Confrontation means, that convalescence of his capacities makes it the thetan possible to confront his surroundings, to step up to it, to be able to handle it. That enables man to step up to his own responsibility for certain detrimental operations and be saved for the block, that causes feelings of guilt to arise as he continues to escape from that responsibility.
  176. The third core term, communication, means that the thetan must exploit his possibilities of communicating with the surroundings. Generally the thetan gets hold somewhere on the time schedule which he has followed as a result of a trauma, as a result of which he is not sufficient "in communication" with his body and his surroundings. In this, thus Scientology, is the cause of much psychosomatic complaints.
  178. Control is the last of the set of four terms. It brings to expression, that the thetan must be cause instead of consequence. He does not have, as generally is the case, be controlled by body and spirit, yet he must himself influence and master his surroundings. Whoever learns about the contents of the training courses and auditing which the Scientology Church delivers, will almost always see shimmering through the words mentioned before.
  180. Slightly besides the cosmological concepts around the thetan and of the philosophy inferred from it we finally think to be allowed to identify some philosophical termination propositions, which explain Scientology beliefs in man's acting. They are the basis of the ethics of Scientology Church. The core of this facet of the beliefs is the idea, that man is led by a compulsion to survive. Man however has gone astray of the optimum to survive. He has done things which are detrimental (unethic), and as a result his natural capacity to always and in each situation make the best decision is undermined. Ethics is thus the reason and the contemplation of optimum survival; good is constructive and bad destructive with respect to the dynamic principle of survival. Hubbard has subdivided this principle in eight "dynamics": survival for one' s self (if one satisfies to this first dynamic entirely, then one is "clear"), for one' s family and children, for one' s group, for mankind, for all living things, for the physical universe, for the spiritual universe and finally for God.
  182. Indeed the Scientology concepts include the existence of an inventor, a god. What is exactly meant by “god” however remains open. By means of Scientology everyone can for himself determine the meaning that god has. Moreover other cosmological concepts such as the existence of previous lives are not dogmas for potential followers: one himself must discover the correctness of it.
  184. When one wonders oneself at the end of this description of the beliefs of the Scientology Church where these beliefs could placed, it is interesting to note that Scientology sees itself as a religious-philosophical trend in the tradition of oriental worldbeliefs such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Hubbard is said to have made a thorough study of other religions, and the results of it have found their by-effect in the Scientology concepts. To what extent elements from the Scientology concepts have actually been borrowed from other sources is unclear. Influence of which the Scientology Church also recognises it has been there could also have been taken place more or less unconsciously. Indeed there are resemblances between the Scientology concepts and those of oriental religions. Especially that applies for yoga, which within the oriental religions is a common method to attain a higher conscience, to merge with the All, the All being the thing from which the world has arisen and on which the world rests. In the oriental religions no dogmatic explanation of the world as it exists is supported, nor a uniform creation tale. The ground of existence, or divine strength, is, however, identified with the atman, the self, the basis on which all life functions are founded and of which all functions and mental capacities are an event. Such a view we also  encounter at Scientology, if they speak of the thetan as a cause of all physical and mental expressions, as omnipotently and all-knowing, as it were themselves.
  186. In addition it is remarkable in yoga, that the accentuation of the practical aspect shows resemblance with the emphasis which within Scientology is laid on techniques. It is added that practising yoga leads to (the regainment of capacities unthought of (knowledge of previous lives, can see everything, invisibility, etc.) that shows affinity with the claimed results of the application of Scientology techniques. Those techniques differ moreover very from the methods which are used in yoga.
  189. Activities in the Netherlands
  191. Development pace
  193. From the preceding description of the international development of the organisation it will be clear, that the reputation of the Scientology Church was far from immaculate at the time of its arrival in the Netherlands in 1970. At the end of the sixties the church was in different countries occupied in legal procedures, formed subject of research by government agencies and was exposed to diatribe in general in the media. It thus needs no explanation that already the first signs of Scientology activity in our country attracted the attention of the government. In the middle of 1970 the National Federation for the Mental Public Health told the government which difficulties the establishment of Scientology in the Netherlands could cause. This action led to the Procurators General establishing a study into the nature and scope of the activities of the organisation. The activities were minimum, the research indicated: a short course in Rotterdam, a reading in Amsterdam and the establishment of two foundations, the L. Ron Hubbard Stichting (= foundation, translator) and the Stichting Scientology Leiden. It was concluded that there were little concrete pretexts for the suppression of the organisation. There were no indications that indictable offences were committed and facts or circumstances which found for dissolution could not be formed. One decided for the time being not to undertake action against the organisation, yet to remember to remain watchful.
  195. Indeed the Scientology activities had at the beginning of the sixties very small scopes. They set limits in fact to the attempts of two foreign scientologists grew a core of Dutch partisans that could develop the organisation further. End 1971 these expatriates left our country telling the Leiden police force that meanwhile sufficient Dutch had been trained for the movement. In 1972, the organisation, with the establishment of the foundation Scientology Church of the Netherlands (SKN), adapted  the legal form of a church. The intention was that the SKN would become the coordinating body of a number of local churches to set up later. That plan however has never been realised. It remained at the establishment in 1977 of the Scientology Church Amsterdam (Scientology Kerk Amsterdam, from now on SKA, translator), which was presented in 1981, as a church. Amsterdam was seen as the centre of Scientology activity in the Netherlands. Other local groups hardly arose there, apart from a small independent establishment (mission) in The Hague (since 1976). From Amsterdam only activities developed in Kortehemme and in Belgian places Gent, Hasselt and Antwerp. Just recently in this, as we will explain, seems to have come some  change with the shaping of local dianetics groups.
  197. Annotation by the translator
  198. As far as I know, in Dutch law “church” is a separate legal entity. Anyone who likes to found a church is entitled to do so. However, using this legal status in itself doesn't mean much, it especially does not mean you're entitled to tax deduction of some kind. It only means that your church is free to organise itself as it sees fit provided it doesn't do something in conflict with the law. More on this subject in the chapter “Consideration”.
  199. End annotation
  201. As the scope of the movement in the beginning years remained very limited (end 1973 the number of staff amounted to 12) and its activity accordingly, the attention to the Scientology church from the side of the government faded. Thus the Department of Public Health - more driven by anxiety concerning the possible evil impact of Scientology then by concrete data concerning reprehensible behaviour - grasped the plan to ask the journalist J. Phaff, who had published already earlier concerning the subject, to do a research report concerning Scientology. Phaff would receive money for that and be assisted by an appraisal committee, existing representatives of the Department of Public Health and the Department of Justice. Because Phaff eventually choose not to participate, this action led to nothing. End 1973 a new attempt was undertaken. Here too it concerned an action of civil servants of the Department of Public Health, acting on personal title, on the basis of decision-making at ministerial level. An 8 man strong working-group - werkgroep-Dekker - was established, existing of civil servants of the Department of Public Health and of the Department of Justice, and completed with some experts from the mental health care. The minutes show that the working party especially aimed at going after the true character of Scientology. By identifying the dangers of the organisation and recommending measures which would reduce the development of Scientology, one thought to be able to offer the public the necessary protection. The working-group was brought in difficulties, when after some time one of the experts turned out to be a scientologist. The Scientology Church had infiltrated the working-groeup and at the end of 1974 stretched a short lawsuit using the obtained information against the members of the working-group, in order to  prohibit the working-group from doing a publication. It did not succeed, yet the activities of the working-group however became so much disorganised that they afterwards no longer met and the group fell apart. However, this first legal procedure of Scientology in our country - paradoxically enough - also was good news for the working-group, in the sense that they confirmed the picture of the aggressive organisation that the Scientology church was called abroad and that alienated the church from society. Another event in that time reinforced that picture: scientologists were caught on robbering documents concerning Scientology from the files of the National Centre for Mental Public Health in Utrecht. The large attention of the Scientology Church for its real and alleged antagonists and the conflicts that resulted from that, have not been for the good of the development of the organisation, but did not lead to its perdition. If one measure the scope of the organisation to the number of staff members, then note that (by means of Scientology figures) the church had stabilised in the first years at a low level (1973: 12 staff members; 1975: idem). After ' 75 a gradual increase was seen (1-1-1978: 29 staff members; 1-1-1980: 53). The peak was reached on 1 June 1980 with 80 staff members, which number had decreased a year later to 47. In the middle of 1983 the number of staff was amounted to 52, of which 30 full-time. An earlier mention that was made at the beginning of 1983 still mentioned a number of 76 staff members, of which 52 full-time. At that time the church counted itself 725 members (of whom 320 were active that moment), whereas the directory, in which everyone is registered who ever had been involved in a service of the church included 7000 names.
  203. Organisation
  205. Given the relatively small scope of the organisation the internal structure of the SKA is very complicated. A explanation for that can be found in the circumstance that each church within the Scientology organisation has been structured according to the same, Hubbard stamped, pattern. Legally the Governing Board to is the head of the church. In the bipartition worldly - ecclesiastical power this represents the worldly power. As can be found in the statutes of the church, revised in the middle of 1982, the governing board is annually chosen with a majority of votes from and by the “complete members” of the church (that is the governing board members and those who are operative within the church on the basis of a religious vow; the remaining members have no right to vote). Legally under but as a first in the ecclesiastical hierarchy actually beside the governing board stands the President of the Daily Governing Board or, to apprehend the international terminology, the Executive Director. He is the official who leads complete staff. This staff has been divided in seven divisions: governing board, communication and distribution (these three divisions are of service to especially the general organisation and are located under the Hubbard Communications Office (HCO) - secretary), finances, service, qualification and public relations (these four divisions manage the services to the public and to the members and are located under the organisation secretary). Seven divisions are conducted by a secretary and have been subdivided in about twenty departments, to the head of which stands a director.
  207. The division mentioned first (Governing Board), in the Scientology classification: division 7, has always taken a central place within the organisation. Until recently the Guardian' s Office (GO) belonged to it, where was the centre of the power. Also now still all executive staff members are part of this division. The GO directed little of the daily pace in the organisation, yet fulfilled primarily the function to protect the church and freed the way for the ecclesiastical ideology. By means of its department GO-Finance it was also responsible for the financial pace within the church. All financial operations of some importance ran by means of this department. GO department Social Coordination tries to find possible collaborators. From this department among others the following activities were coordinated the field of narcotics assistance (Narconon) and rights of psychiatric patients (Citizen's committee for human rights CCHR). Legal questions, tax matter and legal procedures belonged to the responsibility of the department GO-Legal. Additionally, there was a department GO-Public Relations. The most notorious department of the GO however was the so-called Bureau One (B-1). This department had the duty of collecting information and was really considered as an espionage department. In the past to execute its task it used among others "under-cover agents" , field workers who performed stipulated tasks under an adapted identity. This concerned obtaining documents and of data on persons. To acquire insight in the activities of agencies that were experienced as threatening or to exert influence on the functioning of certain bodies, one used some times the method of infiltration. The Werkgroep-Dekker gives an example of it. From the church we were told that the cancellation of the GO had been in 1982, where the functions were divided to other departments. The function of Bureau One is as far as it concerns collecting information and the guarding of the security (among others reducing infiltration) transferred to department 20 of division 7. The espionage tasks (among others infiltration of organisations experienced as hostile) the church said no more need would exist. The Social Coordination was organisationally detached from the ecclesiastical hierarchy and categorised in a separate international network that is under under CSI.
  209. Division 1 (communication), except with administrative matters, is busy especially with the recruitment of staff (for that a fixed "recruiter" is appointed, that attempts systematic work on course participants to accept a staff function) and the internal jurisdiction, this means correcting impurities in beliefs (in the Scientology-terminology: out-tech and out-policy) at staff members and course participants. To the task of this division also belongs to catch and toe into line rebellious or dissatisfied members (in general after this has been tried tactfully already in division 5 (qualification)).
  211. Division 2 (distribution) has the duty of getting people who have concluded a course to move on to the following new course. Thereby numerous techniques are used, which are often experienced, as shows from the many responses of ex-members as pressure. Manufacturing and spreading information material, which includes the trimester sheet of the church, the “New Theta”, is also  the responsibility of this division, as well as the sale of books and e-meters. The division takes care of the so-called "central files" – this involves the files with personal data which are made for everyone who ever took a Scientology service. The central files form the source of information for the also under this department located "letter registrars", whose task it is to harass everyone that ever has been in contact with the organisation with letters and documentation.
  213. Division 3 (finances) keeps up the accounts of the members and looks after the financial matters. This division was mastered entirely by the GO and fell under the supervision of the Assistant Guardian Finance. The interest of the GO applied particularly the solvency of the organisation.
  215. Division 4 (services or "technical") takes care of courses and auditing, with the exception of the introduction courses which are done by division 6, public relations. Within this division act Case Supervisors who are charged with the supervision of and the accompaniment of course participants. In the "major course room" generally 1 or 2 supervisors are present. The auditing is done in separate spaces by auditors, who remain under the administrative control of the director or processing, who in turn is subordinate to the Tech-secretary.
  217. Division 5 (qualification or "quai") takes care of staff training and certain types of courses, the so-called internships. People who give problems or have criticism in the first place are “handled” here. By means of conversations a solution is tried to find. If this doesn't succeed, then the "ethics"- department (division 1) gets involved. This way one tries to isolate and remove derogatory ideas, critical sounds and rebellious behaviour at the earliest possible stage and the best way possible. It is this department that also intensively takes care of people who predominate or have decided to leave the organisation.
  219. Division 6 (public relations or "distribution") at last takes care of people who contact the organisation for the first time. It performs the individuality test and evaluating th results, takes care of the simple introduction courses and also convenes on put times meetings for field staff members (about which later) and the weekly church service.
  221. Staff members
  223. One will understand, after this concise and overall explanation that the SKA-organisation demands a large number of staff members, if one wants to prevent that certain posts remain un-occupied or that one and the same person fulfils more posts (which both is the case). The recruitment of staff members in the organisation thus is an object of constant care. Staff members are recruited from the course participants who have become members of the organisation. As is to described special officials have been appointed to this end, whereas it is expected from all staff members to identify and work on potential staff members. This institution of staff members comes not only from fondness of the organisation, yet it is also stimulated strongly by some regulations. Thus a staff member can be placed only in another function, when he comes up with a substitute for his own post. Also he can just take a holiday, if he has provided for his replacement. Moreover sometimes the departments are imposed quota for committeeing new staff members, where each member has to conduct a number of "recruitment interviews" every day. Potential staff members are particularly the members who show a large admissibility and those who do not plan or have too much fixed occupations.
  225. Positive requiring to which candidate aspirant-stafleden must satisfy there are only little. Auditors must have an IQ of minimum 120. For other functions one gladly committees people, who have been equipped by job or training for certain tasks. Negative requiring is there to a larger extent: one among others can undergo no specific psychiatric treatment, may not have been incorporated in a mental hospital, may not have a police record or being searched for by the police force, may never have charged declarations against Scientology or taken off action against the organisation and have no large debts. One must to this end sign a written statement, however, auditing makes possible for such monitoring of supplied information that in fact ongoing selection process is taking place. The organisation has made it for members attractive to become staff member. Not by the legal position which is weak, merits which are very sparing or the working hours which are very long, but by giving staff members courses and trainings to follow for free or for strongly reduced tariffs. One is therefore motivated or one feels oneself otherwise squat in further courses and trainings, then it is financially attractive to do so as a staff member. For the organisation the knife cuts both ways, because from each new staff member the declaration is desired that at premature leave or by provoking he faces disciplinary measures and the full value of the services he followed in his period as a staff member will become chargeable. With that financial obligation which can incur high in expectancy a large obstruction is created to change a decision after the entry into office. Staff members sign a contract at their entry into office at the SKA, entitled a declaration of accession. With that one "as a member of a religious order" states unconditional to be bound to the administrative, mental, moral and ethical lines of policy, rules, standards and practices of the SKA. Additionally, one protects the church of each requirement or action, originating from its relation with the church. One signs for a period of 2.5 or 5 years.
  227. According to the contract the church will provide "certain indispensable matter as weekly compensation, namely, and for certain employees lodging and feeding during the days that they execute activities or consignments". " The supply of these indispensable matters", thus is said, "reflects  the intention of the church to create surroundings which are being appropriate for the development of the mental and religious conscience of the members". To prevent misunderstandings that the weekly compensation of staff members, depending on their position, as well as on the turnover of the church, varies in general from f 40 to f 100 (E 18,15 to E 45,38).
  229. Staff members make long days, as far as they are not operative part-time. Six days per week they work, with discontinuances for afternoons and evening pause, from 9.00 till 22.00. One dedicates two and a half hours per day to study, in order to qualify oneself for ones post. The training for the different functions are being taken care of by the church. As gets clear from the description of the organisation, it concerns thereby mostly organisational and administrative functions. Twothirds of staff is operative in such functions. The others work in programs for mental accompaniment (auditing) and trainings. To this also belongs that one can audit and can give courses until the level which one himself has reached in this area. The training for auditor demands on average one and a half up to two years and is concluded with an examination, to which a certificate has been linked.
  231. In the daily activities of staff members statistics play a large role. To virtually all functions weekly production stats apply, being differentiated by function and by department, that are centrally moored. To these standards a scheme of sentences and rewards has been linked. The composition of staff is liable to multiple rotations. Some staff members are transferred to other functions, conclude their relation or are being removed. Others departure to Scientology Centres abroad or foreign Scientologists stay some time on leding basis as a staff member in Amsterdam.
  233. The staff members have their own place and work in the large (rented) office premises that the organisations uses, at the Amsterdam Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal. For one category staff members, namely the field staff members (FSM's), that last thing is different. These are not on actual staff of the organisation, yet function independent "in the field". Their task is spreading Scientology and member recruitment. As a rule it concerns participants who, because they continue to live in their own place of residence, can serve as an advanced post for the organisation. They only receive support from division 6, public relations, especially in "sales tech". From their appointment to FSM (according to the organisation no contract is made) derives the organisation has a right to a part of the amounts which people introduced by them spend on courses and auditing (10% respectively 15%).
  235. Training and auditing
  237. Member recruitment is very important for an organisation such as the Scientology Church. It is necessary for the distribution of the ideology, for the continuity of the organisation and as source of income. Thus much of the activities have been aimed at it. Weekly, as becomes clear from statements of the SKA, about 400 people go to the Scientology Centre in Amsterdam that have not  been in contact with the organisation before. The majority of them does this because of any form of mouth to mouth publicity by family, friends or acquintances. Also articles in newspapers, advertisements and books (particularly the book Dianetics) awake interest. A relatively small part (they estimate approximately 10%) get in contact with Scientology by means of recruitment activities on the street (by Scientology concisely defined as "body-routing"). Despite the "low profile" approach that the organisation has chosen but few of the visitors stay and under those who involve Scientology-services wastage is large. A much used method to introduce newcomers in Scientology (at bodyrouting the only method) is offering a free individuality test, which always ends in the recommendation using Scientology to get improvement of some facets of individuality. Fairly short and cheap introduction course (such as a personal efficiency or PE-course, consisting of five readings on elementary Scientology or a communication course which include exercises for improvement of the communication with others) obvious forms a continuation on the test. In the same way there is another method, aimed at people who turn themselves to the organisation with a specific problem or desire, namely the "free case analysis". In this one aims to make an inventory of problem areas, whereupon it is generally recommended to do a basic audit followed by the purification rundown. That brings us in the Scientology jargon with which the vast programme of trainings and mental accompaniment has been interlarded. The reflected diagram gives a picture of the scale of varied offers Scientology has in that respect. Although the diagram in a certain way tells the story, let us try to enlighten and indicate - in the conviction that it would be suitably nor feasible to describe the programme - some basic ideas for explanation.
  239. The provisional end aim that each starting Scientologist is represented is to become "clear". That aim must be reached step for step. Globally indicated to this end there are two ways, which are preferably walked at the same time, namely the way of training and the way of processing.
  241. Training is meant to impart the course-participant knowledge and skills, which can be put to work, both on himself and on others. In the centre in this is reaching the levels (from 0 up to and including IV). Thus the level 1-cursus concerns human problems, the level 11-cursus concerns on human shortcomings and the ways to come up to that challenge, etc. The method in these courses is co-auditing, this means auditing under supervision with a partner, who serves as a study object and who you must try to get yourself. Moreover the course offer includes numerous other courses, which are generally aimed at the practical functioning of the course participants, like for example the course Student Hat (costs f 1642 (E 745); meant to learn to study) or the Mini Word Clearing Course (costs: f 1705 (E 774); a technique to "clarify words" , for enlarging the skills in reading and understanding written texts). Worthy of mention is also the Minister's Course (course for clericals to be; costs: f 1679 (E 792)), that gives to people who have followed further at least one co-auditing course the status of priest of the church, among others competent to lead ecclesiastical ceremonies. If one has reached level IV at last, then the aim has however not yet been reached, because then still some courses for people who have advances the bridge are waiting: the Saint Hill Special Briefing Course and the Solo Auditor's Course. For these last courses one cannot go to the Amsterdam Church (in the jargon: an ordinary Class IV church), but one has to go (in Europe), to East-Grinstead or Copenhagen. The organisation callss this way to the state of enlightenment the cheapest, yet once the terminal point has been reached however, one is some years further and thousands of guilders poorer.
  243. Processing, the other way to attain to enlightenment, looks at it from a different perspective then training, as it is aimed at the individual person. This method also includes numerous separate courses, structured to levels, but it concerns auditing here, while the one who is being audited must be done so by an auditor who has already reached at least the level on which the course has been aimed. Level IV one can get in Amsterdam; the more advanced courses are given in East-Grinstead and Copenhagen. Auditing as a rule is given in course-blocks of 12.5 hour (the daily sessions last on average 2.5 up to 5 hours). The costs of such a block-system are f 7093 (E 3219).
  245. Once he has become "clear", the scientologist need by no means stop working on his development. The organisation will exhort him not to satisfy himself with the reached result yet, but to aim for even higher realms of spiritual being. Here the eight "dynamics" are relevant again, of which the theory already has been discussed. Being “clear” means one has realised the complete control of his own life, of the first dynamic, the compulsion to personal surviving. The remaining seven dynamics however offer a nearly inexhaustible source for continuation of the study. The end aim that is presented to the "clear", is the state of Operating Thetan (OT), this means someone who masters all eight dynamics. The course I up to and including VIII are being given by the Advanced Organizations (Los Angeles and Copenhagen). Their contents and the used material are  confidential, because, thus the organisation, "a part of this high-quality material could not be understood". It would be rather dangerous to give these materials to an unauthorized person.
  247. Auditing unmistakably plays an important role in the course activities of Scientology. Auditing is supported by a pair instruments, that we will describe right now: the e-meter and the files.
  249. The e-meter is an instrument, which is meant to give the auditor a sharper visibility on the mental situation of the person who is being audited and the changes that occur in this person. The person being audited has two cans in his hands which are linked with an electronic device with dial. Between the cans some electricity runs so the skin capacitance can be measured. Changes can be seen by looking at the needle floating on the dial. The autonomous (uncontrollable) physical response on which the device reacts, puts the auditor in a position to observe the response with a magnifier from the impact of a certain question on the person being audited. On that basis he finds out where in the mind problems are outlining themselves and where they are not.
  251. The findings of the auditor from the auditing sessions are always written down in a file concerning the person being audited, the so-called p.c. (pre-clear) - folder. Although this file is by no means the only thing that it is stored on a course participant (moreover there also is a student file, in which the progress of the course participant is kept up, a financial file, in which the debts and payments are registered, and an ethics-dossier, in which correcting measures are mentioned), however, it is the file that in general contains the most confidential data. Using the pc-folder the auditor and the supervisor can follow the auditing process. The person being audited can, if necessary, after some time has gone by, restart again. It is for this reason, thus the church, that the file is kept up and is never destroyed. Also for this reason one cedes the file very reluctantly if it is asked by a leaving course participant; as he may be able to return. Looking at the file by the course participant one considers as a matter of fact hardly desirable. Thus the circle in a certain way has been closed again: dianetics, giving the basis to Scientology, never went away, and is back hopefully giving the church another impuls to grow which one looks forward to. Moreover, after obtaining Hubbard's authorisation, just like in the first years, dianetics-auditing is possible again without application of the e-meter. Meanwhile in ten places in our country dianetics sessions are being held. Coordination and the public relations were done by the SKA bureau of social coordination, but are now under division 6. The scientologists who lead the establishments, as a rule have the status of field staff member. They need church authorisation (in fact the Religious Technology Centre, which is the legal owner) to the public use of the registered trademark Dianetics. The income from the dianetics sessions (f 50 up to f 75 by session, (E 22,70 to 34,03)) are not supposed to go to the church. However, the church hopes to make some money in an indirect manner when persons being audited contact for its continued training. As FSM the Dianetics auditors have a financial motive to move their customers in that direction.
  253. Members
  255. To complete our description of the activities of SKA we will describe now some additional activities and finance. Before doing this however we will return to the Scientology course participants. From the previous text it is already clear how much value the organisation attaches to attracting and holding course participants. People who follow a Scientology course, do not immediately need to become member of the church. The membership is only obliged when taking part in auditing and advanced trainings. Most people who ever are being serviced by the SKA thus do not become a member. Of approximately 7000 people who occur in the directory of the church, 10 percent is a member for life (one-off contribution: f 375 (E 170)), or a member for a year (contribution per year: f 125 (E 56,72)). The majority of the members is between 25 and 35 years old. Minors for their accession as a member need written authorisation from parent or tutor. In the statutes of the SKA is distinguished between two types members: the full members, among whom are governing boards and staff members, and the parishioners who "agree to follow the church's credo and to contribute money". The tight hierarchy, which is characterising for the international organisation, reflects itself in the national church. Full members have voting right at the member meeting - church members have not -, yet this right is only used at the election of the Council of Governing Board in first instance, whereupon this when appropriate completes itself by co-optation. Members have no influence on the policy whatsoever, like also in the international organisation each influence on policy from below is also shoved aside by a constant one-way traffic the other way around.
  257. The church has officials whose duty it is to get course participants to follow new courses, as much it has officials, whose task it is to bring course participants who have said they wish to stop with Scientology to other ideas and bring back course participants who have stopped. The church is formally right when it states that course participants can conclude their Scientology activities any moment. In practice, as from a lot of responses, become clear the attempts that it uses to preserve the course participants, which are frequently experienced as insistent and unpleasant. Many are pursued during a long time with documentation material, with letters, with phone calls, in short with all kinds of manners to repair the contact lost. How tough the SKA can be in this, should among others become clear from the fact that it, in order to retrieve the modified address of ex-members sometimes asks the municipal information on the new address. Such requests, where the SKA used its self-adopted status of a church, has in the past been remunerated by numerous municipalities. From communications by the SKA it concerns especially everyone who ever bought a book, but moved without giving a change of address to the SKA. We will return on this aspect later in this report in more general sense.
  259. Annotation by the translator
  260. Until 1990 (or something like that) churches legally could get changes in address etc. from their parishioners from the municipalities. As far as I know since that year this possibility has been abandoned with for everyone born ever since. Everyone else, born before 1990, can ask the municipalities to stop this. The municipalities are legally entitled to act according to the request.
  261. End annotation
  263. Other activities
  265. Apart from the training and mental assistance, which makes up for the larger part of the activity of the church in our country, the Scientology Organisation also is occupied with some matters, that we want to qualify as additional activities. It concerns here the application of the Scientology philosophy, but different from the “normal” Scientology practice, the focus of these activities stands in the society. These activities are the face of the organisation. For these tasks separate legal persons have been set up, who are staffed by persons and ruled by rules closely to SKA.
  267. Relatively dense at the trainings and mental assistance of Scientology there is narcotics assistance which is looked after by the organisation named the Narconon foundation. The programme which Narconon offers includes three components: kick the habit physically, detoxicate the body and mentally kick the habit. The first component demands average 3 up to 7 days. In that time the drug addict uses no narcotics and he eats according to an adapted diet with lots vitamins and minerals. He is supported by a fixed person, who tries to make the detoxification process bearable. At the second stage, which lasts approximately 3 weeks, the body must be stripped of grants using a programme which in the previous already has been mentioned, the "purification rundown". The last component of the programme is meant to mentally rebuild the drug addict, who is now clean, and bring him on the right track. To communicate and confrontation are the verbs here and the applied techniques again show a strong resemblance with trainings of Scientology Church. At this stage also exercises can be given, aimed at recovering a significant social occupation. Thus the person  must by example do the Scientology course Student Hat to lay the foundation for his (her) start of a study. The Narcononprogram has arisen in the United States, where it was used on private initiative in some prisons.
  269. In the seventies in different countries arose Narconon Centres, where narcotics drug addicts stayed during the programme (in sum 4 months). Although in our country already for some time a foundation Narconon the Netherlands existed (set up by the SKA), an assistance programme started only in 1982. The initial plan to set up centres in the 4 large cities soon appeared to be too ambitious. Only the settling in Amsterdam was viable. In 1982, according to statement made by the SKA, 26 drug addicts began with the programme. 7 of them have finished the programme and now are clean still. The circumstances among which the project had to operate seem to be fairly unfavourable, because there is little space to house participants internally and with requests for government subsidy no result was achieved. Drug addicts, who had income from benefit, were asked a contribution of f 30 (E 13,81) for participation to the programme per day. (When subsidy would be obtained, one thinks f 75 (E 34,03) per day charge to have.) The employees to the project are Scientology-members, who get bed and board from their efforts. One aims at to get ex-drug addicts - who need not be scientologists - in staff.
  271. Annotation from the translator
  272. If you do not understand why Narconon has to charge MORE if the initiative were subsidezed, well, I'm totally with you. I think the two amounts have been switched while scanning the dutch text from the report.
  273. End annotation
  275. Close links with SKA exist, which have been formalised in an agreement between the SKA and the foundation Narconon the Netherlands. Under this agreement the SKA (the office Social Coordination) assists Narconon with advice and action; the church permits Narconon's use of narcotics assistance techniques developed by Hubbard, is possible to give "suitable proposals and correcting advice" to Narconon, make office facilities available and further cooperate active to attain the Narconons objectives. The costs which are made to this end by the SKA are compensated for by Narconon.
  277. As Narconon is in numerous countries an additional activity of the Scientology Church, thus is also in nearly all countries where she has established a closely associated organisation active, which aims takes care of the rights of psychiatric patients. In the Netherlands this organisation is called the Dutch committee for human rights. The committee since its establishment some years ago tried by publications to explain its ideas about wrong doing in (institutionalized) psychiatry. In particular it aims arrows at certain forms of coerced treatment, psycho-surgery and medical treatment. In its fight for the rights of the psychiatric patient also manifests the Scientology church aversion of the "traditional" psychiatry (an aversion which given the many controverses between organisations in the field of the mental health care and Scientology can be called reciprocal). Particularly that context has brought the committee in the field of antipsychiatry. Although also non-scientologists can be a member of the committee, there are close links between the committee and the SKA. The contacts is facilitated once again by the office Social Coordination of the church and includes, among others, financial and administrative resources.
  279. Other additional activities to which Scientology gives attention in several countries (such as education and privacy protection) are not developed in our country as yet in organisational context.
  281. Finances
  283. Annotation by the translator
  284. This part of the document concerns financial statements. I tried to translate the jargon as well as I could.
  285. End annotation
  287. The financial household of the SKA through the years has been subject of many speculation. To conclude our explanation we look at balance sheet 1981 we obtained from the SKA, the written and oral exchange of views about that, data we obtained from the Tax and Customs Administration by mediation of the Finance Secretary of State, and information from ex (staff) members concerning the financial aspect of the church, starting with the income side. It will need no explanation that the most important source of income of the SKA are the payments for services delivered. Training and mental assistance provided in 1981 for f 180.000 (E. 81.640) (in 1980: f 320.000; in 1981: f 350.000 (E 145.210 and 158.823 respectively)) and sale of books, e-meters, badges etc. f 260.000 (E 117.983) (1980: f 135.000; 1981: f 190.000 (E 61.260 and E 86.218 respectively)). The year 1981 was a disaster: income was only at one third of that from the top year 1979 when almost f 2.000.000  (E 907.560) was received.
  289. Annotation by the translator
  290. I just translated what was in the original text. Again, some amounts must have been mixed up.
  291. End annotation
  293. The tariffs for trainings and mental assistance are centrally determined for all churches. There were periods in which these tariffs were raised with 5% monthly, according to the church on the one hand encourage course participants to book courses ahead and on the other hand on the basis of calculations of the international organisation of the quantity of money necessary to keep the organisation running. To what extent this pivot still works at the current altitude of the tariffs we don't know, but however one should keep in mind that because of the fact no real alternative is there the elasticity of prices of Scientology courses is almost zero. Let us mention as an illustration the tariffs of some important courses from the Scientology pricelist per December 1983, with between brackets for the comparison the tariffs in 1980:
  294. Student Hat: f 1642 (f 440) [E 745 and E 199]
  295. Auditor training levels I-IV, by level: f 4265 (f 730) [E 1935 and E 331]
  296. Ministers course (training for mental): f 1679 (f 590) [E 762 and E 268]
  297. 12 hours hour auditing: f 7093 (1830) [E 3219 and E 830]
  298. Purification Rundown: f 5117 (f 1460) [E 2322 and E 663]
  299. Some simple courses excluded the tariffs of the courses are now above f 1000 (E 454]. If one registers himself for a training course or auditing one can if required and according to the registration form re-claim the bulk of his money within 3 months after result. Such a demand is assessed by the Claims Verification Board. Although we know of cases in which the church  repayed (particularly when courses or auditing had not been finished), it also became us clear from different sources that re-claiming money does not necessarily mean a refund. The church policy to the point has been set out in some "policy directives" that indicate detailed under which conditions repayment can be expected. The procedure is that complicated and time-consuming - and moreover for people, who are dissatisfied with the services and therefore stand in a slightly stretched situation with the church, by its contents discouraging - that it is understandable that the picture has arisen that the church only sporadic to repays. The already reminded circumstance that 1981 for the SKA was no favourable year, also reaches expression in the altitude of the expenditure in that year. These amounted to f 130.000 (E 58.991), exceeding the income with largely half a million (E 226.890). To the highest expenditure categories belonged compensations to staff members (f 200.000 or E 90.756), purchase of books from the Scientology company New Era Publications in Copenhagen – (100.000 or 45.378)), legal assistance (100.000 or 45.378) and hiring and insurance the building (f 167.000 or E 75.781). Other remarkable expenditures were: "mission costs" (f 84.000, E 38.117) - this means cost of staff members of other churches that had been stationed for some time in Amsterdam for giving special courses or auditing or for granting the church "assistance" in the organisational area, training of staff members who took part in courses and auditing abroad, and the administrative contributions to the mother church (f 35.000 or E 15.882). Concerning that last amount can be noticed that the national churches cede a part of their income to the international organisation, with that contributing in the overhead-costs of the policy. Nowadays that contribution amounts to a changing percentage (in former days 20% permanently) of net-income (gross income diminished with a number of expenses). Communications of the SKA give the impression that the current financial relation between the churches are slightly are confusing. On the one hand SKA spended fixed percentages of the income to the central organisation, on the other hand bills for provided services were presented to the SKA by hierarchically higher churches regularly. Thus an account comes up, which hampers, thus the SKA, the clarity of the exact financial situation; because other national churches would find themselves in the same circumstance and the result would be that the international organisation has gradually an enormous financial shortage because of the standing debts, at present an assessment at international level is taking place, in which the old accounts are again examined and that must lead to cleansing of the total financial household of the Scientology Church.
  301. The shortage in the exploitation that outlined in 1981, was in that sense not new for the SKA, which also in previous years had been suffering losses already. The balance sheet by 1 January 1982 thus shows a shortage of almost f 1.000.000 (E 453.780). The proportion between floating assets and current liabilities on the balance sheet shows that SKA have almost f 1.000.000 (E 453.780) in cash at the bank (an amount moreover on which the tax authority holds seizure to conservate because of tax debts), yet on the other hand SKA has debts to the international organisation to an amount of f 154.000 (E 69.882) and in addition has received f 1.500.000 (E 680.670) as payments in advance for services to provide (at the end of 1983 the amount of payments in advance has gone down to 750.000 (E 340.335)). The amount mentioned first, one can assume, be involved in the started cleansing operation.
  303. Concerning the second amount we are however in uncertainty. All payments in advance for training courses and auditing are booked under this amount and disappear from the balance sheet when the services concerned have been provided. The altitude of the amount implies that the total amount paid for courses and auditing but have not yet been provided is the quadruple of the actually provided services in 1981. That can be explained, thus the SKA, because this amount not only totals the payments in advance in 1981, but also includes payments in advance from previous years.
  305. An comparison with 1981 gives reason to the presumption that last element of the amount is the largest by far, which might mean that it concerns payments that have accumulated in the course of the years for which no service will be asked and provided any more. The question rises where this amount appears on the profit and loss account.
  307. The careful conclusion which we think might be derived from all this, is that the financial position of the SKA could be less unfavourable than the balance sheet shows. With that also the positive judgements of the SKA on a question from us could be explained, that the financial expectancies of the church are well and that a structural balance exists between the income and expenditure of the church. To what extent the current financial situation really offers ground to optimism, however seems us liable to some doubt, when the tax aspect, to which we want to give attention finally of our financial consideration, is taken into account. It does not concern the salary-tax, about which since 1 January 1980 clarity has existed, because by that date with approval of the SKA the relation between the church and the staff members is considered as an employment, where salary-tax is implied, but the VAT. End 1980 bulletins in the press appeared that tax assessments had been imposed to the SKA concerning VAT to an amount of f 10.000.000 (E 4.537.802) which reports were correct: the Tax and Customs Administration Indirect taxes in Amsterdam had found grounds in information, supplied by the VARA-ombudsman, to officially impose tax assessments over the period 1975-1980 to an amount of f 5.000.000 (E 2.268.901), raised with 100%. We asked the Finance Secretary of State for more information. Without violating the confidentiality of taxpayer's data we can tell the following about this. After imposing the tax assessments by the Tax and Customs Administration research has been established into the administration of the SKA. That research led to lowering of the assessments to roughly f 1.300.000 (E 589.914) while maintaining the increase with 100%. Against that the SKA has lodged an appeal at the court in Amsterdam, which has not verdicted as yet at this moment. Apart from the basis of the assessments, the court must form a judgement concerning the correctness of the levy of VAT. Given this fact we do not think it is appropriate to say anything more on this matter now.
  309. With respect to our request for information concerning the policy of the Tax and Customs Administration concerning the SKA the Finance Secretary of State stated initially that without violation of the confidentiality duty laid down in Article 67 of the general law concerning taxes (AWR) the majority of the asked questions could not be answered. From the sub-committee then it has been reacted with an exhaustive statement, from which at this place the next quotation is relevant:
  311. "In its letter of 3 June 1981 to the sub-committee has given no doubt, that it is aware of the  confidentiality duty the Finance Secretary of State has. The sub-committee thinks that an appeal is justified when data is asked concerning a certain taxpayer. Whether that in this case too easily an appeal is being made on this rule however the committie doubts for a start. Don't you share the opinion, thus it wants to ask, that the confidentiality duty is on the one hand indeed ordered in pursuance of Article 67 AWR the nature of the data to supply and the importance serves Tax and Customs Administration charged of the taxpayer and of with a justified imposition, yet is not given on the other side correctly veelomvattendheid differently and to other aims belongs be used by the legislature has been then aimed at? The value of this provision wrongfully wouldn't be in danger to be undermined, if it would be explained these already too rash of application on requests information concerning the imposition and this way the visibility on the policy of the Tax and Customs Administration could hamper? Did you, who has been allowed to granting dispensation of the prohibition in the first paragraph of Article 67 AWR, weigh the importance of the answer to the letter of the sub-committee have been served with if required (possibly confidentially) discuss of data to a committee from the parliament against the importance which aims at serving the confidentiality duty? This too more, there it mentioned as in its letter of 3 June 1981 especially the sub-committee wants to acquir insight in the policy that the Tax and Customs Administration has executed and executes against certain organisations.”
  313. On that last aspect in the continuation of the letter an exhaustive explanation is given. The complete letter of 25 November 1981 can be found for inspection on the secretariat. On 8 March 1982 the Finance Secretary of State answered among others as follows:
  315. "I have thought to have consider if in this case, the importance of a public interest exhaustively explained by you in the lastmentioned letter into the study on the activities of sects, established by you, involved, exists sufficient reason to proceed to suppression of the confidentiality duty such as has been meant in the second paragraph of before-mentioned article. After careful considerations I have decided that the interests which it has been in general linked to a strict maintaining of the confidentiality in tax matter in this case for so much necessary must yield to the public importance involved in with your research.
  317. Paid attention however to the interests which have been linked to a strict maintaining of the confidentiality in tax matters, I would appreciate it very much if below with use of the second paragraph of Article 67 of the general law in the realm of taxes to you supplied information are treated confidentially and are not used further then to get insight in the policy which the Tax and Customs Administration conducts and has conducted towards certain organisations.
  319. Publication of person-specific information for this is, as I see, not necessary."
  321. Annotation of the translator
  322. The above part was nearly impossible to translate. Sorry for the inconvenience... I hope it's a little clear what happened.
  323. End annotation
  325. In this respect it is worth mentioning that Scientology Church itself started a procedure on the basis of the law “Publicity of Governing Board” to find out about the data that the Treasury and the Inspector of the Indirect Taxes in Amsterdam had, on basis of which the assessment had been imposed. On 16 January 1984 the department jurisdiction of the Council of State judged that the department compared with the taxpayer wrongfully called on the confidentiality duty in Article 67 AWR laid down. According to the department this provision was not applicable to the tax payer itself of data which exclusively mattered the person of the tax payer.
  327. Consideration
  329. Our study into the activities of the Scientology church has been rather laborious, which mainly is to blame to the refusal of the SKA to grant collaboration, a refusal they upheld for quite a long time. That Church's point of view was based on two main arguments, the first being that the research formed a violation on the freedom of religion and that the fact that a research was started in itself already was a proof of prejudice. Our confutations apparently did not persuade the church. Thus a months long correspondence developed that got more and more character of playing a chess game, in which the SKA continuously found new tournures to maintain its negative position. It was our goal to give the church an as hard as possible time to continue denying collaboration on real grounds. In the middle of 1981 it became clear that a stalemate had been reached and that we - given the fact that the sub-committee did not wish to use its right to inquiry, with which the church could have been obliged to a little more collaboration – we had to try to get to an objective description of Scientology without the input of the SKA, which in our opinion was essential. The way we decided to follow was to complete the data, which we had in hands, order the literature and many letters, and add this with information of staff members, who in the past had occupied functions in the Scientology church in our country or in foreign countries, and thus could have much information concerning the organisation. We sent 25 persons an inquiry form with 35 critical questions and asked these persons to answer these objectively". The response on these inquiry was both with regard to the number of answeres and with regard to the contents very satisfactorily. The answers were in general as well critical as balanced, whereas the responses to the last question, how one looked back on his/her own activities in Scientology, clearly showed that one was able to choose a distant approach and describe both negative and positive aspects.
  331. To our surprise the SKA some time later, in April 1982, changed its decision on the position earlier adopted. Although they had preserved their initial objections against a research as ours - "our experience, based on experiences from foreign countries, has learned us to be careful when it comes to research by, or on behalf of, members of parliamant" the church indicated to have some belief in our intention. The reality makes us add to that, that the SKA decision was of course also the product of an assessment of pros and cons. Obviously they had realised that their obstinate attitude would be worse to their case than it would that good. In this respect can also be reminded the policy modifications, which had occurred end 1981 in the international organisation. Leaving the politics of confrontation that the church is used to for a more pleasant treatment of the surrounding society might in their views also be in favour of a smoother approach by our activity. Anyhow, the new elaboration of the SKA offered in particular the occasion of testing the value of the collected material concerning Scientologoy and to fill gaps in our knowledge. We presented the church at several times a lot of dozens of written questions, whereas in addition some thorough exchange over views took place. In spite of the fact that not all, sometimes critical questions did not get a clear and exact answer, we nevertheless on the whole are not dissatisfied with the way in which the SKA has granted us its collaboration. That there sometimes were small incidents, may stand in the way of that total impression.
  333. As from our statement should prove, signals of our thoughts about the attitude of the SKA may not be concluded that the policy of the Scientology church would likewise be appreciated. We indeed consider the policy modification, such as it has been announced and is also hopefully brought in practice, a step in the good direction, yet there remains to our judgement sufficient reason to make critical comments. At the end of sixties – as we in our statement have pointed out – the Church showed itself sensitively for the pressure of the public opinion to abolish some practices assessed as evil. We dare the proposition that the changes in the policy which were then implemented were especially optical measures that implied no real policy modifications. The later development pace in the Guardian' s Office should underline that. Possibly the church now really aims at changing the policy - time will tell. As that is the case, the church might take as gooed advice the next careful suggestions that we add to the following critical observations. Should the church however not comply, then it must not be surprising that the announced new policy would not sufficient strip the name of the Scientology church of its in the public opinion already negative consonance.
  335. In this consideration successively attention will be given to the character of the organisation and its concepts, as well as to some aspects of the activities which she develops themselves. The contents of the concepts we will on the other hand leave alone.
  337. The external form of the Scientology church is unmistakable that of a tightly regulated, hierarchically built organisation. The policy is formulated at the headquarters in Los Angeles and delegation of powers to regional, national and local agencies mainly concerns the policy execution. However, policy execution is surrounded with a network of regulations, targets and check systems. SKA has told us in this respect that there is sufficient space for the national churches to act on their own. We add to that: as long as one remains within the framework of the official "policy". This determined policy has been given so much details and in many respects is so comprehensive, that the real space for the local churches cannot be anything other than small, looking at the systems of supervision and the sanctions used. The charismatic leader who stood for many years at the top of the organisation since some time has been replaced by a fairly anonymous management. From the sidelines Hubbard however still is clearly present. Just like Maharishi in the TM-organisation he undoubtedly could re-instate his leading position again. The position of Hubbard is underlined by his influence on the determination of new policy regulations, which are presented for to him for his approval. Even if Hubbard would no longer be alive, then the current authority borrows certainly a part of its legitimation from this procedure. Hubbard's death to our conviction thus would not leave on this optically strong organisation a demotivating and disintegrating effect.
  339. Annotation by the translator
  340. Remember again this report was written in 1984, two years before Hubbard died. The subcommittee that wrote the report already back then made a good assumption about the effects of Hubbard's death.
  341. The reference to the TM-organisation (“Transcendental Meditation”) can be explained because this text was a part of a larger report, in which among others TM was discussed also.
  342. End annotation
  344. From the outside the Scientology organisation is at the same time a church. It indeed does not have a specific picture of god, nor rituals aimed at a god and prayers, yet, however, the church, thus the SKA, encourages every scientologist to "to search and find his relation with the inventor and to reach a personal view on the meaning and the picture which he himself attributes to his inventor". Such words recall again the idea, which we already expressed with respect to the TM-organisation, namely that one by emphasising an element of the beliefs can use any random label for it, from science up to and including religion. Nevertheless the revendications of the organisation on a religious status date back to the fifties. A reading of Hubbard in 1954 shows why. The origin of Scientology lies, thus Hubbard, in the veda's, that indeed are of religious nature, yet find that at the same time also affirmation in modern physics. Another root is Buddhism, in which reaching "an ideal situation of intellectual and ethical perfection along purely physical way" is a key element. What Scientology distinguishes from traditional religious concepts is that it also has the technique (“tech”) to make the aims attainable for everyone. Religion, thus Hubbard thinks, is in the ground a philosophical belief, which aims at improving the civilisation in which it is taught and in  that light it has been justified totally that scientologists call themselves priests, like also preachers of Buddhism are priests. Fairly disenchanting Hubbard then continues that the identification of Scientology with religion also isa convenient looking at the fact that in our society priests easily have access to institutions such as prisons and hospitals. In our opinion such a remark at least awakes doubt to the value of the preceding reasoning. That doubt becomes not smaller, if one looks at the Dianetics theory which is something so dense in time located near origin of Scientology. All protests of the Scientology church aside one cannot possibly value this theory as a more or less alternative form of psychotherapy both with regard to development and with regard to content, purpose and application. That within Scientology the philosophical component of de theory did developed at great length, makes shift the organisation, however, to a philosophical direction, but does not make it entirely apart from its psychotherapeutic origin because the majority of techniques which they apply at least are connected to the dianetic method. "That we can perform psychotherapy, does not yet mean that we also are psychotherapists", Hubbard stated in his argument, quoted earlier. That is correct, so we assume, as long as one realises that renaming this psychotherapy into mental assistance does not make the performers into mental assistents. Now the ecclesiastical status of the organisation is emphasised by performing of ecclesiastical uses. This external facet has brought different agencies to label the Scientology church as a church. Other agencies reached exactly the opposed conclusion on the basis of the origin of ceremonies and their place in daily happening in the church. To our opinion the introduction of these uses in the past possibly have had the function to provide the organisation a certain legitimation as ecclesiastical institution, but if we look very closely at it, they harm the credibility of the concepts of the organisation concerning its own character. The place that the ecclesiastical ceremonial in the church has, is so marginal, that the impression arises that there was a facade necessary. Behind the facade there certainly is a real philosophical layer construction; if one however looks behind the towering front one only sees emptiness. With we can give our judgement concerning the character of the Scientology church: all things considered it is a philosophical organisation with a strong emphasis on the practical application of the belief system. The wide explanation we give to the term religion brings us to qualifying the belief system of Scientology as a religious system. Religious, given the non-rationalist dimension which this belief system unmistakably shows. We thereby aim in particular on the concepts which we have mentioned under the denominator "the scientology cosmology". The central concept within the belief system is the thetan, the immortal mental being of people, whom, unless freed, masters the body and the mind of people entirely and conducts these automatic in the correct direction. The belief in the existence of thetans and the application of this belief in specific activities and behaviour pattern forms the core of the religious character that Scientology carries. Thereby we once more underline, that this observation becomes exclusively legitimate by the way in which we wish to interpret the concept of religion. If one by example would use the definition of Duynstee, then the conclusion supposedly would be to deny the the Scientology church the revendication of a church, for lacking to its system of theistic a god term and then a specific worship. Correctly because of the elements of belief systems, called in this respect, we moreover would not think the qualification that Scientology church is an organization on mental basis is alright. In addition we again point to the considerations concerning the term “denomination” in paragraph 4.3.1. The character of the church as we recognise it, does not mean that the daily activities in the organisation are such that a lot of course participants will not think they support of al of its philosophical concepts, nor by becoming member they will have to distance themselves from existing religious or philosophical conviction. That means that we feel only doubt concerning the question if the common philosophical concepts under the followers are the foundation of the movement. Such as we in paragraph 4.3.1 more closely will explain we the consider the presence of that basis as an important property of a denomination. In an attentive case it is to the judge to assess if Scientology according to Dutch law can be classified as a denomination and therefore is legal entity. Should the judge conclude that the High Court verdict from 1966 that the Scientology Church is no denomination, then we indicate that the movement in that case lacks full capacity in law. For that reason Scientology would in our opinion do best to organise itself judicious – just to be sure and without giving up its claim on the status of denomination – as an association founded by an authenticated certificate.
  346. We know that since the new Civil Code (NBW, Nieuw Burgerlijk Wetboek) also associations that have not been founded by an authenticated certificate are legal entities. We can assume that Scientology church characterises itself as an association in the sense of Article 26 NBW including its statutes, member administration, letterhead, bank accounts etcetera. However the church, while not being founded by an authenticated certificate, would enjoy only restricted capacity for rights (to Article 30 book 2 NBW), so that she couldnot obtain register goods nor could be an heir, whereas also those who are in charge would be personally responsable as regards to losses.
  348. In literature one thinks different about the possibility to dissolve a denomination because of not acting according the legal description from the legal person concerned (Article 19 book 2 NBW). According to Asser-Van der Grinten, Legal representation and legal person, 3rd print, p. 119, that possibility does not exist because Article 19 does not apply to legal entities for which the law puts no criteria (such as denominations). Pitio-Löwensteyn, the Dutch Civil Code, part l A, p. 26, thinks about that differently, because the term denomination is not defined legally indeed but anyhow it has got in jurisdiction and literature a "rather clear shape"; the term "legal description" thus largely must be explained. Our opinion concerning this question inclines to those of Pitio-Löwensteyn. From the parliamentary treatment of Book 2 NBW it gets clear that the legislature with Article 19 for the sake of legal security has wanted to prevent that legal persons who would not satisfy to the material characteristics that the law implies for the different types of legal persons would be null and void. That consideration in principle also applies on organisations which present themselves as denomination. The possible confutation that the legislature explicitly has excluded dissolution of denominations in our opinion is not viable, because it concerns in this case by definition organisations which have dressed themselves wrongfully with these legal entities.
  350. We think our assumption also finds support in the in NBW presented new system in the first Title of Book 2 (law 17.725), which enables corresponding application of Article 19 explicitly and of which Oldenhuis (WPNR 5660, July 1983, p. 462) notices (in our opinion correct) that analogous application of Article 19 particularly in those cases in which organisations wrongfully took the shape of a legal form may well be suitable.
  352. Annotation of the translator
  353. This is a quite complicated text. I hope I translated clear enough. In short, it discusses the legal possibilities for abolition of legal entities if they do not act according to their in the law defined behaviour.
  354. End annotation
  356. The question might be what the real objective of the Scientology church is, where was suggested that it would be financial gainings in the first place. That suggestion does not seam justified to us on the basis of the information we have, althoug one by the altitude of the tariffs will possibly tend to another thought. Trainings and auditing are expensive, but certainly in our country income from that hardly suffices to cover the costs of the organisation. For governing board members and staff members no large amounts remain. To what extent this applies also to the international organisation we can hardly assess. Undoubtedly the heavy, bureaucratic machinery, which includes the organisation, is a heavy financial burden, which means that we expect that the international organisation will show no radical different picture then the national. Whether Hubbard still gets income from Scientology, by example on behalf of his copyrights, we do not know.
  358. If financial gain is not the primary purpose of Scientology, what is? In our opinion exactly what they use as a slogan: "clear the planet", in other words: spread their ideology. These aim pre-eminently at individual people. Conscience enlargement on individual basis contributes, thus Scientology, automatically to a better world. In that sense Scientology church brings a message of prosperity, like the TM-organisation. Of that organisation the church distinguishes itself however because it develops hardly any activities, which are aimed directly at social improvements. Additional activities which as such would be possible to indicate, such as Narconon and the fight for patient rights, we consider too much grafted on the individual, to be able to be considered as first activity of the organisation as independent activity aimed at society. That the organisation does not engage itself direct socially does not mean moreover that it is reticent. As the discussion of the activities shows however Scientology is very persuaded of its own points of view. She gladly even considers its followers as a relieved elite (and under them the Sea Org-members are as a group of the rank and file) and on the other hand the outside world as not understanding and threatening. Such an elaboration reinforces the internal cohesion then the growth of the organisation. She gets members to the organisation and motivates them to make very much things subordinate to the interests of the organisation. Although the organisation also shows open behaviour - apart from the international head centres the members do not as a rule live in a commune; the member-turnover is large; many members only use a selection of the courses offered -, in our opinion there however can be spoken of pressure on the members conform to the ideology of the organisation and to have the organisation stipulate their values, standards and behaviour pattern uncritically.
  360. Having said that we have reached our consideration of the activities of the organisation. Let us first of all determine that no association can exist without members and that it therefore is reasonable for each association to try to committee people as a member and preserve them. Certain tenaciousness on this respect will apply in many associations. However, what us stroke in the Scientology Church was that the organisation has something we almost would like to call "institutionalised tenaciousness". This manifests in the impressive multiplicity of rules, working methods, techniques and functions that the church has to keep in members once they have made the first step. If one starts to train or process, then one starts an endless journey over the bridge, about which we will not make any comments on the question whether it goes up or down. As one progresses it get more and more difficult to get off the bridge. One has invested much time and money and if results are not showing up, those investments strongly lose their value. If one gets to doubt really strongly, then there are people ready to put that beyond doubt, there are recommendations, evaluations, encouragements, intimidations, sentences, rewards, reductions, the whole scale of possibilities will be applied to let the course participant at least take the next step. If one nevertheless has jumped down the bridge, the attempts to get you back are continued obstinately and frequently over a long term: advertisment material, personal letters, phone calls, conversations. Special officials have been charged with this job. If one on the other hand remains active, then it is attractive to become a staff member and if one is staff member, then it is attractive to bring in new people and to remain staff member. And would the to this end built in encouragments of the system appear not sufficient, then there are always other staff members who support.
  362. Now one can state that a scientologist does perhaps not decide in freedom if he will take part in a Scientology activity, but he will nevertheless determine for himself what he thinks to be able to get at, and to what extent he takes over the philosophy. The goals of the activities have however been formulated by Scientology and course participants undergo by their participation to the courses a process in which they more and more will identify themselves with the established aims and with the organisation. Moreover in that process the philosophy of the organisation is not really discovered, as the Scientology Church gladly presents it, but the philosophy is gradually transferred. A true almost Kafkaesk process, where starting the defense also  implies the acknowledgement of guilt. The starting Scientologist might be very well compared with Jozef K. in “Das Prozess”, who on a day is arrested without knowing why and to whom is made clear that "he admits that he does not know the law and at the same time he claims to be without blame". To the basis of the scientology process as a rule stands the observation that there is something not right with his person and that Scientology training can bring improvement. Doesn't the scientologist like Jozef K. travels on with an unclear aim and without knowing the way, while people who him indicate the way, seem know everything? And does the work area in the paper-overloaded departures of the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal not recall the picture of the chancelleries where K. the had to gather the proof for his trial? But as well as Jozef K. each scientologist must realise, that there there just is a "trial" when he acknowledges it as such. Is what we here outlines a caricature? If that would be the case, then it is, however, a caricature that we know was confirmed by dozens of tales of people who have experiences with the organisation.
  364. It is this composition of factors that much of the criticism on the activities of the Scientology church aims itself. Correct criticism in our view, because the church with it gets on bad terms with a principle that it itself values highly, namely individual mental freedom or, put more formally, the freedom of religion and life-philosophy.
  366. In all SKA pleadings somewhat underexposed remains that this right to freedom not only addressess the government, but also the citizens in their mutual movement. Freedom of religion and life-philosophy really also implies that people must not exercise with intolerable pressure on other people on the subjects of religion and philosophy of life. The pace in Scientology seems to us not wholly in agreement with that aspect of the fundamental right. We think that SKA – and, if we had it our way, the church as a whole - would do judiciously to consider itself on the possibility to adapt its procedures and way of working in that sense that the pressure diminishes on members to remain active within the church. In that respect we indicate on the need more to offer careful information to aspiring members concerning the trainings and auditing, the philosophy that's behind it, the tariffs of distinguishes services and the inner of the organisation. Also activities as dianetics and Narconon demand better product information, among others that the relation to the Scientology organisation and -beliefs are clearly explained. The punishing and reward scheme and the different procedures to bind members to the organisation deserve to a reviewed also. Given the concepts concerning this fundamental right can be expected from the church that it acts in accordance with the freedom of religion and life-philosophy and that it tries as much as possible to prevent that reproaches on that ground could her be made to it.
  368. In our opinion the activities of Scientology also might not be on good terms with another principle, for which the Church itself continuously asks for attention, namely the protection of privacy, nowadays as a fundamental right laid down in Article 10 of the Dutch Constitution. We review two aspects: the fact that everything in which in the auditing sessions is reflected about (the preclear folders), and the use of the e-meter at the auditing. We have already determined that the files which are made concerning the persons who are being audited contains very sensitive data. The church acknowledges that and for this reason has taken measures the keep the files save from unauthorized persons. The question is only who are unauthorized. Apart from the auditor and casesupervisor concerned, others may look at the files, such as the control of the church (in former days the GO), several ethics-officer, whereas in addition every that auditets has access to the space where the files have been put away. Although some claim differently, the most of persons that filled in the reasearch form have told us that the files are immediately exploited when a person concerned turnsagainst the church and sometimes also play a role in getting course participants to get more courses, or at removing someone from the church. That makes one doubt at least if these files, as the SKA told usput, are important in the auditing process alone. Who ever his a right to examine the files, the audited themselves do not have that right. They do not even have the right to get their file back when they decide to leave the church. One can go by this inclination reluctantly, however one then must try to imagine what response there would be, when an established denomination like the Roman Catholic church would decide to make exact files of what is discussed at confession for the good of mental assistence of the believers as of now.
  370. The protection of personal life environment in our judgement also comes into play with the use of the e-meter, an instrument of which we already have shown to basically function as a lie detector. It does not matter that this instrument is claimed to be of such little effectivenes. However, it is relevant that the e-meter is aimed at making visible processes in the mind of the person audited of which he himself is not aware. With that the question rises to what extent violation is made on the mental integrity of the audited person. We see here the remarkable picture of an organisation that on the one hand (particularly abroad) develops activities targeted on privacy protection and from that  standpoint criticizes for example police force and other government agencies that threaten the citizen's privacy, and on the other side is not afraid itself to collect extremely sensitive fix data of partisans in files with their automated artefact. Let us - although we also about that consider doubt justified – now adopt the recording of these data is indeed indispensable in the auditing process and that the audited agrees deliberatly with this way of doing things. Can one state then that the personal life environment of the person concerned is threatened? In our opinion that really can be done, because objections can be invoked both against the manner of acquisition of the data and against the guarantees with which the fact collections are surrounded. What the first facet concerns, the recording of the data from auditing sessions as a rule, however, take place with knowledge of the person audited, but it is - apart from the fact that approval of the person concerned not yet means that recording would not threaten his personal life environment - the question is if the audited person really agrees with the recording of all concrete data which are produced by auditing. The fact that the auditor using the e meter anticipates systematicly on unconscious responses of the person audited reinforces this objection. The second inconvenient facet, the guarantees around the files, concerns the identified freedom in the use of and the access to the files and moreover the position of the person audited. This last one in our opinion must not only have the right to refuse the inclusion of certain data in the file, but must also be given the right of access and examination of the file and the right to stipulate himself what happens with the file on leave of the organisation. Let us leave this for the Scientology church to decide. In the modern world the respect for the personal life environment as one of the basics of our legal system has been recognised commonly. Each citizen has a fundamental right , laid down in Article 10 in our country's constitution, that also sets the standard for every person who performs operations that are especially sensitive to privacy related issues. Concerning person recordings the legislature is present trying to give concrete shape to this. Scientology Church would in our opinion act in the spirit of the law concerned, if it would submit, anticipating possible legal rules, its own procedures as self-regulation to a critical test and would take appropriate measures in the short term. Finally in this respect we make a general observation on the e-meter. The use of liedetectors in general in our opinion is on bad terms with the right of the citizen to be protected from violations on its mental integrity. For this reason and from its nature it is without a doubt a direct infestation of the core of personal freedom and might not be accepted on ethical grounds. If use of a lie detector would be considered at the achievement of some government task, then undoubtedly legal supplies must be at hand, in which at least the exceptional character of the operation reaches expression and a tight regime is given. However, if a a social development would outline itmself, such as perceptible in the United States, in which the use of the lie detector in the society in general finds entrance, then it seems to us in every way predominating that the standard of Article 10 of the constitution in this respect is worth clarification in law. Also at application of similar instruments in the psychotherapeutic setting one can assume that medical-ethical concepts put bounds to the use. It does not need any further explanation that we consider the application of the e-meter dubious on ethical grounds.
  372. Annotation by the translator
  373. Above is mention of new laws underway for protection of the privacy. Some time after this report was made, the Dutch Parliamant accepted a law on the subject. Nowadays Dutch law has complied with the European law on the subject.
  374. End annotation
  376. We do not think in this consideration to be able to discuss exhaustively the possible detrimental impact of Scientology techniques, because to that we have got contradictory bulletins. On the one hand SKA claim, not surprisingly, that these techniques by definition have a favourable effect - nevertheless a considerably optimistic proposition, when one with Vrolijk (op.cit., p. 196) and Schnabel (op. cit., p. 88) realises themselves, how much mental processes in Scientology are simplified, that there no selection of customers, nor that in the method customers are differentiated, and that the techniques are frequently applied by people whose only education in psychological area exist from knowledge acquired at Scientology. On the other hand the opinion, as it was formulated in the answers on our research, disagreed on the subject. The majority of the informers indeed communicates that in incidental cases mental difficulties occur, yet they leave alone as a result of which these are exactly caused. A minority is of the opinion that as far as talk would be of difficulties of a mental nature these result especially from the personalities of the people concerned. What becomes endorsed commonly, that if there appear mental difficulties the solution is always sought for that by the church in its own tech. Moreover a great deal of comments have reached us, in which is said that the techniques of the church contain numerous elements that can be effective really favourable. We see the application of techniques as a matter of fact apart from the impact of the "social climate" in the Scientology Church. Different persons who responded to our questionnaire that the real mental problems arise generally just when one starts to doubt the value of the techniques. The straight and irreconcilable attitude of the church can worsen the difficulties then slightly. In the next chapter of this report we will return in more general sense on this matter.
  378. To end our consideration we will evaluate the question if, entirely overlooking, measures have to be taken against SKA. In the first place they mentioned, that different ex-Scientologymembers have  successfully sued the church and recovered (a part of) the money which they had paid for services to the church. People who have been active some time in Scientology have frequently spent a lot of money. Sometimes that money could be partly recovered by direct negotiations with the church, sometimes also through the court (where the church generally appeared to prefer an arrangement over a legal decision). Some times the church was willing to go further in its repayments than only the amounts for which no services had been provided, however payings (as damages) that were higher than the total of money spent thus far are not known to us.
  380. Concerning the attitude of the government we have described that the Scientology church from its arrival to our country has been researched by the government critically, but however the government did not effectively something to stand the Church in the way. The initial attention that has risen at the judicial authorities by the sharp responses that the church in that time called upon in a lot of countries, could be understood, but the activities of the working group Dekker can meet considerably less understanding. In our opinion for the institution of this working group – as informal it was - was insufficient reason. As a result, the working group had, certainly an organisation hypersensitive in this respect such as  the Scientology church, a predictable provocative impact. This escalating action of some civil servants, all good intentions aside, shouldn't have been done in the first place. Also in later years the policy of government doesn't look concise. There were two cases that revealed themselves after some controversial and little nuanced TV-shows of the VARA-ombudsman at the end 1980 and the beginning of 1981. The municipal authorities of Amsterdam found in this publicity reason to reject place the application of the SKA to put up a site on the Dam, in contrast to previous years, because the church was compromised, whereas the inspector of the indirect taxes hurried himself to officially impose the church to a tax assessment (VAT) despite he initially had chosen more well-advised manners. The government agencies concerned would have looked better if they had shown some more control in their approach and more attempts had been done to reach an independent judgement concerning the organisation.
  382. It seems fair to us, now that we mention the television broadcasts, to make some observations  concerning the prohibition of the SKA, argued by some, thereby anticipating a more general statement concerning this subject which we have incorporated in the continuation of this report. Apart from the fact that in our current legal system since 1976 the possibility for a prohibition declaration is no longer available and the importance of the question therefore really hides in dissolution under Article 16 book 2 BW of a legal person declared prohibited, the question if the SKA is a prohibited legal entity can only be discussed if the exception provision of Article 18 book 2 BW would be applicable. Because of that article the articles on prohibited legal entities cannot be applied on churches.
  384. Let us answer the question from yet another side and wonder ourselves if - in the legal terminology - the aim or the activity of the SKA is of such nature that it must be considered in violence of the public safety or contrary good manners, with which it might be possible to declare it a prohibited legal entity. The statutory aim of the organisation certainly does not have that mindset according to us. A question sign we place however at the possible conflict of the activity of the SKA with the good manners, despite the indefinablity of this term. We have determined that the procedures and the manners which the church applies in our view systematiccaly are on bad feet with two important fundamental rights, the freedom of religion and the respect for privacy. If the church would not appear to be prepared to bring change, then one can pose the question whether the church would fall within the legal boundaries of prohibited legal entities. In our view this for the SKA must be a reason to take our objections to the heart.
  387. From: Witteveen, Tobias, Overheid en nieuwe religieuze bewegingen / Tobias Andreas Maria Witteveen. - s' Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1984. - VII, 320 p., ; 28 cm
  388. Tweede Kamer, Parliamentary year 1983-1984, 16635, nr. 4. - Thesis Groningen. - With list of publications and summaries in English. ISBN 90-12-04614-9
  389. Report of the subcommittee Cults of the Parliamentary committee on National Health, 1984. p. 120-160.
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