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That Sugar Film (2014)

tpbolon Feb 27th, 2019 156 Never
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  1. 1
  2. 00:01:19,734 --> 00:01:22,051
  3. My name is Damon Gameau.
  4.  
  5. 2
  6. 00:01:22,151 --> 00:01:24,717
  7. This is my weatherboard house.
  8.  
  9. 3
  10. 00:01:24,817 --> 00:01:27,859
  11. This is a time-lapse
  12. of my girlfriend's pregnancy.
  13.  
  14. 4
  15. 00:01:27,984 --> 00:01:29,634
  16. There's three months to go.
  17.  
  18. 5
  19. 00:01:29,734 --> 00:01:32,967
  20. And this is a photo of me at age 10.
  21.  
  22. 6
  23. 00:01:33,067 --> 00:01:36,734
  24. I was a rare boy whose face
  25. grew into his teeth.
  26.  
  27. 7
  28. 00:01:38,067 --> 00:01:40,717
  29. Five years ago,
  30. when I met my girlfriend,
  31.  
  32. 8
  33. 00:01:40,817 --> 00:01:42,717
  34. I was pretty much living on cigarettes,
  35.  
  36. 9
  37. 00:01:42,817 --> 00:01:45,567
  38. sugar and my homemade Australian pizzas.
  39.  
  40. 10
  41. 00:01:47,276 --> 00:01:48,759
  42. But then, as men often do,
  43.  
  44. 11
  45. 00:01:48,859 --> 00:01:52,467
  46. they feign interest in things
  47. to impress a girl.
  48.  
  49. 12
  50. 00:01:52,567 --> 00:01:53,967
  51. The lovers' bike.
  52.  
  53. 13
  54. 00:01:54,067 --> 00:01:56,026
  55. For me, it was healthy eating.
  56.  
  57. 14
  58. 00:01:57,109 --> 00:02:00,817
  59. I actually cut out refined sugar
  60. from my diet to seal the deal.
  61.  
  62. 15
  63. 00:02:03,192 --> 00:02:06,342
  64. But now sugar is
  65. dominating the headlines
  66.  
  67. 16
  68. 00:02:06,442 --> 00:02:08,859
  69. and there's so much debate
  70. and conjecture on the topic
  71.  
  72. 17
  73. 00:02:08,984 --> 00:02:11,634
  74. that it's hard to know what to believe.
  75.  
  76. 18
  77. 00:02:11,734 --> 00:02:13,509
  78. But with this little person on the way,
  79.  
  80. 19
  81. 00:02:13,609 --> 00:02:16,317
  82. I feel like I need some
  83. definitive answers.
  84.  
  85. 20
  86. 00:02:18,109 --> 00:02:20,859
  87. If the average Australian family of four
  88.  
  89. 21
  90. 00:02:20,984 --> 00:02:24,301
  91. had to buy the sugar
  92. they are consuming in a week,
  93.  
  94. 22
  95. 00:02:24,401 --> 00:02:26,467
  96. they would be going to the supermarket,
  97.  
  98. 23
  99. 00:02:26,567 --> 00:02:31,259
  100. taking six 1-kilo bags of sugar
  101. off the shelves... six...
  102.  
  103. 24
  104. 00:02:31,359 --> 00:02:35,259
  105. taking it home, eating it all that week
  106.  
  107. 25
  108. 00:02:35,359 --> 00:02:37,676
  109. and then going back next week
  110. and doing it again.
  111.  
  112. 26
  113. 00:02:37,776 --> 00:02:43,134
  114. Clearly, the ability to be
  115. on a high-sugar diet
  116.  
  117. 27
  118. 00:02:43,234 --> 00:02:45,801
  119. is really new,
  120.  
  121. 28
  122. 00:02:45,901 --> 00:02:50,984
  123. especially in terms of
  124. evolutionary time zone.
  125.  
  126. 29
  127. 00:02:55,067 --> 00:02:58,634
  128. Sugar has become
  129. so prevalent in today's society
  130.  
  131. 30
  132. 00:02:58,734 --> 00:03:01,801
  133. that if you removed
  134. all the items containing it
  135.  
  136. 31
  137. 00:03:01,901 --> 00:03:03,984
  138. from a standard supermarket's shelves...
  139.  
  140. 32
  141. 00:03:05,401 --> 00:03:07,567
  142. just 20% of items would remain.
  143.  
  144. 33
  145. 00:03:27,942 --> 00:03:29,717
  146. Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls,
  147.  
  148. 34
  149. 00:03:29,817 --> 00:03:32,984
  150. this is the condensed history of sugar.
  151.  
  152. 35
  153. 00:03:41,442 --> 00:03:45,134
  154. The first reports of sugar came
  155. from New Guinea in 8000 BC.
  156.  
  157. 36
  158. 00:03:45,234 --> 00:03:48,467
  159. Local mythology says that
  160. the human race came about
  161.  
  162. 37
  163. 00:03:48,567 --> 00:03:52,009
  164. after a man made love to
  165. the stalk of a sugar cane.
  166.  
  167. 38
  168. 00:03:52,109 --> 00:03:53,634
  169. Ow.
  170.  
  171. 39
  172. 00:03:53,734 --> 00:03:56,134
  173. Then, via trader migration routes,
  174.  
  175. 40
  176. 00:03:56,234 --> 00:04:00,317
  177. the cane made its way to India.
  178.  
  179. 41
  180. 00:04:03,776 --> 00:04:05,151
  181. Thank you.
  182.  
  183. 42
  184. 00:04:06,567 --> 00:04:10,967
  185. In the 12th century,
  186. sugar arrived in Europe.
  187.  
  188. 43
  189. 00:04:11,067 --> 00:04:12,009
  190. And, due to its rarity,
  191.  
  192. 44
  193. 00:04:12,109 --> 00:04:15,009
  194. it quickly became
  195. a status symbol for royalty.
  196.  
  197. 45
  198. 00:04:15,109 --> 00:04:17,984
  199. Queen Elizabeth I had
  200. a real love of sugar.
  201.  
  202. 46
  203. 00:04:21,151 --> 00:04:25,484
  204. So much so that her teeth rotted
  205. and went black from it.
  206.  
  207. 47
  208. 00:04:26,651 --> 00:04:28,484
  209. Eugh.
  210.  
  211. 48
  212. 00:04:32,192 --> 00:04:33,967
  213. At the start of the 20th century,
  214.  
  215. 49
  216. 00:04:34,067 --> 00:04:35,967
  217. sugar was still seen as a treat...
  218.  
  219. 50
  220. 00:04:36,067 --> 00:04:38,676
  221. something you would add to
  222. a cup of tea or cup of coffee...
  223.  
  224. 51
  225. 00:04:38,776 --> 00:04:41,592
  226. but then, in 1955, an event occurred
  227.  
  228. 52
  229. 00:04:41,692 --> 00:04:44,051
  230. that significantly influenced
  231.  
  232. 53
  233. 00:04:44,151 --> 00:04:49,609
  234. the amount of sugar we eat today.
  235.  
  236. 54
  237. 00:04:55,942 --> 00:04:58,217
  238. A stunned nation
  239. hears that its president
  240.  
  241. 55
  242. 00:04:58,317 --> 00:04:59,967
  243. is stricken with a heart attack at...
  244.  
  245. 56
  246. 00:05:00,067 --> 00:05:02,967
  247. On September 23, 1955,
  248.  
  249. 57
  250. 00:05:03,067 --> 00:05:05,092
  251. the US President Dwight Eisenhower
  252.  
  253. 58
  254. 00:05:05,192 --> 00:05:07,051
  255. suffered a heart attack
  256.  
  257. 59
  258. 00:05:07,151 --> 00:05:08,467
  259. and the issue of heart disease
  260.  
  261. 60
  262. 00:05:08,567 --> 00:05:10,759
  263. was thrust into the public domain.
  264.  
  265. 61
  266. 00:05:10,859 --> 00:05:12,134
  267. Summoned to the hospital,
  268.  
  269. 62
  270. 00:05:12,234 --> 00:05:14,176
  271. a famed Boston heart specialist...
  272.  
  273. 63
  274. 00:05:14,276 --> 00:05:16,467
  275. Two strong theories emerged.
  276.  
  277. 64
  278. 00:05:16,567 --> 00:05:19,967
  279. One, led by an American
  280. scientist named Ancel Keys,
  281.  
  282. 65
  283. 00:05:20,067 --> 00:05:21,734
  284. who declared that fat was the problem...
  285.  
  286. 66
  287. 00:05:22,901 --> 00:05:25,676
  288. while a British doctor named John Yudkin
  289.  
  290. 67
  291. 00:05:25,776 --> 00:05:27,176
  292. believed sugar was to blame.
  293.  
  294. 68
  295. 00:05:27,276 --> 00:05:30,759
  296. I'd be very happy if everybody
  297. ate four pounds of sugar a year.
  298.  
  299. 69
  300. 00:05:30,859 --> 00:05:32,734
  301. They eat a hundred pounds!
  302.  
  303. 70
  304. 00:05:35,859 --> 00:05:37,467
  305. Over the next two decades,
  306.  
  307. 71
  308. 00:05:37,567 --> 00:05:40,317
  309. the discussion brought fierce
  310. arguments from both camps.
  311.  
  312. 72
  313. 00:05:42,401 --> 00:05:47,217
  314. But by the end of the 1970s,
  315. Ancel Keys had won out.
  316.  
  317. 73
  318. 00:05:47,317 --> 00:05:50,217
  319. Fat became the villain,
  320. sugar was exonerated,
  321.  
  322. 74
  323. 00:05:50,317 --> 00:05:53,109
  324. and the low-fat movement
  325. was in full swing.
  326.  
  327. 75
  328. 00:05:54,567 --> 00:05:56,467
  329. We institutionalised this idea
  330.  
  331. 76
  332. 00:05:56,567 --> 00:05:58,634
  333. that a low-fat diet is a healthy diet.
  334.  
  335. 77
  336. 00:05:58,734 --> 00:06:01,384
  337. So what you want to do is remove fats...
  338.  
  339. 78
  340. 00:06:01,484 --> 00:06:03,092
  341. This is how industry perceived this.
  342.  
  343. 79
  344. 00:06:03,192 --> 00:06:05,967
  345. We're gonna remove fat
  346. from otherwise healthy foods,
  347.  
  348. 80
  349. 00:06:06,067 --> 00:06:09,301
  350. and when we do this
  351. we have to replace the calories,
  352.  
  353. 81
  354. 00:06:09,401 --> 00:06:11,676
  355. we have to make sure
  356. we have the right mouth feel.
  357.  
  358. 82
  359. 00:06:11,776 --> 00:06:13,859
  360. And it has to taste as good
  361. as it did with fat,
  362.  
  363. 83
  364. 00:06:13,984 --> 00:06:15,609
  365. and the best way to
  366. do that is with sugar.
  367.  
  368. 84
  369. 00:06:19,067 --> 00:06:21,217
  370. With sugar now
  371. saturating our food supply
  372.  
  373. 85
  374. 00:06:21,317 --> 00:06:25,509
  375. and the constant confusion
  376. over its effects on our health,
  377.  
  378. 86
  379. 00:06:25,609 --> 00:06:27,759
  380. the only real way to get some answers
  381.  
  382. 87
  383. 00:06:27,859 --> 00:06:30,051
  384. is for me to start eating sugar again
  385.  
  386. 88
  387. 00:06:30,151 --> 00:06:31,984
  388. and see what it does to my body.
  389.  
  390. 89
  391. 00:06:33,567 --> 00:06:36,467
  392. So the first step is to set up
  393. an experiment
  394.  
  395. 90
  396. 00:06:36,567 --> 00:06:38,192
  397. with the help of a team of experts.
  398.  
  399. 91
  400. 00:06:39,651 --> 00:06:42,984
  401. My chief sugar adviser is
  402. the author David Gillespie...
  403.  
  404. 92
  405. 00:06:44,067 --> 00:06:46,567
  406. aka The Crusader.
  407.  
  408. 93
  409. 00:06:47,984 --> 00:06:49,301
  410. In charge of my blood tests
  411.  
  412. 94
  413. 00:06:49,401 --> 00:06:52,801
  414. is one of Australia's
  415. leading clinical pathologists,
  416.  
  417. 95
  418. 00:06:52,901 --> 00:06:57,217
  419. Dr Ken Sikaris, aka Professor Blood.
  420.  
  421. 96
  422. 00:06:57,317 --> 00:07:00,026
  423. My nutritionist is Sharon Johnston...
  424.  
  425. 97
  426. 00:07:01,401 --> 00:07:03,592
  427. the Celtic Food Queen.
  428.  
  429. 98
  430. 00:07:03,692 --> 00:07:07,259
  431. And supervising my overall
  432. health is Dr Debbie Herbst,
  433.  
  434. 99
  435. 00:07:07,359 --> 00:07:10,026
  436. aka Check Upz.
  437.  
  438. 100
  439. 00:07:11,317 --> 00:07:13,092
  440. OK, so, I want to do this mission,
  441.  
  442. 101
  443. 00:07:13,192 --> 00:07:15,342
  444. I want to find out
  445. what sugar does to me.
  446.  
  447. 102
  448. 00:07:15,442 --> 00:07:17,176
  449. What kind of things do I need to do?
  450.  
  451. 103
  452. 00:07:17,276 --> 00:07:19,967
  453. If you want to match
  454. Australian averages,
  455.  
  456. 104
  457. 00:07:20,067 --> 00:07:22,051
  458. you're gonna have to be in the range,
  459.  
  460. 105
  461. 00:07:22,151 --> 00:07:24,651
  462. 40 teaspoons of sugar a day.
  463.  
  464. 106
  465. 00:07:26,734 --> 00:07:28,717
  466. - 40 a day?
  467. - Yeah, 40 a day.
  468.  
  469. 107
  470. 00:07:28,817 --> 00:07:31,551
  471. That's what's embedded in
  472. most of the processed food
  473.  
  474. 108
  475. 00:07:31,651 --> 00:07:32,717
  476. that most people are eating.
  477.  
  478. 109
  479. 00:07:32,817 --> 00:07:34,259
  480. So...
  481.  
  482. 110
  483. 00:07:34,359 --> 00:07:36,009
  484. Right, so does that mean
  485. I'm gonna eat a lot
  486.  
  487. 111
  488. 00:07:36,109 --> 00:07:38,676
  489. of these kind of sour rainbow blowpipes?
  490.  
  491. 112
  492. 00:07:38,776 --> 00:07:41,467
  493. I mean, is that... How am
  494. I gonna get to 40 teaspoons?
  495.  
  496. 113
  497. 00:07:41,567 --> 00:07:45,092
  498. You won't need to come near a place
  499. like this to get to 40 teaspoons.
  500.  
  501. 114
  502. 00:07:45,192 --> 00:07:47,967
  503. You just go to a supermarket
  504. and you'll get to 40 teaspoons.
  505.  
  506. 115
  507. 00:07:48,067 --> 00:07:49,092
  508. Right.
  509.  
  510. 116
  511. 00:07:49,192 --> 00:07:52,634
  512. The point is to test out
  513. a very high sugar diet
  514.  
  515. 117
  516. 00:07:52,734 --> 00:07:55,967
  517. and to see what effects we get,
  518. what changes I notice in the body.
  519.  
  520. 118
  521. 00:07:56,067 --> 00:07:59,801
  522. Two months, I wanna eat
  523. 40 teaspoons of sugar a day.
  524.  
  525. 119
  526. 00:07:59,901 --> 00:08:02,842
  527. - 40 teaspoons?!
  528. - 40 teaspoons.
  529.  
  530. 120
  531. 00:08:02,942 --> 00:08:04,592
  532. How are you gonna do that?
  533.  
  534. 121
  535. 00:08:04,692 --> 00:08:07,967
  536. Off-the-shelf breakfast cereals,
  537. like Just Right,
  538.  
  539. 122
  540. 00:08:08,067 --> 00:08:09,967
  541. low-fat flavoured yoghurt.
  542.  
  543. 123
  544. 00:08:10,067 --> 00:08:12,859
  545. Another good one would be
  546. some beans on toast.
  547.  
  548. 124
  549. 00:08:12,984 --> 00:08:14,467
  550. Baked beans?!
  551.  
  552. 125
  553. 00:08:14,567 --> 00:08:17,342
  554. One serving of an iced tea,
  555.  
  556. 126
  557. 00:08:17,442 --> 00:08:20,134
  558. you'll end up with nearly
  559. nine teaspoons of sugar.
  560.  
  561. 127
  562. 00:08:20,234 --> 00:08:22,009
  563. If I can achieve 40 teaspoons a day
  564.  
  565. 128
  566. 00:08:22,109 --> 00:08:25,342
  567. without touching perceived
  568. candy or junk food...
  569.  
  570. 129
  571. 00:08:25,442 --> 00:08:27,592
  572. I mean, I can't quite fathom
  573. that's possible,
  574.  
  575. 130
  576. 00:08:27,692 --> 00:08:30,217
  577. but if we can do that
  578. and see some changes,
  579.  
  580. 131
  581. 00:08:30,317 --> 00:08:32,967
  582. then that's, yeah, that seems
  583. like a pretty good story.
  584.  
  585. 132
  586. 00:08:33,067 --> 00:08:34,967
  587. A lot of your health markers
  588. are going to be going
  589.  
  590. 133
  591. 00:08:35,067 --> 00:08:36,634
  592. in very much the wrong direction,
  593.  
  594. 134
  595. 00:08:36,734 --> 00:08:39,342
  596. and I'm very glad to hear
  597. that you're gonna be having
  598.  
  599. 135
  600. 00:08:39,442 --> 00:08:41,801
  601. some medical supervision,
  602. 'cause I think you're gonna need it.
  603.  
  604. 136
  605. 00:08:41,901 --> 00:08:43,676
  606. Anyone in the family have diabetes?
  607.  
  608. 137
  609. 00:08:43,776 --> 00:08:45,551
  610. - No.
  611. - OK.
  612.  
  613. 138
  614. 00:08:45,651 --> 00:08:47,134
  615. - Not that I know of.
  616. - Not that you know of? Good.
  617.  
  618. 139
  619. 00:08:47,234 --> 00:08:48,676
  620. And heart disease?
  621.  
  622. 140
  623. 00:08:48,776 --> 00:08:52,109
  624. No. All pretty thin
  625. and wiry Irish or French folk.
  626.  
  627. 141
  628. 00:09:02,651 --> 00:09:06,676
  629. We're going to look at how the
  630. blood sugar changes, obviously.
  631.  
  632. 142
  633. 00:09:06,776 --> 00:09:09,967
  634. We've got blood tests that can
  635. look at the effect of the heart.
  636.  
  637. 143
  638. 00:09:10,067 --> 00:09:12,967
  639. But, even more than that,
  640. we're looking for the changes
  641.  
  642. 144
  643. 00:09:13,067 --> 00:09:17,967
  644. that might occur in the liver
  645. and its production of fat.
  646.  
  647. 145
  648. 00:09:18,067 --> 00:09:19,801
  649. I'd like to go to 1932, please.
  650.  
  651. 146
  652. 00:09:19,901 --> 00:09:21,467
  653. Done.
  654.  
  655. 147
  656. 00:09:21,567 --> 00:09:22,817
  657. Coming.
  658.  
  659. 148
  660. 00:09:31,192 --> 00:09:32,984
  661. Let's just see how tall you are.
  662.  
  663. 149
  664. 00:09:37,109 --> 00:09:39,384
  665. So you've got a really normal,
  666. healthy blood pressure...
  667.  
  668. 150
  669. 00:09:39,484 --> 00:09:41,092
  670. 121 over 79.
  671.  
  672. 151
  673. 00:09:41,192 --> 00:09:43,634
  674. Your heart rate's pretty good
  675. at 75, so that's pretty good.
  676.  
  677. 152
  678. 00:09:43,734 --> 00:09:46,051
  679. Alrighty, so, we'll just have
  680. a listen to your heart,
  681.  
  682. 153
  683. 00:09:46,151 --> 00:09:47,859
  684. see what it sounds like.
  685.  
  686. 154
  687. 00:09:49,901 --> 00:09:51,676
  688. You know what it's saying, Damon.
  689.  
  690. 155
  691. 00:09:51,776 --> 00:09:52,801
  692. Don't do this crazy thing?
  693.  
  694. 156
  695. 00:09:52,901 --> 00:09:54,592
  696. Exactly. That's exactly
  697. what I heard it saying.
  698.  
  699. 157
  700. 00:09:54,692 --> 00:09:56,467
  701. There are some tests that we're doing
  702.  
  703. 158
  704. 00:09:56,567 --> 00:09:57,801
  705. just to make sure
  706.  
  707. 159
  708. 00:09:57,901 --> 00:09:59,842
  709. that you're not doing
  710. anything too stupid here.
  711.  
  712. 160
  713. 00:09:59,942 --> 00:10:03,217
  714. Usually I'm telling people not
  715. to eat all this sort of stuff,
  716.  
  717. 161
  718. 00:10:03,317 --> 00:10:04,217
  719. so...
  720.  
  721. 162
  722. 00:10:04,317 --> 00:10:07,051
  723. I personally think you're
  724. insane for doing it at all.
  725.  
  726. 163
  727. 00:10:07,151 --> 00:10:09,467
  728. But... No, no, no, honestly.
  729. I think it's dangerous.
  730.  
  731. 164
  732. 00:10:09,567 --> 00:10:11,842
  733. But I guess on the plus side,
  734.  
  735. 165
  736. 00:10:11,942 --> 00:10:13,609
  737. everybody else is already doing it.
  738.  
  739. 166
  740. 00:10:17,276 --> 00:10:19,651
  741. So, this is where my
  742. health stands pre-experiment.
  743.  
  744. 167
  745. 00:10:21,276 --> 00:10:26,301
  746. My total calorie intake is
  747. approximately 2,300 a day.
  748.  
  749. 168
  750. 00:10:26,401 --> 00:10:30,342
  751. With 50% coming from good
  752. fats like avocado and nuts,
  753.  
  754. 169
  755. 00:10:30,442 --> 00:10:34,259
  756. 26% from protein such as eggs,
  757. meat or fish,
  758.  
  759. 170
  760. 00:10:34,359 --> 00:10:38,217
  761. and 24% from carbohydrates
  762. like fresh vegetables.
  763.  
  764. 171
  765. 00:10:38,317 --> 00:10:40,759
  766. And of course there is no refined sugar.
  767.  
  768. 172
  769. 00:10:40,859 --> 00:10:43,217
  770. I currently weigh 76kg
  771.  
  772. 173
  773. 00:10:43,317 --> 00:10:46,134
  774. with a waist circumference of 84cm.
  775.  
  776. 174
  777. 00:10:46,234 --> 00:10:48,842
  778. My blood tests showed
  779. a very healthy liver,
  780.  
  781. 175
  782. 00:10:48,942 --> 00:10:50,676
  783. a very low level of triglyceride,
  784.  
  785. 176
  786. 00:10:50,776 --> 00:10:52,342
  787. which is fat in the bloodstream,
  788.  
  789. 177
  790. 00:10:52,442 --> 00:10:56,509
  791. and, thankfully, no sign of
  792. insulin resistance or diabetes.
  793.  
  794. 178
  795. 00:10:56,609 --> 00:10:58,967
  796. Overall, I rated slightly healthier
  797.  
  798. 179
  799. 00:10:59,067 --> 00:11:01,651
  800. than the average Western male of my age.
  801.  
  802. 180
  803. 00:11:04,942 --> 00:11:07,859
  804. The next step in the experiment
  805. was to do a shop.
  806.  
  807. 181
  808. 00:11:09,234 --> 00:11:11,634
  809. To calculate my 40 teaspoons,
  810.  
  811. 182
  812. 00:11:11,734 --> 00:11:13,759
  813. I need to keep in mind that one teaspoon
  814.  
  815. 183
  816. 00:11:13,859 --> 00:11:16,109
  817. equals roughly four grams of sugar.
  818.  
  819. 184
  820. 00:11:17,567 --> 00:11:20,317
  821. But I also need a lesson
  822. in the different types of sugar.
  823.  
  824. 185
  825. 00:11:23,192 --> 00:11:25,859
  826. Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls,
  827.  
  828. 186
  829. 00:11:25,984 --> 00:11:28,651
  830. it's time to meet the sugar family.
  831.  
  832. 187
  833. 00:11:30,067 --> 00:11:33,051
  834. When we eat certain foods,
  835. they adhere to a rule.
  836.  
  837. 188
  838. 00:11:33,151 --> 00:11:37,259
  839. They break down to glucose
  840. which our body uses for fuel.
  841.  
  842. 189
  843. 00:11:37,359 --> 00:11:40,592
  844. Breads, pasta, vegies and grain
  845.  
  846. 190
  847. 00:11:40,692 --> 00:11:44,859
  848. all turn to glucose
  849. to be used by our brain.
  850.  
  851. 191
  852. 00:11:44,984 --> 00:11:46,467
  853. Ooh!
  854.  
  855. 192
  856. 00:11:46,567 --> 00:11:49,967
  857. But also our cells and our organs, too.
  858.  
  859. 193
  860. 00:11:50,067 --> 00:11:54,342
  861. So without any glucose
  862. there would be no you.
  863.  
  864. 194
  865. 00:11:54,442 --> 00:11:57,801
  866. Lactose is next,
  867. and she's as smooth as silk.
  868.  
  869. 195
  870. 00:11:57,901 --> 00:11:59,759
  871. She's the first sugar mammals have...
  872.  
  873. 196
  874. 00:11:59,859 --> 00:12:01,051
  875. it's in their mother's milk.
  876.  
  877. 197
  878. 00:12:01,151 --> 00:12:05,259
  879. You'll find it in cheese and
  880. milk and tubs of yoghurt, too.
  881.  
  882. 198
  883. 00:12:05,359 --> 00:12:07,217
  884. But take care if you're intolerant,
  885.  
  886. 199
  887. 00:12:07,317 --> 00:12:09,259
  888. you'll be rushing to the loo.
  889.  
  890. 200
  891. 00:12:09,359 --> 00:12:13,734
  892. Now, sucrose is the sugar
  893. that all the fuss is about.
  894.  
  895. 201
  896. 00:12:15,484 --> 00:12:19,134
  897. Some say it's dangerous
  898. while others still have doubt.
  899.  
  900. 202
  901. 00:12:19,234 --> 00:12:23,967
  902. Sucrose is the table sugar
  903. we have in coffee or tea.
  904.  
  905. 203
  906. 00:12:24,067 --> 00:12:27,484
  907. She's the sugar family's
  908. sweet little daughter.
  909.  
  910. 204
  911. 00:12:28,817 --> 00:12:30,634
  912. Or not, apparently.
  913.  
  914. 205
  915. 00:12:30,734 --> 00:12:31,817
  916. Ooh.
  917.  
  918. 206
  919. 00:12:33,776 --> 00:12:36,634
  920. Now, this table sugar, or sucrose,
  921.  
  922. 207
  923. 00:12:36,734 --> 00:12:38,859
  924. is made up of two sugars.
  925.  
  926. 208
  927. 00:12:38,984 --> 00:12:44,967
  928. It is 50% glucose, the head of
  929. the family, plus 50% fructose.
  930.  
  931. 209
  932. 00:12:45,067 --> 00:12:47,967
  933. Now, fructose may well be
  934.  
  935. 210
  936. 00:12:48,067 --> 00:12:51,509
  937. the sugar family's
  938. mischievous teenage son,
  939.  
  940. 211
  941. 00:12:51,609 --> 00:12:56,842
  942. because in the past this
  943. fructose was very, very rare.
  944.  
  945. 212
  946. 00:12:56,942 --> 00:13:01,717
  947. It was found in fruit and vegies
  948. and honey, if you dared.
  949.  
  950. 213
  951. 00:13:01,817 --> 00:13:05,842
  952. But now we find it everywhere!
  953.  
  954. 214
  955. 00:13:05,942 --> 00:13:09,092
  956. In so many foods we eat.
  957.  
  958. 215
  959. 00:13:09,192 --> 00:13:12,676
  960. And you'll always know
  961. if you're eating fructose
  962.  
  963. 216
  964. 00:13:12,776 --> 00:13:16,467
  965. 'cause it's the thing
  966. that makes food sweet.
  967.  
  968. 217
  969. 00:13:16,567 --> 00:13:21,676
  970. You see, people on this planet
  971. are growing sicker every day,
  972.  
  973. 218
  974. 00:13:21,776 --> 00:13:23,967
  975. and many scientists now believe
  976.  
  977. 219
  978. 00:13:24,067 --> 00:13:27,567
  979. that fructose has a role to play.
  980.  
  981. 220
  982. 00:13:31,942 --> 00:13:34,009
  983. - Hey, hey!
  984. - The first load.
  985.  
  986. 221
  987. 00:13:34,109 --> 00:13:38,467
  988. Why don't we make these
  989. middle shelves the sugar zone?
  990.  
  991. 222
  992. 00:13:38,567 --> 00:13:42,026
  993. - I love it.
  994. - Here's some juicy juice.
  995.  
  996. 223
  997. 00:13:43,401 --> 00:13:45,551
  998. - Juice boxes, babe.
  999. - Yep.
  1000.  
  1001. 224
  1002. 00:13:45,651 --> 00:13:47,026
  1003. Up&Go.
  1004.  
  1005. 225
  1006. 00:13:50,734 --> 00:13:53,301
  1007. So, here are the rules
  1008. for my next 60 days.
  1009.  
  1010. 226
  1011. 00:13:53,401 --> 00:13:56,676
  1012. I must consume 40 teaspoons
  1013. of sugar a day,
  1014.  
  1015. 227
  1016. 00:13:56,776 --> 00:13:58,509
  1017. but they must be hidden sugars
  1018.  
  1019. 228
  1020. 00:13:58,609 --> 00:14:01,467
  1021. found in commonly perceived
  1022. healthy foods and drinks.
  1023.  
  1024. 229
  1025. 00:14:01,567 --> 00:14:06,051
  1026. So no soft drink, chocolate,
  1027. confectionary or ice-cream.
  1028.  
  1029. 230
  1030. 00:14:06,151 --> 00:14:09,342
  1031. These 40 teaspoons of sugar
  1032. will consist of sucrose
  1033.  
  1034. 231
  1035. 00:14:09,442 --> 00:14:11,467
  1036. and fructose specifically.
  1037.  
  1038. 232
  1039. 00:14:11,567 --> 00:14:14,967
  1040. They can be added, like jam,
  1041. or naturally occurring,
  1042.  
  1043. 233
  1044. 00:14:15,067 --> 00:14:16,634
  1045. like sultanas.
  1046.  
  1047. 234
  1048. 00:14:16,734 --> 00:14:19,301
  1049. I must always choose low-fat foods
  1050.  
  1051. 235
  1052. 00:14:19,401 --> 00:14:23,592
  1053. and maintain the same level
  1054. of exercise as I already do.
  1055.  
  1056. 236
  1057. 00:14:23,692 --> 00:14:25,967
  1058. That's three laps of my garden
  1059. twice a week
  1060.  
  1061. 237
  1062. 00:14:26,067 --> 00:14:29,134
  1063. and a 10-minute workout
  1064. on my homemade gym.
  1065.  
  1066. 238
  1067. 00:14:29,234 --> 00:14:32,276
  1068. And by homemade, I mean homemade.
  1069.  
  1070. 239
  1071. 00:14:38,984 --> 00:14:41,984
  1072. Tomorrow morning I start.
  1073. What are your feelings?
  1074.  
  1075. 240
  1076. 00:14:43,817 --> 00:14:45,192
  1077. Uh...
  1078.  
  1079. 241
  1080. 00:14:47,859 --> 00:14:49,234
  1081. I hope you're OK.
  1082.  
  1083. 242
  1084. 00:14:58,734 --> 00:15:02,676
  1085. Darling, do we have a metric cup,
  1086. like, to measure size?
  1087.  
  1088. 243
  1089. 00:15:02,776 --> 00:15:04,134
  1090. Yep.
  1091.  
  1092. 244
  1093. 00:15:04,234 --> 00:15:05,967
  1094. Right, so, this Just Right tells me
  1095.  
  1096. 245
  1097. 00:15:06,067 --> 00:15:10,217
  1098. that it's 12 grams of sugar
  1099. per serving, right?
  1100.  
  1101. 246
  1102. 00:15:10,317 --> 00:15:11,467
  1103. So, that's...
  1104.  
  1105. 247
  1106. 00:15:11,567 --> 00:15:13,634
  1107. Divided by four, that's roughly three...
  1108.  
  1109. 248
  1110. 00:15:13,734 --> 00:15:16,026
  1111. three teaspoons of sugar per serving.
  1112.  
  1113. 249
  1114. 00:15:18,234 --> 00:15:20,092
  1115. That's a recommended serving size
  1116.  
  1117. 250
  1118. 00:15:20,192 --> 00:15:21,676
  1119. with three teaspoons of sugar.
  1120.  
  1121. 251
  1122. 00:15:21,776 --> 00:15:23,759
  1123. Now, I don't know about you
  1124. but I'm a growing boy.
  1125.  
  1126. 252
  1127. 00:15:23,859 --> 00:15:25,509
  1128. I'm gonna need
  1129. a little bit more of that.
  1130.  
  1131. 253
  1132. 00:15:25,609 --> 00:15:28,009
  1133. That feels like a shot of Just Right.
  1134.  
  1135. 254
  1136. 00:15:28,109 --> 00:15:29,651
  1137. Yeah, maybe 2.5.
  1138.  
  1139. 255
  1140. 00:15:31,067 --> 00:15:32,484
  1141. OK, so, 2.5...
  1142.  
  1143. 256
  1144. 00:15:33,776 --> 00:15:37,717
  1145. So, one was just under three
  1146. teaspoons, two is six teaspoons,
  1147.  
  1148. 257
  1149. 00:15:37,817 --> 00:15:41,717
  1150. and the other half
  1151. is about 7.5 teaspoons of sugar,
  1152.  
  1153. 258
  1154. 00:15:41,817 --> 00:15:42,967
  1155. just in that bowl.
  1156.  
  1157. 259
  1158. 00:15:43,067 --> 00:15:44,759
  1159. And I haven't added the yoghurt yet.
  1160.  
  1161. 260
  1162. 00:15:44,859 --> 00:15:49,342
  1163. Per serving there is 27 grams,
  1164.  
  1165. 261
  1166. 00:15:49,442 --> 00:15:54,134
  1167. but a lot of that's gonna be
  1168. lactose, so I reckon 18 grams.
  1169.  
  1170. 262
  1171. 00:15:54,234 --> 00:15:57,817
  1172. 18 divided by 4 is just over 4.
  1173.  
  1174. 263
  1175. 00:15:59,567 --> 00:16:02,842
  1176. So, four to my seven, so there's
  1177. 11 teaspoons of sugar,
  1178.  
  1179. 264
  1180. 00:16:02,942 --> 00:16:04,967
  1181. and then I've gotta add my juice.
  1182.  
  1183. 265
  1184. 00:16:05,067 --> 00:16:09,759
  1185. I'm gonna put about 400 mils
  1186. of apple juice, that will do me.
  1187.  
  1188. 266
  1189. 00:16:09,859 --> 00:16:14,051
  1190. There we're looking at nine
  1191. teaspoons, so this combined,
  1192.  
  1193. 267
  1194. 00:16:14,151 --> 00:16:18,276
  1195. I'm looking at nearly
  1196. 20 teaspoons to start the day.
  1197.  
  1198. 268
  1199. 00:16:22,692 --> 00:16:23,759
  1200. Hey, David. How are you going?
  1201.  
  1202. 269
  1203. 00:16:23,859 --> 00:16:25,009
  1204. Good. How are you?
  1205.  
  1206. 270
  1207. 00:16:25,109 --> 00:16:28,176
  1208. Mate, I've just got a quick question.
  1209. We just were...
  1210.  
  1211. 271
  1212. 00:16:28,276 --> 00:16:30,259
  1213. I just sort of had my first breakfast
  1214.  
  1215. 272
  1216. 00:16:30,359 --> 00:16:33,259
  1217. and it got to about 20 teaspoons.
  1218.  
  1219. 273
  1220. 00:16:33,359 --> 00:16:34,859
  1221. 20 teaspoons?!
  1222.  
  1223. 274
  1224. 00:16:34,984 --> 00:16:36,509
  1225. I almost couldn't believe it.
  1226.  
  1227. 275
  1228. 00:16:36,609 --> 00:16:41,134
  1229. But I did all the maths
  1230. and it just seems ridiculous.
  1231.  
  1232. 276
  1233. 00:16:41,234 --> 00:16:43,592
  1234. Mate, you're gonna have to be on a diet
  1235.  
  1236. 277
  1237. 00:16:43,692 --> 00:16:45,301
  1238. for the rest of the day if
  1239. you're only allowed to have
  1240.  
  1241. 278
  1242. 00:16:45,401 --> 00:16:47,217
  1243. 20 teaspoons for the rest of the day.
  1244.  
  1245. 279
  1246. 00:16:47,317 --> 00:16:48,551
  1247. That's what I mean!
  1248.  
  1249. 280
  1250. 00:16:48,651 --> 00:16:50,776
  1251. I'll have to eat celery
  1252. for the rest of the day.
  1253.  
  1254. 281
  1255. 00:16:52,151 --> 00:16:53,817
  1256. Just obscene.
  1257.  
  1258. 282
  1259. 00:16:55,734 --> 00:16:58,859
  1260. When we were still foraging
  1261. and hunting and gathering
  1262.  
  1263. 283
  1264. 00:16:58,984 --> 00:17:02,092
  1265. and trying to search for fruit
  1266. and things in our environment,
  1267.  
  1268. 284
  1269. 00:17:02,192 --> 00:17:05,967
  1270. we needed to be highly attuned
  1271. to what sweetness there was,
  1272.  
  1273. 285
  1274. 00:17:06,067 --> 00:17:08,259
  1275. because we really need the calories.
  1276.  
  1277. 286
  1278. 00:17:08,359 --> 00:17:10,509
  1279. And of course now we bring with us
  1280.  
  1281. 287
  1282. 00:17:10,609 --> 00:17:13,467
  1283. that ancient lust for sugar,
  1284.  
  1285. 288
  1286. 00:17:13,567 --> 00:17:16,051
  1287. that ability to find even small amounts,
  1288.  
  1289. 289
  1290. 00:17:16,151 --> 00:17:18,467
  1291. and it's a case where
  1292. we were looking for a little
  1293.  
  1294. 290
  1295. 00:17:18,567 --> 00:17:20,676
  1296. but now we have too much.
  1297.  
  1298. 291
  1299. 00:17:20,776 --> 00:17:23,842
  1300. And so the system,
  1301. in an evolutionary terms,
  1302.  
  1303. 292
  1304. 00:17:23,942 --> 00:17:26,092
  1305. is not really set up to deal with
  1306.  
  1307. 293
  1308. 00:17:26,192 --> 00:17:28,984
  1309. this sudden abundance
  1310. of highly refined sugar.
  1311.  
  1312. 294
  1313. 00:17:36,776 --> 00:17:38,859
  1314. After just two days of the experiment
  1315.  
  1316. 295
  1317. 00:17:38,984 --> 00:17:41,217
  1318. I was amazed at how easy it was
  1319.  
  1320. 296
  1321. 00:17:41,317 --> 00:17:44,609
  1322. to get to 40 teaspoons
  1323. without eating any junk food.
  1324.  
  1325. 297
  1326. 00:17:46,151 --> 00:17:48,676
  1327. I've just had a breakthrough as
  1328. to how we might be consuming
  1329.  
  1330. 298
  1331. 00:17:48,776 --> 00:17:50,217
  1332. so much fructose.
  1333.  
  1334. 299
  1335. 00:17:50,317 --> 00:17:52,134
  1336. I just bought these four apples.
  1337.  
  1338. 300
  1339. 00:17:52,234 --> 00:17:54,717
  1340. Now, I know that if I tried
  1341. to eat these apples
  1342.  
  1343. 301
  1344. 00:17:54,817 --> 00:17:57,509
  1345. I'd probably get through
  1346. two of them and I'd feel full.
  1347.  
  1348. 302
  1349. 00:17:57,609 --> 00:18:01,801
  1350. The fibre in the fruit
  1351. would tell my body to stop,
  1352.  
  1353. 303
  1354. 00:18:01,901 --> 00:18:04,176
  1355. it's had enough to eat.
  1356.  
  1357. 304
  1358. 00:18:04,276 --> 00:18:07,067
  1359. But I wanna see what happens if
  1360. I can juice these four apples.
  1361.  
  1362. 305
  1363. 00:18:17,776 --> 00:18:20,967
  1364. Right, so that's four apples.
  1365.  
  1366. 306
  1367. 00:18:21,067 --> 00:18:24,384
  1368. That's the sugar from
  1369. four apples in one glass.
  1370.  
  1371. 307
  1372. 00:18:24,484 --> 00:18:26,967
  1373. Now, one apple is about
  1374. four teaspoons of sugar,
  1375.  
  1376. 308
  1377. 00:18:27,067 --> 00:18:30,717
  1378. so that's 16 teaspoons
  1379. of sugar in that glass.
  1380.  
  1381. 309
  1382. 00:18:30,817 --> 00:18:33,634
  1383. See, nature has given us
  1384. this perfect little packet,
  1385.  
  1386. 310
  1387. 00:18:33,734 --> 00:18:36,051
  1388. and it's got all the nutrients,
  1389. the fibre
  1390.  
  1391. 311
  1392. 00:18:36,151 --> 00:18:37,634
  1393. that tells us when we're full,
  1394.  
  1395. 312
  1396. 00:18:37,734 --> 00:18:40,092
  1397. and just the right amount
  1398. of sugar in this.
  1399.  
  1400. 313
  1401. 00:18:40,192 --> 00:18:43,176
  1402. But what we do is
  1403. we invent a machine like this
  1404.  
  1405. 314
  1406. 00:18:43,276 --> 00:18:45,842
  1407. which extracts only the sugar
  1408.  
  1409. 315
  1410. 00:18:45,942 --> 00:18:48,484
  1411. and then we throw everything else away.
  1412.  
  1413. 316
  1414. 00:18:56,401 --> 00:18:58,967
  1415. This high amount of sugar in juice,
  1416.  
  1417. 317
  1418. 00:18:59,067 --> 00:19:00,676
  1419. and drinks in general,
  1420.  
  1421. 318
  1422. 00:19:00,776 --> 00:19:03,984
  1423. was certainly the biggest
  1424. surprise of the first week.
  1425.  
  1426. 319
  1427. 00:19:09,067 --> 00:19:13,009
  1428. Beverage tend to really create a rush,
  1429.  
  1430. 320
  1431. 00:19:13,109 --> 00:19:15,717
  1432. what I kind of call a tsunami effect.
  1433.  
  1434. 321
  1435. 00:19:15,817 --> 00:19:19,676
  1436. So you basically have
  1437. this huge wave of sugar
  1438.  
  1439. 322
  1440. 00:19:19,776 --> 00:19:20,967
  1441. that gets to your liver.
  1442.  
  1443. 323
  1444. 00:19:21,067 --> 00:19:23,067
  1445. And that has a lot of consequence.
  1446.  
  1447. 324
  1448. 00:19:31,817 --> 00:19:35,759
  1449. It was now day 12
  1450. and time for my first weigh-in.
  1451.  
  1452. 325
  1453. 00:19:35,859 --> 00:19:37,692
  1454. Moment of truth.
  1455.  
  1456. 326
  1457. 00:19:40,151 --> 00:19:42,967
  1458. 79.3. Huh?
  1459.  
  1460. 327
  1461. 00:19:43,067 --> 00:19:44,967
  1462. - I'm about to cry.
  1463. - Why?
  1464.  
  1465. 328
  1466. 00:19:45,067 --> 00:19:46,301
  1467. 3.2 kilos.
  1468.  
  1469. 329
  1470. 00:19:46,401 --> 00:19:48,217
  1471. - In 12 days?
  1472. - In 12 days.
  1473.  
  1474. 330
  1475. 00:19:48,317 --> 00:19:50,717
  1476. And that's without one fizzy drink,
  1477.  
  1478. 331
  1479. 00:19:50,817 --> 00:19:52,301
  1480. no ice-cream, no chocolate.
  1481.  
  1482. 332
  1483. 00:19:52,401 --> 00:19:54,301
  1484. That is eating healthy food.
  1485.  
  1486. 333
  1487. 00:19:54,401 --> 00:19:56,217
  1488. It's alarming. Alarming, alarming.
  1489.  
  1490. 334
  1491. 00:19:56,317 --> 00:19:59,192
  1492. Debbie's alarm wasn't about
  1493. the amount of weight I had gained...
  1494.  
  1495. 335
  1496. 00:20:00,776 --> 00:20:02,634
  1497. it was the fact that it was
  1498. all around my belly.
  1499.  
  1500. 336
  1501. 00:20:02,734 --> 00:20:05,967
  1502. This is what's known as visceral fat.
  1503.  
  1504. 337
  1505. 00:20:06,067 --> 00:20:07,317
  1506. I'm having a baby!
  1507.  
  1508. 338
  1509. 00:20:09,567 --> 00:20:11,592
  1510. Here's a great example of it.
  1511.  
  1512. 339
  1513. 00:20:11,692 --> 00:20:15,051
  1514. On this person,
  1515. the fat comes up as black.
  1516.  
  1517. 340
  1518. 00:20:15,151 --> 00:20:17,051
  1519. You can see there is
  1520. a very small amount of fat
  1521.  
  1522. 341
  1523. 00:20:17,151 --> 00:20:21,759
  1524. just under the skin, but lots of
  1525. visceral fat on the inside,
  1526.  
  1527. 342
  1528. 00:20:21,859 --> 00:20:23,234
  1529. cramping the organs.
  1530.  
  1531. 343
  1532. 00:20:24,442 --> 00:20:25,859
  1533. There is a term for this:
  1534.  
  1535. 344
  1536. 00:20:36,442 --> 00:20:39,009
  1537. We know that with fructose,
  1538.  
  1539. 345
  1540. 00:20:39,109 --> 00:20:41,967
  1541. you tend to accumulate
  1542. more fat in this area.
  1543.  
  1544. 346
  1545. 00:20:42,067 --> 00:20:44,509
  1546. We don't know why,
  1547. but we know, on the other hand,
  1548.  
  1549. 347
  1550. 00:20:44,609 --> 00:20:47,759
  1551. that when you do accumulate
  1552. that fat in this area
  1553.  
  1554. 348
  1555. 00:20:47,859 --> 00:20:49,592
  1556. you have a lot of metabolic disease
  1557.  
  1558. 349
  1559. 00:20:49,692 --> 00:20:51,067
  1560. that are associated with this.
  1561.  
  1562. 350
  1563. 00:21:00,942 --> 00:21:03,467
  1564. On day 15, it occurred to me
  1565.  
  1566. 351
  1567. 00:21:03,567 --> 00:21:05,342
  1568. what 40 teaspoons of sugar
  1569.  
  1570. 352
  1571. 00:21:05,442 --> 00:21:07,051
  1572. would actually look like
  1573.  
  1574. 353
  1575. 00:21:07,151 --> 00:21:10,026
  1576. stripped of its cleverly
  1577. marketed packaging.
  1578.  
  1579. 354
  1580. 00:21:12,984 --> 00:21:17,259
  1581. Today I'm gonna eat 40
  1582. actual teaspoons of sugar.
  1583.  
  1584. 355
  1585. 00:21:17,359 --> 00:21:21,009
  1586. Just Right, low-fat yoghurt...
  1587. there's 10 teaspoons of sugar.
  1588.  
  1589. 356
  1590. 00:21:21,109 --> 00:21:24,859
  1591. Here, just a bowl of plain Vita
  1592. Brits. So what I'm gonna do...
  1593.  
  1594. 357
  1595. 00:21:35,942 --> 00:21:39,276
  1596. This now equals that.
  1597.  
  1598. 358
  1599. 00:21:48,692 --> 00:21:51,301
  1600. It's time for my midmorning snack.
  1601.  
  1602. 359
  1603. 00:21:51,401 --> 00:21:54,984
  1604. Now, I could have this
  1605. amount of frozen yoghurt or...
  1606.  
  1607. 360
  1608. 00:21:58,442 --> 00:21:59,567
  1609. 11.
  1610.  
  1611. 361
  1612. 00:22:07,192 --> 00:22:08,842
  1613. So it's lunch.
  1614.  
  1615. 362
  1616. 00:22:08,942 --> 00:22:11,276
  1617. I have this delicious
  1618. piece of chicken here.
  1619.  
  1620. 363
  1621. 00:22:12,442 --> 00:22:14,676
  1622. Now, I could add half a packet
  1623.  
  1624. 364
  1625. 00:22:14,776 --> 00:22:17,859
  1626. of this teriyaki chicken sauce...
  1627.  
  1628. 365
  1629. 00:22:17,984 --> 00:22:18,984
  1630. or, alternatively...
  1631.  
  1632. 366
  1633. 00:22:27,067 --> 00:22:30,467
  1634. Now, to wash it down,
  1635. I could have one of these
  1636.  
  1637. 367
  1638. 00:22:30,567 --> 00:22:32,067
  1639. or...
  1640.  
  1641. 368
  1642. 00:22:53,234 --> 00:22:54,967
  1643. So, it's the midafternoon slump.
  1644.  
  1645. 369
  1646. 00:22:55,067 --> 00:22:59,551
  1647. Now, as a pick-me-up, I could
  1648. have this Go Natural Superfood
  1649.  
  1650. 370
  1651. 00:22:59,651 --> 00:23:02,551
  1652. Apple Strawberry Cranberry Ripple bar
  1653.  
  1654. 371
  1655. 00:23:02,651 --> 00:23:07,734
  1656. or I could have this 7-teaspoon
  1657. water cracker sugar sandwich.
  1658.  
  1659. 372
  1660. 00:23:21,776 --> 00:23:23,467
  1661. It was at this point
  1662.  
  1663. 373
  1664. 00:23:23,567 --> 00:23:25,984
  1665. that I thought I'd better
  1666. check in with Professor Blood.
  1667.  
  1668. 374
  1669. 00:23:27,692 --> 00:23:31,509
  1670. The big change is that
  1671. the liver function tests
  1672.  
  1673. 375
  1674. 00:23:31,609 --> 00:23:34,801
  1675. have had an amazing rise
  1676. in one of the enzyme levels,
  1677.  
  1678. 376
  1679. 00:23:34,901 --> 00:23:36,467
  1680. the ALT level.
  1681.  
  1682. 377
  1683. 00:23:36,567 --> 00:23:39,676
  1684. The ALT is an enzyme in the liver
  1685.  
  1686. 378
  1687. 00:23:39,776 --> 00:23:41,676
  1688. which helps the reactions go out.
  1689.  
  1690. 379
  1691. 00:23:41,776 --> 00:23:43,009
  1692. If it appears in your blood,
  1693.  
  1694. 380
  1695. 00:23:43,109 --> 00:23:44,676
  1696. 'cause that's where we measured it,
  1697.  
  1698. 381
  1699. 00:23:44,776 --> 00:23:48,384
  1700. it shows that the liver cells
  1701. are releasing their contents...
  1702.  
  1703. 382
  1704. 00:23:48,484 --> 00:23:52,842
  1705. i.e., they're being damaged or dying.
  1706.  
  1707. 383
  1708. 00:23:52,942 --> 00:23:54,717
  1709. And so the...
  1710.  
  1711. 384
  1712. 00:23:54,817 --> 00:23:56,592
  1713. You know, the... It's really...
  1714.  
  1715. 385
  1716. 00:23:56,692 --> 00:23:59,467
  1717. - My liver cells are dying.
  1718. - They are. They are.
  1719.  
  1720. 386
  1721. 00:23:59,567 --> 00:24:02,301
  1722. It's obviously getting full of fat.
  1723.  
  1724. 387
  1725. 00:24:02,401 --> 00:24:03,967
  1726. You've got the signs of a fatty liver.
  1727.  
  1728. 388
  1729. 00:24:04,067 --> 00:24:06,342
  1730. And this is really the first time
  1731.  
  1732. 389
  1733. 00:24:06,442 --> 00:24:09,634
  1734. I've actually seen that it
  1735. can be actually developed
  1736.  
  1737. 390
  1738. 00:24:09,734 --> 00:24:11,109
  1739. in two or three weeks.
  1740.  
  1741. 391
  1742. 00:24:12,817 --> 00:24:14,551
  1743. Given my liver has turned to fat
  1744.  
  1745. 392
  1746. 00:24:14,651 --> 00:24:16,759
  1747. after just 18 days,
  1748.  
  1749. 393
  1750. 00:24:16,859 --> 00:24:18,634
  1751. I think it's time to take a closer look
  1752.  
  1753. 394
  1754. 00:24:18,734 --> 00:24:21,109
  1755. at what sugar does
  1756. once it enters the body.
  1757.  
  1758. 395
  1759. 00:24:24,401 --> 00:24:27,009
  1760. This is the actor Brenton Thwaites.
  1761.  
  1762. 396
  1763. 00:24:27,109 --> 00:24:28,967
  1764. He's very kindly volunteered his body
  1765.  
  1766. 397
  1767. 00:24:29,067 --> 00:24:30,734
  1768. for the following demonstration.
  1769.  
  1770. 398
  1771. 00:24:37,317 --> 00:24:41,301
  1772. After sugar enters the body,
  1773. it splits into two parts...
  1774.  
  1775. 399
  1776. 00:24:41,401 --> 00:24:44,342
  1777. fructose and glucose.
  1778.  
  1779. 400
  1780. 00:24:44,442 --> 00:24:46,859
  1781. Both of which
  1782. make their way to the liver.
  1783.  
  1784. 401
  1785. 00:24:53,984 --> 00:24:55,384
  1786. Now, once in the liver,
  1787.  
  1788. 402
  1789. 00:24:55,484 --> 00:24:57,967
  1790. the glucose is dealt with efficiently.
  1791.  
  1792. 403
  1793. 00:24:58,067 --> 00:25:00,217
  1794. It's either used immediately for energy
  1795.  
  1796. 404
  1797. 00:25:00,317 --> 00:25:03,467
  1798. or it's stored for later,
  1799. like a spare battery.
  1800.  
  1801. 405
  1802. 00:25:03,567 --> 00:25:05,967
  1803. But the fructose half of sugar
  1804. is very different.
  1805.  
  1806. 406
  1807. 00:25:06,067 --> 00:25:08,592
  1808. The liver doesn't have a system
  1809. to regulate the fructose
  1810.  
  1811. 407
  1812. 00:25:08,692 --> 00:25:10,551
  1813. because it was so rare in nature,
  1814.  
  1815. 408
  1816. 00:25:10,651 --> 00:25:13,634
  1817. so it hoovers it out of the bloodstream
  1818. whether it needs it or not.
  1819.  
  1820. 409
  1821. 00:25:13,734 --> 00:25:17,984
  1822. And if all our spare batteries are full,
  1823. then it rapidly turns it into fat.
  1824.  
  1825. 410
  1826. 00:25:19,442 --> 00:25:23,009
  1827. Some of that fat
  1828. is gonna stay in the liver
  1829.  
  1830. 411
  1831. 00:25:23,109 --> 00:25:26,134
  1832. and you're gonna have increased risk
  1833.  
  1834. 412
  1835. 00:25:26,234 --> 00:25:29,676
  1836. for insulin resistance and diabetes.
  1837.  
  1838. 413
  1839. 00:25:29,776 --> 00:25:32,859
  1840. What also happens is that
  1841. this fat in the liver
  1842.  
  1843. 414
  1844. 00:25:32,984 --> 00:25:36,176
  1845. is then sent out into the
  1846. bloodstream as triglycerides,
  1847.  
  1848. 415
  1849. 00:25:36,276 --> 00:25:37,967
  1850. which can lead to excess weight
  1851.  
  1852. 416
  1853. 00:25:38,067 --> 00:25:40,151
  1854. plus blocked arteries and heart disease.
  1855.  
  1856. 417
  1857. 00:25:46,359 --> 00:25:47,967
  1858. Now, when we're eating lots of sugar
  1859.  
  1860. 418
  1861. 00:25:48,067 --> 00:25:51,092
  1862. and other carbohydrates
  1863. like bread and pasta,
  1864.  
  1865. 419
  1866. 00:25:51,192 --> 00:25:52,609
  1867. we're producing lots of glucose.
  1868.  
  1869. 420
  1870. 00:25:53,859 --> 00:25:56,342
  1871. A hormone called insulin is released,
  1872.  
  1873. 421
  1874. 00:25:56,442 --> 00:25:59,759
  1875. which is like a key that helps
  1876. to open our cells' doors
  1877.  
  1878. 422
  1879. 00:25:59,859 --> 00:26:01,384
  1880. so they can absorb all the glucose,
  1881.  
  1882. 423
  1883. 00:26:01,484 --> 00:26:04,151
  1884. remove it from the bloodstream
  1885. and burn it for energy.
  1886.  
  1887. 424
  1888. 00:26:05,359 --> 00:26:09,092
  1889. The more glucose in the blood,
  1890. the more insulin is released.
  1891.  
  1892. 425
  1893. 00:26:09,192 --> 00:26:11,967
  1894. But the key point for us
  1895.  
  1896. 426
  1897. 00:26:12,067 --> 00:26:13,842
  1898. is that while this insulin
  1899. is in the blood
  1900.  
  1901. 427
  1902. 00:26:13,942 --> 00:26:15,592
  1903. dealing with all the glucose,
  1904.  
  1905. 428
  1906. 00:26:15,692 --> 00:26:18,759
  1907. it tells our fat cells
  1908. to hold on to the fat.
  1909.  
  1910. 429
  1911. 00:26:18,859 --> 00:26:22,009
  1912. It actually turns off
  1913. our fat-burning processes.
  1914.  
  1915. 430
  1916. 00:26:22,109 --> 00:26:23,842
  1917. So when we're eating lots of sugar,
  1918.  
  1919. 431
  1920. 00:26:23,942 --> 00:26:26,592
  1921. we're putting fat into our
  1922. bodies via the fatty liver.
  1923.  
  1924. 432
  1925. 00:26:26,692 --> 00:26:28,259
  1926. Plus, because of all the glucose,
  1927.  
  1928. 433
  1929. 00:26:28,359 --> 00:26:30,217
  1930. we maintain the level of insulin,
  1931.  
  1932. 434
  1933. 00:26:30,317 --> 00:26:33,009
  1934. which tells our fat cells
  1935. to hold on to the fat.
  1936.  
  1937. 435
  1938. 00:26:33,109 --> 00:26:34,467
  1939. We can't burn off fat
  1940.  
  1941. 436
  1942. 00:26:34,567 --> 00:26:37,359
  1943. when insulin is around
  1944. dealing with all the sugar!
  1945.  
  1946. 437
  1947. 00:26:39,067 --> 00:26:40,342
  1948. This is what may be happening
  1949.  
  1950. 438
  1951. 00:26:40,442 --> 00:26:42,109
  1952. to a huge number of the population.'
  1953.  
  1954. 439
  1955. 00:26:44,276 --> 00:26:46,026
  1956. It's highly unlikely
  1957. with Brenton, though.
  1958.  
  1959. 440
  1960. 00:26:51,901 --> 00:26:53,509
  1961. The issue that we're talking about
  1962.  
  1963. 441
  1964. 00:26:53,609 --> 00:26:55,592
  1965. is that there are these chronic diseases
  1966.  
  1967. 442
  1968. 00:26:55,692 --> 00:26:58,467
  1969. related to obesity and diabetes...
  1970.  
  1971. 443
  1972. 00:26:58,567 --> 00:27:00,509
  1973. heart disease,
  1974.  
  1975. 444
  1976. 00:27:00,609 --> 00:27:04,092
  1977. many cancers, gout, hypertension,
  1978.  
  1979. 445
  1980. 00:27:04,192 --> 00:27:07,967
  1981. high blood pressure,
  1982. possibly Alzheimer's disease.
  1983.  
  1984. 446
  1985. 00:27:08,067 --> 00:27:11,192
  1986. The question is,
  1987. would these diseases exist...
  1988.  
  1989. 447
  1990. 00:27:12,984 --> 00:27:14,817
  1991. if sugar wasn't in the diet?
  1992.  
  1993. 448
  1994. 00:27:22,901 --> 00:27:26,759
  1995. So, this morning I've woken up
  1996. and I feel pretty drained.
  1997.  
  1998. 449
  1999. 00:27:26,859 --> 00:27:29,567
  2000. I had a chicken dish last night
  2001. that was pretty sweet.
  2002.  
  2003. 450
  2004. 00:27:31,067 --> 00:27:34,842
  2005. And I could just tell
  2006. that my body feels lethargic
  2007.  
  2008. 451
  2009. 00:27:34,942 --> 00:27:38,984
  2010. and it's waiting for
  2011. its next sugar injection.
  2012.  
  2013. 452
  2014. 00:27:40,651 --> 00:27:46,009
  2015. So the perfectly named Up&Go
  2016.  
  2017. 453
  2018. 00:27:46,109 --> 00:27:47,967
  2019. is gonna start my day today.
  2020.  
  2021. 454
  2022. 00:27:48,067 --> 00:27:50,526
  2023. Banana flavoured with, uh...
  2024.  
  2025. 455
  2026. 00:27:52,067 --> 00:27:54,734
  2027. about four to five teaspoons of sugar.
  2028.  
  2029. 456
  2030. 00:27:56,067 --> 00:27:57,176
  2031. It was obvious
  2032.  
  2033. 457
  2034. 00:27:57,276 --> 00:27:59,301
  2035. that sugar was affecting me physically,
  2036.  
  2037. 458
  2038. 00:27:59,401 --> 00:28:00,634
  2039. but the real surprise
  2040.  
  2041. 459
  2042. 00:28:00,734 --> 00:28:03,176
  2043. was the impact it was having
  2044. on my moods.
  2045.  
  2046. 460
  2047. 00:28:03,276 --> 00:28:05,259
  2048. It's amazing, it's so sweet
  2049.  
  2050. 461
  2051. 00:28:05,359 --> 00:28:07,967
  2052. and I can feel my brain responds
  2053. to it straightaway.
  2054.  
  2055. 462
  2056. 00:28:08,067 --> 00:28:10,301
  2057. Like, it tastes delicious.
  2058.  
  2059. 463
  2060. 00:28:10,401 --> 00:28:14,676
  2061. The thing I've noticed the most
  2062. is the mood swings.
  2063.  
  2064. 464
  2065. 00:28:14,776 --> 00:28:17,634
  2066. Big highs when I have the sugar
  2067. and I feel super alert
  2068.  
  2069. 465
  2070. 00:28:17,734 --> 00:28:19,967
  2071. and switched on for about 45 minutes
  2072.  
  2073. 466
  2074. 00:28:20,067 --> 00:28:23,467
  2075. and then I'll get this feeling
  2076. of real lethargy,
  2077.  
  2078. 467
  2079. 00:28:23,567 --> 00:28:28,467
  2080. I'll feel vague, a bit aloof
  2081. until I get that next hit again
  2082.  
  2083. 468
  2084. 00:28:28,567 --> 00:28:29,967
  2085. and then I'm right to concentrate.
  2086.  
  2087. 469
  2088. 00:28:30,067 --> 00:28:32,967
  2089. I just noticed the attention is reduced
  2090.  
  2091. 470
  2092. 00:28:33,067 --> 00:28:35,467
  2093. and he's much more distracted.
  2094.  
  2095. 471
  2096. 00:28:35,567 --> 00:28:38,176
  2097. - Hm.
  2098. - And it's very unlike him.
  2099.  
  2100. 472
  2101. 00:28:38,276 --> 00:28:39,467
  2102. Very unusual.
  2103.  
  2104. 473
  2105. 00:28:39,567 --> 00:28:41,759
  2106. What you're describing is absolutely
  2107.  
  2108. 474
  2109. 00:28:41,859 --> 00:28:44,467
  2110. what the research has shown,
  2111.  
  2112. 475
  2113. 00:28:44,567 --> 00:28:47,842
  2114. is a high concentration, energy,
  2115.  
  2116. 476
  2117. 00:28:47,942 --> 00:28:50,134
  2118. followed by a crash.
  2119.  
  2120. 477
  2121. 00:28:50,234 --> 00:28:53,092
  2122. The brain and body runs on glucose.
  2123.  
  2124. 478
  2125. 00:28:53,192 --> 00:28:57,467
  2126. If the glucose level is going
  2127. constantly up and down,
  2128.  
  2129. 479
  2130. 00:28:57,567 --> 00:29:00,301
  2131. you know, zinging high and low
  2132. and high and low
  2133.  
  2134. 480
  2135. 00:29:00,401 --> 00:29:01,759
  2136. and back and forth,
  2137.  
  2138. 481
  2139. 00:29:01,859 --> 00:29:05,551
  2140. then your mental function
  2141. is just unstable.
  2142.  
  2143. 482
  2144. 00:29:05,651 --> 00:29:08,092
  2145. If your glucose level is stable
  2146.  
  2147. 483
  2148. 00:29:08,192 --> 00:29:12,217
  2149. and not fluctuating,
  2150. then you have more clarity.
  2151.  
  2152. 484
  2153. 00:29:12,317 --> 00:29:14,342
  2154. It's almost like the body is
  2155.  
  2156. 485
  2157. 00:29:14,442 --> 00:29:16,301
  2158. getting used to this new reality
  2159. that I've created,
  2160.  
  2161. 486
  2162. 00:29:16,401 --> 00:29:19,551
  2163. and it gets its burst of energy
  2164. from the sugar.
  2165.  
  2166. 487
  2167. 00:29:19,651 --> 00:29:21,134
  2168. And then when that's not happening,
  2169.  
  2170. 488
  2171. 00:29:21,234 --> 00:29:22,801
  2172. it's, like, going, "OK, we're ready."
  2173.  
  2174. 489
  2175. 00:29:22,901 --> 00:29:25,592
  2176. Like, I guess, I used to smoke,
  2177. it's a similar feeling.
  2178.  
  2179. 490
  2180. 00:29:25,692 --> 00:29:27,676
  2181. Tell me a little bit
  2182. more about what it's like
  2183.  
  2184. 491
  2185. 00:29:27,776 --> 00:29:29,717
  2186. when you've just had some sugar
  2187.  
  2188. 492
  2189. 00:29:29,817 --> 00:29:31,759
  2190. and when you're on the sugar high.
  2191.  
  2192. 493
  2193. 00:29:31,859 --> 00:29:33,801
  2194. A quite childish thing comes out in me.
  2195.  
  2196. 494
  2197. 00:29:33,901 --> 00:29:36,176
  2198. I go, "Whoo," and then I'm
  2199. full of beans for a while.
  2200.  
  2201. 495
  2202. 00:29:36,276 --> 00:29:39,092
  2203. He can be like that
  2204. in day-to-day life, too,
  2205.  
  2206. 496
  2207. 00:29:39,192 --> 00:29:41,467
  2208. he's really fun and playful,
  2209. but the difference is
  2210.  
  2211. 497
  2212. 00:29:41,567 --> 00:29:44,467
  2213. there's a kind of manic edge
  2214. to it that wasn't there before.
  2215.  
  2216. 498
  2217. 00:29:44,567 --> 00:29:46,551
  2218. It's kind of a bit more like, "Ah'."
  2219.  
  2220. 499
  2221. 00:29:46,651 --> 00:29:49,967
  2222. Now, the manic state
  2223. is quite interesting
  2224.  
  2225. 500
  2226. 00:29:50,067 --> 00:29:54,176
  2227. because it's not the same
  2228. as happiness, right?
  2229.  
  2230. 501
  2231. 00:29:54,276 --> 00:29:57,342
  2232. There's a sort of a sense
  2233. of being wired.
  2234.  
  2235. 502
  2236. 00:29:57,442 --> 00:30:00,051
  2237. It's raining sugar!
  2238.  
  2239. 503
  2240. 00:30:00,151 --> 00:30:02,301
  2241. So, it's interesting
  2242. 'cause that's what we do see.
  2243.  
  2244. 504
  2245. 00:30:02,401 --> 00:30:04,759
  2246. And I'm not suggesting
  2247. you've got bipolar disorder
  2248.  
  2249. 505
  2250. 00:30:04,859 --> 00:30:09,551
  2251. but it's a phenomena that we
  2252. see in that particular condition
  2253.  
  2254. 506
  2255. 00:30:09,651 --> 00:30:11,842
  2256. where there's a very high mood
  2257.  
  2258. 507
  2259. 00:30:11,942 --> 00:30:14,276
  2260. but it's not actually
  2261. a very pleasant mood.
  2262.  
  2263. 508
  2264. 00:30:16,442 --> 00:30:20,551
  2265. So, Damon, the way that blood
  2266. sugar affects your mood,
  2267.  
  2268. 509
  2269. 00:30:20,651 --> 00:30:23,859
  2270. I like to explain to people with
  2271. a really simple diagram.
  2272.  
  2273. 510
  2274. 00:30:23,984 --> 00:30:27,301
  2275. So, this is your
  2276. blood sugar levels here.
  2277.  
  2278. 511
  2279. 00:30:27,401 --> 00:30:31,592
  2280. This is the point where
  2281. your brain is really happy
  2282.  
  2283. 512
  2284. 00:30:31,692 --> 00:30:33,634
  2285. 'cause it's got enough sugar
  2286. to keep it going.
  2287.  
  2288. 513
  2289. 00:30:33,734 --> 00:30:36,509
  2290. It is your most important organ
  2291. in the body, in that way.
  2292.  
  2293. 514
  2294. 00:30:36,609 --> 00:30:38,634
  2295. When you eat something
  2296. that's really sugary,
  2297.  
  2298. 515
  2299. 00:30:38,734 --> 00:30:41,509
  2300. like lollies or fruit juices,
  2301. that sort of thing,
  2302.  
  2303. 516
  2304. 00:30:41,609 --> 00:30:44,384
  2305. your blood sugar will spike
  2306. really quickly
  2307.  
  2308. 517
  2309. 00:30:44,484 --> 00:30:47,217
  2310. and then it will crash down
  2311. again really quickly.
  2312.  
  2313. 518
  2314. 00:30:47,317 --> 00:30:50,217
  2315. The reason it crashes
  2316. really quickly is because,
  2317.  
  2318. 519
  2319. 00:30:50,317 --> 00:30:53,092
  2320. in response to that sugar,
  2321. the body releases insulin,
  2322.  
  2323. 520
  2324. 00:30:53,192 --> 00:30:55,384
  2325. the hormone that takes it into the cells
  2326.  
  2327. 521
  2328. 00:30:55,484 --> 00:30:56,801
  2329. so it can be used for energy.
  2330.  
  2331. 522
  2332. 00:30:56,901 --> 00:30:59,342
  2333. So, that big crash though
  2334.  
  2335. 523
  2336. 00:30:59,442 --> 00:31:01,467
  2337. means that your brain's no longer happy,
  2338.  
  2339. 524
  2340. 00:31:01,567 --> 00:31:03,009
  2341. so, in response to that,
  2342.  
  2343. 525
  2344. 00:31:03,109 --> 00:31:07,051
  2345. we get the release of stress
  2346. hormones like adrenaline,
  2347.  
  2348. 526
  2349. 00:31:07,151 --> 00:31:09,676
  2350. which is then signalling the brain
  2351.  
  2352. 527
  2353. 00:31:09,776 --> 00:31:14,009
  2354. to tell you to eat something
  2355. sugary again
  2356.  
  2357. 528
  2358. 00:31:14,109 --> 00:31:17,134
  2359. so that we can get it back up again.
  2360.  
  2361. 529
  2362. 00:31:17,234 --> 00:31:21,176
  2363. And so, once again, we get
  2364. more insulin and it dips down,
  2365.  
  2366. 530
  2367. 00:31:21,276 --> 00:31:25,842
  2368. and that's why you get
  2369. the fluctuations in your mood,
  2370.  
  2371. 531
  2372. 00:31:25,942 --> 00:31:29,509
  2373. from that sugar spiking and falling.
  2374.  
  2375. 532
  2376. 00:31:29,609 --> 00:31:32,051
  2377. And the problem with the adrenaline
  2378.  
  2379. 533
  2380. 00:31:32,151 --> 00:31:34,634
  2381. is that that can lead to anxiety
  2382.  
  2383. 534
  2384. 00:31:34,734 --> 00:31:36,842
  2385. and even panic attacks
  2386.  
  2387. 535
  2388. 00:31:36,942 --> 00:31:38,651
  2389. because of those mood changes.
  2390.  
  2391. 536
  2392. 00:31:40,901 --> 00:31:42,092
  2393. Given my experience
  2394.  
  2395. 537
  2396. 00:31:42,192 --> 00:31:44,676
  2397. of fluctuating blood sugar levels,
  2398.  
  2399. 538
  2400. 00:31:44,776 --> 00:31:46,259
  2401. I couldn't help but think of children
  2402.  
  2403. 539
  2404. 00:31:46,359 --> 00:31:48,467
  2405. struggling to learn at school.
  2406.  
  2407. 540
  2408. 00:31:48,567 --> 00:31:50,859
  2409. Could a diet full of hidden sugar
  2410.  
  2411. 541
  2412. 00:31:50,984 --> 00:31:53,176
  2413. be contributing to the problem?
  2414.  
  2415. 542
  2416. 00:31:53,276 --> 00:31:55,259
  2417. This has had a very profound impact
  2418.  
  2419. 543
  2420. 00:31:55,359 --> 00:31:58,801
  2421. on children's behaviour,
  2422. on mental illness.
  2423.  
  2424. 544
  2425. 00:31:58,901 --> 00:32:01,134
  2426. It has exacerbated many different types
  2427.  
  2428. 545
  2429. 00:32:01,234 --> 00:32:02,676
  2430. of neurological disorders,
  2431.  
  2432. 546
  2433. 00:32:02,776 --> 00:32:05,634
  2434. but we don't actually name
  2435. what the cause is,
  2436.  
  2437. 547
  2438. 00:32:05,734 --> 00:32:07,759
  2439. which is the sugar that's in the diet.
  2440.  
  2441. 548
  2442. 00:32:07,859 --> 00:32:09,467
  2443. Sugar Crisp is candy-coated
  2444.  
  2445. 549
  2446. 00:32:09,567 --> 00:32:11,717
  2447. right down to the last
  2448. wheat puff in the box.
  2449.  
  2450. 550
  2451. 00:32:11,817 --> 00:32:14,176
  2452. - As a cereal it's dandy.
  2453. - For snacks it's so handy.
  2454.  
  2455. 551
  2456. 00:32:14,276 --> 00:32:15,551
  2457. Or eat it like candy.
  2458.  
  2459. 552
  2460. 00:32:15,651 --> 00:32:17,234
  2461. ♪ Post's Sugar Crisp. ♪
  2462.  
  2463. 553
  2464. 00:32:28,109 --> 00:32:30,026
  2465. Don't laugh. It's for the...
  2466. You know why I'm doing it.
  2467.  
  2468. 554
  2469. 00:32:43,567 --> 00:32:45,592
  2470. The speed at which my high-sugar diet
  2471.  
  2472. 555
  2473. 00:32:45,692 --> 00:32:49,592
  2474. was affecting me
  2475. took us all by surprise.
  2476.  
  2477. 556
  2478. 00:32:49,692 --> 00:32:52,384
  2479. I was going to have to expand
  2480. the scope of the experiment,
  2481.  
  2482. 557
  2483. 00:32:52,484 --> 00:32:55,067
  2484. and this would take me
  2485. out of town for a few days.
  2486.  
  2487. 558
  2488. 00:33:01,776 --> 00:33:05,759
  2489. In 2002 I spent some time with
  2490. an Aboriginal community
  2491.  
  2492. 559
  2493. 00:33:05,859 --> 00:33:08,192
  2494. and was stunned by the amount
  2495. of sugar they consumed.
  2496.  
  2497. 560
  2498. 00:33:10,192 --> 00:33:11,717
  2499. Like so many indigenous cultures
  2500.  
  2501. 561
  2502. 00:33:11,817 --> 00:33:13,801
  2503. introduced to a Western diet,
  2504.  
  2505. 562
  2506. 00:33:13,901 --> 00:33:17,967
  2507. their relationship with sugar
  2508. seemed particularly destructive.
  2509.  
  2510. 563
  2511. 00:33:18,067 --> 00:33:20,342
  2512. The Aborigines
  2513. have remarkably little sugar
  2514.  
  2515. 564
  2516. 00:33:20,442 --> 00:33:22,259
  2517. in their diet.
  2518.  
  2519. 565
  2520. 00:33:22,359 --> 00:33:25,092
  2521. Two or three small pieces of candy
  2522.  
  2523. 566
  2524. 00:33:25,192 --> 00:33:28,551
  2525. would be equal to the sum total
  2526. of the amount of sweetness
  2527.  
  2528. 567
  2529. 00:33:28,651 --> 00:33:31,567
  2530. that an Aborigine would get in one year.
  2531.  
  2532. 568
  2533. 00:33:33,317 --> 00:33:34,509
  2534. In 2008,
  2535.  
  2536. 569
  2537. 00:33:34,609 --> 00:33:37,717
  2538. Coca-Cola claimed that
  2539. Australia's Northern Territory
  2540.  
  2541. 570
  2542. 00:33:37,817 --> 00:33:41,467
  2543. was their highest-selling region
  2544. per capita in the world.
  2545.  
  2546. 571
  2547. 00:33:41,567 --> 00:33:43,092
  2548. This was, in large part,
  2549.  
  2550. 572
  2551. 00:33:43,192 --> 00:33:46,234
  2552. due to the local stores
  2553. in the Aboriginal communities.
  2554.  
  2555. 573
  2556. 00:33:49,359 --> 00:33:53,817
  2557. Just 100km from Uluru
  2558. is the small town of Amata.
  2559.  
  2560. 574
  2561. 00:33:55,859 --> 00:33:58,009
  2562. It has always been alcohol-free,
  2563.  
  2564. 575
  2565. 00:33:58,109 --> 00:34:02,717
  2566. but in 2007 its population
  2567. of just under 400 people
  2568.  
  2569. 576
  2570. 00:34:02,817 --> 00:34:05,567
  2571. consumed 40,000 litres of soft drink.
  2572.  
  2573. 577
  2574. 00:34:07,859 --> 00:34:10,984
  2575. So one Aboriginal man decided
  2576. to do something about it.
  2577.  
  2578. 578
  2579. 00:34:12,567 --> 00:34:13,984
  2580. His name is John Tregenza.
  2581.  
  2582. 579
  2583. 00:34:15,359 --> 00:34:18,092
  2584. This is his case, this is his putaru
  2585.  
  2586. 580
  2587. 00:34:18,192 --> 00:34:20,301
  2588. and this is his nickname.
  2589.  
  2590. 581
  2591. 00:34:20,401 --> 00:34:21,301
  2592. Why?
  2593.  
  2594. 582
  2595. 00:34:21,401 --> 00:34:23,651
  2596. 'Cause I cut through the bullshit.
  2597.  
  2598. 583
  2599. 00:34:25,401 --> 00:34:27,967
  2600. When I first come up here, in 1973,
  2601.  
  2602. 584
  2603. 00:34:28,067 --> 00:34:29,967
  2604. I would estimate that,
  2605.  
  2606. 585
  2607. 00:34:30,067 --> 00:34:34,217
  2608. say, 10% of the people's diet
  2609. came from the store,
  2610.  
  2611. 586
  2612. 00:34:34,317 --> 00:34:37,759
  2613. and now it's almost 100%.
  2614.  
  2615. 587
  2616. 00:34:37,859 --> 00:34:39,967
  2617. So it was obviously critical
  2618. that people's health
  2619.  
  2620. 588
  2621. 00:34:40,067 --> 00:34:42,026
  2622. depended on what they were
  2623. carrying out the store door.
  2624.  
  2625. 589
  2626. 00:34:43,359 --> 00:34:45,259
  2627. This reliance on the store
  2628.  
  2629. 590
  2630. 00:34:45,359 --> 00:34:48,467
  2631. has been caused by a variety
  2632. of environmental changes.
  2633.  
  2634. 591
  2635. 00:34:48,567 --> 00:34:51,592
  2636. The main one being the
  2637. introduction of a foreign grass
  2638.  
  2639. 592
  2640. 00:34:51,692 --> 00:34:53,301
  2641. that took over the plains
  2642.  
  2643. 593
  2644. 00:34:53,401 --> 00:34:55,842
  2645. and drove away the native plants
  2646. and animals
  2647.  
  2648. 594
  2649. 00:34:55,942 --> 00:34:58,067
  2650. that had provided bush tucker
  2651. for centuries.
  2652.  
  2653. 595
  2654. 00:35:00,609 --> 00:35:04,467
  2655. Being in Amata, it was hard to
  2656. believe that only 40 years ago
  2657.  
  2658. 596
  2659. 00:35:04,567 --> 00:35:07,634
  2660. these people were living
  2661. predominantly off the land.
  2662.  
  2663. 597
  2664. 00:35:07,734 --> 00:35:11,051
  2665. All our families and old people,
  2666.  
  2667. 598
  2668. 00:35:11,151 --> 00:35:15,176
  2669. all our grandfathers
  2670. and great-great-grandparents,
  2671.  
  2672. 599
  2673. 00:35:15,276 --> 00:35:18,676
  2674. they only eating bush tucker,
  2675.  
  2676. 600
  2677. 00:35:18,776 --> 00:35:22,259
  2678. like emus, kangaroos, turkey,
  2679.  
  2680. 601
  2681. 00:35:22,359 --> 00:35:24,967
  2682. wild tomatoes, wild beets.
  2683.  
  2684. 602
  2685. 00:35:25,067 --> 00:35:28,092
  2686. And they were healthy,
  2687.  
  2688. 603
  2689. 00:35:28,192 --> 00:35:30,467
  2690. no sickness.
  2691.  
  2692. 604
  2693. 00:35:30,567 --> 00:35:32,759
  2694. And then the white fella
  2695. came into Australia,
  2696.  
  2697. 605
  2698. 00:35:32,859 --> 00:35:35,009
  2699. he bring all the sweet things
  2700.  
  2701. 606
  2702. 00:35:35,109 --> 00:35:39,484
  2703. like lollies... biscuits, everything.
  2704.  
  2705. 607
  2706. 00:35:41,234 --> 00:35:42,134
  2707. With stores filling up
  2708.  
  2709. 608
  2710. 00:35:42,234 --> 00:35:44,551
  2711. with highly profitable sugary items
  2712.  
  2713. 609
  2714. 00:35:44,651 --> 00:35:47,967
  2715. and the community's health
  2716. rapidly declining,
  2717.  
  2718. 610
  2719. 00:35:48,067 --> 00:35:51,676
  2720. John, his colleagues
  2721. and a local health council
  2722.  
  2723. 611
  2724. 00:35:51,776 --> 00:35:52,801
  2725. established a program
  2726.  
  2727. 612
  2728. 00:35:52,901 --> 00:35:56,526
  2729. to ensure people had access
  2730. to fresh, healthy produce.
  2731.  
  2732. 613
  2733. 00:35:57,609 --> 00:35:59,609
  2734. They called it Mai Wiru
  2735.  
  2736. 614
  2737. 00:36:05,776 --> 00:36:07,967
  2738. The Mai Wiru quickly went to work.
  2739.  
  2740. 615
  2741. 00:36:08,067 --> 00:36:12,592
  2742. They removed deep-fryers,
  2743. added free cold water fountains
  2744.  
  2745. 616
  2746. 00:36:12,692 --> 00:36:15,567
  2747. and hired a nutritionist to
  2748. educate the community.
  2749.  
  2750. 617
  2751. 00:36:16,859 --> 00:36:18,859
  2752. For the children, they made music videos
  2753.  
  2754. 618
  2755. 00:36:18,984 --> 00:36:20,759
  2756. with psychedelic vegetables
  2757.  
  2758. 619
  2759. 00:36:20,859 --> 00:36:23,151
  2760. and put up these signs
  2761. on the store's fridges.
  2762.  
  2763. 620
  2764. 00:36:24,692 --> 00:36:26,176
  2765. I put this one to the test
  2766.  
  2767. 621
  2768. 00:36:26,276 --> 00:36:28,026
  2769. and I think they might be
  2770. onto something.
  2771.  
  2772. 622
  2773. 00:36:34,401 --> 00:36:37,634
  2774. But, most importantly, the local
  2775. people were empowered
  2776.  
  2777. 623
  2778. 00:36:37,734 --> 00:36:41,801
  2779. and began making their own
  2780. decisions about their health.
  2781.  
  2782. 624
  2783. 00:36:41,901 --> 00:36:43,967
  2784. The community at Amata decided
  2785.  
  2786. 625
  2787. 00:36:44,067 --> 00:36:46,551
  2788. that they were wanting to reduce
  2789. the amount of sugar intake
  2790.  
  2791. 626
  2792. 00:36:46,651 --> 00:36:48,526
  2793. that they were having
  2794. throughout the community.
  2795.  
  2796. 627
  2797. 00:37:04,609 --> 00:37:06,467
  2798. The first high-sugar item to go
  2799.  
  2800. 628
  2801. 00:37:06,567 --> 00:37:08,967
  2802. was the black fizzy stuff.
  2803.  
  2804. 629
  2805. 00:37:09,067 --> 00:37:10,676
  2806. Then they've said, "We don't want Coke,"
  2807.  
  2808. 630
  2809. 00:37:10,776 --> 00:37:12,092
  2810. so they don't have Coke.
  2811.  
  2812. 631
  2813. 00:37:12,192 --> 00:37:15,634
  2814. So no-one is upset about it,
  2815. it is a decision by the elders.
  2816.  
  2817. 632
  2818. 00:37:15,734 --> 00:37:18,026
  2819. And so we don't have Coke.
  2820.  
  2821. 633
  2822. 00:37:19,692 --> 00:37:21,967
  2823. Mai Wiru was working
  2824.  
  2825. 634
  2826. 00:37:22,067 --> 00:37:24,051
  2827. and in a very short time Amata had
  2828.  
  2829. 635
  2830. 00:37:24,151 --> 00:37:27,151
  2831. the lowest rate of sugar
  2832. consumption in the region.
  2833.  
  2834. 636
  2835. 00:37:28,442 --> 00:37:30,259
  2836. With the level of sugar consumption
  2837.  
  2838. 637
  2839. 00:37:30,359 --> 00:37:33,967
  2840. in other communities I've been
  2841. in, it's astronomical.
  2842.  
  2843. 638
  2844. 00:37:34,067 --> 00:37:35,217
  2845. It is over the top.
  2846.  
  2847. 639
  2848. 00:37:35,317 --> 00:37:37,759
  2849. I think the Mai Wiru group,
  2850.  
  2851. 640
  2852. 00:37:37,859 --> 00:37:41,776
  2853. in itself, could teach a lot of
  2854. the other communities a lot.
  2855.  
  2856. 641
  2857. 00:37:45,067 --> 00:37:48,676
  2858. But just when everything seemed
  2859. to be headed in the right direction,
  2860.  
  2861. 642
  2862. 00:37:48,776 --> 00:37:50,984
  2863. the government slashed
  2864. Mai Wiru's funding.
  2865.  
  2866. 643
  2867. 00:37:54,859 --> 00:37:58,134
  2868. The organisation is now left
  2869. with a skeleton of staff,
  2870.  
  2871. 644
  2872. 00:37:58,234 --> 00:37:59,859
  2873. the nutritionist was the first to go.
  2874.  
  2875. 645
  2876. 00:37:59,984 --> 00:38:01,634
  2877. The Pitjantjatjara
  2878. Yankunytjatjara people
  2879.  
  2880. 646
  2881. 00:38:01,734 --> 00:38:04,301
  2882. really feel it
  2883. because it was their idea.
  2884.  
  2885. 647
  2886. 00:38:04,401 --> 00:38:09,217
  2887. Like, they're the ones
  2888. who saw the problem,
  2889.  
  2890. 648
  2891. 00:38:09,317 --> 00:38:11,217
  2892. they're the ones who bury
  2893. their own people,
  2894.  
  2895. 649
  2896. 00:38:11,317 --> 00:38:13,176
  2897. they're the ones who wanted
  2898. to make a change
  2899.  
  2900. 650
  2901. 00:38:13,276 --> 00:38:16,967
  2902. and they've been totally ignored,
  2903.  
  2904. 651
  2905. 00:38:17,067 --> 00:38:20,176
  2906. overridden and having
  2907. funding taken off by
  2908.  
  2909. 652
  2910. 00:38:20,276 --> 00:38:22,259
  2911. the Federal and State governments
  2912.  
  2913. 653
  2914. 00:38:22,359 --> 00:38:24,842
  2915. and given to
  2916. a non-Aboriginal organisation.
  2917.  
  2918. 654
  2919. 00:38:24,942 --> 00:38:26,151
  2920. It's really quite outrageous.
  2921.  
  2922. 655
  2923. 00:38:29,776 --> 00:38:31,967
  2924. The thing that struck me about Amata
  2925.  
  2926. 656
  2927. 00:38:32,067 --> 00:38:34,384
  2928. is that although Coke is gone,
  2929.  
  2930. 657
  2931. 00:38:34,484 --> 00:38:37,342
  2932. without a nutritionist to
  2933. continue the education
  2934.  
  2935. 658
  2936. 00:38:37,442 --> 00:38:40,301
  2937. people are still consuming
  2938. vast amounts of sugar
  2939.  
  2940. 659
  2941. 00:38:40,401 --> 00:38:41,484
  2942. in other products.
  2943.  
  2944. 660
  2945. 00:38:44,567 --> 00:38:46,859
  2946. And their health is suffering
  2947. as a consequence.
  2948.  
  2949. 661
  2950. 00:39:04,067 --> 00:39:05,342
  2951. There's a perception abroad
  2952.  
  2953. 662
  2954. 00:39:05,442 --> 00:39:08,342
  2955. that the problems
  2956. with obesity and diabetes
  2957.  
  2958. 663
  2959. 00:39:08,442 --> 00:39:10,676
  2960. may be related to alcohol,
  2961.  
  2962. 664
  2963. 00:39:10,776 --> 00:39:12,717
  2964. but here at Amata it's been
  2965. a dry community
  2966.  
  2967. 665
  2968. 00:39:12,817 --> 00:39:16,301
  2969. ever since it was established,
  2970. so all of the health problems,
  2971.  
  2972. 666
  2973. 00:39:16,401 --> 00:39:18,759
  2974. including diabetes and kidney failure,
  2975.  
  2976. 667
  2977. 00:39:18,859 --> 00:39:21,151
  2978. is all related to the diet.
  2979.  
  2980. 668
  2981. 00:39:25,734 --> 00:39:28,801
  2982. John offered to
  2983. take me to a special place
  2984.  
  2985. 669
  2986. 00:39:28,901 --> 00:39:32,109
  2987. where the full effects of a
  2988. disabled Mai Wiru can be felt.
  2989.  
  2990. 670
  2991. 00:39:39,609 --> 00:39:43,051
  2992. I've known almost everyone buried here.
  2993.  
  2994. 671
  2995. 00:39:43,151 --> 00:39:45,359
  2996. I've got family members buried here.
  2997.  
  2998. 672
  2999. 00:39:49,192 --> 00:39:53,317
  3000. These five graves here
  3001. are all people under 40.
  3002.  
  3003. 673
  3004. 00:39:54,942 --> 00:39:58,859
  3005. That's another young person in there.
  3006.  
  3007. 674
  3008. 00:40:01,901 --> 00:40:04,676
  3009. A whole group up here
  3010. of two sisters and a brother
  3011.  
  3012. 675
  3013. 00:40:04,776 --> 00:40:08,067
  3014. who all passed away from kidney failure.
  3015.  
  3016. 676
  3017. 00:40:09,401 --> 00:40:13,092
  3018. Most of these deaths here are premature
  3019.  
  3020. 677
  3021. 00:40:13,192 --> 00:40:15,967
  3022. and could have been avoided
  3023. with correct diet
  3024.  
  3025. 678
  3026. 00:40:16,067 --> 00:40:18,259
  3027. and access to affordable healthy food.
  3028.  
  3029. 679
  3030. 00:40:18,359 --> 00:40:20,234
  3031. It's a complete tragedy.
  3032.  
  3033. 680
  3034. 00:40:34,192 --> 00:40:36,967
  3035. After four days in Amata,
  3036.  
  3037. 681
  3038. 00:40:37,067 --> 00:40:40,092
  3039. it occurred to me that
  3040. what is happening to my body
  3041.  
  3042. 682
  3043. 00:40:40,192 --> 00:40:42,009
  3044. is perhaps a concentrated version
  3045.  
  3046. 683
  3047. 00:40:42,109 --> 00:40:43,592
  3048. of what has happened here
  3049.  
  3050. 684
  3051. 00:40:43,692 --> 00:40:45,692
  3052. and in many other
  3053. Indigenous communities.
  3054.  
  3055. 685
  3056. 00:40:47,567 --> 00:40:50,092
  3057. I'd been sugar-free for a long time
  3058.  
  3059. 686
  3060. 00:40:50,192 --> 00:40:53,967
  3061. and now, by suddenly subjecting
  3062. myself to a high-sugar diet,
  3063.  
  3064. 687
  3065. 00:40:54,067 --> 00:40:56,484
  3066. the effects have been both rapid
  3067. and acute.
  3068.  
  3069. 688
  3070. 00:40:59,692 --> 00:41:01,467
  3071. If immediate action isn't taken
  3072.  
  3073. 689
  3074. 00:41:01,567 --> 00:41:03,051
  3075. to restore the positive direction
  3076.  
  3077. 690
  3078. 00:41:03,151 --> 00:41:05,509
  3079. that Mai Wiru was heading in,
  3080.  
  3081. 691
  3082. 00:41:05,609 --> 00:41:08,051
  3083. then the oldest living culture on earth
  3084.  
  3085. 692
  3086. 00:41:08,151 --> 00:41:10,859
  3087. is in great danger of disappearing.
  3088.  
  3089. 693
  3090. 00:41:23,234 --> 00:41:24,467
  3091. Oh, look at that.'
  3092.  
  3093. 694
  3094. 00:41:24,567 --> 00:41:26,484
  3095. 81.2.
  3096.  
  3097. 695
  3098. 00:41:27,817 --> 00:41:29,301
  3099. 81.2
  3100.  
  3101. 696
  3102. 00:41:29,401 --> 00:41:32,134
  3103. - OK, so what's that in...
  3104. - 1.6 kilos.
  3105.  
  3106. 697
  3107. 00:41:32,234 --> 00:41:35,217
  3108. So in a month I've put on five.
  3109.  
  3110. 698
  3111. 00:41:35,317 --> 00:41:36,717
  3112. Something like that.
  3113.  
  3114. 699
  3115. 00:41:36,817 --> 00:41:39,634
  3116. - 76.
  3117. - You started out at 76, yeah.
  3118.  
  3119. 700
  3120. 00:41:39,734 --> 00:41:41,109
  3121. Over five kilos.
  3122.  
  3123. 701
  3124. 00:41:42,567 --> 00:41:45,134
  3125. - Oh, my God.
  3126. - What?
  3127.  
  3128. 702
  3129. 00:41:45,234 --> 00:41:47,676
  3130. Hang on, is that a...
  3131. Hang on, don't tell me.
  3132.  
  3133. 703
  3134. 00:41:47,776 --> 00:41:48,817
  3135. 91.
  3136.  
  3137. 704
  3138. 00:41:49,901 --> 00:41:51,551
  3139. - 91?!
  3140. - 91.
  3141.  
  3142. 705
  3143. 00:41:51,651 --> 00:41:54,009
  3144. So, OK, 7cm.
  3145.  
  3146. 706
  3147. 00:41:54,109 --> 00:41:55,009
  3148. 7cm.
  3149.  
  3150. 707
  3151. 00:41:55,109 --> 00:41:57,634
  3152. If I keep going for
  3153. the next three or four months
  3154.  
  3155. 708
  3156. 00:41:57,734 --> 00:42:00,634
  3157. at these levels, would I be
  3158. knocking on the door of obesity?
  3159.  
  3160. 709
  3161. 00:42:00,734 --> 00:42:03,051
  3162. Definitely. You haven't got far to go.
  3163.  
  3164. 710
  3165. 00:42:03,151 --> 00:42:05,467
  3166. I'm eating a lot more than I would.
  3167.  
  3168. 711
  3169. 00:42:05,567 --> 00:42:08,717
  3170. Um... I'm snacking a lot more
  3171. than I would have before.
  3172.  
  3173. 712
  3174. 00:42:08,817 --> 00:42:11,467
  3175. I find it very hard to feel full.
  3176.  
  3177. 713
  3178. 00:42:11,567 --> 00:42:15,859
  3179. Not surprising because you're
  3180. not eating very much good fats
  3181.  
  3182. 714
  3183. 00:42:15,984 --> 00:42:17,134
  3184. or proteins.
  3185.  
  3186. 715
  3187. 00:42:17,234 --> 00:42:18,551
  3188. It's the fat and the protein
  3189.  
  3190. 716
  3191. 00:42:18,651 --> 00:42:20,859
  3192. that actually helps us feel fuller.
  3193.  
  3194. 717
  3195. 00:42:20,984 --> 00:42:24,051
  3196. All the low-fat foods that we've
  3197. been told are good for us
  3198.  
  3199. 718
  3200. 00:42:24,151 --> 00:42:25,842
  3201. and that we should be eating
  3202.  
  3203. 719
  3204. 00:42:25,942 --> 00:42:29,134
  3205. actually tend to be
  3206. higher in sugar anyway,
  3207.  
  3208. 720
  3209. 00:42:29,234 --> 00:42:30,342
  3210. as you know,
  3211.  
  3212. 721
  3213. 00:42:30,442 --> 00:42:33,109
  3214. and they're not helping us to feel full.
  3215.  
  3216. 722
  3217. 00:42:35,442 --> 00:42:36,592
  3218. With the effects of sugar
  3219.  
  3220. 723
  3221. 00:42:36,692 --> 00:42:38,801
  3222. now clearly taking a toll on me,
  3223.  
  3224. 724
  3225. 00:42:38,901 --> 00:42:41,634
  3226. and having witnessed
  3227. its devastation in Amata...
  3228.  
  3229. 725
  3230. 00:42:41,734 --> 00:42:42,634
  3231. I'm packing.
  3232.  
  3233. 726
  3234. 00:42:42,734 --> 00:42:44,092
  3235. I needed to talk to some people
  3236.  
  3237. 727
  3238. 00:42:44,192 --> 00:42:46,384
  3239. that knew a lot more about
  3240. the subject than I did.
  3241.  
  3242. 728
  3243. 00:42:46,484 --> 00:42:48,009
  3244. Have a look behind you.
  3245.  
  3246. 729
  3247. 00:42:48,109 --> 00:42:49,609
  3248. It's hanging off my cupboard door.
  3249.  
  3250. 730
  3251. 00:42:50,776 --> 00:42:51,759
  3252. It was time to head to
  3253.  
  3254. 731
  3255. 00:42:51,859 --> 00:42:54,467
  3256. the cultural capital of convenience,
  3257.  
  3258. 732
  3259. 00:42:54,567 --> 00:42:57,384
  3260. the mecca of the processed
  3261. food and sugar industry,
  3262.  
  3263. 733
  3264. 00:42:57,484 --> 00:42:59,176
  3265. and the current number-one-ranked
  3266.  
  3267. 734
  3268. 00:42:59,276 --> 00:43:01,092
  3269. world obesity champion...
  3270.  
  3271. 735
  3272. 00:43:01,192 --> 00:43:03,009
  3273. Look out, America.
  3274.  
  3275. 736
  3276. 00:43:03,109 --> 00:43:04,984
  3277. Here comes Sugar Daddy.
  3278.  
  3279. 737
  3280. 00:43:28,734 --> 00:43:31,301
  3281. So, we're here in America.
  3282.  
  3283. 738
  3284. 00:43:31,401 --> 00:43:33,759
  3285. Day one, jet lag.
  3286.  
  3287. 739
  3288. 00:43:33,859 --> 00:43:37,817
  3289. So I just went in to Jamba Juice
  3290. and got me one of these.
  3291.  
  3292. 740
  3293. 00:43:39,192 --> 00:43:42,967
  3294. 139 grams of sugar.
  3295.  
  3296. 741
  3297. 00:43:43,067 --> 00:43:44,551
  3298. I actually need the calculator for this.
  3299.  
  3300. 742
  3301. 00:43:44,651 --> 00:43:46,109
  3302. That...
  3303.  
  3304. 743
  3305. 00:43:48,401 --> 00:43:52,984
  3306. that is 34 teaspoons of sugar...
  3307.  
  3308. 744
  3309. 00:43:54,859 --> 00:43:55,759
  3310. in that drink.
  3311.  
  3312. 745
  3313. 00:43:55,859 --> 00:43:59,484
  3314. That is nearly my daily
  3315. allowance in this cup.
  3316.  
  3317. 746
  3318. 00:44:01,276 --> 00:44:02,859
  3319. What a great jet lag cure.
  3320.  
  3321. 747
  3322. 00:44:07,067 --> 00:44:09,567
  3323. Wow, wow, wow, wow.
  3324.  
  3325. 748
  3326. 00:44:12,776 --> 00:44:14,676
  3327. Now, if I was to eat
  3328. the same amount of sugar
  3329.  
  3330. 749
  3331. 00:44:14,776 --> 00:44:16,176
  3332. that was in that smoothie
  3333.  
  3334. 750
  3335. 00:44:16,276 --> 00:44:19,717
  3336. but the sugar was in
  3337. its original fruit packaging
  3338.  
  3339. 751
  3340. 00:44:19,817 --> 00:44:23,342
  3341. I would have to eat four peaches,
  3342. nine limes,
  3343.  
  3344. 752
  3345. 00:44:23,442 --> 00:44:25,984
  3346. 30 lemons and 30 strawberries.
  3347.  
  3348. 753
  3349. 00:44:27,067 --> 00:44:29,967
  3350. This might be fine for a bear
  3351. about to go into hibernation,
  3352.  
  3353. 754
  3354. 00:44:30,067 --> 00:44:32,717
  3355. but it can have damaging effects
  3356. for a human
  3357.  
  3358. 755
  3359. 00:44:32,817 --> 00:44:34,651
  3360. who thinks they are making
  3361. a healthy choice.
  3362.  
  3363. 756
  3364. 00:44:37,359 --> 00:44:41,176
  3365. One of the interesting conflicts
  3366. today is this idea,
  3367.  
  3368. 757
  3369. 00:44:41,276 --> 00:44:43,009
  3370. pushed by some of our government...
  3371.  
  3372. 758
  3373. 00:44:43,109 --> 00:44:44,467
  3374. well-meaning government officials,
  3375.  
  3376. 759
  3377. 00:44:44,567 --> 00:44:48,217
  3378. that if you could just get
  3379. Coca-Colas out of McDonald's
  3380.  
  3381. 760
  3382. 00:44:48,317 --> 00:44:51,259
  3383. and get the kids to drink fruit
  3384. smoothies they'd be healthier.
  3385.  
  3386. 761
  3387. 00:44:51,359 --> 00:44:54,609
  3388. And yet the fruit smoothies have
  3389. just as much sugar as a Coca-Cola.
  3390.  
  3391. 762
  3392. 00:44:58,359 --> 00:45:01,134
  3393. The first thing I noticed
  3394. with American foods
  3395.  
  3396. 763
  3397. 00:45:01,234 --> 00:45:05,609
  3398. was how difficult it was gonna
  3399. be to stay under 40 teaspoons.
  3400.  
  3401. 764
  3402. 00:45:06,734 --> 00:45:09,509
  3403. It wasn't just the abundance
  3404. of sugar in the food
  3405.  
  3406. 765
  3407. 00:45:09,609 --> 00:45:11,592
  3408. but also the presence of a sweetener
  3409.  
  3410. 766
  3411. 00:45:11,692 --> 00:45:13,484
  3412. called high fructose corn syrup.
  3413.  
  3414. 767
  3415. 00:45:16,067 --> 00:45:19,217
  3416. Its primary delivery system
  3417. is soft drink,
  3418.  
  3419. 768
  3420. 00:45:19,317 --> 00:45:22,092
  3421. which adds roughly
  3422. 4,000 teaspoons a year
  3423.  
  3424. 769
  3425. 00:45:22,192 --> 00:45:23,817
  3426. to the diet of each American.
  3427.  
  3428. 770
  3429. 00:45:24,942 --> 00:45:26,176
  3430. People don't actually realise
  3431.  
  3432. 771
  3433. 00:45:26,276 --> 00:45:28,009
  3434. that high fructose corn syrup and sugar
  3435.  
  3436. 772
  3437. 00:45:28,109 --> 00:45:30,259
  3438. are virtually identical.
  3439.  
  3440. 773
  3441. 00:45:30,359 --> 00:45:33,551
  3442. See, corn refiners back in
  3443. the 1980s did their best
  3444.  
  3445. 774
  3446. 00:45:33,651 --> 00:45:35,717
  3447. to make sure that people didn't equate
  3448.  
  3449. 775
  3450. 00:45:35,817 --> 00:45:37,967
  3451. high fructose corn syrup with sugar.
  3452.  
  3453. 776
  3454. 00:45:38,067 --> 00:45:39,467
  3455. Flash forward 20 years later,
  3456.  
  3457. 777
  3458. 00:45:39,567 --> 00:45:41,759
  3459. people are blaming
  3460. high fructose corn syrup
  3461.  
  3462. 778
  3463. 00:45:41,859 --> 00:45:43,509
  3464. for the obesity epidemic.
  3465.  
  3466. 779
  3467. 00:45:43,609 --> 00:45:46,717
  3468. And now the corn refiners
  3469. are desperately trying to say
  3470.  
  3471. 780
  3472. 00:45:46,817 --> 00:45:49,467
  3473. that they are sugar,
  3474. they're no different,
  3475.  
  3476. 781
  3477. 00:45:49,567 --> 00:45:51,759
  3478. and the sugar industry's going,
  3479. "No, you're not.
  3480.  
  3481. 782
  3482. 00:45:51,859 --> 00:45:53,234
  3483. "You're entirely different."
  3484.  
  3485. 783
  3486. 00:45:58,109 --> 00:46:00,134
  3487. With sugar and high fructose corn syrup
  3488.  
  3489. 784
  3490. 00:46:00,234 --> 00:46:01,967
  3491. now in the spotlight,
  3492.  
  3493. 785
  3494. 00:46:02,067 --> 00:46:03,634
  3495. I notice that companies are using
  3496.  
  3497. 786
  3498. 00:46:03,734 --> 00:46:05,801
  3499. a range of seductive names
  3500.  
  3501. 787
  3502. 00:46:05,901 --> 00:46:08,151
  3503. for other fructose-based sweeteners.
  3504.  
  3505. 788
  3506. 00:46:10,567 --> 00:46:11,859
  3507. Any sugar...
  3508.  
  3509. 789
  3510. 00:46:11,984 --> 00:46:15,967
  3511. brown sugar, white sugar,
  3512. high fructose corn syrup,
  3513.  
  3514. 790
  3515. 00:46:16,067 --> 00:46:18,259
  3516. fruit juice concentrate
  3517. from fruit juice...
  3518.  
  3519. 791
  3520. 00:46:18,359 --> 00:46:20,484
  3521. equal effect on your health.
  3522.  
  3523. 792
  3524. 00:46:31,317 --> 00:46:33,717
  3525. Not feeling very well at all today.
  3526.  
  3527. 793
  3528. 00:46:33,817 --> 00:46:37,467
  3529. Nauseous in my stomach
  3530. and had a headache all morning.
  3531.  
  3532. 794
  3533. 00:46:37,567 --> 00:46:39,217
  3534. And it's interesting,
  3535. 'cause we're driving through
  3536.  
  3537. 795
  3538. 00:46:39,317 --> 00:46:42,526
  3539. rural America now,
  3540. we're in North Carolina.
  3541.  
  3542. 796
  3543. 00:46:48,442 --> 00:46:52,217
  3544. It's so hard to get any kind
  3545. of decent food.
  3546.  
  3547. 797
  3548. 00:46:52,317 --> 00:46:54,342
  3549. There are signs that say 'food exit',
  3550.  
  3551. 798
  3552. 00:46:54,442 --> 00:46:56,259
  3553. but that food is either McDonald's
  3554.  
  3555. 799
  3556. 00:46:56,359 --> 00:46:59,092
  3557. or Taco Bell or KFC.
  3558.  
  3559. 800
  3560. 00:46:59,192 --> 00:47:00,592
  3561. It's impossible.
  3562.  
  3563. 801
  3564. 00:47:00,692 --> 00:47:04,467
  3565. And if you grow up as a kid and this
  3566. is your only experience of food
  3567.  
  3568. 802
  3569. 00:47:04,567 --> 00:47:06,009
  3570. and what food is,
  3571.  
  3572. 803
  3573. 00:47:06,109 --> 00:47:09,176
  3574. it's little wonder that there's
  3575. a massive problem
  3576.  
  3577. 804
  3578. 00:47:09,276 --> 00:47:10,692
  3579. in this country.
  3580.  
  3581. 805
  3582. 00:47:47,567 --> 00:47:49,817
  3583. The next stop was
  3584. Barbourville, Kentucky.
  3585.  
  3586. 806
  3587. 00:47:51,442 --> 00:47:53,859
  3588. In the great cola wars of the 1990s,
  3589.  
  3590. 807
  3591. 00:47:53,984 --> 00:47:57,051
  3592. Pepsi and Coke were
  3593. engaged in a fierce battle.
  3594.  
  3595. 808
  3596. 00:47:57,151 --> 00:47:59,801
  3597. The Pepsi army took a strong foothold
  3598.  
  3599. 809
  3600. 00:47:59,901 --> 00:48:02,092
  3601. in the state of Kentucky
  3602.  
  3603. 810
  3604. 00:48:02,192 --> 00:48:06,134
  3605. and their number-one sniper
  3606. is the drink Mountain Dew.
  3607.  
  3608. 811
  3609. 00:48:06,234 --> 00:48:08,759
  3610. In this 1.25-litre bottle
  3611.  
  3612. 812
  3613. 00:48:08,859 --> 00:48:11,342
  3614. you'll find 37 teaspoons of sugar
  3615.  
  3616. 813
  3617. 00:48:11,442 --> 00:48:15,609
  3618. and 40% more caffeine than
  3619. the same size bottle of Coke.
  3620.  
  3621. 814
  3622. 00:48:17,776 --> 00:48:19,717
  3623. The people of Kentucky
  3624. have understandably had
  3625.  
  3626. 815
  3627. 00:48:19,817 --> 00:48:21,859
  3628. some problems with their teeth,
  3629.  
  3630. 816
  3631. 00:48:21,984 --> 00:48:25,092
  3632. and one dentist is doing
  3633. something about it.
  3634.  
  3635. 817
  3636. 00:48:25,192 --> 00:48:26,859
  3637. His name is Edwin Smith.
  3638.  
  3639. 818
  3640. 00:48:28,067 --> 00:48:30,467
  3641. This is his letterbox,
  3642. this is his daughter
  3643.  
  3644. 819
  3645. 00:48:30,567 --> 00:48:32,984
  3646. and this is him
  3647. as a collectable figurine.
  3648.  
  3649. 820
  3650. 00:48:34,484 --> 00:48:37,301
  3651. Edwin drives around the state
  3652. of Kentucky in RVs
  3653.  
  3654. 821
  3655. 00:48:37,401 --> 00:48:40,301
  3656. he has converted
  3657. into mobile dental clinics.
  3658.  
  3659. 822
  3660. 00:48:40,401 --> 00:48:43,217
  3661. He and his team visit schools,
  3662. educate the kids
  3663.  
  3664. 823
  3665. 00:48:43,317 --> 00:48:45,717
  3666. and treat their teeth.
  3667.  
  3668. 824
  3669. 00:48:45,817 --> 00:48:46,801
  3670. Early in my practice
  3671.  
  3672. 825
  3673. 00:48:46,901 --> 00:48:50,467
  3674. I saw these patients who
  3675. would have this unusual decay,
  3676.  
  3677. 826
  3678. 00:48:50,567 --> 00:48:52,342
  3679. brown decay, around the gum line,
  3680.  
  3681. 827
  3682. 00:48:52,442 --> 00:48:53,717
  3683. usually the front teeth.
  3684.  
  3685. 828
  3686. 00:48:53,817 --> 00:48:55,859
  3687. Most of these people were
  3688. addicted to Mountain Dew,
  3689.  
  3690. 829
  3691. 00:48:55,984 --> 00:48:57,342
  3692. in particular.
  3693.  
  3694. 830
  3695. 00:48:57,442 --> 00:49:00,759
  3696. And that's where
  3697. we came up with the term
  3698.  
  3699. 831
  3700. 00:49:00,859 --> 00:49:01,984
  3701. 'Mountain Dew mouth'.
  3702.  
  3703. 832
  3704. 00:49:04,942 --> 00:49:07,509
  3705. I've talked to some kids who say
  3706. they may drink 10 a day.
  3707.  
  3708. 833
  3709. 00:49:07,609 --> 00:49:10,717
  3710. They started drinking it so early that
  3711. they don't know when they started.
  3712.  
  3713. 834
  3714. 00:49:10,817 --> 00:49:12,967
  3715. Mountain Dew will tickle your innards
  3716.  
  3717. 835
  3718. 00:49:13,067 --> 00:49:15,634
  3719. 'cause there's a bang in every bottle.
  3720.  
  3721. 836
  3722. 00:49:15,734 --> 00:49:17,176
  3723. They take the lid off,
  3724. they take a drink.
  3725.  
  3726. 837
  3727. 00:49:17,276 --> 00:49:20,467
  3728. 20 minutes or so, it starts to wear off
  3729. and they take another drink.
  3730.  
  3731. 838
  3732. 00:49:20,567 --> 00:49:23,092
  3733. It takes the oral cavity
  3734. about 20 minutes
  3735.  
  3736. 839
  3737. 00:49:23,192 --> 00:49:25,134
  3738. to cleanse itself naturally with saliva,
  3739.  
  3740. 840
  3741. 00:49:25,234 --> 00:49:27,759
  3742. so if you're taking a drink
  3743. every 20 minutes,
  3744.  
  3745. 841
  3746. 00:49:27,859 --> 00:49:31,734
  3747. it's as though you're bathing
  3748. your teeth in this all day long.
  3749.  
  3750. 842
  3751. 00:49:37,067 --> 00:49:39,301
  3752. What's the youngest kids that you treat?
  3753.  
  3754. 843
  3755. 00:49:39,401 --> 00:49:40,759
  3756. Sometimes 3-year-olds,
  3757.  
  3758. 844
  3759. 00:49:40,859 --> 00:49:43,509
  3760. 3-, 4-year-olds that have
  3761. a lot of tooth decay.
  3762.  
  3763. 845
  3764. 00:49:43,609 --> 00:49:48,467
  3765. And those are usually what they
  3766. call baby bottle tooth decay,
  3767.  
  3768. 846
  3769. 00:49:48,567 --> 00:49:51,342
  3770. and that's from having juices
  3771. in baby bottles.
  3772.  
  3773. 847
  3774. 00:49:51,442 --> 00:49:54,859
  3775. Sometimes it's from having soft
  3776. drinks in the baby bottles, too.
  3777.  
  3778. 848
  3779. 00:49:56,234 --> 00:49:58,842
  3780. Do you do the majority
  3781. of your treatments in Kentucky?
  3782.  
  3783. 849
  3784. 00:49:58,942 --> 00:50:00,967
  3785. - Yes. Yeah.
  3786. - OK.
  3787.  
  3788. 850
  3789. 00:50:01,067 --> 00:50:03,342
  3790. It's eastern Kentucky,
  3791. the Appalachian region,
  3792.  
  3793. 851
  3794. 00:50:03,442 --> 00:50:04,342
  3795. the mountains.
  3796.  
  3797. 852
  3798. 00:50:04,442 --> 00:50:05,859
  3799. That's the poorest region in the state.
  3800.  
  3801. 853
  3802. 00:50:05,984 --> 00:50:08,009
  3803. It's directly related to poverty.
  3804.  
  3805. 854
  3806. 00:50:08,109 --> 00:50:09,026
  3807. Yep.
  3808.  
  3809. 855
  3810. 00:50:19,067 --> 00:50:21,092
  3811. It's pretty common
  3812. for people around here
  3813.  
  3814. 856
  3815. 00:50:21,192 --> 00:50:23,051
  3816. to drink a lot of pop.
  3817.  
  3818. 857
  3819. 00:50:23,151 --> 00:50:25,134
  3820. Mainly it's Mountain Dew and Pepsi.
  3821.  
  3822. 858
  3823. 00:50:25,234 --> 00:50:28,759
  3824. This is 17-year-old Larry Hammons.
  3825.  
  3826. 859
  3827. 00:50:28,859 --> 00:50:31,467
  3828. He's lived in Kentucky all his life.
  3829.  
  3830. 860
  3831. 00:50:31,567 --> 00:50:34,467
  3832. This is his tatt,
  3833. this is his favourite T-shirt
  3834.  
  3835. 861
  3836. 00:50:34,567 --> 00:50:37,151
  3837. and these are his teeth.
  3838.  
  3839. 862
  3840. 00:50:39,984 --> 00:50:41,859
  3841. My 18th birthday's in eight days
  3842.  
  3843. 863
  3844. 00:50:41,984 --> 00:50:43,717
  3845. and, I mean,
  3846.  
  3847. 864
  3848. 00:50:43,817 --> 00:50:46,342
  3849. people look down upon me
  3850. because of my teeth.
  3851.  
  3852. 865
  3853. 00:50:46,442 --> 00:50:49,301
  3854. As I was a kid I was never
  3855. worried about my teeth
  3856.  
  3857. 866
  3858. 00:50:49,401 --> 00:50:51,759
  3859. and I would just take a pop
  3860. everywhere I went
  3861.  
  3862. 867
  3863. 00:50:51,859 --> 00:50:54,009
  3864. and I'd always have one in my hand.
  3865.  
  3866. 868
  3867. 00:50:54,109 --> 00:50:55,342
  3868. And how old do you reckon you were
  3869.  
  3870. 869
  3871. 00:50:55,442 --> 00:50:57,467
  3872. when you had your first
  3873. Mountain Dew, like, how old?
  3874.  
  3875. 870
  3876. 00:50:57,567 --> 00:50:59,317
  3877. I would probably say two or three.
  3878.  
  3879. 871
  3880. 00:51:00,734 --> 00:51:02,967
  3881. And how much a day
  3882. would you say you have?
  3883.  
  3884. 872
  3885. 00:51:03,067 --> 00:51:05,592
  3886. I would say at least four
  3887. or five bottles.
  3888.  
  3889. 873
  3890. 00:51:05,692 --> 00:51:09,717
  3891. If it was cans,
  3892. I would say at least a 12-pack.
  3893.  
  3894. 874
  3895. 00:51:09,817 --> 00:51:11,551
  3896. 12 cans a day.
  3897.  
  3898. 875
  3899. 00:51:11,651 --> 00:51:14,467
  3900. Man, are there people
  3901. doing that in this town?
  3902.  
  3903. 876
  3904. 00:51:14,567 --> 00:51:15,759
  3905. Yeah.
  3906.  
  3907. 877
  3908. 00:51:15,859 --> 00:51:17,676
  3909. What about... You were talking
  3910. about your cousin before.
  3911.  
  3912. 878
  3913. 00:51:17,776 --> 00:51:21,842
  3914. I would say about six
  3915. or seven cans a day,
  3916.  
  3917. 879
  3918. 00:51:21,942 --> 00:51:23,984
  3919. and he's only three years old.
  3920.  
  3921. 880
  3922. 00:51:25,067 --> 00:51:27,592
  3923. Wow. And how does he...
  3924. Does he drink it from the can?
  3925.  
  3926. 881
  3927. 00:51:27,692 --> 00:51:30,484
  3928. No, from a bottle.
  3929. She puts it in his bottle.
  3930.  
  3931. 882
  3932. 00:51:36,401 --> 00:51:38,342
  3933. Edwin is meeting Larry today
  3934.  
  3935. 883
  3936. 00:51:38,442 --> 00:51:40,467
  3937. because he plans to remove
  3938. all of his teeth
  3939.  
  3940. 884
  3941. 00:51:40,567 --> 00:51:42,359
  3942. and replace them with dentures.
  3943.  
  3944. 885
  3945. 00:51:44,859 --> 00:51:48,151
  3946. He has 26 teeth that
  3947. need to be extracted altogether.
  3948.  
  3949. 886
  3950. 00:51:49,317 --> 00:51:52,859
  3951. I'd like to say that that's
  3952. really rare but it's not.
  3953.  
  3954. 887
  3955. 00:51:52,984 --> 00:51:55,009
  3956. - You doing OK, Larry?
  3957. - Yeah, pretty good.
  3958.  
  3959. 888
  3960. 00:51:55,109 --> 00:51:56,467
  3961. - Nervous.
  3962. - OK.
  3963.  
  3964. 889
  3965. 00:51:56,567 --> 00:51:58,301
  3966. Have you got any questions about today?
  3967.  
  3968. 890
  3969. 00:51:58,401 --> 00:52:00,467
  3970. - Yeah.
  3971. - What?
  3972.  
  3973. 891
  3974. 00:52:00,567 --> 00:52:02,567
  3975. When can we get this started?
  3976.  
  3977. 892
  3978. 00:52:12,317 --> 00:52:14,634
  3979. Can we get his mom in here? OK.
  3980.  
  3981. 893
  3982. 00:52:14,734 --> 00:52:18,151
  3983. I don't want no pain for him.
  3984. I wish I could take it for him.
  3985.  
  3986. 894
  3987. 00:53:34,067 --> 00:53:35,484
  3988. You're doing well, mate.
  3989.  
  3990. 895
  3991. 00:53:37,151 --> 00:53:38,109
  3992. Hell no.
  3993.  
  3994. 896
  3995. 00:53:39,317 --> 00:53:40,301
  3996. You're a brave man.
  3997.  
  3998. 897
  3999. 00:53:40,401 --> 00:53:42,859
  4000. My blood pressure is saying, "Whoosh."
  4001.  
  4002. 898
  4003. 00:53:42,984 --> 00:53:44,217
  4004. Yeah.
  4005.  
  4006. 899
  4007. 00:53:44,317 --> 00:53:46,676
  4008. Well, right now,
  4009. Larry doesn't feel numb,
  4010.  
  4011. 900
  4012. 00:53:46,776 --> 00:53:49,759
  4013. and I think we have a couple of
  4014. factors playing a role in that.
  4015.  
  4016. 901
  4017. 00:53:49,859 --> 00:53:53,842
  4018. One is that he's very nervous
  4019. and the adrenaline's flowing,
  4020.  
  4021. 902
  4022. 00:53:53,942 --> 00:53:57,092
  4023. and the other is that he has
  4024. infection in there
  4025.  
  4026. 903
  4027. 00:53:57,192 --> 00:53:58,592
  4028. and has had infection for some time,
  4029.  
  4030. 904
  4031. 00:53:58,692 --> 00:54:01,817
  4032. so the anaesthetic does not
  4033. take effect as well.
  4034.  
  4035. 905
  4036. 00:54:02,942 --> 00:54:04,467
  4037. The condition his teeth are in now
  4038.  
  4039. 906
  4040. 00:54:04,567 --> 00:54:06,676
  4041. you know he's suffered a lot
  4042. before he's even been here,
  4043.  
  4044. 907
  4045. 00:54:06,776 --> 00:54:09,276
  4046. so he knows what pain is.
  4047.  
  4048. 908
  4049. 00:54:11,276 --> 00:54:12,759
  4050. Due to infection,
  4051.  
  4052. 909
  4053. 00:54:12,859 --> 00:54:16,301
  4054. no amount of anaesthetic
  4055. would work on Larry's gums,
  4056.  
  4057. 910
  4058. 00:54:16,401 --> 00:54:18,634
  4059. so Edwin has decided to
  4060. postpone the procedure
  4061.  
  4062. 911
  4063. 00:54:18,734 --> 00:54:19,859
  4064. for another day.
  4065.  
  4066. 912
  4067. 00:54:23,317 --> 00:54:26,676
  4068. When contacted,
  4069. Pepsi said that in moderation
  4070.  
  4071. 913
  4072. 00:54:26,776 --> 00:54:29,967
  4073. Mountain Dew is part of
  4074. a healthy, balanced diet.
  4075.  
  4076. 914
  4077. 00:54:30,067 --> 00:54:32,634
  4078. But I would argue that any drink
  4079. with that much sugar
  4080.  
  4081. 915
  4082. 00:54:32,734 --> 00:54:33,967
  4083. and caffeine in it
  4084.  
  4085. 916
  4086. 00:54:34,067 --> 00:54:36,567
  4087. is quite difficult to have
  4088. in moderation.
  4089.  
  4090. 917
  4091. 00:54:39,442 --> 00:54:41,676
  4092. In fact, despite sitting through
  4093. Larry's ordeal,
  4094.  
  4095. 918
  4096. 00:54:41,776 --> 00:54:44,134
  4097. the biggest shock came
  4098. when Larry told me
  4099.  
  4100. 919
  4101. 00:54:44,234 --> 00:54:47,984
  4102. that he still loved Mountain Dew
  4103. and would continue to drink it.
  4104.  
  4105. 920
  4106. 00:54:56,359 --> 00:54:59,717
  4107. Hi, honey.' Oh, it was an amazing day.
  4108.  
  4109. 921
  4110. 00:54:59,817 --> 00:55:02,859
  4111. When you think of Amata and now this,
  4112.  
  4113. 922
  4114. 00:55:02,984 --> 00:55:05,842
  4115. you're seeing the direct effects
  4116. of what sugar's doing,
  4117.  
  4118. 923
  4119. 00:55:05,942 --> 00:55:07,967
  4120. and the companies,
  4121. they just don't see it
  4122.  
  4123. 924
  4124. 00:55:08,067 --> 00:55:11,301
  4125. because they're... they're
  4126. worried about making money,
  4127.  
  4128. 925
  4129. 00:55:11,401 --> 00:55:14,092
  4130. they're not on the ground level
  4131. seeing the effects,
  4132.  
  4133. 926
  4134. 00:55:14,192 --> 00:55:15,801
  4135. and they don't care, really.
  4136.  
  4137. 927
  4138. 00:55:15,901 --> 00:55:18,509
  4139. And I spoke to the dentist about, like,
  4140.  
  4141. 928
  4142. 00:55:18,609 --> 00:55:20,676
  4143. what Pepsi have done about it
  4144. and stuff, and he said,
  4145.  
  4146. 929
  4147. 00:55:20,776 --> 00:55:22,592
  4148. "Oh, look, they contacted me and said,
  4149.  
  4150. 930
  4151. 00:55:22,692 --> 00:55:26,467
  4152. "'Look, we really wanna help you out, '"
  4153. and, you know, so they've bought an RV,
  4154.  
  4155. 931
  4156. 00:55:26,567 --> 00:55:29,259
  4157. another car to help with
  4158. the kids, but he's, like,
  4159.  
  4160. 932
  4161. 00:55:29,359 --> 00:55:30,717
  4162. "Look, yeah, it's good,"
  4163.  
  4164. 933
  4165. 00:55:30,817 --> 00:55:34,509
  4166. but they don't really need
  4167. an RV, they need education.
  4168.  
  4169. 934
  4170. 00:55:34,609 --> 00:55:35,634
  4171. But, as he said today...
  4172.  
  4173. 935
  4174. 00:55:35,734 --> 00:55:38,009
  4175. They need to not drink
  4176. Mountain Dew every day.
  4177.  
  4178. 936
  4179. 00:55:38,109 --> 00:55:40,009
  4180. But, as he said, they're not
  4181. gonna educate the kids
  4182.  
  4183. 937
  4184. 00:55:40,109 --> 00:55:41,509
  4185. 'cause that means
  4186. they'll stop drinking it,
  4187.  
  4188. 938
  4189. 00:55:41,609 --> 00:55:43,234
  4190. and that's a disaster for them.
  4191.  
  4192. 939
  4193. 00:55:52,817 --> 00:55:54,342
  4194. My experience with Larry
  4195.  
  4196. 940
  4197. 00:55:54,442 --> 00:55:57,467
  4198. led me to a Pulitzer
  4199. Prize-winning author
  4200.  
  4201. 941
  4202. 00:55:57,567 --> 00:55:59,967
  4203. who has written extensively
  4204. on how the food giants
  4205.  
  4206. 942
  4207. 00:56:00,067 --> 00:56:02,067
  4208. have got us hooked on their products.
  4209.  
  4210. 943
  4211. 00:56:03,692 --> 00:56:06,551
  4212. You can't underestimate
  4213.  
  4214. 944
  4215. 00:56:06,651 --> 00:56:09,467
  4216. the amount of scientific effort
  4217.  
  4218. 945
  4219. 00:56:09,567 --> 00:56:12,842
  4220. that these companies will put into
  4221.  
  4222. 946
  4223. 00:56:12,942 --> 00:56:16,484
  4224. maximising the allure of their products.
  4225.  
  4226. 947
  4227. 00:56:17,692 --> 00:56:20,342
  4228. Understanding the sort of fundamentals
  4229.  
  4230. 948
  4231. 00:56:20,442 --> 00:56:21,759
  4232. of how we taste
  4233.  
  4234. 949
  4235. 00:56:21,859 --> 00:56:26,967
  4236. and why we crave
  4237. and what makes food addictive.
  4238.  
  4239. 950
  4240. 00:56:27,067 --> 00:56:29,592
  4241. I was lucky enough to spend some time
  4242.  
  4243. 951
  4244. 00:56:29,692 --> 00:56:32,967
  4245. with a legend in
  4246. the processed food industry.
  4247.  
  4248. 952
  4249. 00:56:33,067 --> 00:56:35,217
  4250. His name is Howard Moskowitz.
  4251.  
  4252. 953
  4253. 00:56:35,317 --> 00:56:38,509
  4254. And he walked me through
  4255. his recent creation
  4256.  
  4257. 954
  4258. 00:56:38,609 --> 00:56:41,276
  4259. of a new soda flavour for Dr Pepper.
  4260.  
  4261. 955
  4262. 00:56:42,567 --> 00:56:48,801
  4263. He started with 61 levels of
  4264. sweeteners in the formulation,
  4265.  
  4266. 956
  4267. 00:56:48,901 --> 00:56:51,801
  4268. subjected that to more than 3,000
  4269.  
  4270. 957
  4271. 00:56:51,901 --> 00:56:54,592
  4272. consumer taste tests around the country,
  4273.  
  4274. 958
  4275. 00:56:54,692 --> 00:56:56,759
  4276. then took that data
  4277.  
  4278. 959
  4279. 00:56:56,859 --> 00:57:01,509
  4280. and out came the optimum
  4281. level of sweetness
  4282.  
  4283. 960
  4284. 00:57:01,609 --> 00:57:05,551
  4285. that was guaranteed to send
  4286. their new soda
  4287.  
  4288. 961
  4289. 00:57:05,651 --> 00:57:07,651
  4290. flying off the shelf.
  4291.  
  4292. 962
  4293. 00:57:16,234 --> 00:57:18,301
  4294. Behind the closed doors of industry,
  4295.  
  4296. 963
  4297. 00:57:18,401 --> 00:57:20,592
  4298. this optimal amount of sugar
  4299.  
  4300. 964
  4301. 00:57:20,692 --> 00:57:23,109
  4302. is referred to as 'the bliss point'.
  4303.  
  4304. 965
  4305. 00:57:26,192 --> 00:57:27,842
  4306. Back in the 1970s,
  4307.  
  4308. 966
  4309. 00:57:27,942 --> 00:57:29,259
  4310. Howard Moskowitz discovered
  4311.  
  4312. 967
  4313. 00:57:29,359 --> 00:57:31,967
  4314. that as you increase
  4315. the amount of sugar in a product
  4316.  
  4317. 968
  4318. 00:57:32,067 --> 00:57:33,967
  4319. people liked it more and more.
  4320.  
  4321. 969
  4322. 00:57:34,067 --> 00:57:35,467
  4323. But then they peaked
  4324.  
  4325. 970
  4326. 00:57:35,567 --> 00:57:37,176
  4327. and if any more sugar was added
  4328.  
  4329. 971
  4330. 00:57:37,276 --> 00:57:38,967
  4331. then they stopped liking it.
  4332.  
  4333. 972
  4334. 00:57:39,067 --> 00:57:41,176
  4335. So I discovered the bliss point,
  4336.  
  4337. 973
  4338. 00:57:41,276 --> 00:57:43,176
  4339. and that's what it was
  4340. christened... the bliss point.
  4341.  
  4342. 974
  4343. 00:57:43,276 --> 00:57:48,842
  4344. Well, fast forward 45 years
  4345. later, it means pasta sauce,
  4346.  
  4347. 975
  4348. 00:57:48,942 --> 00:57:52,592
  4349. it means sodas, it means cereals.
  4350.  
  4351. 976
  4352. 00:57:52,692 --> 00:57:56,467
  4353. Creating bliss points in
  4354. products all over the place
  4355.  
  4356. 977
  4357. 00:57:56,567 --> 00:58:00,067
  4358. is exploiting the biology of the child.
  4359.  
  4360. 978
  4361. 00:58:01,359 --> 00:58:04,092
  4362. You know, it's created
  4363. this expectation in kids
  4364.  
  4365. 979
  4366. 00:58:04,192 --> 00:58:09,467
  4367. that everything
  4368. they eat should taste sweet,
  4369.  
  4370. 980
  4371. 00:58:09,567 --> 00:58:13,092
  4372. so when you get to
  4373. the vegetable aisle, right,
  4374.  
  4375. 981
  4376. 00:58:13,192 --> 00:58:15,967
  4377. and you're trying to get little
  4378. Mikey to eat that broccoli
  4379.  
  4380. 982
  4381. 00:58:16,067 --> 00:58:18,551
  4382. and he starts tasting
  4383. those bitter notes, right,
  4384.  
  4385. 983
  4386. 00:58:18,651 --> 00:58:20,092
  4387. instead of sweetness, you know,
  4388.  
  4389. 984
  4390. 00:58:20,192 --> 00:58:23,151
  4391. you're in for a load of trouble
  4392. as a parent.
  4393.  
  4394. 985
  4395. 00:58:28,151 --> 00:58:30,301
  4396. It's understandable
  4397. that our palates have adjusted
  4398.  
  4399. 986
  4400. 00:58:30,401 --> 00:58:32,859
  4401. to all of these blissed out foods
  4402.  
  4403. 987
  4404. 00:58:32,984 --> 00:58:35,984
  4405. when we have such
  4406. a primal desire for sweet.
  4407.  
  4408. 988
  4409. 00:58:37,276 --> 00:58:40,342
  4410. Even Mother Nature herself
  4411. has created a berry
  4412.  
  4413. 989
  4414. 00:58:40,442 --> 00:58:42,359
  4415. that makes everything taste sweet.
  4416.  
  4417. 990
  4418. 00:58:44,817 --> 00:58:49,009
  4419. So, in front of me
  4420. I have three food items
  4421.  
  4422. 991
  4423. 00:58:49,109 --> 00:58:51,759
  4424. that it's fair to say I don't enjoy.
  4425.  
  4426. 992
  4427. 00:58:51,859 --> 00:58:56,676
  4428. This here piping hot chilli,
  4429. this here sour lemon
  4430.  
  4431. 993
  4432. 00:58:56,776 --> 00:59:00,359
  4433. and this nasty bottle
  4434. of apple cider vinegar.
  4435.  
  4436. 994
  4437. 00:59:01,567 --> 00:59:03,509
  4438. But apparently
  4439.  
  4440. 995
  4441. 00:59:03,609 --> 00:59:07,592
  4442. if I put this miracle berry
  4443. onto my tongue
  4444.  
  4445. 996
  4446. 00:59:07,692 --> 00:59:11,092
  4447. and then eat those things,
  4448.  
  4449. 997
  4450. 00:59:11,192 --> 00:59:14,067
  4451. it's supposed to make them taste sweet.
  4452.  
  4453. 998
  4454. 00:59:25,651 --> 00:59:27,984
  4455. No way!
  4456.  
  4457. 999
  4458. 00:59:30,567 --> 00:59:31,859
  4459. That's an orange.
  4460.  
  4461. 1000
  4462. 00:59:34,317 --> 00:59:35,734
  4463. I'm dubious.
  4464.  
  4465. 1001
  4466. 00:59:44,567 --> 00:59:47,217
  4467. When it hit my throat
  4468. it was really intense,
  4469.  
  4470. 1002
  4471. 00:59:47,317 --> 00:59:49,026
  4472. but in the mouth...
  4473.  
  4474. 1003
  4475. 00:59:50,567 --> 00:59:51,592
  4476. I don't know what it tasted like.
  4477.  
  4478. 1004
  4479. 00:59:51,692 --> 00:59:54,384
  4480. Maybe, um... lemonade kind of thing.
  4481.  
  4482. 1005
  4483. 00:59:54,484 --> 00:59:57,859
  4484. Wasn't too sweet,
  4485. but it was not apple cider vinegar.
  4486.  
  4487. 1006
  4488. 01:00:00,151 --> 01:00:02,467
  4489. But this has got me nervous.
  4490.  
  4491. 1007
  4492. 01:00:02,567 --> 01:00:05,734
  4493. I do not like chilli at all.
  4494.  
  4495. 1008
  4496. 01:00:15,067 --> 01:00:16,484
  4497. Please work.
  4498.  
  4499. 1009
  4500. 01:00:24,109 --> 01:00:25,259
  4501. Nothing.
  4502.  
  4503. 1010
  4504. 01:00:25,359 --> 01:00:28,109
  4505. Oh! It's hit my throat, though!
  4506.  
  4507. 1011
  4508. 01:00:29,317 --> 01:00:31,609
  4509. There's no miracle berry
  4510. on my oesophagus.
  4511.  
  4512. 1012
  4513. 01:00:33,609 --> 01:00:34,984
  4514. Damn.
  4515.  
  4516. 1013
  4517. 01:00:36,442 --> 01:00:38,842
  4518. This experiment with my tastebuds
  4519.  
  4520. 1014
  4521. 01:00:38,942 --> 01:00:42,467
  4522. made me realise what the food
  4523. companies have always known...
  4524.  
  4525. 1015
  4526. 01:00:42,567 --> 01:00:45,676
  4527. that adding sweetness
  4528. can make anything palatable.
  4529.  
  4530. 1016
  4531. 01:00:45,776 --> 01:00:48,176
  4532. I'm so sorry.
  4533.  
  4534. 1017
  4535. 01:00:48,276 --> 01:00:49,359
  4536. Well, almost anything.
  4537.  
  4538. 1018
  4539. 01:00:58,067 --> 01:01:01,842
  4540. It was now day 35,
  4541. and the rule of the experiment
  4542.  
  4543. 1019
  4544. 01:01:01,942 --> 01:01:05,817
  4545. I was finding increasingly hard
  4546. to maintain was exercise.
  4547.  
  4548. 1020
  4549. 01:01:06,984 --> 01:01:08,717
  4550. My motivation had plummeted.
  4551.  
  4552. 1021
  4553. 01:01:08,817 --> 01:01:09,817
  4554. My heart hurts.
  4555.  
  4556. 1022
  4557. 01:01:24,151 --> 01:01:25,859
  4558. Hello, Sharon.
  4559.  
  4560. 1023
  4561. 01:01:25,984 --> 01:01:27,359
  4562. How are you feeling?
  4563.  
  4564. 1024
  4565. 01:01:28,776 --> 01:01:31,967
  4566. Well, if you could see
  4567. me you would not recognise me,
  4568.  
  4569. 1025
  4570. 01:01:32,067 --> 01:01:34,551
  4571. 'cause there's a few pimples
  4572. that have arrived,
  4573.  
  4574. 1026
  4575. 01:01:34,651 --> 01:01:37,467
  4576. there's a lot of fat
  4577. and fullness in my face,
  4578.  
  4579. 1027
  4580. 01:01:37,567 --> 01:01:41,842
  4581. and my tummy is really
  4582. quite something to behold.
  4583.  
  4584. 1028
  4585. 01:01:41,942 --> 01:01:44,467
  4586. I can't fit into my favourite
  4587. new shorts anymore,
  4588.  
  4589. 1029
  4590. 01:01:44,567 --> 01:01:46,842
  4591. which is a bit disappointing.
  4592.  
  4593. 1030
  4594. 01:01:46,942 --> 01:01:48,651
  4595. When did the pimples break out?
  4596.  
  4597. 1031
  4598. 01:01:50,359 --> 01:01:51,859
  4599. About three days ago.
  4600.  
  4601. 1032
  4602. 01:01:51,984 --> 01:01:57,842
  4603. Um... it's probably your liver reacting.
  4604.  
  4605. 1033
  4606. 01:01:57,942 --> 01:02:01,634
  4607. Often skin conditions are related
  4608.  
  4609. 1034
  4610. 01:02:01,734 --> 01:02:04,092
  4611. to poor liver functioning.
  4612.  
  4613. 1035
  4614. 01:02:04,192 --> 01:02:07,676
  4615. So, if someone's on a sort of,
  4616. like, high-processed sugar diet,
  4617.  
  4618. 1036
  4619. 01:02:07,776 --> 01:02:11,259
  4620. you'll see it in their eyes,
  4621. you'll see bags under the eyes,
  4622.  
  4623. 1037
  4624. 01:02:11,359 --> 01:02:12,859
  4625. you'll see it in their skin.
  4626.  
  4627. 1038
  4628. 01:02:12,984 --> 01:02:17,484
  4629. Whether they're here or they're
  4630. just really drawn and lethargic.
  4631.  
  4632. 1039
  4633. 01:02:21,567 --> 01:02:24,467
  4634. Sugar's effects on me
  4635. physically were obvious,
  4636.  
  4637. 1040
  4638. 01:02:24,567 --> 01:02:28,509
  4639. but my cravings for it and
  4640. the mental toll it was taking
  4641.  
  4642. 1041
  4643. 01:02:28,609 --> 01:02:31,692
  4644. prompted me to explore what
  4645. it was doing to my brain.
  4646.  
  4647. 1042
  4648. 01:02:33,317 --> 01:02:36,734
  4649. So I took my pimply face to
  4650. the Oregon Research Institute.
  4651.  
  4652. 1043
  4653. 01:02:39,109 --> 01:02:42,467
  4654. This group of scientists, who
  4655. I'm trusting enormously,
  4656.  
  4657. 1044
  4658. 01:02:42,567 --> 01:02:45,217
  4659. own this colossal
  4660. magnetic sucking machine
  4661.  
  4662. 1045
  4663. 01:02:45,317 --> 01:02:46,734
  4664. called an FMRI...
  4665.  
  4666. 1046
  4667. 01:02:47,817 --> 01:02:50,984
  4668. which they are going to
  4669. put me and my brain into.
  4670.  
  4671. 1047
  4672. 01:02:52,067 --> 01:02:54,384
  4673. They will then show me
  4674. images of this high-sugar,
  4675.  
  4676. 1048
  4677. 01:02:54,484 --> 01:02:57,259
  4678. low-fat milkshake and
  4679. then feed me the milkshake
  4680.  
  4681. 1049
  4682. 01:02:57,359 --> 01:02:58,859
  4683. through a special megastraw.
  4684.  
  4685. 1050
  4686. 01:03:01,151 --> 01:03:03,259
  4687. Then they'll take
  4688. some photos of my brain
  4689.  
  4690. 1051
  4691. 01:03:03,359 --> 01:03:04,967
  4692. and show me how it reacted.
  4693.  
  4694. 1052
  4695. 01:03:05,067 --> 01:03:06,859
  4696. Wow.
  4697.  
  4698. 1053
  4699. 01:03:13,901 --> 01:03:15,717
  4700. Now I'm gonna climb into my own brain
  4701.  
  4702. 1054
  4703. 01:03:15,817 --> 01:03:17,859
  4704. and see what effects
  4705. sugar just had on it.
  4706.  
  4707. 1055
  4708. 01:03:29,317 --> 01:03:32,051
  4709. Now, the first step is that we
  4710. see what's called a cue,
  4711.  
  4712. 1056
  4713. 01:03:32,151 --> 01:03:33,967
  4714. or a trigger...
  4715.  
  4716. 1057
  4717. 01:03:34,067 --> 01:03:36,051
  4718. which, in my case, was the milkshake.
  4719.  
  4720. 1058
  4721. 01:03:36,151 --> 01:03:39,676
  4722. It can be a picture of one
  4723. or the real thing.
  4724.  
  4725. 1059
  4726. 01:03:39,776 --> 01:03:42,009
  4727. Now, when we see this sugary
  4728. cue, or trigger,
  4729.  
  4730. 1060
  4731. 01:03:42,109 --> 01:03:45,467
  4732. a chemical called dopamine
  4733. is released in our brain.
  4734.  
  4735. 1061
  4736. 01:03:45,567 --> 01:03:48,217
  4737. This is an evolutionary urge
  4738. when sweetness was rare,
  4739.  
  4740. 1062
  4741. 01:03:48,317 --> 01:03:51,134
  4742. so when we saw it,
  4743. our brain said, "Get that,
  4744.  
  4745. 1063
  4746. 01:03:51,234 --> 01:03:53,692
  4747. "'cause you need it for quick
  4748. energy and to feel good."
  4749.  
  4750. 1064
  4751. 01:03:55,151 --> 01:03:58,134
  4752. Now, the next step is that
  4753. we get the sugary item.
  4754.  
  4755. 1065
  4756. 01:03:58,234 --> 01:04:01,692
  4757. We bring it to our mouth
  4758. and we taste its sweetness.
  4759.  
  4760. 1066
  4761. 01:04:02,859 --> 01:04:04,717
  4762. It's then that chemicals called opioids
  4763.  
  4764. 1067
  4765. 01:04:04,817 --> 01:04:08,192
  4766. and beta-endorphins are
  4767. released and we feel terrific.
  4768.  
  4769. 1068
  4770. 01:04:09,651 --> 01:04:12,217
  4771. Sugar loads have the same
  4772. reward areas as nicotine,
  4773.  
  4774. 1069
  4775. 01:04:12,317 --> 01:04:13,984
  4776. cocaine and sex!
  4777.  
  4778. 1070
  4779. 01:04:17,067 --> 01:04:19,051
  4780. But it doesn't last long.
  4781.  
  4782. 1071
  4783. 01:04:19,151 --> 01:04:21,967
  4784. Now, if some of us eat
  4785. sugary foods often enough
  4786.  
  4787. 1072
  4788. 01:04:22,067 --> 01:04:24,759
  4789. and establish this happy feeling
  4790. of reward,
  4791.  
  4792. 1073
  4793. 01:04:24,859 --> 01:04:27,676
  4794. it can create subconscious
  4795. or mindless habits,
  4796.  
  4797. 1074
  4798. 01:04:27,776 --> 01:04:30,984
  4799. which are easily triggered by
  4800. more images of sugary foods.
  4801.  
  4802. 1075
  4803. 01:04:33,942 --> 01:04:35,967
  4804. Throw into the mix that
  4805. the fructose half of sugar
  4806.  
  4807. 1076
  4808. 01:04:36,067 --> 01:04:38,301
  4809. also affects our appetite
  4810. control centres,
  4811.  
  4812. 1077
  4813. 01:04:38,401 --> 01:04:41,342
  4814. plus the glucose half affects our moods,
  4815.  
  4816. 1078
  4817. 01:04:41,442 --> 01:04:43,592
  4818. and suddenly we have
  4819. a very volatile combination
  4820.  
  4821. 1079
  4822. 01:04:43,692 --> 01:04:44,609
  4823. on our hands.
  4824.  
  4825. 1080
  4826. 01:04:47,901 --> 01:04:50,259
  4827. One of the very interesting
  4828. emerging findings
  4829.  
  4830. 1081
  4831. 01:04:50,359 --> 01:04:52,467
  4832. in this literature is
  4833.  
  4834. 1082
  4835. 01:04:52,567 --> 01:04:54,801
  4836. the more you eat high-sugar foods,
  4837.  
  4838. 1083
  4839. 01:04:54,901 --> 01:04:57,051
  4840. the more you're gonna desire
  4841. high-sugar foods
  4842.  
  4843. 1084
  4844. 01:04:57,151 --> 01:04:58,567
  4845. and wanna continue eating them.
  4846.  
  4847. 1085
  4848. 01:05:02,692 --> 01:05:06,301
  4849. This desire to wanna
  4850. keep eating more sugary foods
  4851.  
  4852. 1086
  4853. 01:05:06,401 --> 01:05:08,067
  4854. sounds a lot like addictive behaviour.
  4855.  
  4856. 1087
  4857. 01:05:11,817 --> 01:05:15,842
  4858. Serge Ahmed, who's
  4859. now in Bordeaux, in France,
  4860.  
  4861. 1088
  4862. 01:05:15,942 --> 01:05:20,384
  4863. published a really cool study
  4864. where he basically showed that
  4865.  
  4866. 1089
  4867. 01:05:20,484 --> 01:05:24,259
  4868. rats will work harder for sugar
  4869. than they will for cocaine.
  4870.  
  4871. 1090
  4872. 01:05:24,359 --> 01:05:26,859
  4873. Unlike the drug dealer, who's, you know,
  4874.  
  4875. 1091
  4876. 01:05:26,984 --> 01:05:29,009
  4877. squired away some place hiding,
  4878.  
  4879. 1092
  4880. 01:05:29,109 --> 01:05:35,651
  4881. the food giants are in your face
  4882. everywhere you go.
  4883.  
  4884. 1093
  4885. 01:05:37,192 --> 01:05:39,176
  4886. In the boardrooms of these food giants,
  4887.  
  4888. 1094
  4889. 01:05:39,276 --> 01:05:42,176
  4890. 'addiction' is a dirty word.
  4891.  
  4892. 1095
  4893. 01:05:42,276 --> 01:05:45,217
  4894. When it comes to obesity and illness,
  4895.  
  4896. 1096
  4897. 01:05:45,317 --> 01:05:47,801
  4898. the food industry have always
  4899. argued that people need to take
  4900.  
  4901. 1097
  4902. 01:05:47,901 --> 01:05:51,134
  4903. personal responsibility
  4904. for their food choices.
  4905.  
  4906. 1098
  4907. 01:05:51,234 --> 01:05:52,801
  4908. When it comes to eating,
  4909.  
  4910. 1099
  4911. 01:05:52,901 --> 01:05:54,384
  4912. fat people are basically very stupid.
  4913.  
  4914. 1100
  4915. 01:05:54,484 --> 01:05:56,092
  4916. No, but, you see,
  4917. I was away this weekend
  4918.  
  4919. 1101
  4920. 01:05:56,192 --> 01:05:57,859
  4921. and it is difficult in friends' houses.
  4922.  
  4923. 1102
  4924. 01:05:57,984 --> 01:06:00,817
  4925. OK, Mrs Wright, no more chocolates.
  4926.  
  4927. 1103
  4928. 01:06:02,442 --> 01:06:03,967
  4929. For more than 50 years,
  4930.  
  4931. 1104
  4932. 01:06:04,067 --> 01:06:07,009
  4933. the food industry has insisted
  4934. that obesity is caused
  4935.  
  4936. 1105
  4937. 01:06:07,109 --> 01:06:09,967
  4938. by too many calories
  4939. and not enough exercise.
  4940.  
  4941. 1106
  4942. 01:06:10,067 --> 01:06:13,217
  4943. Which implies that anyone overweight
  4944.  
  4945. 1107
  4946. 01:06:13,317 --> 01:06:15,567
  4947. is simply lazy or greedy.
  4948.  
  4949. 1108
  4950. 01:06:18,484 --> 01:06:19,984
  4951. OK, so, we just passed halfway.
  4952.  
  4953. 1109
  4954. 01:06:21,567 --> 01:06:23,692
  4955. And I've never counted
  4956. calories in my life.
  4957.  
  4958. 1110
  4959. 01:06:25,067 --> 01:06:26,967
  4960. I'm trying my best in this experiment.
  4961.  
  4962. 1111
  4963. 01:06:27,067 --> 01:06:29,467
  4964. It's hard to be accurate, obviously.
  4965.  
  4966. 1112
  4967. 01:06:29,567 --> 01:06:34,967
  4968. But it looks like my calories
  4969. so far are pretty much
  4970.  
  4971. 1113
  4972. 01:06:35,067 --> 01:06:37,359
  4973. exactly the same as they were
  4974. pre-experiment.
  4975.  
  4976. 1114
  4977. 01:06:38,942 --> 01:06:40,467
  4978. And that feels strange because
  4979.  
  4980. 1115
  4981. 01:06:40,567 --> 01:06:42,509
  4982. I feel like I'm eating a lot more.
  4983.  
  4984. 1116
  4985. 01:06:42,609 --> 01:06:44,092
  4986. But I can see here that
  4987.  
  4988. 1117
  4989. 01:06:44,192 --> 01:06:45,759
  4990. when I was eating, pre-experiment,
  4991.  
  4992. 1118
  4993. 01:06:45,859 --> 01:06:47,759
  4994. avocado and nuts and stuff,
  4995.  
  4996. 1119
  4997. 01:06:47,859 --> 01:06:50,467
  4998. there's a lot more calories
  4999. in fat than there is in sugar.
  5000.  
  5001. 1120
  5002. 01:06:50,567 --> 01:06:52,759
  5003. So... in fact, it's half.
  5004.  
  5005. 1121
  5006. 01:06:52,859 --> 01:06:55,217
  5007. Like, nine calories per gram of fat
  5008.  
  5009. 1122
  5010. 01:06:55,317 --> 01:06:57,509
  5011. whereas sugar's only got four calories,
  5012.  
  5013. 1123
  5014. 01:06:57,609 --> 01:07:00,134
  5015. so I can see why we're told that
  5016. sugar's OK and don't eat fat,
  5017.  
  5018. 1124
  5019. 01:07:00,234 --> 01:07:02,051
  5020. 'cause there's less calories.
  5021.  
  5022. 1125
  5023. 01:07:02,151 --> 01:07:05,134
  5024. But... I'm eating
  5025. the same amount of calories
  5026.  
  5027. 1126
  5028. 01:07:05,234 --> 01:07:09,717
  5029. as I did before but
  5030. my liver's turned to fat,
  5031.  
  5032. 1127
  5033. 01:07:09,817 --> 01:07:12,276
  5034. my belly's chasing my lady's.
  5035.  
  5036. 1128
  5037. 01:07:13,567 --> 01:07:15,859
  5038. It's doing something
  5039. to my brain, we know that now.
  5040.  
  5041. 1129
  5042. 01:07:17,734 --> 01:07:19,109
  5043. And I'm not feeling full.
  5044.  
  5045. 1130
  5046. 01:07:21,234 --> 01:07:23,634
  5047. So it feels like the calories from sugar
  5048.  
  5049. 1131
  5050. 01:07:23,734 --> 01:07:26,651
  5051. behave very differently
  5052. to other calories.
  5053.  
  5054. 1132
  5055. 01:07:27,984 --> 01:07:30,967
  5056. The sugar industry absolutely
  5057. depended on this idea
  5058.  
  5059. 1133
  5060. 01:07:31,067 --> 01:07:33,259
  5061. that it's just about energy balance.
  5062.  
  5063. 1134
  5064. 01:07:33,359 --> 01:07:35,859
  5065. 'Cause if there's something
  5066. uniquely deleterious
  5067.  
  5068. 1135
  5069. 01:07:35,984 --> 01:07:36,984
  5070. about sugar...
  5071.  
  5072. 1136
  5073. 01:07:39,276 --> 01:07:41,759
  5074. then they're in the realm
  5075. that cigarettes are in,
  5076.  
  5077. 1137
  5078. 01:07:41,859 --> 01:07:44,051
  5079. tobacco and lung cancer.
  5080.  
  5081. 1138
  5082. 01:07:44,151 --> 01:07:45,842
  5083. But if it's just about eating too much
  5084.  
  5085. 1139
  5086. 01:07:45,942 --> 01:07:47,551
  5087. or not exercising too little,
  5088.  
  5089. 1140
  5090. 01:07:47,651 --> 01:07:49,759
  5091. if a calorie of sugar
  5092. is no different than
  5093.  
  5094. 1141
  5095. 01:07:49,859 --> 01:07:52,842
  5096. a calorie of broccoli, they're fine.
  5097.  
  5098. 1142
  5099. 01:07:52,942 --> 01:07:55,676
  5100. Just tell people to
  5101. moderate their weight...
  5102.  
  5103. 1143
  5104. 01:07:55,776 --> 01:07:58,301
  5105. if you're getting fat, eat less
  5106. and that's all there is.
  5107.  
  5108. 1144
  5109. 01:07:58,401 --> 01:08:00,967
  5110. So the sugar industry also
  5111. sort of pushed this idea
  5112.  
  5113. 1145
  5114. 01:08:01,067 --> 01:08:03,217
  5115. that a calorie is a calorie
  5116. is a calorie,
  5117.  
  5118. 1146
  5119. 01:08:03,317 --> 01:08:04,676
  5120. and yet these calories do
  5121.  
  5122. 1147
  5123. 01:08:04,776 --> 01:08:06,801
  5124. dramatically different things
  5125. in the human body,
  5126.  
  5127. 1148
  5128. 01:08:06,901 --> 01:08:08,151
  5129. and they always have.
  5130.  
  5131. 1149
  5132. 01:08:13,317 --> 01:08:15,092
  5133. It's become clear to me
  5134.  
  5135. 1150
  5136. 01:08:15,192 --> 01:08:16,967
  5137. that in the search for profits,
  5138.  
  5139. 1151
  5140. 01:08:17,067 --> 01:08:19,176
  5141. the food companies
  5142. are not only targeting
  5143.  
  5144. 1152
  5145. 01:08:19,276 --> 01:08:21,467
  5146. our primal desire for sugar,
  5147.  
  5148. 1153
  5149. 01:08:21,567 --> 01:08:25,234
  5150. but are also insisting
  5151. that all calories are equal.
  5152.  
  5153. 1154
  5154. 01:08:26,651 --> 01:08:29,301
  5155. The result is that we feel like failures
  5156.  
  5157. 1155
  5158. 01:08:29,401 --> 01:08:31,276
  5159. if we're addicted or overweight.
  5160.  
  5161. 1156
  5162. 01:08:33,567 --> 01:08:36,967
  5163. Perhaps the greed that is actually
  5164. making us overweight and sick
  5165.  
  5166. 1157
  5167. 01:08:37,067 --> 01:08:38,359
  5168. is of the corporate variety.
  5169.  
  5170. 1158
  5171. 01:08:42,067 --> 01:08:44,676
  5172. - Hello, you.
  5173. - Hello, honey.
  5174.  
  5175. 1159
  5176. 01:08:44,776 --> 01:08:45,967
  5177. Can you show me the belly?
  5178.  
  5179. 1160
  5180. 01:08:46,067 --> 01:08:49,551
  5181. Have a look at this baby. He's
  5182. actually doing little kicks.
  5183.  
  5184. 1161
  5185. 01:08:49,651 --> 01:08:51,717
  5186. Quick.
  5187.  
  5188. 1162
  5189. 01:08:51,817 --> 01:08:54,259
  5190. Aww.
  5191.  
  5192. 1163
  5193. 01:08:54,359 --> 01:08:56,467
  5194. Hello, baby.
  5195.  
  5196. 1164
  5197. 01:08:56,567 --> 01:08:58,967
  5198. Hello, baby.
  5199.  
  5200. 1165
  5201. 01:08:59,067 --> 01:09:00,509
  5202. Hello, Daddy.
  5203.  
  5204. 1166
  5205. 01:09:00,609 --> 01:09:02,467
  5206. - Bye.
  5207. - Love you.
  5208.  
  5209. 1167
  5210. 01:09:02,567 --> 01:09:04,676
  5211. - Bye.
  5212. - Bye-bye.
  5213.  
  5214. 1168
  5215. 01:09:04,776 --> 01:09:05,984
  5216. - Bye.
  5217. - Bye.
  5218.  
  5219. 1169
  5220. 01:09:15,776 --> 01:09:18,259
  5221. Do you know how many sugarholics
  5222. there are in this country?
  5223.  
  5224. 1170
  5225. 01:09:18,359 --> 01:09:20,592
  5226. Millions and millions of them.
  5227.  
  5228. 1171
  5229. 01:09:20,692 --> 01:09:22,217
  5230. As you go around the schoolyards,
  5231.  
  5232. 1172
  5233. 01:09:22,317 --> 01:09:24,342
  5234. you watch the young boys
  5235. and girls of this country
  5236.  
  5237. 1173
  5238. 01:09:24,442 --> 01:09:25,842
  5239. and see how many of these children...
  5240.  
  5241. 1174
  5242. 01:09:25,942 --> 01:09:27,759
  5243. Their soft, weak muscles
  5244. are out of condition,
  5245.  
  5246. 1175
  5247. 01:09:27,859 --> 01:09:29,801
  5248. they don't have the energy
  5249. and vitality they should have.
  5250.  
  5251. 1176
  5252. 01:09:29,901 --> 01:09:31,842
  5253. They look like sugar, they don't...
  5254.  
  5255. 1177
  5256. 01:09:31,942 --> 01:09:33,717
  5257. After 45 days,
  5258.  
  5259. 1178
  5260. 01:09:33,817 --> 01:09:35,592
  5261. it became more and more evident
  5262.  
  5263. 1179
  5264. 01:09:35,692 --> 01:09:39,151
  5265. that we're just not getting
  5266. a clear message about sugar.
  5267.  
  5268. 1180
  5269. 01:09:41,067 --> 01:09:44,509
  5270. Could the fact that sugar's
  5271. global trade is worth $50 billion
  5272.  
  5273. 1181
  5274. 01:09:44,609 --> 01:09:46,067
  5275. have anything to do with it?
  5276.  
  5277. 1182
  5278. 01:09:47,734 --> 01:09:50,009
  5279. It turns out that the
  5280. suppression of the message
  5281.  
  5282. 1183
  5283. 01:09:50,109 --> 01:09:52,009
  5284. began in the 1970s
  5285.  
  5286. 1184
  5287. 01:09:52,109 --> 01:09:55,717
  5288. when the US Government was
  5289. reviewing the safety of sugar
  5290.  
  5291. 1185
  5292. 01:09:55,817 --> 01:09:57,234
  5293. for the first time.
  5294.  
  5295. 1186
  5296. 01:09:58,317 --> 01:10:00,967
  5297. The Sugar Association
  5298. launched a campaign
  5299.  
  5300. 1187
  5301. 01:10:01,067 --> 01:10:03,567
  5302. to ensure their product wasn't vilified.
  5303.  
  5304. 1188
  5305. 01:10:04,651 --> 01:10:06,384
  5306. In this case,
  5307. what the sugar industry did,
  5308.  
  5309. 1189
  5310. 01:10:06,484 --> 01:10:09,176
  5311. is they stepped in when the
  5312. evidence was ambiguous
  5313.  
  5314. 1190
  5315. 01:10:09,276 --> 01:10:10,301
  5316. and they said,
  5317.  
  5318. 1191
  5319. 01:10:10,401 --> 01:10:13,051
  5320. "We're gonna kinda make sure
  5321. it's always ambiguous."
  5322.  
  5323. 1192
  5324. 01:10:13,151 --> 01:10:17,676
  5325. To do this, the Sugar
  5326. Association paid scientists,
  5327.  
  5328. 1193
  5329. 01:10:17,776 --> 01:10:19,634
  5330. hired a PR company
  5331.  
  5332. 1194
  5333. 01:10:19,734 --> 01:10:22,526
  5334. and released a report with
  5335. a press release that read:
  5336.  
  5337. 1195
  5338. 01:10:26,651 --> 01:10:31,801
  5339. They put out this document
  5340. called Sugar in the Diet of Man.
  5341.  
  5342. 1196
  5343. 01:10:31,901 --> 01:10:35,134
  5344. There was no sign that it was
  5345. paid for by the sugar industry.
  5346.  
  5347. 1197
  5348. 01:10:35,234 --> 01:10:36,967
  5349. It looks like a very official document,
  5350.  
  5351. 1198
  5352. 01:10:37,067 --> 01:10:38,801
  5353. it's published in a journal.
  5354.  
  5355. 1199
  5356. 01:10:38,901 --> 01:10:42,317
  5357. The sugar industry sends out
  5358. 25,000 copies.
  5359.  
  5360. 1200
  5361. 01:10:43,401 --> 01:10:45,842
  5362. This report was then
  5363. used by the government
  5364.  
  5365. 1201
  5366. 01:10:45,942 --> 01:10:47,609
  5367. to determine its findings.
  5368.  
  5369. 1202
  5370. 01:10:49,234 --> 01:10:52,984
  5371. Sugar was exonerated and the rest
  5372. of the world followed suit.
  5373.  
  5374. 1203
  5375. 01:10:55,567 --> 01:10:57,592
  5376. Jack Tatem, president
  5377. of the Sugar Association's
  5378.  
  5379. 1204
  5380. 01:10:57,692 --> 01:11:00,592
  5381. presenting to his board and he says,
  5382.  
  5383. 1205
  5384. 01:11:00,692 --> 01:11:04,592
  5385. "Look, there is no conclusive evidence
  5386.  
  5387. 1206
  5388. 01:11:04,692 --> 01:11:08,509
  5389. "linking sugar
  5390. to these chronic diseases.
  5391.  
  5392. 1207
  5393. 01:11:08,609 --> 01:11:12,759
  5394. "And this is the lifeblood
  5395. of our organisation,
  5396.  
  5397. 1208
  5398. 01:11:12,859 --> 01:11:15,259
  5399. "it's the lifeblood of our product.
  5400.  
  5401. 1209
  5402. 01:11:15,359 --> 01:11:19,009
  5403. "If anyone ever links sugar to
  5404. these diseases, we're dead.
  5405.  
  5406. 1210
  5407. 01:11:19,109 --> 01:11:21,151
  5408. "So our job, what we have to do...
  5409.  
  5410. 1211
  5411. 01:11:22,359 --> 01:11:25,467
  5412. "is make sure that
  5413. there's no consensus."
  5414.  
  5415. 1212
  5416. 01:11:25,567 --> 01:11:26,817
  5417. You know.
  5418.  
  5419. 1213
  5420. 01:11:33,234 --> 01:11:35,859
  5421. This manipulation of evidence
  5422.  
  5423. 1214
  5424. 01:11:35,984 --> 01:11:37,801
  5425. and deliberate muddying of the waters
  5426.  
  5427. 1215
  5428. 01:11:37,901 --> 01:11:39,676
  5429. is all sounding very familiar.
  5430.  
  5431. 1216
  5432. 01:11:39,776 --> 01:11:42,634
  5433. OK, how's about taking a nap?
  5434.  
  5435. 1217
  5436. 01:11:42,734 --> 01:11:45,467
  5437. Hey, I got a better idea.
  5438. Let's take a Winston break.
  5439.  
  5440. 1218
  5441. 01:11:45,567 --> 01:11:47,509
  5442. That's it! Winston is...
  5443.  
  5444. 1219
  5445. 01:11:47,609 --> 01:11:50,967
  5446. And, evidently,
  5447. it's still going on today.
  5448.  
  5449. 1220
  5450. 01:11:51,067 --> 01:11:53,967
  5451. If you create a list of the things
  5452.  
  5453. 1221
  5454. 01:11:54,067 --> 01:11:57,217
  5455. that the tobacco industry did
  5456. to stall or to fight off
  5457.  
  5458. 1222
  5459. 01:11:57,317 --> 01:12:01,801
  5460. public health actions
  5461. that would curtail smoking,
  5462.  
  5463. 1223
  5464. 01:12:01,901 --> 01:12:04,967
  5465. the food companies are doing
  5466. every single one.
  5467.  
  5468. 1224
  5469. 01:12:05,067 --> 01:12:08,967
  5470. Paying scientists to do studies
  5471. that favour industry positions,
  5472.  
  5473. 1225
  5474. 01:12:09,067 --> 01:12:11,009
  5475. paying money to professional
  5476. organisations,
  5477.  
  5478. 1226
  5479. 01:12:11,109 --> 01:12:14,259
  5480. like heart-related and
  5481. cancer-related organisations,
  5482.  
  5483. 1227
  5484. 01:12:14,359 --> 01:12:17,259
  5485. putting out deceptive statements
  5486. in the press,
  5487.  
  5488. 1228
  5489. 01:12:17,359 --> 01:12:20,759
  5490. characterising science that
  5491. doesn't work out for industry
  5492.  
  5493. 1229
  5494. 01:12:20,859 --> 01:12:22,092
  5495. as 'junk science'.
  5496.  
  5497. 1230
  5498. 01:12:22,192 --> 01:12:23,759
  5499. There's a very long list
  5500. of these things.
  5501.  
  5502. 1231
  5503. 01:12:23,859 --> 01:12:27,109
  5504. The tobacco industry did them all
  5505. and the food industry is doing them all.
  5506.  
  5507. 1232
  5508. 01:12:30,776 --> 01:12:33,342
  5509. Many of the reviews,
  5510.  
  5511. 1233
  5512. 01:12:33,442 --> 01:12:35,342
  5513. the final review,
  5514.  
  5515. 1234
  5516. 01:12:35,442 --> 01:12:38,467
  5517. is that there is no evidence
  5518.  
  5519. 1235
  5520. 01:12:38,567 --> 01:12:42,217
  5521. that sugar is associated
  5522. with metabolic disease
  5523.  
  5524. 1236
  5525. 01:12:42,317 --> 01:12:44,592
  5526. of any kind,
  5527.  
  5528. 1237
  5529. 01:12:44,692 --> 01:12:48,484
  5530. are funded by the sugar industry.
  5531.  
  5532. 1238
  5533. 01:12:51,234 --> 01:12:53,467
  5534. Given everything I have learnt so far
  5535.  
  5536. 1239
  5537. 01:12:53,567 --> 01:12:54,859
  5538. it was hard to believe
  5539.  
  5540. 1240
  5541. 01:12:54,984 --> 01:12:57,859
  5542. there are still scientists
  5543. defending sugar and fructose.
  5544.  
  5545. 1241
  5546. 01:12:59,317 --> 01:13:01,026
  5547. I was curious to meet one of them.
  5548.  
  5549. 1242
  5550. 01:13:02,859 --> 01:13:05,051
  5551. I haven't eaten sugar
  5552. for nearly three years
  5553.  
  5554. 1243
  5555. 01:13:05,151 --> 01:13:07,759
  5556. and part of this film is
  5557. that I'm, for 60 days,
  5558.  
  5559. 1244
  5560. 01:13:07,859 --> 01:13:10,051
  5561. eating a very high-fructose sugar diet.
  5562.  
  5563. 1245
  5564. 01:13:10,151 --> 01:13:12,859
  5565. I thought maybe I'll put on
  5566. a little bit of weight,
  5567.  
  5568. 1246
  5569. 01:13:12,984 --> 01:13:16,092
  5570. I put on six kilos in Australia,
  5571. which is 15 pounds.
  5572.  
  5573. 1247
  5574. 01:13:16,192 --> 01:13:17,092
  5575. Right.
  5576.  
  5577. 1248
  5578. 01:13:17,192 --> 01:13:20,967
  5579. All hidden sugars...
  5580. granola bars, low-fat yoghurt.
  5581.  
  5582. 1249
  5583. 01:13:21,067 --> 01:13:22,092
  5584. What's happening?
  5585.  
  5586. 1250
  5587. 01:13:22,192 --> 01:13:25,259
  5588. Well, what I'd say is that
  5589. that's a very powerful anecdote
  5590.  
  5591. 1251
  5592. 01:13:25,359 --> 01:13:26,467
  5593. and I think, you know, it's...
  5594.  
  5595. 1252
  5596. 01:13:26,567 --> 01:13:28,259
  5597. I think that can be true
  5598. for a lot of people.
  5599.  
  5600. 1253
  5601. 01:13:28,359 --> 01:13:30,176
  5602. But I would say that you had
  5603. to be careful any time you do
  5604.  
  5605. 1254
  5606. 01:13:30,276 --> 01:13:31,801
  5607. a high amount of anything.
  5608.  
  5609. 1255
  5610. 01:13:31,901 --> 01:13:34,551
  5611. I think if I was to put you,
  5612. again, on a white bread diet,
  5613.  
  5614. 1256
  5615. 01:13:34,651 --> 01:13:37,009
  5616. you know, or to put you on
  5617. a, you know, potato chip diet
  5618.  
  5619. 1257
  5620. 01:13:37,109 --> 01:13:39,384
  5621. or French fry diet,
  5622. you might have a similar effect.
  5623.  
  5624. 1258
  5625. 01:13:39,484 --> 01:13:42,009
  5626. I think the issue is
  5627. that all of these calories
  5628.  
  5629. 1259
  5630. 01:13:42,109 --> 01:13:43,717
  5631. really need to be regarded
  5632. as discretionary.
  5633.  
  5634. 1260
  5635. 01:13:43,817 --> 01:13:47,217
  5636. I found John's position on calories
  5637.  
  5638. 1261
  5639. 01:13:47,317 --> 01:13:50,051
  5640. so similar to the line that
  5641. the food industry takes
  5642.  
  5643. 1262
  5644. 01:13:50,151 --> 01:13:51,967
  5645. that I felt compelled to question
  5646.  
  5647. 1263
  5648. 01:13:52,067 --> 01:13:54,092
  5649. the source of his research funding.
  5650.  
  5651. 1264
  5652. 01:13:54,192 --> 01:13:57,259
  5653. Have you ever received any kind
  5654. of funding from Coca-Cola?
  5655.  
  5656. 1265
  5657. 01:13:57,359 --> 01:13:59,759
  5658. You know, I think this is
  5659. a really important question,
  5660.  
  5661. 1266
  5662. 01:13:59,859 --> 01:14:02,134
  5663. and it's very important for me
  5664. that I be transparent.
  5665.  
  5666. 1267
  5667. 01:14:02,234 --> 01:14:04,801
  5668. So we have received
  5669. investigator-initiated,
  5670.  
  5671. 1268
  5672. 01:14:04,901 --> 01:14:07,176
  5673. unrestricted funding from Coca-Cola.
  5674.  
  5675. 1269
  5676. 01:14:07,276 --> 01:14:09,467
  5677. What that means is they had
  5678. no say over our questions
  5679.  
  5680. 1270
  5681. 01:14:09,567 --> 01:14:11,842
  5682. we were asking,
  5683. how we conducted the research,
  5684.  
  5685. 1271
  5686. 01:14:11,942 --> 01:14:14,092
  5687. our analysis, our interpretation
  5688. and our data plan.
  5689.  
  5690. 1272
  5691. 01:14:14,192 --> 01:14:15,092
  5692. It's a red flag...
  5693.  
  5694. 1273
  5695. 01:14:15,192 --> 01:14:17,467
  5696. For me to hear you even
  5697. say that is, like, "Whoa, OK."
  5698.  
  5699. 1274
  5700. 01:14:17,567 --> 01:14:22,759
  5701. Because this is a company
  5702. with 650 beverage products...
  5703.  
  5704. 1275
  5705. 01:14:22,859 --> 01:14:24,009
  5706. You're right, you're right.
  5707.  
  5708. 1276
  5709. 01:14:24,109 --> 01:14:26,551
  5710. ...that rely on fructose
  5711. and sugar, so...
  5712.  
  5713. 1277
  5714. 01:14:26,651 --> 01:14:27,967
  5715. So what I would say is you're right.
  5716.  
  5717. 1278
  5718. 01:14:28,067 --> 01:14:31,759
  5719. I mean, we realised this going in
  5720. and, I mean, some may view this
  5721.  
  5722. 1279
  5723. 01:14:31,859 --> 01:14:33,967
  5724. as sort of shaking hands
  5725. with the devil, I guess.
  5726.  
  5727. 1280
  5728. 01:14:34,067 --> 01:14:35,759
  5729. I mean, even though
  5730. that's the case, you know,
  5731.  
  5732. 1281
  5733. 01:14:35,859 --> 01:14:37,842
  5734. we're confident enough in what
  5735. we're doing and our protocols
  5736.  
  5737. 1282
  5738. 01:14:37,942 --> 01:14:39,634
  5739. and we're laying everything bare,
  5740.  
  5741. 1283
  5742. 01:14:39,734 --> 01:14:41,467
  5743. that we could afford
  5744. to engage with them.
  5745.  
  5746. 1284
  5747. 01:14:41,567 --> 01:14:43,759
  5748. I think that we should not take money
  5749.  
  5750. 1285
  5751. 01:14:43,859 --> 01:14:45,676
  5752. from the industry directly.
  5753.  
  5754. 1286
  5755. 01:14:45,776 --> 01:14:49,551
  5756. I think it's just morally wrong
  5757. to do that,
  5758.  
  5759. 1287
  5760. 01:14:49,651 --> 01:14:52,634
  5761. and, you know, money's tough,
  5762.  
  5763. 1288
  5764. 01:14:52,734 --> 01:14:56,176
  5765. so it's a big dilemma
  5766. for researcher, as well.
  5767.  
  5768. 1289
  5769. 01:14:56,276 --> 01:15:00,217
  5770. But we don't want to taint the answer,
  5771.  
  5772. 1290
  5773. 01:15:00,317 --> 01:15:02,026
  5774. we want to know the truth.
  5775.  
  5776. 1291
  5777. 01:15:04,109 --> 01:15:05,717
  5778. Just one week later,
  5779.  
  5780. 1292
  5781. 01:15:05,817 --> 01:15:08,717
  5782. I saw an ad for a symposium on fructose
  5783.  
  5784. 1293
  5785. 01:15:08,817 --> 01:15:10,717
  5786. and sweetened beverages.
  5787.  
  5788. 1294
  5789. 01:15:10,817 --> 01:15:13,509
  5790. It was sponsored by Coca-Cola.
  5791.  
  5792. 1295
  5793. 01:15:13,609 --> 01:15:17,801
  5794. Their keynote speaker
  5795. was Dr John Sievenpiper.
  5796.  
  5797. 1296
  5798. 01:15:17,901 --> 01:15:20,676
  5799. He spoke about calories
  5800. and there being no link between
  5801.  
  5802. 1297
  5803. 01:15:20,776 --> 01:15:24,217
  5804. fructose and cardiometabolic
  5805. diseases in the studies.
  5806.  
  5807. 1298
  5808. 01:15:24,317 --> 01:15:26,967
  5809. Coke madly tweeted about it
  5810.  
  5811. 1299
  5812. 01:15:27,067 --> 01:15:28,717
  5813. and then the host asked the audience...
  5814.  
  5815. 1300
  5816. 01:15:28,817 --> 01:15:31,259
  5817. To maybe put together
  5818.  
  5819. 1301
  5820. 01:15:31,359 --> 01:15:33,967
  5821. a YouTube video to, you know,
  5822.  
  5823. 1302
  5824. 01:15:34,067 --> 01:15:36,301
  5825. bring some balance back
  5826. to those messages
  5827.  
  5828. 1303
  5829. 01:15:36,401 --> 01:15:37,859
  5830. that are out there for the public.
  5831.  
  5832. 1304
  5833. 01:15:37,984 --> 01:15:39,717
  5834. I found this video on YouTube,
  5835.  
  5836. 1305
  5837. 01:15:39,817 --> 01:15:42,067
  5838. but I'm not sure it's quite
  5839. what they had in mind.
  5840.  
  5841. 1306
  5842. 01:15:57,776 --> 01:15:59,467
  5843. As the US leg of my experiment
  5844.  
  5845. 1307
  5846. 01:15:59,567 --> 01:16:01,759
  5847. neared its conclusion,
  5848.  
  5849. 1308
  5850. 01:16:01,859 --> 01:16:03,259
  5851. what really struck me
  5852.  
  5853. 1309
  5854. 01:16:03,359 --> 01:16:06,134
  5855. is that despite all the effects
  5856. sugar is having on us,
  5857.  
  5858. 1310
  5859. 01:16:06,234 --> 01:16:09,859
  5860. in many ways we've just
  5861. adapted to its saturation.
  5862.  
  5863. 1311
  5864. 01:16:11,317 --> 01:16:14,467
  5865. And I'm just noticing how
  5866. incredible the human body
  5867.  
  5868. 1312
  5869. 01:16:14,567 --> 01:16:15,592
  5870. and the human mind is
  5871.  
  5872. 1313
  5873. 01:16:15,692 --> 01:16:18,092
  5874. because even though I'm having
  5875. 40 teaspoons of sugar a day,
  5876.  
  5877. 1314
  5878. 01:16:18,192 --> 01:16:21,051
  5879. I've adjusted now to this new reality.
  5880.  
  5881. 1315
  5882. 01:16:21,151 --> 01:16:23,176
  5883. My body just accepts
  5884. that this is what I eat,
  5885.  
  5886. 1316
  5887. 01:16:23,276 --> 01:16:25,859
  5888. and my brain deals with
  5889. the moods up and down,
  5890.  
  5891. 1317
  5892. 01:16:25,984 --> 01:16:28,467
  5893. I just get on with life
  5894. and it's fine, I can function.
  5895.  
  5896. 1318
  5897. 01:16:28,567 --> 01:16:32,342
  5898. But, uh... I'm not nearly
  5899. as efficient as I was,
  5900.  
  5901. 1319
  5902. 01:16:32,442 --> 01:16:35,151
  5903. my fuse is a lot shorter, I'm exhausted.
  5904.  
  5905. 1320
  5906. 01:16:36,692 --> 01:16:39,092
  5907. And I think that's how a lot
  5908. of people live their lives.
  5909.  
  5910. 1321
  5911. 01:16:39,192 --> 01:16:41,717
  5912. People are up and down all day,
  5913. but it's just their reality,
  5914.  
  5915. 1322
  5916. 01:16:41,817 --> 01:16:42,717
  5917. so they accept it
  5918.  
  5919. 1323
  5920. 01:16:42,817 --> 01:16:45,734
  5921. and they've never experienced
  5922. anything different.
  5923.  
  5924. 1324
  5925. 01:16:47,151 --> 01:16:48,342
  5926. And I have
  5927.  
  5928. 1325
  5929. 01:16:48,442 --> 01:16:50,984
  5930. and I'm really excited
  5931. to get back to that point.
  5932.  
  5933. 1326
  5934. 01:16:55,442 --> 01:16:57,801
  5935. If you've always lived this way,
  5936.  
  5937. 1327
  5938. 01:16:57,901 --> 01:17:01,526
  5939. you have no idea what life can be like.
  5940.  
  5941. 1328
  5942. 01:17:02,984 --> 01:17:05,276
  5943. It's not part of your
  5944. frame of reference.
  5945.  
  5946. 1329
  5947. 01:17:11,151 --> 01:17:12,717
  5948. Now, a lot of people will say,
  5949.  
  5950. 1330
  5951. 01:17:12,817 --> 01:17:14,592
  5952. "Well, I eat sugar all the time
  5953. and, you know,
  5954.  
  5955. 1331
  5956. 01:17:14,692 --> 01:17:16,859
  5957. "I'm perfectly fine."
  5958.  
  5959. 1332
  5960. 01:17:16,984 --> 01:17:19,051
  5961. Well, what they don't understand is that
  5962.  
  5963. 1333
  5964. 01:17:19,151 --> 01:17:21,342
  5965. they eat sugar all the time
  5966.  
  5967. 1334
  5968. 01:17:21,442 --> 01:17:26,776
  5969. and they're fuzzy and their
  5970. mind is cloudy all the time.
  5971.  
  5972. 1335
  5973. 01:17:29,109 --> 01:17:31,759
  5974. Sugar has now become so deeply ingrained
  5975.  
  5976. 1336
  5977. 01:17:31,859 --> 01:17:34,009
  5978. into the fabric of our society
  5979.  
  5980. 1337
  5981. 01:17:34,109 --> 01:17:36,759
  5982. that some people can't
  5983. imagine life without it.
  5984.  
  5985. 1338
  5986. 01:17:36,859 --> 01:17:39,467
  5987. What say we took away added sugar,
  5988.  
  5989. 1339
  5990. 01:17:39,567 --> 01:17:42,009
  5991. well, then what are people gonna do
  5992.  
  5993. 1340
  5994. 01:17:42,109 --> 01:17:45,467
  5995. to get that same feeling in
  5996. their life that sugar gave them,
  5997.  
  5998. 1341
  5999. 01:17:45,567 --> 01:17:46,967
  6000. in terms of their values
  6001. and preferences?
  6002.  
  6003. 1342
  6004. 01:17:47,067 --> 01:17:50,317
  6005. But we forget that
  6006. we didn't always live like this.
  6007.  
  6008. 1343
  6009. 01:17:51,442 --> 01:17:53,859
  6010. Society has changed.
  6011.  
  6012. 1344
  6013. 01:17:53,984 --> 01:17:57,842
  6014. 200 years ago there was not
  6015. a society in the world
  6016.  
  6017. 1345
  6018. 01:17:57,942 --> 01:18:00,967
  6019. when they had a festival that
  6020. was basing what they ate
  6021.  
  6022. 1346
  6023. 01:18:01,067 --> 01:18:02,984
  6024. and what they drank on sugar.
  6025.  
  6026. 1347
  6027. 01:18:04,609 --> 01:18:06,859
  6028. Today, it has become synonymous
  6029.  
  6030. 1348
  6031. 01:18:06,984 --> 01:18:08,359
  6032. with any celebration.
  6033.  
  6034. 1349
  6035. 01:18:10,442 --> 01:18:12,217
  6036. But, more profoundly,
  6037.  
  6038. 1350
  6039. 01:18:12,317 --> 01:18:15,234
  6040. it is one of the simplest ways
  6041. we communicate love.
  6042.  
  6043. 1351
  6044. 01:18:17,067 --> 01:18:20,217
  6045. I think the reason that sugar has become
  6046.  
  6047. 1352
  6048. 01:18:20,317 --> 01:18:24,801
  6049. so ingrained is that it
  6050. actually evokes love.
  6051.  
  6052. 1353
  6053. 01:18:24,901 --> 01:18:29,009
  6054. Our brains respond
  6055. to the chemical effect
  6056.  
  6057. 1354
  6058. 01:18:29,109 --> 01:18:32,009
  6059. the same way we respond to love.
  6060.  
  6061. 1355
  6062. 01:18:32,109 --> 01:18:35,092
  6063. If we're feeling upset, what do we do?
  6064.  
  6065. 1356
  6066. 01:18:35,192 --> 01:18:37,551
  6067. We have some sugar, "Oh, I feel better."
  6068.  
  6069. 1357
  6070. 01:18:37,651 --> 01:18:40,509
  6071. If there's not enough sweetness
  6072. in our life, not enough love,
  6073.  
  6074. 1358
  6075. 01:18:40,609 --> 01:18:42,151
  6076. "Oh, I'll just have some chocolate."
  6077.  
  6078. 1359
  6079. 01:18:44,776 --> 01:18:47,301
  6080. With sugar having
  6081. such complex associations
  6082.  
  6083. 1360
  6084. 01:18:47,401 --> 01:18:49,717
  6085. with our hearts, minds and bodies,
  6086.  
  6087. 1361
  6088. 01:18:49,817 --> 01:18:52,859
  6089. I wonder if it is having
  6090. far greater ramifications
  6091.  
  6092. 1362
  6093. 01:18:52,984 --> 01:18:55,026
  6094. for the culture than we've considered.
  6095.  
  6096. 1363
  6097. 01:19:01,942 --> 01:19:06,509
  6098. Rudolf Steiner said that sugar
  6099. essentially causes materialism.
  6100.  
  6101. 1364
  6102. 01:19:06,609 --> 01:19:11,759
  6103. And that development
  6104. of the sugar metabolism
  6105.  
  6106. 1365
  6107. 01:19:11,859 --> 01:19:13,592
  6108. and the sugar drug culture
  6109.  
  6110. 1366
  6111. 01:19:13,692 --> 01:19:15,967
  6112. developed a materialistic culture.
  6113.  
  6114. 1367
  6115. 01:19:16,067 --> 01:19:18,092
  6116. We live in a time of instant
  6117. gratification,
  6118.  
  6119. 1368
  6120. 01:19:18,192 --> 01:19:20,342
  6121. nobody wants to wait for anything.
  6122.  
  6123. 1369
  6124. 01:19:20,442 --> 01:19:22,734
  6125. What's sugar? Quick energy,
  6126. it's straight to the brain.
  6127.  
  6128. 1370
  6129. 01:19:47,234 --> 01:19:51,259
  6130. Eat that pie!
  6131. Eat that pie! Eat that pie.'
  6132.  
  6133. 1371
  6134. 01:19:51,359 --> 01:19:55,467
  6135. Eat that pie! Eat that pie.'
  6136. Eat that pie!
  6137.  
  6138. 1372
  6139. 01:19:55,567 --> 01:19:59,634
  6140. Eat that pie!
  6141. Eat that pie! Eat that pie.'
  6142.  
  6143. 1373
  6144. 01:19:59,734 --> 01:20:03,859
  6145. Eat that pie! Eat that pie.'
  6146. Eat that pie!
  6147.  
  6148. 1374
  6149. 01:20:15,067 --> 01:20:16,776
  6150. Hi, darling.
  6151.  
  6152. 1375
  6153. 01:20:18,067 --> 01:20:19,484
  6154. Oh, look at this.
  6155.  
  6156. 1376
  6157. 01:20:21,067 --> 01:20:24,509
  6158. Hello, little dude.
  6159. How are you going in there, dudie?
  6160.  
  6161. 1377
  6162. 01:20:24,609 --> 01:20:26,384
  6163. Massive.
  6164.  
  6165. 1378
  6166. 01:20:26,484 --> 01:20:28,176
  6167. How big's mine, too? Look at that.
  6168.  
  6169. 1379
  6170. 01:20:28,276 --> 01:20:30,592
  6171. Oh, my God.
  6172.  
  6173. 1380
  6174. 01:20:30,692 --> 01:20:31,692
  6175. Alright, let's do it.
  6176.  
  6177. 1381
  6178. 01:20:33,776 --> 01:20:35,301
  6179. After 60 days
  6180.  
  6181. 1382
  6182. 01:20:35,401 --> 01:20:39,176
  6183. and 2,360 teaspoons of sugar,
  6184.  
  6185. 1383
  6186. 01:20:39,276 --> 01:20:40,859
  6187. it was time for the last meal.
  6188.  
  6189. 1384
  6190. 01:20:44,276 --> 01:20:47,676
  6191. I thought it would be fitting to cram
  6192. all the remaining 40 teaspoons
  6193.  
  6194. 1385
  6195. 01:20:47,776 --> 01:20:51,151
  6196. into items that could be found
  6197. in a child's school lunch box.
  6198.  
  6199. 1386
  6200. 01:21:06,609 --> 01:21:07,984
  6201. Closed!
  6202.  
  6203. 1387
  6204. 01:21:10,067 --> 01:21:11,526
  6205. Yeah!
  6206.  
  6207. 1388
  6208. 01:21:14,067 --> 01:21:15,859
  6209. Be gone.
  6210.  
  6211. 1389
  6212. 01:21:18,567 --> 01:21:21,759
  6213. One week later, after having
  6214. all my blood tests done,
  6215.  
  6216. 1390
  6217. 01:21:21,859 --> 01:21:25,301
  6218. I assembled the team
  6219. to hear the final verdict
  6220.  
  6221. 1391
  6222. 01:21:25,401 --> 01:21:27,859
  6223. on what sugar had done to my body.
  6224.  
  6225. 1392
  6226. 01:21:30,234 --> 01:21:32,842
  6227. The obvious place to start is the liver.
  6228.  
  6229. 1393
  6230. 01:21:32,942 --> 01:21:35,467
  6231. A key marker for
  6232. determining liver health
  6233.  
  6234. 1394
  6235. 01:21:35,567 --> 01:21:38,301
  6236. is a hormone called ALT.
  6237.  
  6238. 1395
  6239. 01:21:38,401 --> 01:21:40,217
  6240. In the first month alone mine jumped
  6241.  
  6242. 1396
  6243. 01:21:40,317 --> 01:21:44,717
  6244. from 20 below the safety line
  6245. to 20 above the safety line.
  6246.  
  6247. 1397
  6248. 01:21:44,817 --> 01:21:46,676
  6249. So it took you from, say,
  6250.  
  6251. 1398
  6252. 01:21:46,776 --> 01:21:50,801
  6253. the best 20% of the men
  6254. to the worst 10%.
  6255.  
  6256. 1399
  6257. 01:21:50,901 --> 01:21:53,092
  6258. - In one month.
  6259. - In one month.
  6260.  
  6261. 1400
  6262. 01:21:53,192 --> 01:21:56,509
  6263. Fatty liver is the first step
  6264. towards insulin resistance,
  6265.  
  6266. 1401
  6267. 01:21:56,609 --> 01:21:59,509
  6268. so once you're on an insulin
  6269. resistance pathway
  6270.  
  6271. 1402
  6272. 01:21:59,609 --> 01:22:01,967
  6273. then you're on a pathway
  6274. towards type-2 diabetes
  6275.  
  6276. 1403
  6277. 01:22:02,067 --> 01:22:04,967
  6278. and then, ultimately,
  6279. insulin-dependent type-2 diabetes.
  6280.  
  6281. 1404
  6282. 01:22:05,067 --> 01:22:06,676
  6283. Today in Australia,
  6284.  
  6285. 1405
  6286. 01:22:06,776 --> 01:22:09,967
  6287. nine people had a limb
  6288. amputated to that disease.
  6289.  
  6290. 1406
  6291. 01:22:10,067 --> 01:22:13,967
  6292. My triglyceride levels,
  6293. which is the fat in the blood,
  6294.  
  6295. 1407
  6296. 01:22:14,067 --> 01:22:17,551
  6297. went from a healthy 0.08 to 1.5.
  6298.  
  6299. 1408
  6300. 01:22:17,651 --> 01:22:19,259
  6301. So you'd hit the risk point...
  6302.  
  6303. 1409
  6304. 01:22:19,359 --> 01:22:20,509
  6305. Gee-whiz.
  6306.  
  6307. 1410
  6308. 01:22:20,609 --> 01:22:22,009
  6309. In two months of healthy eating.
  6310.  
  6311. 1411
  6312. 01:22:22,109 --> 01:22:23,009
  6313. Of healthy eating.
  6314.  
  6315. 1412
  6316. 01:22:23,109 --> 01:22:26,301
  6317. High triglycerides
  6318. can also indicate a switch
  6319.  
  6320. 1413
  6321. 01:22:26,401 --> 01:22:27,967
  6322. from healthy cholesterol
  6323.  
  6324. 1414
  6325. 01:22:28,067 --> 01:22:31,467
  6326. to the damaging small,
  6327. dense LDL cholesterol.
  6328.  
  6329. 1415
  6330. 01:22:31,567 --> 01:22:34,259
  6331. Small, dense LDL
  6332. lines you up for heart disease
  6333.  
  6334. 1416
  6335. 01:22:34,359 --> 01:22:35,759
  6336. because they're the ones
  6337. that are embedding
  6338.  
  6339. 1417
  6340. 01:22:35,859 --> 01:22:38,467
  6341. in the arterial walls,
  6342. forming plaques...
  6343.  
  6344. 1418
  6345. 01:22:38,567 --> 01:22:41,717
  6346. and that's the bit you don't want.
  6347.  
  6348. 1419
  6349. 01:22:41,817 --> 01:22:44,676
  6350. You can have all the LDL
  6351. you like, but don't have those.
  6352.  
  6353. 1420
  6354. 01:22:44,776 --> 01:22:49,134
  6355. In terms of weight,
  6356. I gained 8.5kg overall
  6357.  
  6358. 1421
  6359. 01:22:49,234 --> 01:22:51,609
  6360. and added 7% to my total body fat.
  6361.  
  6362. 1422
  6363. 01:22:52,817 --> 01:22:54,009
  6364. But, more ominously,
  6365.  
  6366. 1423
  6367. 01:22:54,109 --> 01:22:57,592
  6368. increased my waist measurement by 10cm.
  6369.  
  6370. 1424
  6371. 01:22:57,692 --> 01:23:00,176
  6372. This is the dangerous visceral fat.
  6373.  
  6374. 1425
  6375. 01:23:00,276 --> 01:23:03,717
  6376. I showed a slight change
  6377. in the bum expansion test,
  6378.  
  6379. 1426
  6380. 01:23:03,817 --> 01:23:06,051
  6381. a variance in the rear flesh wings test
  6382.  
  6383. 1427
  6384. 01:23:06,151 --> 01:23:08,384
  6385. and had great success
  6386. in the highly scientific
  6387.  
  6388. 1428
  6389. 01:23:08,484 --> 01:23:11,859
  6390. 'belly slap, make
  6391. a fat wave' wobble test.
  6392.  
  6393. 1429
  6394. 01:23:11,984 --> 01:23:13,592
  6395. I was quite, as you know, you know,
  6396.  
  6397. 1430
  6398. 01:23:13,692 --> 01:23:15,967
  6399. quite alarmed that
  6400. you were able to do that
  6401.  
  6402. 1431
  6403. 01:23:16,067 --> 01:23:17,967
  6404. in such a short amount of time, again,
  6405.  
  6406. 1432
  6407. 01:23:18,067 --> 01:23:19,842
  6408. eating heart-approved, healthy foods
  6409.  
  6410. 1433
  6411. 01:23:19,942 --> 01:23:22,134
  6412. that everyone's going along
  6413. thinking, you know,
  6414.  
  6415. 1434
  6416. 01:23:22,234 --> 01:23:23,676
  6417. it's totally fine to be doing.
  6418.  
  6419. 1435
  6420. 01:23:23,776 --> 01:23:26,467
  6421. And we're worried about the future
  6422.  
  6423. 1436
  6424. 01:23:26,567 --> 01:23:29,092
  6425. of this obesity epidemic in Australia,
  6426.  
  6427. 1437
  6428. 01:23:29,192 --> 01:23:31,342
  6429. whether it's going to lead to
  6430. an epidemic
  6431.  
  6432. 1438
  6433. 01:23:31,442 --> 01:23:33,259
  6434. of liver disease in the long term.
  6435.  
  6436. 1439
  6437. 01:23:33,359 --> 01:23:36,842
  6438. But perhaps the most
  6439. enlightening of my results
  6440.  
  6441. 1440
  6442. 01:23:36,942 --> 01:23:39,217
  6443. was the calorie count.
  6444.  
  6445. 1441
  6446. 01:23:39,317 --> 01:23:41,467
  6447. As I'd discovered, my calorie intake
  6448.  
  6449. 1442
  6450. 01:23:41,567 --> 01:23:44,067
  6451. was virtually the same
  6452. as my pre-experiment diet.
  6453.  
  6454. 1443
  6455. 01:23:45,192 --> 01:23:48,717
  6456. The big difference was
  6457. the source of the calories.
  6458.  
  6459. 1444
  6460. 01:23:48,817 --> 01:23:50,551
  6461. I'd pretty much done a direct swap
  6462.  
  6463. 1445
  6464. 01:23:50,651 --> 01:23:53,192
  6465. of healthy fats
  6466. for sugar-laden products.
  6467.  
  6468. 1446
  6469. 01:23:56,234 --> 01:23:58,134
  6470. I was looking at
  6471. the total calories, as well,
  6472.  
  6473. 1447
  6474. 01:23:58,234 --> 01:24:01,092
  6475. and very often it would come out as less
  6476.  
  6477. 1448
  6478. 01:24:01,192 --> 01:24:03,859
  6479. than what he had eaten previously.
  6480.  
  6481. 1449
  6482. 01:24:03,984 --> 01:24:07,592
  6483. The way that calories have been
  6484. measured in the past
  6485.  
  6486. 1450
  6487. 01:24:07,692 --> 01:24:09,467
  6488. needs to be re-looked at.
  6489.  
  6490. 1451
  6491. 01:24:09,567 --> 01:24:12,384
  6492. This calorie counting and
  6493. this intense fixation with...
  6494.  
  6495. 1452
  6496. 01:24:12,484 --> 01:24:14,342
  6497. And it's our fault, as much as...
  6498.  
  6499. 1453
  6500. 01:24:14,442 --> 01:24:15,676
  6501. I take responsibility
  6502.  
  6503. 1454
  6504. 01:24:15,776 --> 01:24:18,859
  6505. because it's a message we've
  6506. been spewing out for the last 30
  6507.  
  6508. 1455
  6509. 01:24:18,984 --> 01:24:21,551
  6510. or 40 years, but we really have
  6511. to try and turn things around.
  6512.  
  6513. 1456
  6514. 01:24:21,651 --> 01:24:23,967
  6515. And Damon is living evidence,
  6516. living proof,
  6517.  
  6518. 1457
  6519. 01:24:24,067 --> 01:24:26,801
  6520. it is not the calories,
  6521. it's the source of the calories.
  6522.  
  6523. 1458
  6524. 01:24:26,901 --> 01:24:27,967
  6525. It's where they're coming from.
  6526.  
  6527. 1459
  6528. 01:24:28,067 --> 01:24:29,967
  6529. I'm surprised how quickly
  6530.  
  6531. 1460
  6532. 01:24:30,067 --> 01:24:32,342
  6533. things went downhill for you,
  6534. I honestly am.
  6535.  
  6536. 1461
  6537. 01:24:32,442 --> 01:24:35,467
  6538. To put on so much
  6539. weight in just 60 days,
  6540.  
  6541. 1462
  6542. 01:24:35,567 --> 01:24:37,217
  6543. without really changing
  6544. the number of calories
  6545.  
  6546. 1463
  6547. 01:24:37,317 --> 01:24:40,301
  6548. you were eating, without,
  6549. you know, eating rubbish,
  6550.  
  6551. 1464
  6552. 01:24:40,401 --> 01:24:43,634
  6553. to have such a big effect...
  6554. 10cm on the waist,
  6555.  
  6556. 1465
  6557. 01:24:43,734 --> 01:24:45,051
  6558. 8.5 kilos on the body,
  6559.  
  6560. 1466
  6561. 01:24:45,151 --> 01:24:47,009
  6562. full-blown fatty liver disease
  6563. developed,
  6564.  
  6565. 1467
  6566. 01:24:47,109 --> 01:24:49,301
  6567. well on your way to cirrhosis,
  6568.  
  6569. 1468
  6570. 01:24:49,401 --> 01:24:52,592
  6571. well on your way to insulin
  6572. resistance... that's a disaster.
  6573.  
  6574. 1469
  6575. 01:24:52,692 --> 01:24:54,067
  6576. Hm.
  6577.  
  6578. 1470
  6579. 01:25:11,234 --> 01:25:13,051
  6580. You know, I obviously,
  6581. through my research,
  6582.  
  6583. 1471
  6584. 01:25:13,151 --> 01:25:16,717
  6585. have convinced myself that
  6586. sugar is almost assuredly
  6587.  
  6588. 1472
  6589. 01:25:16,817 --> 01:25:20,051
  6590. the problem, the fundamental problem.
  6591.  
  6592. 1473
  6593. 01:25:20,151 --> 01:25:21,967
  6594. You get rid of sugar
  6595.  
  6596. 1474
  6597. 01:25:22,067 --> 01:25:25,192
  6598. and everything else becomes
  6599. relatively harmless.
  6600.  
  6601. 1475
  6602. 01:25:27,109 --> 01:25:30,842
  6603. We would like
  6604. to do the definitive study,
  6605.  
  6606. 1476
  6607. 01:25:30,942 --> 01:25:35,509
  6608. but even if we find out
  6609. next month it gets funded,
  6610.  
  6611. 1477
  6612. 01:25:35,609 --> 01:25:39,009
  6613. it's still gonna be five more years
  6614.  
  6615. 1478
  6616. 01:25:39,109 --> 01:25:41,759
  6617. before I will have results.
  6618.  
  6619. 1479
  6620. 01:25:41,859 --> 01:25:47,092
  6621. What possible risk
  6622. to public health is there
  6623.  
  6624. 1480
  6625. 01:25:47,192 --> 01:25:50,567
  6626. in people lowering
  6627. their sugar consumption?
  6628.  
  6629. 1481
  6630. 01:25:53,651 --> 01:25:56,051
  6631. This is our problem
  6632.  
  6633. 1482
  6634. 01:25:56,151 --> 01:25:59,134
  6635. and we should all work together
  6636. to solve it instead of pointing fingers
  6637.  
  6638. 1483
  6639. 01:25:59,234 --> 01:26:01,301
  6640. and not being productive about that.
  6641.  
  6642. 1484
  6643. 01:26:01,401 --> 01:26:04,842
  6644. And I would love to see the food
  6645. industry come to the table
  6646.  
  6647. 1485
  6648. 01:26:04,942 --> 01:26:08,526
  6649. with scientists and healthcare
  6650. providers and do what's right.
  6651.  
  6652. 1486
  6653. 01:26:17,109 --> 01:26:20,276
  6654. The first week of giving
  6655. up sugar wasn't a lot of fun.
  6656.  
  6657. 1487
  6658. 01:26:22,109 --> 01:26:25,467
  6659. Frankly, it didn't feel that different
  6660. from giving up cigarettes.
  6661.  
  6662. 1488
  6663. 01:26:25,567 --> 01:26:27,859
  6664. I had headaches, I was moody
  6665.  
  6666. 1489
  6667. 01:26:27,984 --> 01:26:29,817
  6668. and my sleep patterns were terrible.
  6669.  
  6670. 1490
  6671. 01:26:31,692 --> 01:26:33,509
  6672. And I just tossed and turned all night
  6673.  
  6674. 1491
  6675. 01:26:33,609 --> 01:26:36,842
  6676. and then woke up very early,
  6677.  
  6678. 1492
  6679. 01:26:36,942 --> 01:26:40,692
  6680. and as soon as I was awake
  6681. I kind of was craving sugar.
  6682.  
  6683. 1493
  6684. 01:26:41,776 --> 01:26:44,484
  6685. I feel like I need a hit.
  6686.  
  6687. 1494
  6688. 01:26:46,567 --> 01:26:48,984
  6689. Um... it's the first real sign...
  6690.  
  6691. 1495
  6692. 01:26:51,151 --> 01:26:53,067
  6693. that this is gonna be a bit tricky.
  6694.  
  6695. 1496
  6696. 01:26:54,609 --> 01:26:56,467
  6697. But I knew from previous experience
  6698.  
  6699. 1497
  6700. 01:26:56,567 --> 01:26:58,592
  6701. that I wouldn't feel like this forever
  6702.  
  6703. 1498
  6704. 01:26:58,692 --> 01:27:02,176
  6705. and that ultimately it would
  6706. all be worth it.
  6707.  
  6708. 1499
  6709. 01:27:02,276 --> 01:27:04,467
  6710. Because food and sugar has
  6711.  
  6712. 1500
  6713. 01:27:04,567 --> 01:27:07,301
  6714. a very strong emotional component,
  6715.  
  6716. 1501
  6717. 01:27:07,401 --> 01:27:09,217
  6718. then we have to heal
  6719. ourselves emotionally
  6720.  
  6721. 1502
  6722. 01:27:09,317 --> 01:27:12,051
  6723. and we have to go through what
  6724. could be a disturbing experience
  6725.  
  6726. 1503
  6727. 01:27:12,151 --> 01:27:15,009
  6728. or an uncomfortable or even
  6729. awkward experience
  6730.  
  6731. 1504
  6732. 01:27:15,109 --> 01:27:16,259
  6733. coming off of it.
  6734.  
  6735. 1505
  6736. 01:27:16,359 --> 01:27:17,967
  6737. But once you get through it,
  6738.  
  6739. 1506
  6740. 01:27:18,067 --> 01:27:19,967
  6741. which is about two to four weeks,
  6742.  
  6743. 1507
  6744. 01:27:20,067 --> 01:27:23,484
  6745. suddenly the desire for sugar
  6746. disappears altogether.
  6747.  
  6748. 1508
  6749. 01:27:25,567 --> 01:27:28,134
  6750. One month after finishing
  6751. the experiment,
  6752.  
  6753. 1509
  6754. 01:27:28,234 --> 01:27:29,484
  6755. a miracle occurred.
  6756.  
  6757. 1510
  6758. 01:27:32,151 --> 01:27:34,509
  6759. Our daughter was born.
  6760.  
  6761. 1511
  6762. 01:27:34,609 --> 01:27:37,676
  6763. This is her mobile,
  6764. this is her teething giraffe
  6765.  
  6766. 1512
  6767. 01:27:37,776 --> 01:27:39,342
  6768. and this is her lunch.
  6769.  
  6770. 1513
  6771. 01:27:39,442 --> 01:27:41,051
  6772. - Hiya.
  6773. - Are you tired, bubby?
  6774.  
  6775. 1514
  6776. 01:27:41,151 --> 01:27:43,192
  6777. But then some other
  6778. remarkable things happened.
  6779.  
  6780. 1515
  6781. 01:27:44,776 --> 01:27:46,609
  6782. After just two months
  6783. of cutting out sugar...
  6784.  
  6785. 1516
  6786. 01:27:47,734 --> 01:27:50,967
  6787. my vitality had returned,
  6788. my skin was brighter
  6789.  
  6790. 1517
  6791. 01:27:51,067 --> 01:27:53,609
  6792. and, thankfully,
  6793. my moods had evened out.
  6794.  
  6795. 1518
  6796. 01:27:55,151 --> 01:27:57,967
  6797. I've had hundreds and hundreds of people
  6798.  
  6799. 1519
  6800. 01:27:58,067 --> 01:28:01,842
  6801. go off sugar just for the reason
  6802. of clearing up their mind,
  6803.  
  6804. 1520
  6805. 01:28:01,942 --> 01:28:05,717
  6806. and typically,
  6807. the result I get is, "Wow!
  6808.  
  6809. 1521
  6810. 01:28:05,817 --> 01:28:07,692
  6811. "I had no idea!"
  6812.  
  6813. 1522
  6814. 01:28:09,359 --> 01:28:11,134
  6815. In terms of my weight,
  6816.  
  6817. 1523
  6818. 01:28:11,234 --> 01:28:14,609
  6819. all I did is return to
  6820. my pre-experiment diet.
  6821.  
  6822. 1524
  6823. 01:28:15,817 --> 01:28:18,301
  6824. I swapped cereal and low-fat yoghurt
  6825.  
  6826. 1525
  6827. 01:28:18,401 --> 01:28:20,984
  6828. for bacon, eggs
  6829. and avocado without toast.
  6830.  
  6831. 1526
  6832. 01:28:22,359 --> 01:28:25,717
  6833. I snacked on nuts and cheese
  6834. instead of muesli bars,
  6835.  
  6836. 1527
  6837. 01:28:25,817 --> 01:28:29,259
  6838. and ate fish or meat
  6839. with the fat left on
  6840.  
  6841. 1528
  6842. 01:28:29,359 --> 01:28:31,026
  6843. and lots of green vegetables
  6844. for dinners.
  6845.  
  6846. 1529
  6847. 01:28:32,734 --> 01:28:35,484
  6848. I lost 6kg with minimal exercise.
  6849.  
  6850. 1530
  6851. 01:28:36,901 --> 01:28:41,467
  6852. Once you remove that hormone
  6853. disrupter, fructose,
  6854.  
  6855. 1531
  6856. 01:28:41,567 --> 01:28:44,051
  6857. from your diet,
  6858.  
  6859. 1532
  6860. 01:28:44,151 --> 01:28:47,484
  6861. your appetite control works
  6862. again and your weight drops.
  6863.  
  6864. 1533
  6865. 01:28:49,359 --> 01:28:52,051
  6866. Because I replaced sugar
  6867. with healthy fats,
  6868.  
  6869. 1534
  6870. 01:28:52,151 --> 01:28:54,776
  6871. I felt full again
  6872. and didn't have to eat as much.
  6873.  
  6874. 1535
  6875. 01:28:55,942 --> 01:28:58,842
  6876. Consequently, I spent the same
  6877. amount on shopping
  6878.  
  6879. 1536
  6880. 01:28:58,942 --> 01:29:01,551
  6881. as I had during the experiment.
  6882.  
  6883. 1537
  6884. 01:29:01,651 --> 01:29:03,176
  6885. Whenever you walk into a supermarket,
  6886.  
  6887. 1538
  6888. 01:29:03,276 --> 01:29:05,634
  6889. make an immediate right turn
  6890. or left turn
  6891.  
  6892. 1539
  6893. 01:29:05,734 --> 01:29:09,301
  6894. for the produce aisle and avoid
  6895. everything in the middle.
  6896.  
  6897. 1540
  6898. 01:29:09,401 --> 01:29:12,859
  6899. Everything in the middle is
  6900. a huge amount of calories
  6901.  
  6902. 1541
  6903. 01:29:12,984 --> 01:29:15,092
  6904. with very little nutrients.
  6905.  
  6906. 1542
  6907. 01:29:15,192 --> 01:29:16,609
  6908. And what we wanna do is reverse that.
  6909.  
  6910. 1543
  6911. 01:29:18,359 --> 01:29:21,759
  6912. But the biggest surprise
  6913. was that all of my blood tests had
  6914.  
  6915. 1544
  6916. 01:29:21,859 --> 01:29:23,967
  6917. returned to normal,
  6918.  
  6919. 1545
  6920. 01:29:24,067 --> 01:29:26,984
  6921. so no more heart disease risks
  6922. and no more fatty liver.
  6923.  
  6924. 1546
  6925. 01:29:28,901 --> 01:29:32,092
  6926. I think the most
  6927. important message is that
  6928.  
  6929. 1547
  6930. 01:29:32,192 --> 01:29:35,967
  6931. this is not you get
  6932. a fatty liver and that's it,
  6933.  
  6934. 1548
  6935. 01:29:36,067 --> 01:29:37,301
  6936. it will stay fatty,
  6937.  
  6938. 1549
  6939. 01:29:37,401 --> 01:29:41,342
  6940. it actually can be reversed very easily
  6941.  
  6942. 1550
  6943. 01:29:41,442 --> 01:29:44,342
  6944. by taking away the fructose
  6945. from your diet,
  6946.  
  6947. 1551
  6948. 01:29:44,442 --> 01:29:46,217
  6949. taking away all those drinks.
  6950.  
  6951. 1552
  6952. 01:29:46,317 --> 01:29:49,967
  6953. I mean, water is a good drink.
  6954.  
  6955. 1553
  6956. 01:29:50,067 --> 01:29:51,509
  6957. Yeah.
  6958.  
  6959. 1554
  6960. 01:29:51,609 --> 01:29:54,342
  6961. In truth, it did take
  6962. a while for my palate
  6963.  
  6964. 1555
  6965. 01:29:54,442 --> 01:29:56,967
  6966. to readjust to my lady's
  6967. unsweetened cooking.
  6968.  
  6969. 1556
  6970. 01:29:57,067 --> 01:30:00,676
  6971. Things tasted bland
  6972. for the first few weeks,
  6973.  
  6974. 1557
  6975. 01:30:00,776 --> 01:30:04,051
  6976. but then I rediscovered the full
  6977. flavours of fresh produce.
  6978.  
  6979. 1558
  6980. 01:30:04,151 --> 01:30:05,051
  6981. Mmm.
  6982.  
  6983. 1559
  6984. 01:30:05,151 --> 01:30:09,051
  6985. For just five days,
  6986. I want you to discontinue,
  6987.  
  6988. 1560
  6989. 01:30:09,151 --> 01:30:13,009
  6990. or take out of your diet, for five days,
  6991. these foods that I'm gonna show you,
  6992.  
  6993. 1561
  6994. 01:30:13,109 --> 01:30:16,134
  6995. and I promise you that
  6996. you will feel 100% better.
  6997.  
  6998. 1562
  6999. 01:30:16,234 --> 01:30:18,967
  7000. Will you please try this for me,
  7001. just as an experiment?
  7002.  
  7003. 1563
  7004. 01:30:19,067 --> 01:30:21,276
  7005. 'Cause I'm here trying to help
  7006. you help yourself a little bit.
  7007.  
  7008. 1564
  7009. 01:30:24,984 --> 01:30:26,467
  7010. In the USA,
  7011.  
  7012. 1565
  7013. 01:30:26,567 --> 01:30:28,509
  7014. it was recently recommended
  7015. for men to have
  7016.  
  7017. 1566
  7018. 01:30:28,609 --> 01:30:31,859
  7019. no more than nine teaspoons
  7020. of sugar a day
  7021.  
  7022. 1567
  7023. 01:30:31,984 --> 01:30:34,859
  7024. and women no more than six.
  7025.  
  7026. 1568
  7027. 01:30:34,984 --> 01:30:37,859
  7028. Australia currently doesn't have
  7029. an equivalent recommendation.
  7030.  
  7031. 1569
  7032. 01:30:39,151 --> 01:30:40,859
  7033. I love chocolate.
  7034.  
  7035. 1570
  7036. 01:30:40,984 --> 01:30:43,467
  7037. I eat a little piece
  7038. of chocolate every day.
  7039.  
  7040. 1571
  7041. 01:30:43,567 --> 01:30:47,009
  7042. But I'm careful and I understand
  7043. the adverse effects
  7044.  
  7045. 1572
  7046. 01:30:47,109 --> 01:30:48,526
  7047. if I have too much of it.
  7048.  
  7049. 1573
  7050. 01:30:50,067 --> 01:30:54,051
  7051. But for me it's simpler
  7052. to cut out sugar altogether.
  7053.  
  7054. 1574
  7055. 01:30:54,151 --> 01:30:56,801
  7056. And that means avoiding
  7057. artificial sweeteners, too,
  7058.  
  7059. 1575
  7060. 01:30:56,901 --> 01:30:58,276
  7061. that keep the cravings alive.
  7062.  
  7063. 1576
  7064. 01:30:59,984 --> 01:31:04,467
  7065. If you continue to reinforce
  7066.  
  7067. 1577
  7068. 01:31:04,567 --> 01:31:07,859
  7069. it has to be sweet
  7070. in order for it to be good,
  7071.  
  7072. 1578
  7073. 01:31:07,984 --> 01:31:09,342
  7074. then you're never really learning
  7075.  
  7076. 1579
  7077. 01:31:09,442 --> 01:31:11,301
  7078. how to do food... good food.
  7079.  
  7080. 1580
  7081. 01:31:11,401 --> 01:31:14,734
  7082. I want my daughter to
  7083. grow up healthy and happy...
  7084.  
  7085. 1581
  7086. 01:31:16,067 --> 01:31:18,842
  7087. and not waste any of her
  7088. precious time counting calories
  7089.  
  7090. 1582
  7091. 01:31:18,942 --> 01:31:20,484
  7092. or obsessing over weight.
  7093.  
  7094. 1583
  7095. 01:31:25,567 --> 01:31:27,342
  7096. By educating our children,
  7097.  
  7098. 1584
  7099. 01:31:27,442 --> 01:31:29,467
  7100. perhaps they can avoid the mistakes
  7101.  
  7102. 1585
  7103. 01:31:29,567 --> 01:31:31,109
  7104. that our generation has made.
  7105.  
  7106. 1586
  7107. 01:31:33,692 --> 01:31:37,759
  7108. Do whatever you can
  7109. to turn fruit and vegetable
  7110.  
  7111. 1587
  7112. 01:31:37,859 --> 01:31:41,551
  7113. into the highlight of your meal.
  7114.  
  7115. 1588
  7116. 01:31:41,651 --> 01:31:43,692
  7117. Train your kids to love them.
  7118.  
  7119. 1589
  7120. 01:31:45,317 --> 01:31:47,217
  7121. That's what every
  7122. parent's got to figure out.
  7123.  
  7124. 1590
  7125. 01:31:47,317 --> 01:31:50,176
  7126. How do you get in all those
  7127. great nutrients?
  7128.  
  7129. 1591
  7130. 01:31:50,276 --> 01:31:52,967
  7131. How do you get those
  7132. superfoods into your child
  7133.  
  7134. 1592
  7135. 01:31:53,067 --> 01:31:56,009
  7136. and make it taste good at the same time
  7137.  
  7138. 1593
  7139. 01:31:56,109 --> 01:31:57,801
  7140. without spiking their blood sugar
  7141.  
  7142. 1594
  7143. 01:31:57,901 --> 01:32:02,676
  7144. so that they can sit down
  7145. and study and learn
  7146.  
  7147. 1595
  7148. 01:32:02,776 --> 01:32:05,817
  7149. and allow for the creation of genius.
  7150.  
  7151. 1596
  7152. 01:32:20,609 --> 01:32:23,592
  7153. That's why we're having
  7154. the sugar experiment.
  7155.  
  7156. 1597
  7157. 01:32:23,692 --> 01:32:26,467
  7158. We had to learn that this is not
  7159. the right way to go
  7160.  
  7161. 1598
  7162. 01:32:26,567 --> 01:32:30,609
  7163. in order to help inspire us
  7164. to get to the next level.
  7165.  
  7166. 1599
  7167. 01:32:32,359 --> 01:32:34,967
  7168. I certainly don't think
  7169. that sugar is solely to blame
  7170.  
  7171. 1600
  7172. 01:32:35,067 --> 01:32:37,217
  7173. for all own current health problems,
  7174.  
  7175. 1601
  7176. 01:32:37,317 --> 01:32:40,301
  7177. but given its prevalence
  7178. in our food supply,
  7179.  
  7180. 1602
  7181. 01:32:40,401 --> 01:32:43,801
  7182. lowering our consumption
  7183. is a great place to start.
  7184.  
  7185. 1603
  7186. 01:32:43,901 --> 01:32:48,134
  7187. Sugar's not evil,
  7188. but life is so much better...
  7189.  
  7190. 1604
  7191. 01:32:48,234 --> 01:32:50,692
  7192. when you get rid of it.
  7193.  
  7194. 1605
  7195. 01:32:54,734 --> 01:32:57,842
  7196. This experiment has proven
  7197. to me that refined sugar
  7198.  
  7199. 1606
  7200. 01:32:57,942 --> 01:33:01,859
  7201. and excess fructose are causing
  7202. serious damage to the health
  7203.  
  7204. 1607
  7205. 01:33:01,984 --> 01:33:03,984
  7206. and wellbeing of millions of people.
  7207.  
  7208. 1608
  7209. 01:33:05,067 --> 01:33:06,509
  7210. And as the debate heats up
  7211.  
  7212. 1609
  7213. 01:33:06,609 --> 01:33:08,342
  7214. and the food industry fight
  7215. tooth and nail
  7216.  
  7217. 1610
  7218. 01:33:08,442 --> 01:33:10,551
  7219. to shut the message down,
  7220.  
  7221. 1611
  7222. 01:33:10,651 --> 01:33:13,609
  7223. we'll be bombarded with
  7224. conflicting nutritional advice.
  7225.  
  7226. 1612
  7227. 01:33:15,067 --> 01:33:18,967
  7228. But for me, quite simply,
  7229. the proof is in the pudding.
  7230.  
  7231. 1613
  7232. 01:33:19,067 --> 01:33:21,317
  7233. About 10 teaspoons of it.
  7234.  
  7235. 1614
  7236. 01:33:52,651 --> 01:33:54,217
  7237. ♪ Hey, everybody
  7238.  
  7239. 1615
  7240. 01:33:54,317 --> 01:33:56,801
  7241. ♪ Let me introduce myself
  7242.  
  7243. 1616
  7244. 01:33:56,901 --> 01:34:01,134
  7245. ♪ I spread my love on every
  7246. item on your supermarket shelf
  7247.  
  7248. 1617
  7249. 01:34:01,234 --> 01:34:04,051
  7250. ♪ I taste so good, make you feel so high
  7251.  
  7252. 1618
  7253. 01:34:04,151 --> 01:34:06,259
  7254. ♪ That I bring you back for more
  7255.  
  7256. 1619
  7257. 01:34:06,359 --> 01:34:08,592
  7258. ♪ Plus I place my goodies
  7259. at your kiddies' eye level
  7260.  
  7261. 1620
  7262. 01:34:08,692 --> 01:34:11,176
  7263. ♪ When you're just about to
  7264. walk out the store
  7265.  
  7266. 1621
  7267. 01:34:11,276 --> 01:34:13,301
  7268. ♪ Now, people will tell you
  7269. that I rot your teeth
  7270.  
  7271. 1622
  7272. 01:34:13,401 --> 01:34:15,759
  7273. ♪ And make you fat
  7274. and give your body abuse
  7275.  
  7276. 1623
  7277. 01:34:15,859 --> 01:34:18,092
  7278. ♪ But forget about that,
  7279. just take off your clothes
  7280.  
  7281. 1624
  7282. 01:34:18,192 --> 01:34:19,842
  7283. ♪ And have a spa made
  7284. of chocolate mousse
  7285.  
  7286. 1625
  7287. 01:34:19,942 --> 01:34:20,967
  7288. ♪ Sing it, ladies
  7289.  
  7290. 1626
  7291. 01:34:21,067 --> 01:34:22,717
  7292. ♪ Oh, Mr Sugar, so sexy alright
  7293.  
  7294. 1627
  7295. 01:34:22,817 --> 01:34:25,342
  7296. ♪ We can taste you in our food
  7297. in nearly every bite
  7298.  
  7299. 1628
  7300. 01:34:25,442 --> 01:34:27,842
  7301. ♪ It feels so good
  7302. Can we have a little more?
  7303.  
  7304. 1629
  7305. 01:34:27,942 --> 01:34:30,734
  7306. ♪ Of course you can, ladies
  7307. I got white, brown, raw sugar
  7308.  
  7309. 1630
  7310. 01:34:32,442 --> 01:34:33,651
  7311. ♪ Sugar
  7312.  
  7313. 1631
  7314. 01:34:34,942 --> 01:34:35,859
  7315. ♪ Sugar
  7316.  
  7317. 1632
  7318. 01:34:37,109 --> 01:34:38,509
  7319. ♪ I'm not your friend I come in gum
  7320.  
  7321. 1633
  7322. 01:34:38,609 --> 01:34:40,051
  7323. ♪ Just eat me when you're on the run
  7324.  
  7325. 1634
  7326. 01:34:40,151 --> 01:34:42,817
  7327. ♪ Sugar
  7328. Sugar
  7329.  
  7330. 1635
  7331. 01:34:44,067 --> 01:34:45,234
  7332. ♪ Sugar
  7333.  
  7334. 1636
  7335. 01:34:46,776 --> 01:34:48,134
  7336. ♪ Treat to eat I taste so sweet
  7337.  
  7338. 1637
  7339. 01:34:48,234 --> 01:34:49,651
  7340. ♪ I get you when you leave the teat
  7341.  
  7342. 1638
  7343. 01:34:53,651 --> 01:34:55,967
  7344. ♪ And when you wake up in the morning
  7345. And you're feeling kind of peckish
  7346.  
  7347. 1639
  7348. 01:34:56,067 --> 01:34:58,009
  7349. ♪ This often where you find me the most
  7350.  
  7351. 1640
  7352. 01:34:58,109 --> 01:34:59,634
  7353. ♪ 'Cause I'm lurking in your cereal
  7354.  
  7355. 1641
  7356. 01:34:59,734 --> 01:35:00,842
  7357. ♪ I'm lurking in your yoghurt
  7358.  
  7359. 1642
  7360. 01:35:00,942 --> 01:35:03,176
  7361. ♪ And sometimes I'm even found
  7362. in your toast
  7363.  
  7364. 1643
  7365. 01:35:03,276 --> 01:35:04,967
  7366. ♪ But here's a little secret
  7367. I can share with you
  7368.  
  7369. 1644
  7370. 01:35:05,067 --> 01:35:07,551
  7371. ♪ A secret you should put to use
  7372.  
  7373. 1645
  7374. 01:35:07,651 --> 01:35:10,467
  7375. ♪ There's about six
  7376. cheeky teaspoons of me
  7377.  
  7378. 1646
  7379. 01:35:10,567 --> 01:35:11,842
  7380. ♪ Hiding in a glass of juice
  7381.  
  7382. 1647
  7383. 01:35:11,942 --> 01:35:12,842
  7384. ♪ Hey
  7385.  
  7386. 1648
  7387. 01:35:12,942 --> 01:35:14,801
  7388. ♪ Some people think
  7389. that Mr Sugar hangs out
  7390.  
  7391. 1649
  7392. 01:35:14,901 --> 01:35:17,301
  7393. ♪ Only with the bright-coloured snacks
  7394.  
  7395. 1650
  7396. 01:35:17,401 --> 01:35:19,467
  7397. ♪ But I've been spreading
  7398. my crystals all over your food
  7399.  
  7400. 1651
  7401. 01:35:19,567 --> 01:35:22,009
  7402. ♪ And the company's been
  7403. hiding the facts
  7404.  
  7405. 1652
  7406. 01:35:22,109 --> 01:35:24,217
  7407. ♪ I'm in cola, granola and pasta sauce
  7408.  
  7409. 1653
  7410. 01:35:24,317 --> 01:35:26,717
  7411. ♪ Mushy peas, mac and cheese
  7412. And that radish from a horse
  7413.  
  7414. 1654
  7415. 01:35:26,817 --> 01:35:28,967
  7416. ♪ Canned fruit and soup,
  7417. even soup in a satchel
  7418.  
  7419. 1655
  7420. 01:35:29,067 --> 01:35:31,509
  7421. ♪ And Mr Sugar loves the term
  7422. 'all natural'
  7423.  
  7424. 1656
  7425. 01:35:31,609 --> 01:35:33,859
  7426. ♪ White bread, corn chips,
  7427. muffin mix, gravy
  7428.  
  7429. 1657
  7430. 01:35:33,984 --> 01:35:35,967
  7431. ♪ Mayonnaise, satay, food for the baby
  7432.  
  7433. 1658
  7434. 01:35:36,067 --> 01:35:38,467
  7435. ♪ Baked beans for the teens
  7436. and an energy drink
  7437.  
  7438. 1659
  7439. 01:35:38,567 --> 01:35:40,801
  7440. ♪ And I'm clearly gonna be
  7441. in any food that's pink
  7442.  
  7443. 1660
  7444. 01:35:40,901 --> 01:35:43,051
  7445. ♪ I'm confessing I'm in dressing
  7446. and a hamburger bun
  7447.  
  7448. 1661
  7449. 01:35:43,151 --> 01:35:44,801
  7450. ♪ Where that cheeky corn syrup's
  7451.  
  7452. 1662
  7453. 01:35:44,901 --> 01:35:47,967
  7454. ♪ Trying to steal all my fun
  7455. Muesli bars, even some cigars
  7456.  
  7457. 1663
  7458. 01:35:48,067 --> 01:35:50,342
  7459. ♪ And a whole range of
  7460. marmalade and honey, jam jars
  7461.  
  7462. 1664
  7463. 01:35:50,442 --> 01:35:52,509
  7464. ♪ Oh, Mr Sugar, so ubiquitous
  7465.  
  7466. 1665
  7467. 01:35:52,609 --> 01:35:54,967
  7468. ♪ Our addiction to you
  7469. is quite ridiculous
  7470.  
  7471. 1666
  7472. 01:35:55,067 --> 01:35:57,092
  7473. ♪ We feel so sick when you're not around
  7474.  
  7475. 1667
  7476. 01:35:57,192 --> 01:35:59,717
  7477. ♪ That's why a spoonful of me
  7478. helps the medicine go down
  7479.  
  7480. 1668
  7481. 01:35:59,817 --> 01:36:03,109
  7482. ♪ Sugar
  7483. Sugar
  7484.  
  7485. 1669
  7486. 01:36:04,401 --> 01:36:05,484
  7487. ♪ Sugar
  7488.  
  7489. 1670
  7490. 01:36:07,067 --> 01:36:09,176
  7491. ♪ Sugar
  7492.  
  7493. 1671
  7494. 01:36:09,276 --> 01:36:11,551
  7495. ♪ Sugar
  7496. ♪ Put me in your coffee
  7497.  
  7498. 1672
  7499. 01:36:11,651 --> 01:36:13,967
  7500. ♪ Sugar
  7501. ♪ I'm the only thing in toffee
  7502.  
  7503. 1673
  7504. 01:36:14,067 --> 01:36:15,967
  7505. ♪ Sugar
  7506. ♪ Pick you up when you're down
  7507.  
  7508. 1674
  7509. 01:36:16,067 --> 01:36:18,967
  7510. ♪ Sugar
  7511. ♪ You should try me in brown
  7512.  
  7513. 1675
  7514. 01:36:19,067 --> 01:36:20,967
  7515. ♪ Sugar
  7516. ♪ You couldn't quit me for quids
  7517.  
  7518. 1676
  7519. 01:36:21,067 --> 01:36:23,859
  7520. ♪ Sugar
  7521. ♪ I'm coming for your kids. ♪
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