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List of countries

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  1.  
  2. List of sovereign states
  3. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. "List of nations" and "List of countries" redirect here. For other country lists, see Lists of countries and territories. For non-sovereign dependencies, see Dependent territory.
  5. Page move-protected
  6.  
  7. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (July 2014)
  8. This list of sovereign states provides an overview of states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
  9.  
  10. The 206 states listed are divided into:
  11.  
  12. The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] two observer states, and 11 other states.
  13. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states).
  14. Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.
  15.  
  16. Contents  [hide]
  17. 1 List of states
  18. 2 Criteria for inclusion
  19. 3 See also
  20. 4 Notes
  21. 5 References
  22. 6 Bibliography
  23. List of states[edit]
  24. Short and formal names  Membership within the UN System [Note 1]        Sovereignty dispute [Note 2]    Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]
  25.  Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia      No membership   Claimed by Georgia      Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela,[44] Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[45] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
  26.  Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan        UN member state None   
  27.  Albania – Republic of Albania        UN member state None   
  28.  Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria    UN member state None   
  29.  Andorra – Principality of Andorra    UN member state None    Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
  30.  Angola – Republic of Angola  UN member state None   
  31.  Antigua and Barbuda    UN member state None    Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6][3]
  32.  Argentina – Argentine Republic[Note 7]       UN member state None    Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
  33.  Armenia – Republic of Armenia        UN member state Not recognized by Pakistan[4][5][6]    
  34.  Australia – Commonwealth of Australia        UN member state None    Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
  35.  Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  36.  Australian Antarctic Territory
  37.  Christmas Island
  38.  Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  39.  Coral Sea Islands Territory
  40.  Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  41.  Norfolk Island
  42.  Austria – Republic of Austria        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
  43.  Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan  UN member state None    Azerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
  44.  Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of the Bahamas   UN member state None    The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  45.  Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain UN member state None   
  46.  Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh UN member state None   
  47.  Barbados       UN member state None    Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  48.  Belarus – Republic of Belarus        UN member state None   
  49.  Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
  50.  Belize UN member state None    Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  51.  Benin – Republic of Benin[Note 8]    UN member state None   
  52.  Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan   UN member state None   
  53.  Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia     UN member state None   
  54.  Bosnia and Herzegovina UN member state None    Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:
  55.  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  56.  Republika Srpska
  57. and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[Note 9]
  58.  Botswana – Republic of Botswana      UN member state None   
  59.  Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil       UN member state None    Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
  60.  Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace    UN member state None   
  61.  Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria      UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  62.  Burkina Faso[Note 10]  UN member state None   
  63.  Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[Note 11][8] UN member state None   
  64.  Burundi – Republic of Burundi        UN member state None   
  65.  Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia       UN member state None   
  66.  Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon      UN member state None   
  67.  Canada[Note 12]        UN member state None    Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
  68.  Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde  UN member state None   
  69.  Central African Republic       UN member state None   
  70.  Chad – Republic of Chad      UN member state None   
  71.  Chile – Republic of Chile    UN member state None    Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region.
  72. China, Republic of → Taiwan                  
  73.  China – People's Republic of China[Note 13]  UN member state Not recognised by 22 states. Claimed by the Republic of China   The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
  74.  Hong Kong
  75.  Macau
  76. China is not recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise Taiwan (the Republic of China).[Note 14]
  77. China claims, but does not control, the de facto independent Taiwan.[Note 15]
  78.  Colombia – Republic of Colombia      UN member state None   
  79.  Comoros – Union of the Comoros       UN member state None    Comoros is a federation of 3 islands.[Note 16][9]
  80.  Congo, Democratic Republic of the[Note 17]     UN member state None   
  81.  Congo, Republic of the[Note 18]        UN member state None   
  82.  Cook Islands   Member of seven UN specialized agencies None    A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands has relations with 41 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
  83.  Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica  UN member state None   
  84.  Croatia – Republic of Croatia        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  85.  Cuba – Republic of Cuba      UN member state None   
  86.  Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus  UN member state Not recognised by Turkey[10]    Member of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".[11]
  87.  Czech Republic[Note 19]        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  88. Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast                 
  89. Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North                 
  90. Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the                 
  91.  Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  92. The Danish Realm includes two self-governing territories:
  93.  Faroe Islands (Føroyar/Færøerne)
  94.  Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat/Grønland)
  95.  Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti      UN member state None   
  96.  Dominican Republic     UN member state None   
  97.  Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica  UN member state None   
  98.  East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[Note 20]     UN member state None   
  99.  Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador        UN member state None   
  100.  Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt       UN member state None   
  101.  El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador        UN member state None   
  102.  Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea    UN member state None   
  103.  Eritrea – State of Eritrea   UN member state None   
  104.  Estonia – Republic of Estonia        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  105.  Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia   UN member state None    Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
  106.  Fiji – Republic of Fiji      UN member state None    Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6][12][13]
  107.  Finland – Republic of Finland        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  108.  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[Note 6][Note 21]
  109.  France – French Republic     UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
  110.  Clipperton Island
  111.  French Polynesia
  112.  New Caledonia
  113.  Saint Barthélemy
  114.  Saint Martin
  115.  Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  116.  Wallis and Futuna
  117.  French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  118.  Gabon – Gabonese Republic    UN member state None   
  119.   Gambia, The – Republic of the Gambia        UN member state None   
  120.  Georgia        UN member state None    Georgia contains two autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
  121.  Germany – Federal Republic of Germany        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Bundesländer).
  122.  Ghana – Republic of Ghana    UN member state None   
  123.  Greece – Hellenic Republic   UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[14]
  124.  Grenada        UN member state None    Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  125.  Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala    UN member state None   
  126.  Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau    UN member state None   
  127.  Guinea – Republic of Guinea[Note 22] UN member state None   
  128.  Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana     UN member state None   
  129.  Haiti – Republic of Haiti    UN member state None   
  130. Holy See → Vatican City                      
  131.  Honduras – Republic of Honduras      UN member state None   
  132.  Hungary        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  133.  Iceland – Republic of Iceland        UN member state None   
  134.  India – Republic of India    UN member state None    India is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories.
  135.  Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia    UN member state None    Indonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]
  136.  Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran      UN member state None   
  137.  Iraq – Republic of Iraq      UN member state None    Iraq is a federation[Note 16][15] of 18 governorates, three of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]
  138.  Ireland[Note 23]       UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  139.  Israel – State of Israel     UN member state Not recognised by 32 states     Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[16] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[17] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered the occupying power under international law.[18][19][20][21][22] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
  140.  Italy – Italian Republic     UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has five autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]
  141.  Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire     UN member state None   
  142.  Jamaica        UN member state None    Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  143.  Japan  UN member state None   
  144.  Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan UN member state None   
  145.  Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan  UN member state None   
  146.  Kenya – Republic of Kenya    UN member state None   
  147.  Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati      UN member state None   
  148.  Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea UN member state Claimed by South Korea  North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 24][23]
  149.  Korea, South – Republic of Korea     UN member state Claimed by North Korea  South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6][24] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 24]
  150.  Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo  Member of two UN specialized agencies   Claimed by Serbia       Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has received diplomatic recognition from 107 UN member states and Taiwan. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
  151.  Kuwait – State of Kuwait     UN member state None   
  152.  Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic UN member state None   
  153.  Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic      UN member state None   
  154.  Latvia – Republic of Latvia  UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  155.  Lebanon – Lebanese Republic  UN member state None   
  156.  Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho UN member state None   
  157.  Liberia – Republic of Liberia        UN member state None   
  158.  Libya – State of Libya       UN member state None    Libya has one self-declared autonomous region:[25]
  159.  Cyrenaica
  160.  Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein        UN member state None   
  161.  Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania    UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  162.  Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg       UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  163.  Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia    UN member state None    Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
  164.  Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar  UN member state None   
  165.  Malawi – Republic of Malawi  UN member state None   
  166.  Malaysia       UN member state None    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
  167.  Maldives – Republic of Maldives      UN member state None   
  168.  Mali – Republic of Mali      UN member state None   
  169.  Malta – Republic of Malta    UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  170.  Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands  UN member state None    Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
  171.  Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania  UN member state None   
  172.  Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius    UN member state None    Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6]
  173.  Mexico – United Mexican States       UN member state None    Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
  174.  Micronesia, Federated States of        UN member state None    Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
  175.  Moldova – Republic of Moldova        UN member state None    Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
  176.  Monaco – Principality of Monaco      UN member state None   
  177.  Mongolia       UN member state None   
  178.  Montenegro     UN member state None   
  179.  Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco UN member state None    Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
  180.  Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique  UN member state None   
  181. Myanmar → Burma                      
  182.  Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic No membership   Claimed by Azerbaijan   A de facto independent state,[46][47][48] recognised only by Abkhazia,[49] South Ossetia[49] and Transnistria.[49][50] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[51]
  183.  Namibia – Republic of Namibia        UN member state None   
  184.  Nauru – Republic of Nauru    UN member state None   
  185.    Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal       UN member state None    Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
  186.  Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands     UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:
  187.  Netherlands
  188.  Aruba
  189.  Curaçao
  190.  Sint Maarten
  191. The monarch and his ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of its constituent country, the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.
  192. The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.
  193.  New Zealand    UN member state None    New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[Note 5] and has the dependent territories of:
  194.  Ross Dependency
  195.  Tokelau
  196. New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:
  197.  Cook Islands
  198.  Niue
  199. The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 39 and 11 UN members respectively.[26][27][28] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[29] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.
  200.  Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua    UN member state None    Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 6]
  201.  Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria        UN member state None    Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
  202.  Niger – Republic of Niger    UN member state None   
  203.  Niue   Member of five UN specialized agencies  None    A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue has relations with 12 other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
  204. North Korea → Korea, North                   
  205.  Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus        No membership   Claimed by Cyprus       Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[52]
  206.  Norway – Kingdom of Norway   UN member state None   
  207. Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.
  208. Jan Mayen is an island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated.
  209. Norway has the dependent territories of:
  210. Bouvet Island
  211. Peter I Island
  212. Queen Maud Land
  213.  Oman – Sultanate of Oman     UN member state None   
  214.  Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan      UN member state None    Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[30][31] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[32][33] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 25]
  215.  Azad Kashmir
  216.  Gilgit–Baltistan
  217. Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[34][35] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan on their behalf.[35][36][37]
  218.  Palau – Republic of Palau    UN member state None    Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
  219.  Palestine – State of Palestine       UN observer state; member of one UN specialized agency  Disputed by Israel      The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 134 states.[38] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed.[39] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[40] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[41] and an observer state in the UN.
  220.  Panama – Republic of Panama  UN member state None   
  221.  Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea     UN member state None    Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]
  222.  Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay      UN member state None   
  223.  Peru – Republic of Peru      UN member state None   
  224.  Philippines – Republic of the Philippines    UN member state None    The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[Note 6]
  225.  Poland – Republic of Poland  UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  226.  Portugal – Portuguese Republic       UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6]
  227. Pridnestrovie → Transnistria                 
  228.  Qatar – State of Qatar       UN member state None   
  229. Republic of Korea → Korea, South                     
  230. Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the                       
  231.  Romania        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  232.  Russia – Russian Federation  UN member state None    Russia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6]
  233.  Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda  UN member state None   
  234.  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic       No membership   Claimed by Morocco      Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 39 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
  235.  Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis    UN member state None    Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation[Note 16] of 14 parishes.
  236.  Saint Lucia    UN member state None    Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  237.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines       UN member state None    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  238.  Samoa – Independent State of Samoa   UN member state None   
  239.  San Marino – Republic of San Marino  UN member state None   
  240.  Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia       UN member state None   
  241.  Senegal – Republic of Senegal        UN member state None   
  242.  Serbia – Republic of Serbia  UN member state None    Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
  243.  Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles  UN member state None   
  244.  Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone      UN member state None   
  245.  Singapore – Republic of Singapore    UN member state None   
  246.  Slovakia – Slovak Republic   UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  247.  Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia      UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  248.  Solomon Islands        UN member state None    The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  249.  Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia        UN member state None    Somalia is presently divided with the official Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the FGS does not recognise),[42][need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
  250.  Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland  No membership   Claimed by Somalia      A de facto independent state,[46][53][54][55][56] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[57]
  251.  South Africa – Republic of South Africa      UN member state None   
  252. South Korea → Korea, South                   
  253.  South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia    No membership   Claimed by Georgia      A de facto independent state,[58] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[44] Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Transnistria.[45] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[59]
  254.  South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan        UN member state None    South Sudan is a federation of 10 states.
  255.  Spain – Kingdom of Spain     UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.[Note 6]
  256.  Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka       UN member state None    Formerly known as Ceylon.
  257.  Sudan – Republic of the Sudan        UN member state None    Sudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
  258.  Suriname – Republic of Suriname      UN member state None   
  259.  Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland     UN member state None   
  260.  Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden   UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  261.   Switzerland – Swiss Confederation   UN member state None    Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
  262.  Syria – Syrian Arab Republic UN member state None    The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.
  263. Syria has one self-declared autonomous region:
  264.  Syrian Kurdistan
  265.  São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe   UN member state None    São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]
  266.  Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 13]  Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"   Claimed by the People's Republic of China       A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 26] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[60] The Republic of China is recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See as of 2013. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 15] The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
  267.  Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan  UN member state None    Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]
  268.  Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania       UN member state None    Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]
  269.  Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand       UN member state None   
  270. Timor-Leste → East Timor                     
  271.  Togo – Togolese Republic     UN member state None   
  272.  Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga     UN member state None   
  273.  Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic     No membership   Claimed by Moldova      A de facto independent state,[46] recognised only by Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia.[45] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[61]
  274.  Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago        UN member state None    Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]
  275.  Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia        UN member state None   
  276.  Turkey – Republic of Turkey  UN member state None   
  277.  Turkmenistan   UN member state None   
  278.  Tuvalu UN member state None    Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
  279.  Uganda – Republic of Uganda  UN member state None   
  280.  Ukraine        UN member state None   
  281.  United Arab Emirates   UN member state None    The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
  282.  United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland        UN member state None    Member of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
  283.  Akrotiri and Dhekelia
  284.  Anguilla
  285.  Bermuda
  286.  British Indian Ocean Territory
  287.  British Virgin Islands
  288.  Cayman Islands
  289.  Falkland Islands
  290.  Gibraltar
  291.  Montserrat
  292.  Pitcairn Islands
  293.  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
  294.  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  295.  Turks and Caicos Islands
  296.  British Antarctic Territory
  297. The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:
  298.  Guernsey, with three dependencies:
  299.  Alderney
  300.  Herm
  301.  Sark
  302.  Isle of Man
  303.  Jersey
  304.  United States – United States of America     UN member state None    The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:
  305.  American Samoa
  306.  Guam
  307.  Northern Mariana Islands
  308.  Puerto Rico
  309.  U.S. Virgin Islands
  310. It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:
  311. Bajo Nuevo Bank
  312. Baker Island
  313. Howland Island
  314. Jarvis Island
  315. Johnston Atoll
  316. Kingman Reef
  317. Midway Atoll
  318. Navassa Island
  319. Serranilla Bank
  320. Wake Island
  321. Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:
  322.  Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  323.  Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
  324.  Palau – Republic of Palau
  325.  Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay       UN member state None   
  326.  Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan  UN member state None    Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]
  327.  Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu        UN member state None   
  328.   Vatican City – Vatican City State   UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA     None    Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 180 states.[43] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[40] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
  329.  Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela UN member state None    Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
  330.  Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam      UN member state None   
  331.  Yemen – Republic of Yemen    UN member state None   
  332.  Zambia – Republic of Zambia  UN member state None   
  333.  Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe      UN member state None   
  334. Abkhazia → Abkhazia                  
  335. Cook Islands → Cook Islands                  
  336. Kosovo → Kosovo                      
  337. Nagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakh                  
  338. Niue → Niue                  
  339. Northern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus                    
  340. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic                  
  341. Somaliland → Somaliland                      
  342. South Ossetia → South Ossetia                
  343. Sudan, South → South Sudan                   
  344. Taiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan                  
  345. Transnistria → Transnistria                  
  346. ↑ Other states ↑                   
  347. ↑ UN member states and observer states ↑                   
  348. ↓ Other states ↓                   
  349. ↓ UN member states or observer states ↓                    
  350. Legend "Membership within the UN system" column
  351.   UN Member states
  352.   UN Observer states
  353.   Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  354.   Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  355.   No membership in the UN system
  356. Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  357.   Undisputed sovereignty
  358.   Sovereignty disputed
  359. Criteria for inclusion[edit]
  360. The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it wasn't "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure". Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:
  361.  
  362. (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood
  363. or
  364.  
  365. (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state
  366. Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.
  367.  
  368. On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[62][Note 27]
  369.  
  370. 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  371. Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  372. One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland
  373. See also[edit]
  374. ISO 3166-1
  375. Adjectivals and demonyms for countries and nations
  376. Sovereign state
  377. List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent
  378. List of shortest lived sovereign states
  379. List of sovereign states by date of formation
  380. Lists of sovereign states by year
  381. List of countries and capitals in native languages
  382. List of national capitals in alphabetical order
  383. Gallery of country coats of arms
  384. Gallery of sovereign state flags
  385. List of country-name etymologies
  386. List of international rankings
  387. List of micronations
  388. List of states with limited recognition
  389. List of territorial disputes
  390. Table of administrative divisions by country
  391. Template:Clickable world map
  392. Terra nullius
  393. List of rebel groups that control territory
  394. Notes[edit]
  395. Jump up ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  396. Jump up ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  397. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.[7]
  398. Jump up ^ Information is included on:
  399. The extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition,
  400. Membership in the European Union,[Note 3] where applicable,
  401. Any overseas dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
  402. federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
  403. Any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
  404. Any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
  405. Any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.
  406. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  407. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  408. Jump up ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  409. Jump up ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  410. Jump up ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  411. Jump up ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  412. Jump up ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  413. Jump up ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  414. ^ Jump up to: a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  415. Jump up ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  416. ^ Jump up to: a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  417. ^ Jump up to: a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  418. Jump up ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  419. Jump up ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  420. Jump up ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  421. Jump up ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  422. Jump up ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  423. Jump up ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  424. Jump up ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  425. ^ Jump up to: a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  426. Jump up ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  427. Jump up ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  428. Jump up ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and doesn't claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
  429. References[edit]
  430. ^ Jump up to: a b Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  431. Jump up ^ "Andorra country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  432. Jump up ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  433. Jump up ^ Pakistan Worldview – Report 21 – Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008[dead link]
  434. Jump up ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] – Today.Az
  435. Jump up ^ "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy". News.Az. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014. "We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state."
  436. Jump up ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  437. Jump up ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  438. Jump up ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  439. Jump up ^ Andreas S. Kakouris (July 9, 2010). "Cyprus is not at peace with Turkey". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2014. "Turkey stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus and its government."
  440. Jump up ^ See Republic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  441. Jump up ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10.[dead link]
  442. Jump up ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  443. Jump up ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  444. Jump up ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  445. Jump up ^ Knesset website, Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
  446. Jump up ^ "Disputes – International". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  447. Jump up ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  448. Jump up ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  449. Jump up ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  450. Jump up ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  451. Jump up ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  452. Jump up ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  453. Jump up ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
  454. Jump up ^ "East Libya declares self-government". Al Jazeera. November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  455. Jump up ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  456. Jump up ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  457. Jump up ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  458. ^ Jump up to: a b c http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  459. Jump up ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  460. Jump up ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group).
  461. Jump up ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9.
  462. Jump up ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9.
  463. Jump up ^ http://home.ajk.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72&catid=14
  464. ^ Jump up to: a b http://gbtribune.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/self-governance-order-2009.pdf
  465. Jump up ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=z-aRAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1100&dq=azad+kashmir+gilgit+baltistan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rbnWU6-bMcqayATQz4HoDg&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=azad%20kashmir%20gilgit%20baltistan&f=false
  466. Jump up ^ http://www.ajkassembly.gok.pk/AJK_Interim_Constitution_Act_1974.pdf
  467. Jump up ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
  468. Jump up ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  469. Mendes, Errol (30 March 2010). Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute. 30 March 2010. pp. 28, 33. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognised Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice".
  470. McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994). "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine". Seattle University Law Review (Seattle University) 18 (93): 97. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
  471. McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009). "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute". Human Rights Brief (Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law) 25. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
  472. ^ Jump up to: a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  473. Jump up ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  474. Jump up ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0.
  475. Jump up ^ "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
  476. ^ Jump up to: a b "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  477. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  478. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. "...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland."
  479. Jump up ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
  480. Jump up ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  481. ^ Jump up to: a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
  482. Jump up ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  483. Jump up ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  484. Jump up ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  485. Jump up ^ "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession". Minnesota Journal of International Law 19:2: 380–381. 2010. "Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood."
  486. Jump up ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership". Africa Report (110): 10–13. Retrieved 2011-04-19
  487. Jump up ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland". ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8. Retrieved 2011-04-19
  488. Jump up ^ Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland". Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved 2011-04-17
  489. Jump up ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  490. Jump up ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm". Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3
  491. Jump up ^ "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
  492. Jump up ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08.
  493. Jump up ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  494. Jump up ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.
  495. Bibliography[edit]
  496. Federal Foreign Office of Germany (22 April 2009). "Amtliche Bezeichnungen ausländischer Staaten in den Landessprachen" (PDF). Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  497. Bissio, Roberto Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide: 1995/96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1. OCLC 476299738.
  498. "Countries or areas, codes and abbreviations". Statistics Division, United Nations. 1 April 2010.
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  502. "List of countries, territories and currencies". Publications Office of the European Union. 4 May 2010.
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