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  1. Court Jews
  2. http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history/Modern_History/Early_Modern/Court_Jews.shtml?p=0
  4. Jews and Usury
  5. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14615-usury
  7. Jews and Finance
  8. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/6116-finance
  10. Jews and Banking
  11. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2444-banking
  13. Jewish Banking and Bankers
  14. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_01978.html
  16. The History of Jewish Banking
  17. http://www.manfredlehmann.com/news/news_detail.cgi/173/0
  19. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  21. Jewish Banking in Eastern Europe
  22. http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Banking
  24. The Role of Jewish Finance in 19th Century America
  25. http://www.thebirdman.org/Index/Others/Others-Doc-Jews/+Doc-Jews-Power&Influence&Dominance/TheRoleOfJewishFinanceIn19thCentturyAmerica.html
  27. The Jewish Story Behind the U.S. Federal Reserve System
  28. http://forward.com/culture/325447/the-man-behind-the-fed/
  30. Sephardi Jews and the Early Years of the Bank of England
  31. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/29777945?sid=21105857253183&uid=3739936&uid=4&uid=3739256&uid=2
  33. Change for the Church: Jews and Banking in Renaissance Italy
  34. http://sites.google.com/site/hashtaumd/contents-1/banking
  36. Jewish Bankers and the Holy See: From the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century
  37. http://www.amazon.com/Jewish-Bankers-Holy-See-RLE/dp/0415751802
  39. Court Jews, Bankers, and Scholars - Documents Related to Jewish life in Germany and Europe (17th to 20th century)
  40. http://www.sothebys.com/content/dam/sothebys/PDFs/Lot-87-English-Descriptions.pdf
  42. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  44. Banking and the Jews of Iraq
  45. http://www.babylonjewry.org.il/new/english/nehardea/8/b7.htm
  47. The Jews of Iraq and their Financial Activities
  48. http://www.babylonjewry.org.il/new/english/nehardea/8/b5.htm
  50. Jewish Traders of the Diaspora Part I: The Persian Period
  51. http://www.hebrewhistory.info/factpapers/fp042-1_traders.htm
  53. The Contributions of Sephardic Jews to the Economic and Industrial Development of Egypt
  54. http://www.sephardicstudies.org/contributions-jews-egypt.html
  56. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  58. Court Jew
  59. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_Jew
  61. Court Jew, also court factor (German: Hofjude, Hoffaktor) is a term, typically applied to the early modern period, for historical Jewish bankers who handled the finances of, or lent money to, European royalty and nobility. In return for their services, court Jews gained social privileges, including in some cases being granted noble status for themselves. Examples of what would be later called court Jews emerged in the High Middle Ages, when the royalty, the nobility, and the church borrowed money from money changers—among the most notable are Aaron of Lincoln and Vivelin of Strasbourg—or employed them as financiers. Jewish financiers could use their family connections, and connections between each other, to provide their sponsors with, among other things, finance, food, arms, ammunition, gold, and precious metals. The rise of the absolute monarchies in Central Europe brought numbers of Jews, mostly of Ashkenazi origin, into the position of negotiating loans for the various courts. They could amass personal fortunes and gain political and social influence. However, the court Jew had social connections and influence in the Christian world mainly through the Christian nobility and church. Due to the precarious position of Jews, some nobles could ignore their debts. If the sponsoring noble died, his Jewish financier could face exile or execution. The most famous example of this process occurred in Württemberg, when—after the death of his sponsor Charles Alexander in 1737—Joseph Süß Oppenheimer was put on trial and finally executed. In an effort to avoid such fate, some court bankers in the late 18th century—such as Samuel Bleichröder, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, or Aron Elias Seligmann—successfully detached their businesses from these courts and established what eventually developed into full-fledged banks.
  63. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  65. List of European Court Jews
  66. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Court_Jews
  68. List of European Jewish Nobility
  69. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_Jewish_nobility
  71. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  73. Famous Court Jews
  75. Aaron Markovich of Wilna
  76. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Markovich_of_Wilna
  78. Aaron of Lincoln
  79. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_of_Lincoln
  81. Isaac Abravanel
  82. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Abravanel
  84. Jacob Bassevi
  85. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Bassevi
  87. Leffmann Behrends
  88. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leffmann_Behrends
  90. Gerson von Bleichröder
  91. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerson_von_Bleichr%C3%B6der
  93. Samuel Bleichröder
  94. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Bleichr%C3%B6der
  96. Moritz von Cohn
  97. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moritz_von_Cohn
  99. Alois Dessauer
  100. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alois_Dessauer
  102. Elias of London
  103. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_of_London
  105. Chajim Fürst
  106. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chajim_F%C3%BCrst
  108. Moses Israel Fürst
  109. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Israel_F%C3%BCrst
  111. Daniel Itzig
  112. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Itzig
  114. Jacob of London
  115. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_of_London
  117. Israel Jacobson
  118. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel_Jacobson
  120. Josel of Rosheim
  121. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josel_of_Rosheim
  123. Karoline Kaulla
  124. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karoline_Kaulla
  126. Raphael Kaulla
  127. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Kaulla
  129. Issachar Berend Lehmann
  130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Issachar_Berend_Lehmann
  132. Mordecai Meisel
  133. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordecai_Meisel
  135. Joseph Nasi
  136. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Nasi
  138. Abraham Oppenheim
  139. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Oppenheim
  141. Joseph Süß Oppenheimer
  142. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_S%C3%BC%C3%9F_Oppenheimer
  144. Samuel Oppenheimer
  145. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Oppenheimer
  147. Simon Wolf Oppenheimer
  148. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Wolf_Oppenheimer
  150. Joachim Edler von Popper
  151. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joachim_Edler_von_Popper
  153. Hanna van Recklinghausen
  154. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanna_van_Recklinghausen
  156. Mayer Amschel Rothschild
  157. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayer_Amschel_Rothschild
  159. Amschel Mayer Rothschild
  160. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amschel_Mayer_Rothschild
  162. Nathan Mayer Rothschild
  163. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathan_Mayer_Rothschild
  165. James Mayer de Rothschild
  166. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Mayer_de_Rothschild
  168. Carl Mayer von Rothschild
  169. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Mayer_von_Rothschild
  171. Salomon Mayer von Rothschild
  172. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Mayer_von_Rothschild
  174. Aron Elias Seligmann
  175. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aron_Elias_Seligmann
  177. Vivelin of Strasbourg
  178. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivelin_of_Strasbourg
  180. Francisco Lopes Suasso
  181. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Lopes_Suasso
  183. Samson Wertheimer
  184. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samson_Wertheimer
  186. Abraham Zacuto
  187. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Zacuto
  189. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  191. Jewish Banking Families
  193. Bischoffsheim Family
  194. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bischoffsheim_family
  195. The Bischoffsheim family is a prominent family and financial dynasty of German-Belgian Jewish descent. It can be traced back to Raphaël Nathan Bischoffsheim, an army contractor native of Tauberbischofsheim, in the Electorate of Mainz. The family was particularly entangled with the Goldschmidt family of Frankfurt am Main, leading to the conjointly managed Bischoffsheim, Goldschmidt & Cie bank, which they eventually merged into Banque de Crédit et de Dépôt des Pays-Bas in 1863.
  197. Camondo Family
  198. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Camondo
  199. The Camondo family was a prominent European family of Jewish financiers and philanthropists. Part of the Sephardic community in Spain, the Camondo family settled in Venice after the 1492 Spanish decree that ordered the expulsion of all Jews who refused conversion to Catholicism. There, some of its members became famous for their scholarship and for the services which they rendered to their adopted country. Following the Austrian takeover of Venice in 1798, members of the Camondo family established themselves in Istanbul. Despite the many restrictions and sumptuary laws imposed on all minorities, the family flourished as merchants in the business section at Galata at the outskirts of the city. They branched into finance in 1802 with the founding of their own bank, Isaac Camondo & Cie. On Isaac's death in 1832 his brother Abraham Salomon Camondo inherited the bank. He prospered greatly and became the prime banker to the Ottoman Empire until the founding of the Imperial Ottoman Bank in 1863. In 1866, the year Venice became part of Italy after a peace treaty ended the Austro-Prussian War, Abraham Salomon Camondo's son Raphaël died. In 1869, the eighty-six-year old patriarch followed his grandsons Behor Abraham Camondo and Nissim de Camondo to Paris, France, a city the family had previously frequented and where they had established business connections. In recognition of his contributions and financial assistance to the liberation of Venetia from the Austrian Empire, in 1870 Abraham Salomon Camondo was created a hereditary count by King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. Abraham died three years later in Paris but in accordance with his wishes his remains were returned to Istanbul for burial there in the Jewish cemetery at Hasköy, a neighbourhood on the Golden Horn in Istanbul. His two grandsons remained in Paris and continued to successfully expand their banking business. This family is now extinct; the last descendants, Nissim de Camondo was killed in aerial combat during World War I in 1917, his father Moïse de Camondo died in 1935, his daughter (and sister of Nissim) Béatrice de Camondo, and her two children Fanny and Bertrand as well as her husband Léon Reinach were deported and murdered in Auschwitz from 1943 to 1945 during World War II.
  201. Ephrussi Family
  202. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephrussi_family
  203. The Ephrussi family (French pronunciation: ​[ɛfʁysi]) were a Ukrainian Jewish banking and oil dynasty. Family members made their fortune controlling grain distribution beginning in Odessa (then Russian Empire, now Ukraine) and later controlled large-scale oil resources across Crimea and the Caucasus. From 1856, members of the family established banking houses in Vienna, Paris, and Athens. By 1860, the family was the world’s largest grain exporter. The Austrian branch of the family were elevated to the nobility by the Habsburg emperor. During the 19th century, the family possessed vast wealth, owning many castles, palaces, and estates in Europe. The family were known for their connoisseurship, intellectual interests, and their huge collections of art. The family's bank and properties were seized by the Nazis after the March 1938 German annexation of Austria. The family name is considered to be a variation of "Ephrati", a Jewish family name attested in various countries since the 14th Century and still current in present-day Israel, in this case transformed through the Ashkenazi pronunciation (Ephrati-Ephrassi-Ephrussi).
  205. Fould Family
  206. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fould_family
  207. The Fould family is a prominent family and financial dynasty of French Jewish descent. It was founded by Beer Léon Fould, a wine-dealer's son from Lorraine, who moved to Paris in 1784 to establish a banking business. The name comes from the Hessian city of Fulda.
  209. Goldman-Sachs Family
  210. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldman%E2%80%93Sachs_family
  211. The Goldman–Sachs family is a prominent family and financial dynasty of German Jewish descent, known for the leading investment bank Goldman Sachs. Marcus Goldman's youngest daughter, Louisa, married Samuel Sachs, the son of close friends and fellow Lower Franconia, Bavaria immigrants. Louisa's older sister and Sam's older brother had already married. His oldest son, Julius Goldman, married Sarah Adler, daughter of Samuel Adler. In 1882, Goldman invited his son-in-law Samuel to join him in the business and changed the firm's name to M. Goldman and Sachs. For almost fifty years, all the partners came from the extended family.
  213. Goldschmidt Family
  214. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldschmidt_family
  215. The Goldschmidt family is a prominent family and financial dynasty of German Jewish descent, originally from Frankfurt am Main. With origins tracing back to the 14th century, most members left Frankfurt after the 1614 Fettmilch uprising, and did not return until the 18th century. The family was particularly entangled with the Bischoffsheim family of Mainz, leading to the conjointly managed Bischoffsheim, Goldschmidt & Cie bank, which was eventually merged into Banque de Crédit et de Dépôt des Pays-Bas in 1863.
  217. Goldsmid Family
  218. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldsmid_family
  219. Goldsmid is the name of a family of Anglo-Jewish bankers who sprang from Aaron Goldsmid (died 1782), a Dutch merchant who settled in England about 1763. Two of his sons, Benjamin Goldsmid (c. 1753 - 1808) and Abraham Goldsmid (c. 1756 - 1810), began business together about 1777 as bill-brokers in London, and soon became great powers in the money market, during the Napoleonic war, through their dealings with the government. Abraham Goldsmid was in 1810 joint contractor with the Barings for a government loan, but owing to a depreciation of the scrip he was forced into bankruptcy and committed suicide. His brother, in a fit of depression, had similarly taken his own life two years before. Both were noted for their public and private generosity, and both played major roles in funding, and managing the Naval Asylum - later renamed the Royal Naval Asylum. Benjamin left four sons, the youngest being Lionel Prager Goldsmid; Abraham a daughter, Isabel.
  221. Lehman Family
  222. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lehman_family
  223. The Lehman family was a prominent family of Jewish-German-American businesspeople who founded the financial firm Lehman Brothers. Some were also involved in American politics. The family traces back to Abraham Lehmann, a cattle merchant in Rimpar, Bavaria, who changed his Yiddish surname Löw (Loeb) to the German Lehmann.
  225. Mendelssohn Family
  226. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelssohn_family
  227. The Mendelssohn family are the descendants of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, and include his grandson, the composer Felix Mendelssohn. Moses Mendelssohn was a significant figure in the Age of Enlightenment in Germany. Mendelssohn had ten children, of whom six lived to adulthood. Of those six children, only Recha and Joseph retained the Jewish faith. Abraham Mendelssohn, because of his conversion to Christianity, adopted the surname Bartholdy at the suggestion of his wife's brother, Jakob Salomon Bartholdy, who had adopted the name from a property owned by the Salomon family. Mendelssohn's wife, Fromet (Frumet) Guggenheim, was a great-granddaughter of Samuel Oppenheimer. In 1795 the eldest son Joseph Mendelssohn established the bank Mendelssohn & Co. in Berlin, and his brother Abraham joined the company in 1804. Many members of the family worked for the bank until it was forced to shut down in 1938. In 2004 relatives of the banker Paul von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1875 – 1935), led by his great-nephew Julius H. Schoeps (born 1942), tried to reclaim paintings once owned by him and later sold in the 1940s by his widow, in breach of his will.
  229. Mendes Family
  230. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benveniste#The_Marranos_in_Portugal
  231. Francisco Mendes (Tzemah Benveniste in Hebrew) one of the wealthiest traders and bankers in Europe in the first half of the 16th century. He was the great grandson of Don Abraham Benveniste. His family was forcibly converted Jews known as Conversos (also called Crypto-Jews, Marranos and Secret Jews). While still Jewish, they had fled to Portugal when the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, expelled the Jews in 1492. Five years later, in 1497, they were forcibly converted to Catholicism along with all the other Jews in Portugal at that time. Francisco Mendes|Benveniste directed, along with his brothers Diogo Mendes (Meir Benveniste) and Goncalo Mendes, from Lisbon and later from Antwerpen, a powerful trading company and a bank of world repute with agents across Europe and around the Mediterranean. The House of Mendes|Benveniste probably began as a company trading precious objects. Following the beginning of the Age of Discovery and the finding, by the Portuguese, of a sea route to India, Goncalo Mendes financed ships (and possibly participated) in the Vasco di Gama missions. They became particularly important as one of the six families that controlled the spice trade in the Portuguese India Armadas (the kings of black pepper). They established with the other families a trading post in Antwerpen from where they controlled the distribution of black pepper in Europe. They also traded in silver - the silver was needed to pay the Asians for those spices. They financed the kings and queens of Portugal, Spain, England, the Flanders and the popes in Rome.
  233. Oppenheim Family
  234. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oppenheim_family
  235. The Oppenheim Family is a German-Jewish financial dynasty, which has been a prominent family in banking and finance in the European markets since at least the 18th century. According to Forbes Magazine's Family Dynasties, the Oppenheim Family divides control of their multi-billion dollar fortune among 46 family members.
  237. Péreire Brothers
  238. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%A9reire_brothers
  239. The Péreire brothers were prominent 19th-century financiers in Paris, France, who were rivals of the Rothschilds. Like the Rothschilds, they were Jews, but unlike them the Péreire brothers were Sephardi Jews of Portuguese origin. Émile (1800 – 1875) and his brother Isaac Péreire (1806 – 1880) founded a business conglomerate that included creating the Crédit Mobilier bank. They also had large investments in a transatlantic steamship line, railways, insurance, gas lighting, a newspaper and the Paris public transit system. Eugène Péreire (1831 – 1908), son of Isaac, joined the enterprise and took over the running of the business empire on his father's death. He was the founder, in 1881, of the Banque Transatlantique, which still operates today and is one of the oldest private banks in France. In 1909, Eugène's granddaughter Noémie Halphen married banking competitor, Maurice de Rothschild.
  241. Rothschild Family
  242. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothschild_family
  243. The Rothschild family /ˈrɒθs.tʃaɪld/, is a family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court Jew to the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel, in the Free City of Frankfurt, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court Jews, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth, and established an international banking family through his five sons. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family have been elevated to Austrian nobility, being given five hereditary titles of Barons of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. Another line, of the British branch of the family, was elevated to British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria, being given the two hereditary titles of Baronet (1847) and Baron (1885). During the 19th century, when it was at its height, the Rothschild family is believed by some to have possessed the largest private fortune in the world as well as the largest fortune in modern world history. The family's wealth is believed to have subsequently declined, as it was divided amongst hundreds of descendants. Today, Rothschild businesses are far less well known than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including finance, mining, energy, mixed farming, wine, and charities.
  245. Speyer Family
  246. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speyer_family
  247. The Speyer family is a prominent Jewish family of German descent. It can be traced back to Michael Isaac Speyer (1644 – 1692), who had briefly been the head of the Jewish community in Frankfurt am Main in 1691–92. The family originates from Speyer in Rhineland, hence the surname. The patriarch of the family, Joseph Lazard Speyer, took over the Ellissen bank, inherited from his wife Jette Ellissen, and renamed it to J. L. Speyer-Elissen in 1818. When their son, Lazard Joseph, got to the helm of family business in 1838, the name was again changed to Lazard Speyer-Ellissen, which it remained for the Frankfurt branch. From the mid-19th century on, Joseph Lazard Speyer's sons and grandsons expanded the family business worldwide, establishing Speyer Brothers in London as well as Speyer & Co. in New York City. The Frankfurt branch, Lazard Speyer-Ellissen, was liquidated in 1934, shortly after the Machtergreifung, the coming into power of the Nazis. The Frankfurt family home, the prominent Villa Speyer was taken away by the Nazi regime in 1938.
  249. Suasso Family
  250. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0019_0_19320.html
  251. Suasso, a family of Sephardic Jewish bankers originally from Spain with branches in Holland and England in the 17th and 18th centuries. One of its most distinguished members was Antonio (Isaac) Lopez Suasso (second half of the 17th century), who lived in The Hague and was considered one of the wealthiest merchants in Holland. He was also one of the leading shareholders of the West India Company, his investments in 1674 amounting to 107,677 gulden. In recognition of his diplomatic services, King Charles II of Spain granted him an estate in Brabant, together with the title of baron, despite the fact that he was a Jew. An ardent supporter of the House of Orange, Isaac Lopez placed 2,000,000 gulden unconditionally at the disposal of William III when he set out for England in 1688. His son, Francisco (Abraham Israel) Lopez, second baron of Avernas de Gras, acted as the trustee for the affairs of Queen Christina of Sweden (1632–54) in Hamburg during the years following her abdication. He married Judith, the daughter of Manuel de Teixeira de Sampaio, and his daughter married Isaac Teixera d'Andrade. His sons were Antonio (Isaac) Lopez, who in 1714 married the daughter of Moses Mendes da Costa, the governor of the Bank of England, and Alvaro (Jacob Israel) Lopez, who in 1735 became a member of the Royal Society. Antonio Lopez (1776–1857), great-grandson of the first baron of Avernas de Gras, was born in Amsterdam, and, in accordance with the will of his maternal grandmother, assumed his mother's name, Diaz de Fonseca, and was converted to Christianity. He joined the British army, fought against the French, and in 1829 retired with the rank of captain. His last years were devoted to writing about political and military matters, his most important work being La Politique Dégagée des Illusions Libérales (2 vols., 1838).
  253. Warburg Family
  254. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_family
  255. The Warburg family is a prominent American family and financial dynasty of German Jewish descent, noted for their varied accomplishments in biochemistry, botany, political activism, economics, investment banking, law, physics, classical music, art history, pharmacology, physiology, finance, private equity and philanthropy. They originated as the Venetian Jewish del Banco family, one of the wealthiest Venetian families in the early 1500s. Following restrictions imposed on banking and the Jewish community, they fled to Bologna, and thence to Warburg, in Germany, in the 16th century, after which they took their name. The family re-established itself in Altona, near Hamburg in the 17th century, and it was there that M. M. Warburg & Co. was established in 1798, among the oldest still existing investment banks in the world. Other banks created by members of the family include: M.M.Warburg & Co., Warburg Pincus, S. G. Warburg & Co. (becoming UBS Warburg).
  257. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  259. Money and Power
  260. http://majorityrights.com/money
  262. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  264. Money as Debt
  265. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0K5_JE_gOys
  267. Money as Debt II: Promises Unleashed
  268. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIhb-uEZtf4
  270. Money as Debt III: Evolution Beyond Money
  271. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3NtclucR0I
  273. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  275. Swindling the Goyim Episode 1 - Secrets of Banking
  276. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9809ssT0DY
  278. Swindling the Goyim Episode 2 - The God of Israel Scam
  279. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qkAVAoNF2k
  281. #1 Bestseller Proves that Usury Is an Ancient Jewish Plan for World Conquest
  282. http://jewishracism.blogspot.com/2009/03/1-bestseller-proves-that-usury-is.html
  284. The Jewish Problem, Part 3: The Jews in Banking
  285. http://jewishracism.blogspot.com/2009/01/jewish-problem-part-3-jews-in-banking.html
  287. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  289. Top Ten Lies of the Austrian School
  290. http://recoveringaustrians.wordpress.com/top-ten-austrian-economic-lies-and-mistakes/
  292. Deconstructing Austrian Economics
  293. http://recoveringaustrians.wordpress.com/deconstructing-austrian-economics/
  295. Fool's Gold - Why Gold isn't Money
  296. http://recoveringaustrians.wordpress.com/2012/01/25/fools-gold/
  297. Advocacy of gold or gold “backed” money rests on dubious foundations. The discussion that follows will reveal some of the semantic deception, half-truths, doublespeak, self-interest pleading, and historical errors employed in gold advocacy polemics.
  299. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  301. A Refutation of Menger's Theory of the Origin of Money
  303. Abridged:
  304. http://www.monetary.org/a-refutation-of-mengers-theory-of-the-origin-of-money-abridged/2010/12
  306. Full Version:
  307. http://www.monetary.org/a-refutation-of-mengers-theory-of-the-%E2%80%9Corigin-of-money%E2%80%9D/2010/12
  309. PowerPoint Presentation:
  310. http://monetary.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/mengerrefutepowerpoint.ppt
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