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  1. {{pp-semi|small=yes}}
  2. {{Infobox film
  3. | name = Fantasia
  4. | image = Fantasia-poster-1940.jpg
  5. | alt =
  6. | caption = 1941 release poster
  7. | director = [[Samuel Armstrong]]<br>[[James Algar]]<br>Bill Roberts<br>Paul Satterfield<br>[[Ben Sharpsteen]]<br>David D. Hand<br>[[Hamilton Luske]]<br>Jim Handley<br>[[Ford Beebe]]<br>[[T. Hee]]<br>[[Norm Ferguson]]<br>[[Wilfred Jackson]]
  8. | producer = [[Walt Disney]]<br>Ben Sharpsteen (supervision)
  9. | writer = [[Joe Grant]]<br>[[Dick Huemer]]
  10. | narrator = [[Deems Taylor]]
  11. | starring = [[Leopold Stokowski]]<br>Deems Taylor
  12. | music = ''[[#Program|See Program]]''
  13. | cinematography = [[James Wong Howe]]
  14. | studio = [[The Walt Disney Company|Walt Disney Productions]]
  15. | distributor = Walt Disney Productions<br>[[RKO Radio Pictures]]<br>[[Buena Vista Distribution]]
  16. | released = {{Film date|1940|11|13}}
  17. | runtime = 125 minutes
  18. | country = United States
  19. | language = English
  20. | budget = $2.28 million<ref name=goldmark88/><ref name=pitts82/>
  21. | gross = $76,408,097 (including reissues)<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=fantasia.htm|title=Fantasia|publisher=Box Office Mojo|accessdate=December 29, 2012}}</ref>
  22. }}
  23. '''''Fantasia''''' is a 1940 American [[animation|animated]] [[musical film|musical]] [[fantasy film]] produced by [[Walt Disney]]. The third feature in the [[List of Disney theatrical animated features|Disney animated features canon]], production supervision was handled by [[Ben Sharpsteen]] with story direction by [[Joe Grant]] and [[Dick Huemer]]. The film consists of eight animated segments set to pieces of classical music conducted by [[Leopold Stokowski]], of which seven are performed by the [[Philadelphia Orchestra]].{{#tag:ref|The exception is ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'', where Stokowski conducted a group of Hollywood studio musicians for the recording.|group="nb"}} Music critic and composer [[Deems Taylor]] introduces each segment in live action [[interstitial program|interstitial]] scenes.
  25. Development began in 1938 during the production of ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'', an animated short starring [[Mickey Mouse]] with Stokowski conducting its music. When costs surpassed what the short could earn, Disney decided to produce a feature film, initially titled ''The Concert Feature'', with multiple segments set to other classical pieces. At the time of its release, the film had made greater use of [[special effects animation]], the [[multiplane camera]], and experimental techniques unseen in Disney's previous work. The soundtrack was recorded in multi-channel sound that was presented during its opening release in [[Fantasound]], a sound system co-developed by Disney engineers and [[RCA]] which made ''Fantasia'' the first commercial film exhibited in [[stereophonic sound]].
  27. ''Fantasia'' premiered at the [[Broadway Theatre (53rd Street)|Broadway Theatre]] on November 13, 1940 as part of a [[roadshow theatrical release|roadshow release]] funded and managed by [[The Walt Disney Company|Walt Disney Productions]] and later [[RKO Pictures|RKO Radio Pictures]]. They were a commercial failure due to the high costs of running each engagement, installing and operating the expensive Fantasound equipment, and the war shelving plans for a wide release. Despite receiving initial mixed reactions from critics, ''Fantasia'' has since earned commercial and critical acclaim through subsequent reissues by [[Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|Buena Vista Distribution]], with parts of the film being removed, edited, or restored in each release. In the 1980s, its soundtrack was the first to be re-recorded and exhibited in [[digital audio]]. It has earned a domestic gross of $76.4 million.
  29. ''Fantasia'' was the subject of two [[Academy Honorary Award]]s in 1942 for its contributions in the "advancement of the use of sound" in film and the unique "creation of a new form of visualized music&nbsp;... thereby widening the scope of the motion picture as entertainment and as an art form". In 1990, the film was selected for preservation in the [[National Film Registry]] for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Its 1991 home video release made ''Fantasia'' the highest-selling video in North America at one point, and was the catalyst for the production of a sequel after plans to update the film's program with new segments were shelved in 1941. ''[[Fantasia 2000]]'' was co-produced by Walt's nephew [[Roy E. Disney]] and released in 1999.
  31. ==Program==
  32. [[File:Mickey - Fantasia.jpg|thumb|right|Mickey Mouse as the apprentice to sorcerer Yen Sid.]]
  33. ''Fantasia'' begins with a curtain being opened to reveal an orchestra stage and conductor's podium illuminated by a blue backdrop. Musicians appear and take their place before tuning their instruments. Master of ceremonies [[Deems Taylor]] enters the stage and introduces the film and the program.
  35. *''[[Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565|Toccata and Fugue in D minor]]'' by [[Johann Sebastian Bach]]. The segment opens with live action shots of Stokowski conducting and the orchestra playing, both of which are illuminated by [[superimposed]] shadows that fade into [[abstract art|abstract]] patterns. In the second half, animated lines, shapes and cloud formations mirror the rhythm of the music before returning to live action of Stokowski conducting the finale.<ref>Culhane, p. 35</ref> Directed by Samuel Armstrong.
  36. *''[[The Nutcracker|The Nutcracker Suite]]'' by [[Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky]]. A nature ballet performed by fairies, fish, flowers, mushrooms and leaves in a series of six dances that depict the changing the seasons from summer to autumn to winter.<ref>Culhane, p. 45</ref> It was originally conceived in May 1935 as a ''Silly Symphony'' called ''Ballet des Fleurs''.<ref>Allan, p. 115</ref> Directed by Samuel Armstrong.
  37. *''[[The Sorcerer's Apprentice (Dukas)|The Sorcerer's Apprentice]]'' by [[Paul Dukas]]. [[Mickey Mouse]] stars as the apprentice of sorcerer [[Yen Sid]] who attempts some of his master's magic tricks, but is unable to control it when disaster strikes.<ref>Culhane, p. 79</ref> After the segment, Mickey and Stokowski appear in silhouette and congratulate each other with a handshake. Directed by [[James Algar]].
  38. *''[[The Rite of Spring|Rite of Spring]]''<!--The 1940 roadshow program omits "The" from the title.--> by [[Igor Stravinsky]]. The history of life on Earth is presented in selections of the ballet, from the planet's formation to the first living creatures, followed by the reign and extinction of the dinosaurs.<ref>Culhane, p. 107</ref> Directed by Bill Roberts and Paul Satterfield.
  39. *Intermission and ''Meet the Soundtrack''. Taylor announces a fifteen-minute intermission, and the orchestra exit the stage. After the film's title card is shown the musicians return, some of whom perform a brief rendition of the jazz tune "Mr Bach Goes to Town".<ref>Allan, p. 135</ref> Taylor appears and introduces The Sound Track, a humorously-stylized character who demonstrates how sound is rendered on a piece of film by changing its shape and color based on the instruments played.<ref>Culhane, pp. 128–132</ref> Directed by [[Ben Sharpsteen]] and [[David Hand (animator)|David D. Hand]].
  40. *''[[Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)|The Pastoral Symphony]]'' by [[Ludwig van Beethoven]]. Set in a Greek mythological world on the base of [[Mount Olympus]], centaurs, centaurettes, cupids and fauns gather for a bacchanal to honor [[Dionysus|Bacchus]], the god of wine. The festivities are interrupted by [[Zeus]] who creates a storm and throws lightning bolts created by [[Hephaestus|Vulcan]] at the attendees. When the storm calms, they watch the sunset and go to sleep.<ref>Culhane, p. 133</ref> Directed by [[Hamilton Luske]], Jim Handley, and [[Ford Beebe]].
  41. *''[[Dance of the Hours]]'' by [[Amilcare Ponchielli]]. A comic animal ballet set in four different times of the day at the Grand Duke Alvise palace. Madame Upanova and her ostriches wake up and eat fruit in Morning; Hyacinth Hippo and her servants during Afternoon; Elephanchine and her bubble-blowing elephant troupe Evening; and Ben Ali Gator and his troop of alligators at Night, where all the characters dance together until the palace collapses.<ref>Culhane, p. 161</ref> Disney described the segment as "a [[caricature]] of ballet in which not only the subject, temper and mood of the romantic ballet are parodied, but the basic vocabulary of steps and movements as well."<ref>Culhane, p. 164</ref> Directed by [[T. Hee]] and [[Norm Ferguson]].
  42. *''[[Night on Bald Mountain]]'' by [[Modest Mussorgsky]] and ''[[Ave Maria (Schubert)|Ave Maria]]'' by [[Franz Schubert]]. On [[Walpurgis Night]] the demon [[Chernobog|Chernabog]] summons spirits and souls from their graves to the mountain. They engage in ritual dances until driven back by the sound of a bell. As dawn approaches the music segues into a choir singing ''Ave Maria'', where a procession carrying lighted torches travels through a forest, over a bridge and into the ruins of a cathedral.<ref>Culhane, p. 181</ref> Directed by [[Wilfred Jackson]].
  44. ==Production==
  45. ===Development===
  46. In July 1937, [[Walt Disney]] obtained the rights to use the symphonic poem ''[[The Sorcerer's Apprentice (Dukas)|The Sorcerer's Apprentice]]'' by [[Paul Dukas]] for use in a same-titled animated short film based on the [[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|Goethe]] poem "[[Der Zauberlehrling]]", of which the Dukas piece is based on.<ref name=cul80-84>Culhane, pp. 80–84</ref> Disney had experimented in matching animation to classical music since in his ''[[Silly Symphonies]]'' cartoons, but he expressed a wish to move on from slapstick and produce "dance-pattern symphonies" where "sheer fantasy unfolds to a musical pattern."<ref>Culhane, p. 13</ref><ref>Barrier 2003, p. 242</ref> As he considered using a well-known conductor to record the Dukas piece for added prestige, he happened to meet conductor [[Leopold Stokowski]] one evening at [[Chasen's]] restaurant, and talked about his ideas for the short. Stokowski recalled that he "did like the [Dukas] music&nbsp;... very much and was happy to co-operate" for free.<ref name=millimeter /> Disney's New York representative subsequently met Stokowski on a train journey; in writing to Disney about the meeting he noted Stokowski was "really serious in his offer to do the music for nothing" while having "some very interesting ideas on instrumental coloring, which would be perfect for an animation medium."<ref name=millimeter/> In October 1937, Disney wrote to Stokowski:
  48. {{quote|text=I am greatly enthused over the idea and believe that the union of Stokowski and his music, together with the best of our medium, would be the means of a great success and should lead to a new style of motion picture presentation&nbsp;... We could do things that would be impossible through any other form of motion picture available.<ref name=millimeter>{{Cite journal|last=Smith|first=David R.|date=February 1976|title=The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Birthplace of Fantasia|magazine=Millimeter Magazine|pages=18–20, 22, 24, 64–67}}</ref>}}
  50. Production for ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' began in November 1937; Disney appointed [[Perce Pearce]] as animation director, [[Carl Fallberg]] as story assistant, and [[Leigh Harline]] as musical director.<ref name=millimeter/> A month later, Stokowski signed a contract with Disney which allowed him to "select and employ a complete symphony orchestra" for the [[#Music and sound|recording]] of the music.<ref name=orchvsdisney93/> [[#Design and animation|Animation followed]] in January,<ref name=bar03-256>Barrier 2003, p. 256</ref> and progressed gradually throughout the year.{{#tag:ref|Only a "rough preview" of ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' was shown to studio employees in November 1938.<ref>Barrier 2008, p. 142</ref>|group="nb"}} Its mounting production costs concerned Disney's brother [[Roy O. Disney|Roy]] who managed of the studio's finances. He urged Disney to keep spending to a minimum, "because of its very experimental and unprecedented nature&nbsp;... we have no idea what can be expected from such a production."<ref name=millimeter/> He suggested the short be sold to theaters as a "special" short that was not part of the [[Mickey Mouse (film series)|Micky Mouse short film series]] to increase its value.<ref name=millimeter/><ref>Barrier 2003, p. 243</ref> When costs surpassed $125,000, around three to four times greater than the usual ''Silly Symphony'', the two realised that as a short it could not make a profit.<ref name=la1990>{{Cite news|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-26/news/tv-552_1_walt-disney|first=Charles|last=Solomon|title=Fantastic 'Fantasia' - Disney Channel Takes a Look at Walt's Great Experiment in Animation|work=Los Angeles Times|date=August 26, 1990|accessdate=January 17, 2011}}</ref>
  52. By February 1938, the commercial and critical success of Disney's first animated feature film, ''[[Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)|Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs]]'' (1937), led to the production of his second feature, ''[[Pinocchio (1940 film)|Pinocchio]]'' (1940). [[Ben Sharpsteen]], later a production supervisor for ''Fantasia'', explained that Disney saw the financial troubles of ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' "in the form of an opportunity"<ref name=cul18/> to collaborate with Stokowski on what was initially named ''The Concert Feature'', a new feature film consisting of multiple animated segments set to different pieces of classical music.<ref name=millimeter/> Sharpsteen added: "This was the birth of a new concept, a group of separate numbers—regardless of their running time—put together in a single presentation&nbsp;... something novel and of high quality."<ref name=cul18/> Disney had hoped that it would introduce classical music to people that, including himself, had "walked out on this kind of stuff."<ref name=latimesmagic1990>{{Cite news|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1990-10-07/entertainment/ca-3186_1_walt-disney |title=It Wasn't Always Magic|work=Los Angeles Times|first=Charles|last=Solomon|date=October 7, 1990|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref>
  54. Disney and Stokowski thought of presenting the film with an on-screen host to introduce each segment. After they heard composer and music critic [[Deems Taylor]] provide intermission commentary during radio broadcasts of the [[New York Philharmonic]],<ref name=cul18>Culhane, p. 18</ref><ref name=millimeter/> they agreed Taylor would be most suitable for the role.<ref name=pel235>Pegolotti, p. 235</ref> Taylor agreed to the job, and left New York City for a month's visit to the studio.<ref name=pel235/>
  56. ===Program and story development===
  57. [[File:Disney taylor stokowski.jpg|thumbnail|right|Disney acting out a scene from ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' for Taylor and Stokowski.]]
  58. The film's running order was assembled in September 1938 through meetings held among Disney, Stokowski, Taylor, and studio staff. Disney appointed [[Joe Grant]] and [[Dick Huemer]] as the film's story writers who compiled a preliminary selection of music.<ref name=cul18 /> Each meeting was recorded verbatim by a stenographer; each participant in the meeting received a copy to review. When a piece was suggested, a recording of it would be located played and discussed at the following one.<ref name=pel236>Pegolotti, p. 236</ref> Selections that were discussed included ''Moto Perpetuo'' by [[Niccolò Paganini]] with "shots of dynamos, cogs, pistons" and "whirling wheels" to show the making of a collar button, ''[[Prelude in G minor (Rachmaninoff)|Prelude in G minor]]'' and ''[[The Seasons (Tchaikovsky)|Troika]]'' by [[Sergei Rachmaninoff]], and a rendition of "The Song of the Flea" by Mussorgsky which was to be sung by [[Lawrence Tibbett]].<ref name=allan97>Allan, p. 97</ref>
  60. Disney did not contribute much to early discussions; he considered his knowledge of music was instinctive and untrained.<ref name=allan96>Allan, p. 96</ref> He inquired about a piece of music "on which we might build something of a prehistoric theme ... with animals"<ref>Pegolotti, p. 237</ref> to which Taylor noted that ''The Rite of Spring'' "would be something on that order". Upon hearing a recording of it, Disney replied "This is marvellous! ... There would be something terrific in dinosaurs, flying lizards, and prehistoric monsters. There could be beauty in the settings."<ref name=culhanenytimes1990>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1990/01/14/books/l-disney-stravinsky-and-the-sock-232890.html?scp=62&sq=fantasia+disney&st=nyt|title=Disney, Stravinsky and 'The Sock'|work=The New York Times|first=John|last=Culhane|date=January 14, 1990|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref> An early concept was to extend the story to the evolution of mammals, early humans, the discovery of fire and the "triumph of man", but segment director [[John Hubley]] said the idea was scrapped to avoid controversy from [[Creationism|creationists]] who threatened to boycott the film.<ref>Culhane, p. 126</ref> Ideas to have Taylor narrate when the dinosaurs first appear on-screen were also shelved.<ref name=bar03-251/>
  62. When the program was decided upon on September 29, 1938, around sixty employees gathered for a two-and-a-half hour piano concert while Disney provided a running commentary about the feature. The final selection was announced the following morning: ''Toccata and Fugue in D minor'', ''[[Cydalise et le Chèvre-pied]]'' by [[Gabriel Pierné]], ''The Nutcracker Suite'', ''Night on Bald Mountain'', ''Ave Maria'', ''Dance of the Hours'', ''[[Suite bergamasque|Clair de Lune]]'' by [[Claude Debussy]], ''The Rite of Spring'' and ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice''.<ref name=gab308>Gabler, p. 308</ref> While ''Clair de Lune'' was replaced in favor of ''Night on Bald Mountain'',<ref name=bar03-279-80/>{{#tag:ref|The ''Clair de Lune'' segment was ultimately produced with Stokowski conducting the music, but it was re-scored for its inclusion in Disney's package feature ''[[Make Mine Music]]'' (1946) under the title ''Blue Bayou''. The segment features two [[egrets]] flying through the [[Everglades]] on a moonlit night. After the original sequence was restored in 1992, it was released as a bonus feature on ''The Fantasia Anthology'' DVD in 2000.<ref name=2000dvd/>|group="nb"}} staff soon encountered problems of setting a story to ''Cydalise''; Disney felt the music was "wrong for the story".<ref name=al138>Allan, p. 138</ref> He refused the idea of asking Pierné or Stravinsky to write original music.<ref name=cul134-5>Culhane, pp. 134–135</ref> On January 5, 1939, the piece was replaced with Beethoven's sixth symphony.<ref name=bar03-p252-3>Barrier 2003, pp. 252–253</ref> Stokowski disagreed with the switch, believing that Disney's "idea of mythology&nbsp;... is not quite what this symphony is about". He was also concerned about the reception from classical music enthusiasts who would criticize Disney for venturing too far from the composer's intent.<ref>Gabler, pp. 317–318</ref> Taylor on the other hand welcomed the change, describing it as "a stunning one", and saw "no possible objection to it".<ref name=culhanebook134>Culhane, p. 134</ref>{{#tag:ref|Disney once suggested that Taylor enters the stage following the segment dressed in a centaur costume.<ref>Pelogotti, p. 242</ref>|group="nb"}}
  64. By November 1938, the feature continued to be known as ''The Concert Feature'' or ''Musical Feature''. It was during this time that Hal Horne, a publicist for Disney's film distributor [[RKO Radio Pictures]], expressed a wish for a different title and suggested ''Filmharmonic Concert''. [[Stuart Buchanan]] subsequently held a contest with studio employees for new titles which attracted almost 2,000 submissions. Still, the favorite among the film's supervisors was ''Fantasia'', an early working title that had even grown on Horne: "It isn't the word alone but the meaning we read into it."<ref>Gabler, p. 316</ref>
  66. ===Design and animation===
  67. {{Quote box|align=left|width=30%|quote="In our ordinary stuff, our music is always under action, but on this&nbsp;... we're supposed to be picturing this music—not the music fitting our story."
  68. |source=Walt Disney<ref>Barrier 2003, p. 248</ref>}}
  69. Animation for ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' began on January 21, 1938 when Algar assigned [[Preston Blair]] to work on the scene where Mickey Mouse awakes from his dream.<ref name=bar03-256/><ref name=cul22/>  Layout artist Tom Codrick created what Huemer described "brilliantly-colored thumbnails" from initial storyboard sketches using [[gouache|gouache paints]], which featured bolder use of color and lighting than previous Disney shorts.<ref name=bar03-251>Barrier 2003, p. 251</ref> Mickey was redesigned by animator [[Fred Moore (animator)|Fred Moore]] who added pupils for the first time to achieve greater ranges of expression.<ref name=cul80-84 /><ref name=chic1990>{{Cite news|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1990-09-23/entertainment/9003190603_1_leopold-stokowski-silly-symphony-classical-music|title=The Fantasy Of Disney's `Fantasia` - 50 Years Later, It's Still A Classical Masterpiece|first=Dick|last=Adler|work=Chicago Tribune|date=September 23, 1990|accessdate=January 17, 2011}}</ref> Most of the action was shot in live action for reference; a [[UCLA]] athlete was filmed running and jumping across a sound stage with barrels in the way, for use when Mickey traverses through water.<ref>Barrier 2003, p. 244</ref> English silent film actor [[Nigel De Brulier]] donned a wig and fake beard and posed for a reference to Yen Sid.<ref name=millimeter/> A more explicit scene of Mickey attacking the broom with the axe was later removed.<ref>fantasia dvd extras</ref>
  71. Disney explained that the ''Toccata and Fugue'' segment was "no sudden idea&nbsp;... they were something we had nursed along several years but we never had a chance to try."<ref name=cul36-38>Culhane, pp. 36–38</ref> Influenced by the 1936 film ''[[Audioscopiks]]'', Disney had the thought of giving his audiences cardboard [[Stereoscopy|stereoscopic frames]] to watch the segment in 3D, but this idea was abandoned.<ref>Gabler, p. 309</ref><ref name=cul36-38/> Preliminary designs included those from effects animator [[Cy Young]], drawings influenced by the patterns on the edge of a piece of [[Sound-on-film|sound film]].<ref name=bar03-p252-3/> In late 1938 Disney hired German artist [[Oskar Fischinger]], a producer of abstract animated films including some to classical music, to work with Young. Disney reviewed at least three [[leica reel]]s produced by the two, Disney rejected all three. Huemer recalled all Fishinger did "was little triangles and designs&nbsp;... it didn't come off at all. Too dinky, Walt said."<ref>Barrier 2003, p. 254</ref> Fischinger was used to having full control over his work and was not used to working in a group, and Disney felt his designs were too abstract for a mass audience.<ref name=la1990/> Fishinger left the studio, in apparent despair before the segment was completed, in late 1939.<ref>Culhane, pp. 42–43</ref>
  73. Sketches of dancers for ''The Nutcracker Suite'' produced by Sylvia Moberly-Holland, Bianca Majolie and Ethel Kulsar were inspired from weeds they picked out from the studio's parking lot.<ref>Culhane, p. 46</ref> Disney sent staff working on the sequence to a nature reserve in [[Idyllwild-Pine Cove, California|Idyllwild]] for inspiration.<ref>Culhane, p. 57</ref> Live action footage was shot for ''Dance of the Reed Flutes'' involving [[Marge Champion]] and Joyce Coles dressed in tulle ballet skirts.<ref name=culhane61>Culhane, p. 61</ref> Animator [[Art Babbitt]] credited [[The Three Stooges]] as a guide for animating the dancing mushrooms in the ''Chinese Dance'' routine. He drew with a music score pinned to his desk to work out the choreography so he could relate the action to the melody and the counterpoint, "those nasty little notes underneath...so something has to be related to that".<ref>Culhane, pp. 53–54</ref> The studio filmed professional dancers Joyce Coles and [[Marjorie Belcher]] wearing ballet skirts that resembled shapes of blossoms that were to sit above water for ''Dance of the Flutes''. An Arabian dancer was also brought in to study the movements for the goldfish in ''Arab Dance''.<ref name=culhane61/>
  75. To gain a better understanding of the history of the planet and foresee the segment's scientific accuracy, Disney received guidance from science fiction writer [[H. G. Wells]],<ref name=gab312/> [[Roy Chapman Andrews]], English biologist [[Julian Huxley]], paleontologist [[Barnum Brown]], and astronomer [[Edwin Hubble]].<ref name=cul120-121/><ref name=fammuseumfant>{{Cite web|url=http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/fantasia/index.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20061128022950/http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/articles/fantasia/index.html|archivedate=November 28, 2006|title=Fantasia|author=Holliss, Richard| publisher=Disney.com|accessdate=October 28, 2011}}</ref> Animators studied comets and [[nebulae]] at the [[Mount Wilson Observatory]], and observed a herd of iguanas and a baby alligator that were brought into the studio.<ref name=time1940>{{Cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,777534-1,00.html|title=Music: Disney's Cinesymphony|work=Time Magazine|date=November 18, 1940|accessdate=February 12, 2011}}</ref> The camera was kept at a low position throughout to heighten the immensity of the dinosaurs.<ref name=cul120-121>Culhane, pp. 120–121</ref>
  77. ''Dance of the Hours'' was co-directed by [[Norman Ferguson (animator)|Norman Ferguson]] and [[T. Hee]].<ref name=cul209>Culhane, p. 209</ref> The designs of the elephants and alligators were inspired by those from German caricaturist [[Heinrich Kley]], with the hippos and ostriches based partly on the designs by cartoonist [[T. S. Sullivant]].<ref>Culhane, p. 167</ref> Animator [[John Hench]], who was assigned to work on the segment, received season tickets from Disney to the [[Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo]] with backstage access so he could learn more about the ballet as he knew little about it.<ref name=denwill136>Denney and Williams, p. 136</ref> To help the animators become familiar with the correct positions and movements in ballet, the studio shot them in live action for reference. Russian performer [[Irina Baronova]] performed the [[Positions of the feet in ballet|five basic positions]] in a costume attached with feathers to model for Mademoiselle Upanova, the segment's ostrich ballerina.<ref>Culhane, p. 170</ref> Also used for reference was [[Marge Champion]] who was captured throwing flowers.<ref>Gabler, p. 311</ref><ref>Culhane, p. 171</ref>
  79. [[Bela Lugosi]] was brought in to provide reference poses for Chernabog. Animator [[Bill Tytla]] disliked the results however, so he made colleague [[Wilfred Jackson]] pose shirtless which gave him the images he needed.<ref name=la1990 /> There were ideas of releasing scents throughout the theater during ''Fantasia'', including the smell of incense during ''Ave Maria''.<ref name=barrier03-246>Barrier 2003, p. 246</ref> The studio's character model department would also sculpt three-dimensional clay models so the animators could view their subject from all angles.<ref name=cul22>Culhane, p. 22</ref>
  81. Disney wanted to close the film on a slow and sombre note with ''Ave Maria''; something that he originally wanted for ''Snow White''. A more religious ending that featured a [[Madonna (art)|Madonna]] and interiors of a church was scrapped,<ref>Allan, p. 169</ref> Ideas surfaced of releasing the smell of incense during the segment but were not conceived.<ref name=barrier03-246/> and replaced with images that give "the feeling that you are inside a cathedral without showing anything that is actually recognizable" as one.<ref>Gabler, p. 339</ref>
  83. ===Special effects===
  84. Many special effect techniques used in the film were documented by [[Hermann Schultheis]] of the camera effects department.<ref name=dvdeffects /> In ''Night on Bald Mountain'', where some spirits appear to spiral out of their grave, a polished sheet of metal was positioned next to the drawings as they were photographed for a distorted reflection. The ghostly dissolve effect seen when the spirits travel towards the mountain was created by shooting the scene twice, each at fifty per cent [[exposure]], with an empty black frame placed at the beginning of the second shooting.<ref name=dvdeffects />
  86. Animator [[Cornett Wood]] explained that techniques for special effects were "invented on the spot". Staff were assigned to come up with a particular effect, some of which were not achieved until several tests had been shot. "Once the desired effect was on film", said Wood, "no one bothered to write down the steps needed to produce it."<ref>Barrier 2008, p. 147</ref> Such an approach was used to create the illusion of space in ''The Rite of Spring'', which was achieved by illuminating a model globe with a bulb painted red which was suspended at one end of a darkened room. The "stars" were made by hanging shiny beads of varied sizes on differing lengths of thread, while a dark screen with tiny pinholes was placed behind it. With the bulb shining from the other side of the screen, the pinholes of light gave the effect of outer space as the camera tracked through the beads towards the globe.<ref name=cul120-121>Culhane, pp. 120–121</ref> The effect of the lava bubbles bursting and splashing was the result of experimentation by [[Joshua Meador]], who filled a vat with oatmeal, mud and coffee which was pumped with air from the bottom using hoses. With slow motion photography capturing the movement, each frame was processed onto [[cel]]s dyed red against a yellow background.<ref name=cul120-121 /> Similar photography was used to animate the smoke emitting from the volcanoes, whereby droplets of ink were placed into a water tank turned upside down which was then [[Superimposition|superimposed]] into the scene.<ref name=dvdeffects>"Special Effects of ''Fantasia''" feature from ''The Fantasia Legacy'' DVD. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment (2000)</ref>
  88. In 1940, [[Ub Iwerks]] returned to the Disney studios to work mainly on visual and technical projects. One of his first tasks was to produce the handshake scene between Stokowski and Mickey. Iwerks explained that Stokowski was filmed shaking hands in thin air, after which animators matched Mickey's action, who was painted solid black for the silhouette effect, to Stokowski's. For shooting Mickey's actions, the camera itself served as a projector; it was lined up on its crane with Stokowski's film put in it and adjusted until it synchronized with Mickey's movements. A double printing of the two separate negatives produced the finished scene.<ref name=ken150-1>Kenworthy, pp. 150–151</ref>
  90. ===Filming===
  91. The live action scenes were the first to be filmed inside [[Walt Disney Studios (Burbank)#The Fantasia Stage, Stage 1|Stage 1]] at the Burbank studios. [[Cinematography]] was by [[James Wong Howe]] who is uncredited.<ref name=fantfilmleg /> Two studio employees perform uncredited roles in the orchestra scenes; [[Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist)|James MacDonald]] of the sound effects department is a percussionist, while composer [[Paul Smith (composer)|Paul J. Smith]] plays a violin.<ref name=fantfilmleg />
  93. Disney was prepared to develop new cameras and projectors to film in a [[widescreen]] format, but a lack of funds cancelled plans for what he described "a really sensational show".<ref>Barrier 2008, p. 162</ref> ''Fantasia'' was shot in two different formats; during its [[Release#1940–1941 roadshows|roadshow release]], the separate segments were [[film splicer|spliced together]] in every print. The animated sequences were photographed in successive [[CMYK color model|cyan, magenta, and yellow]] exposed frames, so each of the cels were exposed three times in successive order on one length of film. The live action scenes were shot using the [[Technicolor#Three-strip process|three-strip]] [[Technicolor]] process where all three exposures were made at once using special cameras that held three separate negatives. When the film began its [[Release#1942–1990 theatrical runs|wide release]], new prints were made from a composite that was one step removed from the original negative, thus resulting in a loss of quality.<ref name=restoringclassics/> A studio newsletter reported the number of [[camera exposure]]s per frame of film being around two-and-a-half due to "an unprecedented amount of [[multiple exposure]]".<ref name=bar03274-5>Barrier 2003, pp. 274–275</ref>
  95. The [[multiplane camera]] is used extensively in the film. The completed film comprises around eight thousand feet of film for the animated sections;<ref name=bar03274-5/> over three-and-a-half thousand feet of which was shot using a multiplane camera, more than ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'' and ''Pinocchio'' combined.<ref>Culhane, p. 199</ref> Disney engineers built a multiplane camera specifically for the film which could accommodate seven levels of background paintings and overlays.<ref>Lee and Madej, p. 54</ref> In ''The Nutcracker Suite'', the spinning shot of the spider web covered in dew was the result of a bespoke circular multiplane camera that allowed the image to revolve. To get the spinning snowflakes move with the fairies, each one was placed on a motion path of gears that were covered in black velvet to hide the wire guides, after which a fairy was drawn atop of the photographed snowflakes.<ref name=dvdeffects />
  97. The ''Ave Maria'' sequence includes the longest continuous shot attempted in animation history at the time, with a length of 217 feet.<ref name=fantfilmleg /> Ed Gershman described how the animation of the procession figures was so closely drawn, "a difference in the width of a pencil line was more than enough to cause jitters, not only to the animation, but to everyone connected with the sequence."<ref name=cul200>Culhane, p. 200</ref> To combat this, a makeshift horizontal camera crane was built that could accommodate pictures four feet wide on glass panes that were mounted on moveable stands so they could be placed out of the way as the camera progressed through the film. Workers shot for six days and nights to find the wrong lens was fitted inside the camera.<ref>Culhane, p. 203</ref> Three days and nights into a re-shoot, a small earthquake rocked the wooden stands holding the glass panes. After a successful re-shoot with one day before the premiere, the completed film was flown to New York City on a chartered plane and spliced into place four hours before show time.<ref>Culhane, p. 204</ref><ref>Pegolotti, p. 248</ref>
  99. ===Music and sound===
  100. ====Arrangement====
  101. Three pieces of music used in ''Fantasia'' feature substantial cuts in their arrangements. The opening two movements of ''The Nutcracker Suite''—the Miniature Overture and March—were omitted.<ref>Allan</ref> In ''Rite of Spring'', the first three movements are played in succession before the fourth—''Spring Rounds''—is removed. The remaining seven movements are played in a different order. The segment ends with the bassoon heard in its opening, a feature absent in the original score. Stokowski used his 1927 transcription of ''Toccata and Fugue'' that was rewritten for large orchestra. He prepared a version of ''Ave Maria'' that featured a [[soprano]] sung by Julietta Novis, a mixed choir, and string section for orchestra. Disney commissioned novelist [[Rachel Field]] to write three verses of the song in English, though only the third verse is used. Two film's two sound effects werer used in ''Dance of the Hours'': a thump when Madame Upanova hits the floor and a crash as the doors of the palace collapse at its conclusion.<ref>Barrier 2003, p. 278</ref> The choir in ''Ave Maria'' was performed by the [[Westminster Choir College|Westminster Choir]] with director [[Charles E. Henderson]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20110602/ARCHIVES/306029899|title=The Westminster Choir: 10 things you may not know about the college ensemble|work=The Post and Courier|first=Samantha|last=Lowery|date=June 2, 2011|accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref>
  103. ====Recording====
  104. ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' was recorded on January 9, 1938 using a hired sound stage at [[Culver Studios]]. Stokowski proceeded to conduct an orchestra of 85 studio musicians at midnight which lasted for three hours.{{#tag:ref|According to various sources, the number of musicians used in the session range between 85 and 100.|group="nb"}}<ref name=cul15-16>Culhane, pp. 15–16</ref> He chose this time for recording as
  106. Disney teamed with [[RCA|Radio Corporation of America]] (RCA) for the recording which was captured using multiple audio channels which allowed any desired [[dynamic balance]] to be achieved upon playback. The stage was altered acoustically; the orchestra was separated into five sections with double plywood semi-circular partitions to increase [[reverberation]].<ref name=tel38-40>Telotte, pp. 38–40</ref> [[William Garity]], Disney's chief audio engineer, was not satisfied with the recording but Stokowski insisted it was sufficient.
  108. [[File:2013 Academy of Music from south.jpg|thumb|right|The Academy of Music in Philadelphia.]]
  109. When Disney's plans for a more elaborate sound system for ''Fantasia'' developed, the set-up used for ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' was abandoned. Stokowski renewed his contract with Disney in January 1939, granting him the right to conduct the film's remaining pieces with the [[Philadelphia Orchestra]]. Recording moved to the orchestra's home at the [[Academy of Music (Philadelphia)|Academy of Music]] which was chosen for its noted acoustics.<ref name=indep1939>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=J_JPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=z1QDAAAAIBAJ&dq=stokowski%20sorcerer's-apprentice&pg=6420%2C4837286|title=Stokowski signed for Disney films|newspaper=The Evening Independent|date=January 25, 1939|accessdate=January 17, 2011}}</ref><ref name=orchvsdisney93/><ref name=popscience>Andrew R. Boone, "[http://books.google.com/books?id=NicDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA65 Mickey Mouse Goes Classical]", ''[[Popular Science]]'', January 1941, pp. 65–67</ref><ref name=gazette1990>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=ZnghAAAAIBAJ&sjid=3ogFAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasound&pg=984%2C3383149|title=Restored 'Fantasia' returns to screen|work=The Daily Gazette|first=Ted|last=Duncombe|date=September 14, 1990|accessdate=February 7, 2011}}</ref> Disney paid all the recording expenses including the musician's wages, stage personnel, a music librarian, and the orchestra's manager at a cost of almost $18,000.<ref name=orchvsdisney93>{{Cite web|url=http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar_case?case=14741774668685946276|title=Philadelphia Orchestra Association v. Walt Disney Co., 821 F.Supp. 341 (1993)|publisher=Google Scholar|accessdate=October 16, 2011}}</ref> Stokowski was paid $125,000 for his services and rights to his musical work.<ref name=mullerdisney-dec94>{{Cite web|url=http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar_case?case=7037910449305629839|title=Muller v. Walt Disney Productions, 871 F. Supp. 678 (1994)|publisher=Google Scholar|accessdate=March 20, 2012}}</ref>
  111. Recording at the Academy of Music was completed in three sessions that occurred on April 6, 8, and 12, 1939.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://articles.philly.com/1990-09-16/entertainment/25876458_1_philadelphia-orchestra-fantasound-leopold-stokowski|title='Fantasia' And Its Phila. Connection|first=Lesley|last=Valdes|date=September 16, 1990|work=The Philadelphia Inquirer}}</ref> Thirty-three microphones were placed around the orchestra that captured the music onto eight optical sound recording machines placed in the hall's basement. Each one represented an audio channel that focused on a different section of instruments: cellos and basses, violins, brass, violas, and woodwinds and tympani. The seventh channel was a combination of the first six while the eighth captured the overall sound of the orchestra at a distance.<ref name=popscience /><ref name=shepherd /><ref name=stokowchic1990>{{Cite news|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1990-09-23/entertainment/9003190601_1_leopold-stokowski-fantasound-fantasia|title=Conductor's Sound Innovations Make The Most Of The Music|work=Chicago Tribune|first=Alan G.|last=Artner|date=September 23, 1990|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref> A ninth was later added to provide a [[click track]] function for the animators to time their drawings to the music.<ref name=fantasoundexperiences>{{Cite journal|last1=Garity| first1=William E.|last2=Jones| first2=Watson|title=Experiences in Road-Showing Walt Disney's Fantasia|journal=Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers|volume=39|pages=6–15|location=United States|date=July 1942|year=1942| url=http://www.archive.org/stream/journalofsociety39socirich#page/6/mode/2up }}</ref><ref name=shepherd /> The choir in ''Ave Maria'' was recorded using three channels—two for separating the male and female voices with the third capturing the sound at distance.<ref>Fantasound 1941 article</ref> The finished recordings were flown to the studios where a meeting was held to allow the artists to suggest changes in the sound so their designs would work more effectively with the music.<ref>Barrier 2008, p. 146</ref>
  113. ====Reproduction with Fantasound====
  114. {{main|Fantasound}}
  116. The Disneys contacted RCA regarding the manufacture of a new sound system that would "create the illusion that the actual symphony orchestra is playing in the theater". RCA initially backed out due to financial reasons, but agreed to make the equipment only if they could pay the estimated $200,000 in costs.<ref>Gabler, pp. 328–329</ref> Their collaboration led to the development of [[Fantasound]], a sound reproduction system that innovated some processes widely used today, including simultaneous [[multitrack recording]], [[overdubbing]], and [[noise reduction]].<ref name=shepherd /> Though it was not exactly known how to achieve their goal, Disney and RCA engineers tested with various equipment setups.<ref name=tel38-40 /> Fantasound employed two projectors running at the same time: one containing the picture film with a backup mono soundtrack while the second ran a sound film that contained a four-track mixdown of the eight channels recorded in Philadelphia. Three of which contained the audio for speakers placed on the left, center and right of the screen respectively, while the fourth became a control track of frequency tones that drove amplifiers to set the volume of the three audio tracks.<ref name=tel38-40 /> Placed on the left, right and center of the stage venue were three "house" speakers that derived from the left and right stage tracks which acted as [[surround channels]].<ref name=shepherd />
  118. As the recordings were captured at almost peak modulation to increase [[signal-to-noise ratio]], the control track was used to restore the dynamics to where Stokowski thought they should be. For this, a tone-operated gain-adjusting device was built to control the levels of each of the three audio tracks through the amplifiers. The illusion of sound traveling across the speakers was achieved with a device named the "[[Panning (audio)|pan pot]]", which directed the predetermined movement of each audio channel with the control track. Mixing of the soundtrack required six people to operate the various pan pots in real time, while Stokowski directed each level and pan change which was marked on his musical score. To monitor the recording levels at lower frequencies, Disney ordered eight three-color [[oscillators]] from the newly-established [[Hewlett-Packard]] company,<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,146906,00.html|title=Timeline: History of Hewlett-Packard|publisher=Fox News|date=February 9, 2005|accessdate=January 18, 2011}}</ref> a predecessor from [[VU meter]]s used today. Between the individual takes, prints, and remakes, approximately three million feet of sound film was used in the production of ''Fantasia''.<ref name=popscience /> Almost a fifth of the film's budget was spent on its recording techniques.<ref>Gelder, pp. 87–90</ref>
  120. ==Release==
  121. ===1940–1941 theatrical roadshows===
  122. [[File:Broadway Theatre NYC.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The Broadway Theatre]]
  123. [[RKO Pictures|RKO Radio Pictures]], Disney's exclusive film distributor at the time, had little faith in releasing a "longhair musical",<ref>Thomas 1994, p. 161</ref> and believed its 125-minute duration was too long for a wide release.<ref>Grant, p. 178</ref><ref name=dvdreleasehistory>"Re-Release Schedule" feature from ''The Fantasia Legacy'' DVD. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment (2000)</ref> Disney's exclusive distribution contract with RKO was relaxed and used his funds to manage a more prestigious exhibit in the form of a limited-run [[Roadshow theatrical release|roadshow engagement]] with two daily screenings, seats sold at higher prices in advance, and a fifteen-minute intermission. Film salesman Irving Ludwig was hired to manage the roadshows;<ref>Gabler, p. 340</ref> Disney gave him specific instructions for each aspect of the presentation including the fitting of outside theater marquees and curtain and lighting cues. Disney hired and trained staff to direct patrons to their seats,<ref name=makingofdvd>''The Making of Fantasia'' documentary from ''The Fantasia Anthology'' DVD set. Walt Disney Productions (2000)</ref> where they received a [[programme (booklet)|program]] illustrated by [[Gyo Fujikawa]].<ref name=15facts />
  125. Disney had planned a premiere in [[New York City]] at [[Carnegie Hall]],<ref name=H&N110/> but instead secured a lease at the [[Broadway Theatre (53rd Street)|Broadway Theater]] that was fitted with Fantasound at a cost of $85,000<ref name=shepherd /><ref name=gold87>Goldmark and Taylor, p. 87</ref> which took personnel one week to install.<ref>Gabler, p. 341</ref> ''Fantasia'' premiered on November 13, 1940 and ran at the Broadway Theater for forty-nine consecutive weeks, then the longest run achieved by a film.<ref name=H&N110>Hall and Neale, p. 110</ref><ref name=15facts>{{Cite web|url=http://d23.disney.go.com/articles/120210_NF_FEAT_Fantasia.html |title=15 Fascinating Facts About ''Fantasia'' |work= D23 - The Official Disney Fanclub |accessdate=January 16, 2011 |date= December 2, 2010 |first=Jim |last=Fanning }}</ref> To cater for the high ticket demand, eight telephone operators were employed to handle telephone calls while the adjoining store to the theater was rented out to handle the box office bookings.<ref name=gab345 />
  127. A further twelve engagements were held in 1941; the first began on January 29 at the [[Carthay Circle Theatre]] in [[Los Angeles]] for a thirty-nine week run<ref name=H&N110/><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/410787251.html?dids=410787251:410787251&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Jan+30%2C+1941&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&desc=Celebrities+Attend+Film+Premiere&pqatl=google|title=Celebrities attend film premiere |work= Los Angeles Times|accessdate=June 6, 2011|date=January 30, 1941}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=fO08AAAAIBAJ&sjid=BC4MAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia%20carthay%20circle&pg=3789%2C5540970|title=Fantasia in last 2 weeks |work=Oxnard Press-Courier|accessdate=June 6, 2011|date=October 7, 1941}}</ref> which after twenty-eight weeks, the film broke the long-run record at the venue set by ''[[Gone with the Wind (film)|Gone with the Wind]]''.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=S-08AAAAIBAJ&sjid=BC4MAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia&pg=6973%2C3119681|title=Fantasia passes "Gone With Wind" Theater Record|work=Oxnard Press-Courier|accessdate=February 12, 2011|date=August 5, 1941}}</ref> An eight-week run at the [[Byham Theater|Fulton Theatre]] in [[Pittsburgh]] attracted over fifty-thousand patrons with reservations made from cities located one hundred miles from the venue.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=EcwaAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cEwEAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia&pg=3082%2C3940441 |title=Disney movie to be held at the Fulton Theater eighth and final week |work= The Pittsburgh Press |accessdate=January 16, 2011 |date= April 18, 1941 }}</ref> Others took place at the [[American Conservatory Theater|Geary Theatre]] in [[San Francisco]] for eight months,<ref name=15facts /> the [[Hanna Theatre]] in [[Cleveland]] for nine weeks,<ref>{{Cite news|url= |title="Fantasia" Stays another Week|last=March |first=W. Ward |date=May 8, 1941 |publisher=''The Cleveland Plain Dealer''}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url= |title=Disney at highest and best with "Fantasia" |last=March |first=W. Ward |date=March 19, 1941 |publisher=''The Cleveland Plain Dealer''}}</ref> the [[Cutler Majestic Theatre|Majestic Theatre]] in [[Boston]],<ref name=15facts /> the [[Apollo Theater Chicago|Apollo Theater]] in [[Chicago]],<ref name=tribune85>{{Cite  news|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1985-02-08/entertainment/8501080333_1_fantasia-leopold-stokowski-film|title=The Film That Saved Mickey|first=David|last=Prescott|date=February 8, 1985|newspaper=The Chicago Tribune|accessdate=January 6, 2012}}</ref> the [[Music Hall Center for the Performing Arts |Wilson Theatre]] in [[Detroit]],<ref>Hauser and Weldon, p. 106</ref> the Minnesota Theater in [[Minneapolis]], the Aldine Theater in [[Philadelphia]],<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=T84mAAAAIBAJ&sjid=IwIGAAAAIBAJ&pg=4429,5437841|title='Fantasia' Billed June 6 At Aldine|newspaper=The Sunday Morning Star|date=May 25, 1941}}</ref> and also in [[Buffalo, New York|Buffalo]], [[Washington, D.C.]], and [[Baltimore]].<ref name=A&C194>Amernic and Craig, p. 194</ref>
  129. ''Fantasia'' grossed over $300,000 in the first sixteen weeks in New York City, over $20,000 in the opening five weeks in San Francisco, and almost the same amount in the first ten weeks in both Los Angeles and Boston.<ref name=gab345>Gabler, p. 345</ref> In five months the first eleven roadshows earned a total of $1.3 million,<ref name=H&N110/> but the costs for leasing theaters and installing and operating Fantasound ,<ref name=fantfilmleg>Eagan, pp. 323–324</ref> forced Disney to exceed his bank loan limits.<ref name=gab347>Gabler, p. 347</ref> With as many as eighty-eight roadshows planned over five years,<ref name=gab347/> cheaper Fantasound setups began to be produced at $30,000 each, but government demands placed on RCA for materials meant just eleven Fantasound sets were produced, and sixteen film prints prepared.<ref name=H&N110/> All but one of the setups were dismantled.<ref name=goldmark88>Goldmark and Taylor, p. 88</ref>
  131. In April 1941, after acquiring the film's distribution rights from Disney, RKO took over the roadshows but used the mono soundtrack. Some exhibitors who had booked the film with Fantasound complained that without special sound it made the film look "like a carnival gimmick, not in good taste and decidedly unfair to the public."<ref name=H&N110/> Plans for a release in Europe, normally the source of as much as forty-five per cent of the studio's income, were cancelled due to the onset of war.<ref name=cul30-31>Culhane, pp. 30–31</ref> When the roadshows finished, receipts from the thirteen engagements totaled $325,183.91, placing ''Fantasia'' at a greater loss than ''Pinocchio'' and worsened Disney's financial problems.<ref name=bar03-279-80>Barrier 2003, pp. 279–280</ref>
  133. ===1942–1990 theatrical runs===
  134. [[File:Fantasia theatrical trailer.png|thumb|right|A screen from the film's theatrical trailer.]]
  135. To have ''Fantasia'' put in wide release on a non-roadshow basis, RKO insisted that the film be cut in duration. Disney reluctantly agreed, but the studio needed as much income possible to recoup its losses.<ref name=thom-162>Thomas 1994, p. 162</ref> With no assistance from Disney, Sharpsteen and musical director [[Edward H. Plumb|Ed Plumb]] removed the ''Toccata and Fugue'' sequence<ref>Monaco, p. 74</ref> and all but the first of Taylor's introductions, for a running time of 80 minutes.{{#tag:ref|Various sources report different running times for the 1942 theatrical version; they range between 80 and 82 minutes.|group="nb"}}<ref name=gab347 /> Released in April 1942 with a monaural soundtrack, tickets sold at cheaper prices and a shorter duration, the film was often placed on the lower half of [[double feature|double bills]] with ''[[Valley of the Sun (film)|Valley of the Sun]]''.<ref name=fantdelayed>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=ZRtKAAAAIBAJ&sjid=AyINAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia%20valley%20of%20the%20sun&pg=6683%2C5633957 |title='Fantasia' success delayed |work= The Press-Courier |first=Bob |last=Thomas |accessdate=March 4, 2011 |date= September 28, 1990 }}</ref> Though ''Varity'' reported that the film was shown in places as a single feature at higher prices, it called ''Fantasia'' "the problem child of the RKO exploitation and distribution departments" since it was advertised towards children and not adults."<ref>Hall and Neale, p. 111</ref><ref>Acocella, Barnes and Harris, p. 359</ref> RKO reissued a 115-minute version in 1946, with the scenes of Taylor, Stokowski and the orchestra either voiced over, shortened or removed.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory/>
  137. [[Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures|Buena Vista Distribution]] took over the film's distribution following its establishment in 1953. By this time, the sound recordings stored on [[Nitrocellulose|nitrate film]] began to deteriorate, but a four-track stereo print had survived in good condition. Using the remaining Fantasound system at the studio, a new three-track stereo recording was made by transferring the sound across noise-free telephone lines to an RCA facility in Hollywood where it was stored onto magnetic film.<ref name=goldmark88/><ref name=restoringclassics>{{Cite web|url=http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19900930&slug=1095890|title=Restoring Classics: 'Fantasia' Leads Way|work=The Seattle Times|first=John|last=Hartl|date=September 30, 1990|accessdate=February 28, 2012}}</ref> It was then used for the film's reissue in SuperScope, a derivative of the [[anamorphosis|anamorphic]] widescreen [[CinemaScope]] format, on February 7, 1956.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory /> The projector used an automatic control mechanism designed by Disney engineers attached to a anamorphic lens that transformed the picture between its 1.33:1 ratio to the 2.35:1 widescreen ratio in twenty seconds without a break in the film. This was achieved by placing the cues that controlled the mechanism on a separate fourth track alongside the three audio tracks. Only selected parts of the animation were manipulated in this way.<ref name=projectionist>{{Cite journal|last1=Wasserman|first1=Norman|title=Special Projection Process Gives 'Fantasia' New Look|journal=International Projectionist|pages=14–15|location=United States|date=March 1956|year=1956}}</ref> Some audiences criticized the widescreen format as it resulted in the cropping and reframing of the images to achieve the effect.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=7OxjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=v5UDAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia%20superscope&pg=2127%2C4278836 |title=Favourite films revived|first=Colin|last=Bennett|work=The Age|accessdate=June 6, 2011|date=August 29, 1958}}</ref>
  139. ''Fantasia'' was reissued nationwide twice in the 1960s; the first was on February 20, 1963 in 35 mm and SuperScope formats with stereo sound, though existing records are unclear.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory /> Its December 17, 1969 release marked the first time the studio saw a profit in the film, three years after Disney's death.<ref name=goldmark88/><ref name=dvdreleasehistory /> Promoted with a psychedelic-styled advertising campaign, the film was popular among young people who were reported to have taken drugs for a [[psychedelic experience]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=cc0bAAAAIBAJ&sjid=WFAEAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia&pg=7439%2C1680455|title=Revisited 'Fantasia' still thrills|work=The Pittsburgh Press|first=Kaspar|last=Monahan|accessdate=March 6, 2011|date=April 5, 1970}}</ref> This release is noted for the [[#Controversies|removal of two characters]] from ''The Pastoral Symphony'' over [[Racial stereotype|racial stereotyping]]. ''Fantasia'' was issued on a regular basis, typically for exhibition in art houses and college towns, until the mid-1970s.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory /> A further nationwide release on April 15, 1977 featured a simulated stereo soundtrack<ref name=goldmark88/><ref name=cul30-31/> with the RKO distribution logo replaced with that of Buena Vista.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory />
  141. For the film's April 2, 1982 release,<ref name=dvdreleasehistory /> the Stokowski soundtrack was replaced with a new score performed by a 121-piece orchestra and 50-voice choir conducted by [[Irwin Kostal]].{{#tag:ref|Buena Vista V-104|group="nb"}} ''Fantasia'' is the first film to have its soundtrack recorded, edited, and dubbed in digital audio.<ref>Culhane, p. 32</ref> The recordings were transferred onto analog and digital storage with added [[Dolby]] [[noise reduction]].<ref name=billboard1982>{{Cite newspaper|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ECUEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Disney Recording Digital Soundtrack For 'Fantasia'|date=January 30, 1982|first=Alan|last=Penchansky|newspaper=Billboard|accessdate=July 21, 2012|pages=3, 9}}</ref> Though Kostal based his performance on Stokowski's score, he opted for Mussorgsky's orchestration on ''Night on Bald Mountain'' instead of Stokowski's. Taylor's scenes were replaced with abridged narration from Hugh Douglas as the studio felt the audience was "more sophisticated and knowledgeable about music."<ref name=pitts82>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=8tBRAAAAIBAJ&sjid=7m0DAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia%20hugh%20douglas&pg=6877%2C3362530 |title='Fantasia' gets a re-recorded soundtrack |work= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette |accessdate=March 6, 2011 |date= November 13, 1982 |first=Barry |last=Paris}}</ref> The digital recordings were not used until its February 8, 1985 reissue which began at the Century Plaza Theater in Los Angeles, where ''Fantasia'' was the first film shown to the public with digital stereo sound.<ref name=digital82>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hps4000.com/pages/general/20_years_of_digital.pdf|title=After Twenty Years of Digital Sound in Movie Theatres, Few Audiences Really Got to Hear It's Full Potential|last=Allen|first=John F.|work=Boxoffice Magazine|date=2006|accessdate=April 20, 2012}}</ref> It was released to a peak of 225 theaters nationwide with a standard soundtrack, for a gross of $8.19 million.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=Ko5PAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ZQYEAAAAIBAJ&dq=disney%20fantasia&pg=3206%2C3173404|title='Fantasia' to get new soundtrack|work=Ocala Star-Banner|accessdate=March 4, 2011|date=February 20, 1985}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=fantasia85.htm|title=Fantasia (Re-issue) (1985)|publisher=Box Office Mojo|accessdate=February 25, 2012}}</ref>
  143. In preparation for its fiftieth anniversary release, ''Fantasia'' was restored over a two-year period. It was decided to go back to the film's original negatives which took personnel six months to locate and piece together as they had been kept in different storage locations since 1946, meaning prints made from subsequent reissues were processed from copies, thus resulting in loss of image quality.<ref name=nytimes1990>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1990/09/30/movies/film-disney-sweeps-the-dust-off-fantasia-at-50.html|title=Disney Sweeps the Dust Off 'Fantasia' at 50|work=The New York Times|accessdate=January 16, 2011|date=September 30, 1990|first=Max|last=Alexander}}</ref> Once each frame was cleaned by hand, a new master negative was shot using a 1951 print for color and tone references.<ref name=prov1990>{{Cite web|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/projo/access/580407921.html?dids=580407921:580407921&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Sep+30%2C+1990&author=MICHAEL+JANUSONIS+Journal-Bulletin+Arts+Writer&pub=The+Providence+Journal&desc=A+FANTASTIC+%27FANTASIA%27+A+two-year+restoration+has+brightened+the+picture+and+sharpened+the+soundtrack&pqatl=google|title=A Fantastic 'Fantasia'|work=The Providence Journal|accessdate=February 12, 2011|date=September 30, 1990|first=Michael|last=Janusonis}}</ref> This version of the film includes the title card placed at the beginning and a series of credits at the end. Sound engineer [[Terry Porter (sound engineer)|Terry Porter]] spent six months remastering the magnetic Stokowski recordings; he estimated around 3,000 pops and hisses were removed in the process.<ref name=gazette1990/><ref name=shepherd>Shepherd, pp. 3–6</ref><ref name=beaver1990/>
  145. On October 5, 1990, ''Fantasia'' was released to 481 theatres nationwide in 35 mm and [[70 mm film|70 mm]] formats, with a restored duration of 115 minutes.<ref name=dvdreleasehistory/> Disney executives placed requirements on theaters; they were required to screen the film in its original 1.33:1 ratio<ref name=herald1990>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=SQYqAAAAIBAJ&sjid=l84EAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia%20aspect%20ratio&pg=5566%2C990584|title='Fantasia' won't show locally|work=Herald-Journal|date=October 5, 1990|accessdate=March 25, 2011}}</ref><ref name=beaver1990>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=9LUiAAAAIBAJ&sjid=FbUFAAAAIBAJ&dq=disney%20fantasia%20black%20centaur&pg=1244%2C1060169|title=At 50, Disney's restored 'Fantasia' is more fantastic|work=Beaver County Times|first=Lawrence|last=Toppman|date=October 5, 1990|accessdate=March 25, 2011}}</ref> with sound systems that could cater for four-track or six-track Dolby for 35 mm and 70mm screenings, respectively. For two theaters, one in New York City and another in Los Angeles, Porter assembled a soundtrack to simulate Fantasound as it was heard during its roadshow release.<ref name=fant90>{{cite web|url=http://articles.philly.com/1990-10-05/news/25891247_1_fantasound-fantasia-disney-animators|title=Stokowski Restored Old Orchestra Sound Is Found In New 'Fantasia'|date=October 5, 1990|first=Desmond|last=Ryan|work=The Philadelphia Inquirer|accessdate=August 18, 2011}}</ref> The film re-entered the US box office at second place in its opening weekend; it grossed $25.3 million after its run.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=fantasia90.htm|title=Fantasia (Re-issue) (1990)|publisher=Box Office Mojo|accessdate=February 25, 2012}}</ref>
  147. ===Home media===
  148. The 1990 theatrical version was released on VHS and laser disc on November 1, 1991 for fifty days as part of the "[[Walt Disney Classics]]" line. The release prompted advance orders of 9.25 million cassettes and a record 200,000 for discs, doubling the figure of the previous record held by ''[[Top Gun]]''. The "Deluxe Collector's Edition" package included the film, a second cassette with the ''Fantasia: The Making of a Masterpiece'' documentary, a commemorative [[lithograph]], a sixteen-page booklet, a two-disc edition of the Stokowski soundtrack, and a certificate of authenticity signed by [[Roy E. Disney]].<ref name=fantasiahitchic1991>{{Cite news|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1991-10-31/business/9104070928_1_fantasia-laserdiscs-philadelphia-orchestra|title=`Fantasia` A Hit With Video Audience|work=Chicago Tribune |first=Richard|last=Christiansen|date=October 31, 1991|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref> In July 1992, ''Fantasia'' became the best-selling home video of all time in North America after 14.2 million units were sold.<ref>{{Cite newspaper|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=bBAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA66&dq=walt+disney%27s+fantasia#v=onepage&q=walt%20disney%27s%20fantasia&f=false|title= Weathering "Desert Storm," Basking in the Sell-Through Reign|work=Billboard|first=Jim|last=McCullaugh|date=August 1, 1992|accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref> The record was surpassed in December 1992 by ''[[Beauty and the Beast (1991 film)|Beauty and the Beast]]''.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/03/business/disney-beauty-is-a-best-seller.html|title=Home Video|work=The New York Times|first=Peter M.|last=Nichols|date=December 3, 1992|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref>
  150. On November 14, 2000 ''Fantasia'' was released on VHS and DVD as a sixtieth anniversary "Original Uncut Version" which includes previously missing live action scenes including extended narration, an applause from Taylor and the on-screen musicians following ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'', and Taylor announcing the film's intermission. Because the audio accompanying the restored scenes was either lost or damaged, Taylor's narration is overdubbed by voice actor [[Corey Burton]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/movies/homevideo/28kehr.html|title=O.K., Hippos, Grab Your Tutus|work=The New York Times|first=Dave|last=Kehr|date=November 24, 2010|accessdate=March 20, 2011}}</ref><ref name=2000dvd>{{Cite web|url=http://articles.latimes.com/2000/nov/16/entertainment/ca-52534|title=Triple Dose for 'Fantasia' Fans|work=The Los Angeles Times|first=Susan|last=King|date=November 16, 2000|accessdate=March 20, 2011}}</ref> The DVD is also released as part ''The Fantasia Anthology'', a three-disc set which includes ''[[Fantasia 2000]]'' and a disc of supplemental features including the previously unreleased ''Clair de Lune'' segment.<ref>{{Cite newspaper|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fxEEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q&f=false|work=Billboard|title=Rentrak's 3PF.com E-Commerce Division Prepares To Go Public; 3 Discs Of 'Fantasia'|first=Eileen|last=Fitzpatrick|page=75|date=September 16, 2000|accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref>
  152. In preparation for the [[Blu-ray disc|Blu-ray]] release of ''Fantasia'', the film's negative was scanned in [[4K resolution]] and digitally remastered by [[Lowry Digital]].<ref>http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118020924</ref><ref>http://www.thehdroom.com/news/Fantasia-and-Fantasia-2000-Blu-ray-Review/7989</ref> On November 30, 2010 the film was released with ''Fantasia 2000'' as a four-disc "2 Movie Collection" combo pack, with two DVD and two Blu-ray discs, featuring both films in [[1080p]] [[high-definition video]] and [[7.1 surround sound]].<ref name=dvdizzy>{{Cite web|url=http://www.dvdizzy.com/fantasia-fantasia2000-2moviecollection-pressrelease-1130.html |title= Fantasia & Fantasia 2000: 2-Movie Collection Special Edition |publisher=Ultimate Disney/DVDizzy |date=September 1, 2010 |accessdate=March 8, 2011}}</ref> Both films returned to the "[[Disney Vault]]" [[Moratorium (entertainment)|moratorium]] on April 30, 2011.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://disneydvd.disney.go.com/fantasia-fantasia-2000-2-movie-collection-special-edition.html |title= Fantasia/Fantasia 2000 2 Movie Collection Special Edition |publisher=Disney DVD |accessdate=March 18, 2011}}</ref>
  154. ==Reception==
  155. ===Critical response===
  156. '''Positive reviews'''
  158. ''Fantasia'' received praise for its visuals and the experience of Fantasound in particular. Among those at the New York premiere was [[Bosley Crowther]] of ''[[The New York Times]]'', who wrote "motion history was made last night...''Fantasia'' dumps conventional formulas overboard and reveals the scope of films for imaginative excursion...''Fantasia''...is simply terrific."<ref name=cul30-31 /> Peyton Boswell, an editor for ''Art Digest'', called it "an aesthetic experience never to be forgotten."<ref name=gold87 /> ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' described the premiere as "stranger and more wonderful than any of Hollywood's" and the experience of Fantasound "as if the hearer were in the midst of the music. As the music sweeps to a climax, it froths over the proscenium arch, boils into the rear of the theatre, all but prances up and down the aisles."<ref name=time1940 /> ''[[Dance Magazine]]'' devoted its lead story to the film, saying "the most extraordinary thing about ''Fantasia'' is, to a dancer or balletomane, not the miraculous musical recording, the range of color, or the fountainous integrity of the Disney collaborators, but quite simply the perfection of its dancing."<ref name=cul30-31 /> ''[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]'' hailed ''Fantasia'', as "a successful experiment to lift the relationship from the plane of popular, mass entertainment to the higher strata of appeal to lovers of classical music."<ref name=varity1940>{{Cite web|url=http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117790827/|title=Fantasia|work=Variety|date=November 12, 1940|first=John|last=C. Flinn Sr.|accessdate=November 9, 2011}}</ref> ''[[The Chicago Tribune]]'' assigned film critic Mae Tinee (a pseudonym for some reviewers at the time) and music critic Edward Barry to cover the film's Chicago premiere. Tinee felt the film was "beautiful...but it is also bewildering. It is stupendous. It is colossal. It is an overwhelmingly ambitious orgy of color, sound, and imagination." Barry was pleased with the "program of good music well performed...and beautifully recorded" and felt "pleasantly distracted" from the music to what was shown on the screen.<ref name="tribune85"/>
  160. Some continued to defend Disney against the critics that responded negatively. In his article for the women's magazine ''[[McCall's]]'', critic and filmmaker [[Pare Lorentz]] offered firm support of the film, "Disregard the howls from the music critics&nbsp;... you can dismiss the complaints from the little hierarchy of music men who try to make music a sacrosanct, mysterious, and obscure art. Disney has brought it out of the temple&nbsp;... and made it work."<ref name=watts88-89>Watts, pp. 88-89</ref> ''[[The Brooklyn Eagle]]'' named such commentators "austere", who "bow too low and scrape too deep at this holy Shangri La where they keep entombed the sanctified memories of their Bach, Beethoven and Tchaikovsky."<ref name=watts88-89 />
  162. In a retrospective review, [[Roger Ebert]] of the ''[[Chicago Sun-Times]]'' rated the film four stars out of four and noted that throughout ''Fantasia'', "Disney pushes the edges of the envelope".<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19901005/REVIEWS/10050304/1023|title=Fantasia|work=Chicago Sun-Times|first=Roger|last=Ebert|accessdate=February 28, 2011|date=October 5, 1990}}</ref> ''Fantasia'' holds a "fresh" rating on [[Rotten Tomatoes]], a website which [[Review aggregator|aggregates film reviews]]. The site's consensus reads "A landmark in animation and a huge influence on the medium of [[music video]], Disney's ''Fantasia'' is a relentlessly inventive blend of the classics with phantasmagorical images". Among the website's professional critics it holds a positive rating of 88% from eight reviews.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/fantasia/ |title=Fantasia (1940) |publisher=Rotten Tomatoes |accessdate=May 19, 2011}}</ref>
  164. '''Negative reviews'''
  166. Other critics resisted the idea of presenting classical music with visual images, and the the pieces featured. [[Olin Downes]] of ''The New York Times'' praised Fantasound, but felt that much of the film's visuals "distracted from or directly injured the scores."<ref name=cul30-31 /> Film critic [[Pauline Kael]] dismissed parts of ''Fantasia'' as "grotesquely [[kitsch]]y",<ref>Ward, p. 52</ref> and [[Otis Ferguson]] of ''[[The New Republic]]'' called the film Disney's "first mistake".<ref>Gabler, p. 342</ref> Composer and music critic [[Virgil Thomson]], though he praised Fantasound which he thought offered "good transmission of music", disliked Stokowski's "musical taste" with exception to ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' and ''The Rite of Spring''.<ref name=cul30-31 /> In her report for ''[[New York Herald Tribune|The New York Herald Tribune]]'', critic [[Dorothy Thompson]] loathed ''Fantasia'' in a review that was more political in nature. Thompson claimed that she "left the theater in a condition bordering on nervous breakdown" because the film was a "remarkable nightmare." She compared the film to rampant Nazism, "the abuse of power" and "the perverted betrayal of the best instincts," and believed the film depicted nature as being "titanic" and a negative "caricature of the Decline of the West."<ref>{{Cite news|title=Minority Report|first=Dorothy|last=Thompson|date=November 25, 1940|newspaper=The New York Herald Tribune|publisher=New York Tribune Inc.}}</ref> It was also reported that some parents resisted paying the higher roadshow prices for their children, and several complained that the ''Night on Bald Mountain'' segment had frightened them.<ref name=thom-162 /><ref name=sound1982>{{Cite web|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=mv0rAAAAIBAJ&sjid=cW0FAAAAIBAJ&pg=2289,2168778 |title=Disney Gives 'Fantasia' New Sound Work-Over |work= Kentucky New Era |accessdate=February 6, 2011 |date= March 13, 1982 |first=Bob |last=Thomas}}</ref>
  168. ===Other response===
  169. Animator [[Chuck Jones]] called the film "staggeringly wonderful" and "remains an astonishing effort in film graphics" while giving praise to ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' and Tytla's work in ''Night on Bald Mountain'', but said there were "terrible mistakes" present in ''The Pastoral Symphony'', making "miniscule of one of the greatest things that ever was. But that was the Disney saw it."<ref>Furniss, pp. 12-13</ref> [[Gunther Schuller]], later a composer, conductor and jazz scholar, was impressed by the film. ''The Rite of Spring'' sequence, he says, overwhelmed him and determined his future career in music. "I hope [Stravinsky] appreciated that hundreds—perhaps thousands—of musicians were turned onto ''The Rite of Spring''&nbsp;... through ''Fantasia'', musicians who might otherwise never have heard the work, or at least not until many years later".<ref>{{cite journal|last= Teachout|first= Terry|title= Why 'Fantasia' Mattered—Just Ask Gunther Schuller|url= http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204644504576653263235079674.html?mod=googlenews_wsj%3Cbr%20/%3E|journal= Wall Street Journal|date= 28 October 2011}}</ref>
  171. ====Stravinsky====
  172. Stravinsky is the only composer featured in ''Fantasia'' who was alive during its production. He was first contacted by Disney in April 1938 about using ''[[The Firebird]]'' as a possible segment for the film, though it never saw production.<ref name=gab312>Gabler p. 312</ref> After selecting the final program that September, the two signed agreement January 1939 that gave Disney the "irrevocable right, license, privilege, and authority to record in any manner, medium or form ''Rites'' [sic] ''of Spring'' for use in the film ''Fantasia''" for $6,000.<ref name=booseycase96/> Stravinsky's first visit to the studios was in December 1939 where he watched ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'', heard Stokowski's arrangement of his music, and view the sketches and storyboards for the film's segment. In later life, Stravinsky claimed distaste for Disney's adaptation. In a 1949 interview, he described the treatment of his work as "terrible" and that he "saw part of it at the studio and walked out".<ref>Culhane, p. 117</ref> In 1962, he called Stokowski's performance "execrable" and Disney's interpretation "an unresisting imbecility".<ref>Allan, p. 128</ref> Though as music critic [[Alex Ross (music critic)|Alex Ross]] notes, he said nothing critical at the time of viewing; composer [[Paul Hindemith]] observed that "Igor appears to love it".<ref>Ross, p. 90</ref>
  174. ====Disney====
  175. Disney blasted the critics who expressed a distaste over ''Fantasia''; he once thought of them as "little tin gods, who reserve the right to tell us what we must do."<ref name=watts88-89 /> [[Leonard Maltin]] argued that the film's initial mixed response and poor box office returns affected Disney personally, and argued that Disney never "really got over it" for the remainder of his life. As a result of the film's performance and his financial situation Disney produced his fourth feature, ''[[Dumbo]]'' (1941), at a reduced cost of $950,000—less than a third of ''Pinocchio''—with a duration of 65 minutes, the shortest of all Disney features. During his acceptance speech for the [[Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award]] at the 14th Academy Awards in 1942, Disney said reportedly close to tears, "Maybe I should have a medal for bravery&nbsp;... we all make mistakes. ''Fantasia'' was one but it was an honest mistake. I shall now rededicate myself to my old ideals."<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=5U8tAAAAIBAJ&sjid=d9QFAAAAIBAJ&dq=fantasia&pg=6343%2C750424|title=Academy Award Sidelights|work=The Miami News|first=Harold|last=Heffernan|accessdate=January 16, 2011|date=March 4, 1942}}</ref> In a 1964 interview, Disney "The truth is I can't stand to look at ''Fantasia'' today&nbsp;... Just as I can't tolerate ''Snow White''. I was pressured into releasing both pictures for the Christmas trade before I was fully satisfied with them&nbsp;... even though I have a [[tin ear]] musically, I recognize that some of the ''Fantasia'' whimsy is overly cute."<ref>Jackson, p. 118</ref>
  177. ===Accolades===
  178. [[File:Bill garity disney.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Disney's chief sound engineer William Garity]]
  179. ''Fantasia'' ranked fifth at the [[National Board of Review Awards 1940|1940 National Board of Review Awards]] in the
  180. top ten [[National Board of Review: Top Ten Films|Best Films]] list.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Awards for 1940|url= http://www.nbrmp.org/awards/past.cfm?year=1940|publisher=National Board of Review|accessdate=March 11, 2011}}</ref> That year, Disney and Stokowski earned a Special Award for the film at the [[1940 New York Film Critics Circle Awards|New York Film Critics Circle Awards]].<ref>{{Cite web|title= Screen Awards Are Presented By the Critics at a Reception |work= The New York Times|date= January 6, 1941 }}</ref> At the [[14th Academy Awards]] held in 1942, the film was the subject of two [[Academy Honorary Award]]s in the form of two certificates of merit—one for Disney, RCA, [[William Garity]], and John N. A. Hawkins for their "outstanding contribution to the advancement of the use of sound in motion pictures through the production of ''Fantasia''"—the other for Stokowski "and his associates for their unique achievement in the creation of a new form of visualized music in Walt Disney's production ''Fantasia'', thereby widening the scope of the motion picture as entertainment and as an art form."<ref>Holden, p. 584.</ref>
  182. ''Fantasia'' was selected in 1990 for preservation in the United States [[National Film Registry]] by the [[Library of Congress]] as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1990/10/19/movies/library-of-congress-adds-25-titles-to-national-film-registry.html |title=Library of Congress Adds 25 Titles to National Film Registry |work= The New York Times |first= Barbara |last=Gamarekian |accessdate=February 12, 2011 |date= October 19, 1990 }}</ref> In 1995, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of cinema, the [[Holy See|Vatican]] included ''Fantasia'' in its [[Vatican's list 45 films|45 "great films"]] list under the Art category; the others being Religion and Values.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Vatican Best Films List|url=http://old.usccb.org/movies/vaticanfilms.shtml|publisher=Catholic News Service Media Review Office|accessdate=October 31, 2011}}</ref> The [[American Film Institute]] placed ''Fantasia'' in three of its lists that rank the greatest American films produced. It ranked at number 58 in the [[AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies|100 Years... 100 Movies]] poll in 1998<ref name=afi98andtop10>{{Cite web |url=http://connect.afi.com/site/DocServer/TOP10.pdf |title=AFI's 10 Top 10 |publisher=American Film Institute |year=2008 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> before it was dropped from its [[AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)|tenth anniversary]] revision in 2007,<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/100Movies.pdf |title=AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies -- 10th Anniversary Edition |publisher=American Film Institute |year=2007 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> though it was nominated for inclusion.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/Movies_ballot_06.pdf |title=AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Official Ballot |publisher=American Film Institute |year=2006 |accessdate=March 9, 2011}}</ref> The [[AFI's 10 Top 10|10 Top 10]] list compiled in 2008 placed the film at number 5 under its Animation category.<ref name=afi98andtop10 />
  184. In 2002, ''Fantasia'' was voted as one of the top 25 animated films on [[Channel 4]]'s 100 Greatest Films poll, coming in at number 17.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Top 25 Animated Films|url=http://www.film4.com/special-features/top-lists/top-25-animated-films|work=Channel 4|accessdate=January 27, 2013}}</ref> In 2011, [[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]] aired the prime-time special, ''[[Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time]]'', that counted down the best movies chosen by fans based on results of a poll conducted by [[ABC News]] and [[People (magazine)|''People'' magazine]]. ''Fantasia'' was selected as the fifth Best Animated Film.
  186. [[IGN]] placed ''Fantasia'' in its lists that ranked the Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time and Top 25 Fantasy Films.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/650/650717p1.html|publisher=IGN|date=June 24, 2010|accessdate=February 28, 2012|title=IGN's Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/115/1159122p2.html|publisher=IGN|date=April 4, 2011|accessdate=February 28, 2012|title=IGN's Top 25 Fantasy Films}}</ref>
  188. ===Controversies===
  189. In its original sequence, ''The Pastoral Symphony'' contained four scenes that depicted two centaurettes in a racially-stereotyped manner. The first, named Sunflower, is seen polishing the hooves of a white centaurette while the second, given the name Otika, appears trying to sit Bacchus down on a chair.<ref>Cohen, p. 69</ref> According to Disney archivist David Smith, the segment aired uncut on television in 1966 prior to the removal of the scenes for the 1969 release.<ref>Cohen, p. 201.</ref> [[John Carnochan]], film editor for the 1990 reissue, thought it was "sort of appalling&nbsp;... that these stereotypes were ever put in"; he ended up replacing the removed scenes by repeating previous ones while making "the unavoidable music edits as unobtrusive as possible."<ref>{{Cite news|last=Daly|first=Steve|title=New Rating for 'Fantasia': PC|publisher=''Entertainment Weekly''|date=November 29, 1991|url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,316319,00.html|accessdate=August 16, 2007}}</ref> Commenting on the censorship, critic [[Roger Ebert]] said, "While the original film should, of course, be preserved for historical purposes, there is no need for the general release version to perpetrate racist stereotypes in a film designed primarily for children."<ref>Ebert, p. 176.</ref>
  191. The 1991 video release spawned three lawsuits over the sharing of the profits and distribution royalties. In 1992, The Philadelphia Orchestra Association sued Disney and [[Buena Vista Home Video]], contesting that as a "joint author" of the film, the group was entitled to half of the earned sales.<ref name=nytimessuit1992>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/07/movies/fantasia-orchestra-sues-disney.html |title= 'Fantasia' Orchestra Sues Disney |work=The New York Times |first=Allan |last=Kozinn |date=May 7, 1992|accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref> The orchestra dropped its case in 1994 when the two parties reached an undisclosed settlement out of court.<ref>{{Cite  news|url=http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=vwwxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wuAFAAAAIBAJ&dq=disney%20fantasia%20lawsuit&pg=6622%2C7376551 |title= Philadelphia Orchestra drops Disney lawsuit|work=The Daily Gazette|date=October 26, 1994|accessdate=February 12, 2011}}</ref> Herman Muller, executor of Stokowski's estate, sued in 1993 as he believed the video was released without securing any additional rights from the estate. His complaint was dismissed as the court argued that Stokowski gave up all his rights in his contract, thereby giving Disney control over the film's distribution and exhibition.<ref name=mullerdisney-dec94/> Also in 1993, music publisher [[Boosey & Hawkes]] sought a share of the profits, contending that Disney did not have the rights to distribute ''The Rite of Spring'' on video because the permission granted by Stravinsky was only in the context of a film to be shown in theaters.<ref name=ritetoright1993>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/22/nyregion/who-owns-the-rights-to-rite.html |title= Who owns the rights to 'Rite'? |work=The New York Times |first=James |last=Barron |date=January 22, 1993 |accessdate=January 21, 2011}}</ref> The court backed the publisher's case in 1996<ref name=booseycase96>{{Cite web|url=http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar_case?case=16487883833946970684|title=Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers v. Walt Disney, 934 F. Supp. 119 (1996)|publisher=Google Scholar|date=August 9, 1996|accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref> before the ruling was reversed in Disney's favor in 1998.<ref name=booseycase98>{{Cite web|url=http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar_case?&case=10794197703567993524|title=Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers v. Walt Disney Co., 145 F. 3d 481 (1998)|publisher=Google Scholar|date=April 30, 1998|accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref>
  193. ==Related works==
  194. ===Shelved sequels and ''Fantasia 2000''===
  195. Ideas for a sequel were discussed between Disney and Stokowski as early as May 1940.<ref name=gab345 /> Disney was convinced that audiences would see the film again should one or two segments were replaced with new ones.<ref name=peg249>Pegolotti, p. 249</ref> Development for new sequences began in January 1941,<ref name=15facts /> however the studio's limited finances made the issue of cost a priority for Disney; he reminded staff that if none could be made "for a set figure, then we better forget it."<ref name=al264>Allan, p. 264</ref> Stokowski recorded five new pieces in February 1941,<ref name=bar03-279-80>Barrier 2003, pp. 279–280</ref> including ''[[Invitation to the Dance (Weber)|Invitation to the Dance]]'' by [[Carl Maria von Weber]] which was to star Pegasus and Hop Low.<ref name=al266>Allan, p. 266</ref> Ideas also surfaced to have ''Ave Maria'' replaced with ''[[Ride of the Valkyries]]'' by [[Richard Wagner]],<ref name=al264 /> and to have a sequence set to ''Adventures in a Perambulator'' by [[John Alden Carpenter]] showing life through the eyes of an infant.<ref name=al266/> Development for new segments were further affected by the 1941 [[Disney animators' strike]] and the following [[attack on Pearl Harbor]], which ended such plans altogether.
  197. In 1980, animators [[Wolfgang Reitherman]] and [[Mel Shaw]] started preliminary work on ''Musicana'', a feature film "mixing jazz, classical music, myths, modern art&nbsp;... following the old ''Fantasia'' format" that was to present "ethnic tales from around the world with the music of the various countries".<ref>{{Cite news|last=Warga|first=Wayne|title=Disney Films: Chasing the Changing Times|work=Los Angeles Times|date=October 26, 1980}}</ref><ref name=sol95>Solomon 1995</ref> Artwork produced between 1982 and 1983 showed a battle between an ice god and sun goddess set to ''[[Finlandia]]'' by Sibelius, a segment set in the [[Andes]] to the songs of Peruvian soprano [[Yma Sumac]], and another featuring caricatures of [[Louis Armstrong]] and [[Ella Fitzgerald]] with jazz music. The project was eventually shelved for ''[[Mickey's Christmas Carol]]''.<ref name=sol95 />
  199. The idea for a sequel was revived in 1990 when [[Roy E. Disney]], the nephew of Walt, served as co-producer of a film titled ''[[Fantasia 2000]]''. The film features seven new segments with the music performed by the [[Chicago Symphony Orchestra]] with conductor [[James Levine]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Brennan|first=Judy|title=Coming, Sooner or Later|work=Los Angeles Times|date=August 17, 1997|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1997/aug/19/entertainment/ca-28270|accessdate=March 13, 2011}}</ref>
  200. ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' is the only sequence from the original that was kept in the film.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Matthews|first=Jack|title='Fantasia 2000' grows to IMAX height|work=New York Daily News|date=December 17, 1999|url=http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/entertainment/1999/12/17/1999-12-17__fantasia_2000__grows_to_ima.html |accessdate=February 12, 2011}}</ref>
  202. ===Soundtrack===
  203. {{Infobox album
  204. | Name = Walt Disney's Fantasia
  205. | Type = soundtrack
  206. | Artist = [[Leopold Stokowski]], [[Philadelphia Orchestra]]
  207. | Cover =
  208. | Released = 1957, 1982, 1991, 2001
  209. | Length ={{Duration|m=103|s=30}} (CD)
  210. | Label =[[Disneyland Records|Disneyland]], [[Buena Vista Records|Buena Vista]]
  211. | Producer =
  212. }}
  213. Disney expressed a wish to sell the film's soundtrack during its roadshow release, but the idea never came to fruition.<ref name=orchvsdisney93/> Prior to releasing the soundtrack Disney was required to obtain permission from Stokowski, who initially rejected the deal until the Philadelphia Orchestra Association was guaranteed a share of the royalties.<ref name=ehrbar>Ehrbar and Hollis, pp. 38–39</ref> The soundtrack was first released in 1957 through [[Disneyland Records]]<ref name=ehrbar/> as a mono [[LP record|LP]] set{{#tag:ref|Disneyland WDX 101|group="nb"}} and a stereo [[8-track tape]] set.{{#tag:ref|Disneyland 101 VT|group="nb"}} In 1961, a stereo LP edition was released by Disneyland and [[Buena Vista Records]].{{#tag:ref|Buena Vista STER 101|group="nb"}}
  215. In 1982, Buena Vista Records released the Kostal recordings for LP, CD, and audio cassette.{{#tag:ref|Buena Vista V 104; CD 101; 104 VC|group="nb"}} The label also managed a reissue of the Stokowski recordings in 1990 as a "Remastered Original Soundtrack" edition for CD and cassette.{{#tag:ref|Buena Vista 600072; 600074|group="nb"}} It went on to sell over 100,000 copies<ref name=15facts/><ref name=nytimessuit1992/> and peaked on the US [[Billboard 200|''Billboard'' 200]] chart at 190 that year.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/album/fantasia-remastered-original-soundtrack-edition-mw0000189949|title=Fantasia (Remastered Original Soundtrack Edition)|publisher=Allmusic|accessdate=November 10, 2012}}</ref> The CD was reissued in 2001.
  217. ===Parodies and spin-offs===
  218. ''Fantasia'' is parodied in ''[[A Corny Concerto]]'', a 1943 [[Warner Bros.]] cartoon of the ''[[Merrie Melodies]]'' series. The short features [[Elmer Fudd]]<ref>{{Cite news|last=Kehr|first=Dave|title='Shrek 2,' More Looney Tunes and 'Animal Farm'
  219. |work=The New York Times|date=November 2, 2004|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/02/movies/02dvd.html|accessdate=March 13, 2011}}</ref> in the role of Taylor, wearing his styled glasses, introducing two segments set to music by [[Johann Strauss II]]. In 1976, Italian animator [[Bruno Bozzetto]] produced ''[[Allegro Non Troppo]]'', a feature-length parody of ''Fantasia''.<ref>{{Cite news|title=`Fantasia` Satire Reissued, But Don't Take The Kids|work=Chicago Tribune|date=October 18, 1990|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1990-10-18/features/9003270705_1_bruno-bozzetto-allegro-troppo|accessdate=February 12, 2011}}</ref> [[Walt Disney Pictures]] used the story of ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' as a basis for its eponymous [[The Sorcerer's Apprentice (2010 film)|2010 fantasy-adventure film]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Breznican|first=Anthony|title=Disney's loyal 'Sorcerer's Apprentice' comes to life|work=USA Today|date=July 8, 2010|url=http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/news/2010-07-09-sorcerer09_CV_N.htm |accessdate=February 12, 2011}}</ref>
  221. The animated television series ''[[The Simpsons]]'' references ''Fantasia'' in a few episodes. In "[[Treehouse of Horror IV]]", director [[David Silverman]] had admired the animation in ''Night on Bald Mountain'', and made the first appearance of [[Ned Flanders|Devil Flanders]] resemble Chernabog.<ref>{{Cite video|people=Silverman, David|date=2004|title=The Simpsons season 5 DVD commentary for the episode "Treehouse of Horror IV"|medium=DVD|publisher=20th Century Fox}}</ref> The episode "[[Itchy & Scratchy Land]]" references ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice'' in a snippet titled "Scratchtasia" that features the music and several shots parodying it exactly.<ref>{{Cite video|people=Mirkin, David|date=2005|title=The Simpsons season 6 DVD commentary for the episode "Itchy & Scratchy Land"| medium=DVD|publisher=20th Century Fox}}</ref> [[Matt Groening]], the creator of the [[The Simpsons (franchise)|franchise]], expressed a wish to make a parody film named ''Simpstasia''; it was never produced, partly because it would have been too difficult to write a feature-length script.<ref>{{Cite video|people=Groening, Matt|date=2004|title=The Simpsons The Complete Fourth Season DVD commentary for the episode "[[A Streetcar Named Marge]]"|medium=DVD|publisher=20th Century Fox}}</ref>
  223. ===Theme parks===
  224. [[File:Sombrero MGM.JPG|thumb|right|upright|The Sorcerer's Hat at Disney's Hollywood Studios depicts Yen Sid's hat.]]
  225. [[The Sorcerer's Hat]] is the icon of [[Disney's Hollywood Studios]], one of the four theme parks located at the [[Walt Disney World|Walt Disney World Resort]] in Florida. The structure's design is inspired by Yen Sid's hat from ''The Sorcerer's Apprentice''.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/parks/hollywood-studios/|title=Disney's Hollywood Studios|publisher=Walt Disney World Resort|accessdate=August 24, 2011}}</ref> The resort is also the location of [[Fantasia Gardens]], a miniature golf course that integrates various characters and objects from the film in each hole,<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/recreation/miniature-golf/|title=Miniature Golf|publisher=Walt Disney World Resort|accessdate=August 24, 2011}}</ref> and the [[Disney's All-Star Movies Resort |Disney's All-Star Movies Resort]], a resort hotel that houses the Fantasia Pool that is decorated with giant brooms and Yen Sid's hat.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/recreation/all-star-movies-resort/pools-all-star-movies-resort/|title=Pools at Disney's All-Star Movies Resort|publisher=Walt Disney World Resort|accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref> The night time fireworks and water show ''[[Fantasmic!]]'' also includes references from various ''Fantasia'' segments.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://disneyland.disney.go.com/disneyland/fantasmic/|title=Fantasmic!|publisher=Disneyland Resort|accessdate=August 24, 2011}}</ref>
  227. ===Video games===
  228. In 1983, the platform game ''Sorcerer's Apprentice'' was released for the [[Atari 2600]] system. The player controls Mickey, who must collect stars and meteors atop of the mountain to keep the brooms from flooding the sorcerer's cavern.<ref>{{Cite web| url= http://www.mobygames.com/game/sorcerers-apprentice |title=Fantasia|publisher=MobyGames|accessdate= October 6, 2012}}</ref> A [[Fantasia (video game)|side-scrolling game]] developed by [[Infogrames]] followed in 1991 for the [[Sega Mega Drive|Sega Mega Drive/Genesis]] console,<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.mobygames.com/game/genesis/fantasia|title=Fantasia|publisher=MobyGames|accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref> where Mickey must find missing musical notes scattered across four elemental worlds based on the film's segments. The Disney/[[Square Enix]] crossover series ''[[Kingdom Hearts (series)|Kingdom Hearts]]'' features Chernabog as a [[boss (video game)|boss]] in the [[Kingdom Hearts (video game)|first installment]].<ref name=kh1guide>{{Cite book|last=Birlew| first=Dan|year=2003|title=Kingdom Hearts Official Strategy Guide|publisher=BradyGames|isbn=978-0-7440-0198-3}}</ref> In ''[[Kingdom Hearts II]]'', Yen Sid is given a speaking role and is voiced in English by Corey Burton. Yen Sid also appears in ''[[Epic Mickey]]'', a game released in 2010 for the [[Wii]].<ref>{{Cite web| url= http://www.usatoday.com/tech/gaming/2010-11-23-mickeyinside23_ST_N.htm |title='Epic Mickey' designer lays waste to Magic Kingdom |date=November 22, 2010|work=USA Today |first=Mike|last=Snider|accessdate=March 14, 2011}}</ref> ''[[Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance]]'' for the [[Nintendo 3DS]] features a world based on the film named Symphony of Sorcery.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.nintendoworldreport.com/news/28950|title=Fantasia World Confirmed for Kingdom Hearts 3D|first=Pedro|last=Hernandez|date=January 13, 2012|accessdate=February 2, 2014|publisher=Nintendo World Report}}</ref>
  230. A [[music game]] based on the film, ''[[Fantasia: Music Evolved]]'', is being developed by [[Harmonix]] in association with [[Disney Interactive]] for a 2014 release. The game, which is being developed for [[Xbox 360]] and [[Xbox One]], uses the [[Kinect]] device to put players in control of music in a manner similar to Harmonix' previous rhythm games, affecting the virtual environment and interactive objects within it. The game is based on a mix of classical and licensed contemporary rock music.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/gaming/2013/06/04/harmonix-fantasia-video-game/2384195/|title= Music, movement are new realms for classic 'Fantasia'|first=Mike|last=Snider|date=2013-06-04|accessdate=2013-06-04|work=[[USA Today]] }}</ref>
  232. ==Notes and references==
  233. ;Notes
  234. {{Reflist|group="nb"|30em}}
  236. ;References
  237. {{reflist|3}}
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  270. {{refend}}
  272. ==External links==
  273. {{commons category|Fantasia (1940 film)}}
  274. *{{IMDb title|0032455|Fantasia}}
  275. *{{tcmdb title|74544|Fantasia}}
  276. *{{Allmovie title|16752|Fantasia}}
  277. *{{rotten-tomatoes|fantasia|Fantasia}}
  278. *{{mojo title|fantasia|Fantasia}}
  279. *{{bcdb title|15|Fantasia}}
  281. {{Disney's Fantasia}}
  282. {{Disney theatrical animated features}}
  283. {{The Nutcracker}}
  284. {{Walt Disney Animation Studios}}
  285. {{Portal bar|Animation|Disney|Film}}
  287. {{DEFAULTSORT:Fantasia}}
  289. [[Category:1940 animated films]]
  290. [[Category:Anthology films]]
  291. [[Category:Article Feedback 5 Additional Articles]]
  292. [[Category:American films]]
  293. [[Category:Ballet films]]
  294. [[Category:Dance animation]]
  295. [[Category:Disney animated features canon]]
  296. [[Category:English-language films]]
  297. [[Category:Fantasia (franchise)]]
  298. [[Category:Films based on works by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe]]
  299. [[Category:Films featuring anthropomorphic characters]]
  300. [[Category:Films shot in Technicolor]]
  301. [[Category:Mickey Mouse films]]
  302. [[Category:Musical fantasy films]]
  303. [[Category:United States National Film Registry films]]
  304. [[Category:Visual music]]
  306. {{Link FA|fr}}
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