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  33. <div style="position:absolute;left:464.32px;top:71.88px" class="cls_002"><span class="cls_002">Incoterms 2000</span></div>
  34. <div style="position:absolute;left:254.20px;top:83.04px" class="cls_003"><span class="cls_003">ICC publication 560 - copies of the full version are available from ICC Publishing</span></div>
  35. <div style="position:absolute;left:496.72px;top:118.44px" class="cls_004"><span class="cls_004">DAF</span></div>
  36. <div style="position:absolute;left:370.60px;top:145.92px" class="cls_005"><span class="cls_005">DELIVERED AT FRONTIER</span></div>
  37. <div style="position:absolute;left:458.20px;top:160.92px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">(... named place)</span></div>
  38. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:187.80px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">"Delivered at Frontier" means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal</span></div>
  39. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:200.52px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared</span></div>
  40. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:213.24px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the</span></div>
  41. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:225.96px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">adjoining country. The term "frontier" may be used for any frontier including that of the country</span></div>
  42. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:238.68px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">of export. Therefore, it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by</span></div>
  43. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:251.40px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">always naming the point and place in the term.</span></div>
  44. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:276.84px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">However, if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the unloading of the goods from the</span></div>
  45. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:289.56px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">arriving means of transport and to bear the risks and costs of unloading, this should be made</span></div>
  46. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:300.84px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale</span><span class="cls_007"><sup>1</sup></span><span class="cls_006">.</span></div>
  47. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:327.72px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport when goods are to be delivered at</span></div>
  48. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:340.44px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">a land frontier. When delivery is to take place in the port of destination, on board a vessel or on</span></div>
  49. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:353.16px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.</span></div>
  50. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.96px;top:704.52px" class="cls_003"><span class="cls_003"><sup>1</sup></span><span class="cls_009"> Refer to Introduction paragraph 11.</span></div>
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  55. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:69.84px" class="cls_010"><span class="cls_010">VARIANTS OF INCOTERMS</span></div>
  56. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:85.56px" class="cls_011"><span class="cls_011">(</span><span class="cls_012">11 of the </span><span class="cls_011">Incoterms 2000 </span><span class="cls_012">Introduction</span><span class="cls_011">)</span></div>
  57. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:125.52px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">In practice, it frequently happens that the parties themselves by adding words to an Incoterm</span></div>
  58. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:138.24px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">seek further precision than the term could offer. It should be underlined that Incoterms give</span></div>
  59. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:150.84px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">no guidance whatsoever for such additions. Thus, if the parties cannot rely on a well-</span></div>
  60. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:163.56px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">established custom of the trade for the interpretation of such additions they may encounter</span></div>
  61. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:176.16px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">serious problems when no consistent understanding of the additions could be proven.</span></div>
  62. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:201.48px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">If for instance the common expressions "FOB stowed" or "EXW loaded" are used, it is</span></div>
  63. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:214.08px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">impossible to establish a world-wide understanding to the effect that the seller's obligations</span></div>
  64. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:226.80px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">are extended not only with respect to the cost of actually loading the goods in the ship or on</span></div>
  65. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:239.40px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the vehicle respectively but also include the risk of fortuitous loss of or damage to the goods</span></div>
  66. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:252.00px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">in the process of stowage and loading. For these reasons, the parties are strongly advised to</span></div>
  67. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:264.72px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">clarify whether they only mean that the function or the cost of the stowage and loading</span></div>
  68. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:277.32px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">operations should fall upon the seller or whether he should also bear the risk until the</span></div>
  69. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:290.04px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">stowage and loading has actually been completed. These are questions to which Incoterms</span></div>
  70. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:302.64px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">do not provide an answer: consequently, if the contract too fails expressly to describe the</span></div>
  71. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:315.24px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">parties’ intentions, the parties may be put to much unnecessary trouble and cost.</span></div>
  72. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:340.56px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">Although Incoterms 2000 do not provide for many of these commonly used variants, the</span></div>
  73. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:353.28px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">preambles to certain trade terms do alert the parties to the need for special contractual terms</span></div>
  74. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:365.88px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">if the parties wish to go beyond the stipulations of Incoterms.</span></div>
  75. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:391.20px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">EXW</span></div>
  76. <div style="position:absolute;left:141.78px;top:391.20px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the added obligation for the seller to load the goods on the buyer's</span></div>
  77. <div style="position:absolute;left:141.76px;top:403.80px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">collecting vehicle;</span></div>
  78. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:429.12px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">CIF/CIP</span></div>
  79. <div style="position:absolute;left:141.81px;top:429.12px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the buyer's need for additional insurance;</span></div>
  80. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:454.44px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">DEQ</span></div>
  81. <div style="position:absolute;left:141.81px;top:454.44px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the added obligation for the seller to pay for costs after discharge.</span></div>
  82. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:479.76px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">In some cases sellers and buyers refer to commercial practice in liner and charter party</span></div>
  83. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:492.36px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">trade. In these circumstances, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the obligations of</span></div>
  84. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:505.08px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">the parties under the contract of carriage and their obligations to each other under the</span></div>
  85. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:517.68px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">contract of sale. Unfortunately, there are no authoritative definitions of expressions such as</span></div>
  86. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:530.28px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">"liner terms" and "terminal handling charges" (THC). Distribution of costs under such terms</span></div>
  87. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:543.00px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">may differ in different places and change from time to time. The parties are recommended to</span></div>
  88. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:555.60px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">clarify in the contract of sale how such costs should be distributed between themselves.</span></div>
  89. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:580.92px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">Expressions frequently used in charterparties, such as "FOB stowed", "FOB stowed and</span></div>
  90. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:593.52px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">trimmed", are sometimes used in contracts of sale in order to clarify to what extent the seller</span></div>
  91. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:606.24px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">under FOB has to perform stowage and trimming of the goods onboard the ship. Where such</span></div>
  92. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:618.84px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">words are added, it is necessary to clarify in the contract of sale whether the added</span></div>
  93. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:631.56px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">obligations only relate to costs or to both costs and risks.</span></div>
  94. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:656.76px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">As has been said, every effort has been made to ensure that Incoterms reflect the most</span></div>
  95. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:669.48px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">common commercial practice. However in some cases - particularly where Incoterms 2000</span></div>
  96. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:682.08px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">differ from Incoterms 1990 - the parties may wish the trade terms to operate differently. They</span></div>
  97. <div style="position:absolute;left:70.84px;top:694.80px" class="cls_006"><span class="cls_006">are reminded of such options in the preamble of the terms signalled by the word "However".</span></div>
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