G2A Many GEOs

Race mixing

maxred Nov 24th, 2017 (edited) 11,564 Never
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  1. http://pastebin.com/tGMEhbhf
  2. https://archive.fo/ZrWqj
  4. 77% of women who have children with Black men earn less than $10,000 a year.
  5. https://archive.li/g85sz
  7. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples
  8. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236105402_Intimate_Partner_Violence_in_Interracial_and_Monoracial_Couples
  9. https://web.archive.org/web/20180327172939/https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236105402_Intimate_Partner_Violence_in_Interracial_and_Monoracial_Couples
  11. Mixed Race Infants Are Unhealthy Because Of Complex Gene-Environment Interaction
  12. https://preservingeurope.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/mixed-race-infants-are-unhealthy-because-of-genetics-and-epigenetics/
  13. https://archive.fo/hCPcA
  14. https://web.archive.org/web/20180321103329/https://preservingeurope.wordpress.com/2018/03/15/mixed-race-infants-are-unhealthy-because-of-genetics-and-epigenetics/
  16. Multiracial children more exposed to abuse
  17. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/05/117_65916.html
  18. http://archive.is/b19fE
  20. Study: students of mixed race suffer more health problems
  21. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_20_20/ai_111529997/
  22. https://web.archive.org/web/20041214113546/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_20_20/ai_111529997/
  24. Patterns of Situational
  25. Identity Among Biracial and
  26. Multiracial College Students
  27. http://msu.edu/~renn/RHE-_mixed_race.pdf
  29. Biological Problems with Mixed-Race Families, Marriages Relationships & Adoptions
  30. http://sociobiologicalmusings.blogspot.ca/2011/10/problems-with-mixed-race-marriages-and.html
  31. https://archive.fo/x6ZMP
  33. Why are there deformities in male hybrid flour beetles while female hybrids are spared? Haldane’s rule: the male beetles have the heteromorphic sex chromosomes.
  34. Aa
  35. http://nature.com/scitable/topicpage/haldane-s-rule-the-heterogametic-sex-1144
  36. https://archive.fo/o7Oy6
  38. https://pastebin.com/tGMEhbhf
  39. https://archive.fo/ZrWqj
  41. Outbreeding depression
  42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outbreeding_depression
  43. https://archive.fo/Ccopm
  46. Black-White children have family incomes similar to those of Black families, similar rates of fatherlessness as Black families, and are more likely than BOTH Whites AND Blacks to engage in risky behaviors like drinking, fighting, stealing, and doing drugs.
  47. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14192
  48. https://archive.fo/P9Ghc
  50. Asian-white couples face distinct pregnancy risks, Stanford/Packard study finds
  51. http://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2008/10/asian-white-couples-face-distinct-pregnancy-risks-stanfordpackard-study-finds.html
  52. https://archive.fo/zWBq3
  55. https://majorityrights.com/weblog/comments/the_health_consequences_of_race_mixing/
  56. https://archive.fo/6uBY3
  58. http://pastebin.com/tGMEhbhf
  59. https://archive.fo/ZrWqj
  61. https://majorityrights.com/weblog/comments/alon_ziv_on_race_mixing/
  62. https://archive.fo/35IU3
  64. 1/3 of hapas (white+asian) suffer from mental illness
  65. https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/biracial-asian-americans-and-mental-health?id=8732
  66. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223151059/https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/biracial-asian-americans-and-mental-health?id=8732
  68. Most congenital problems are more common on mixed-race babies:
  69. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15390318
  70. https://archive.fo/5kPn1
  72. Race mixing can trigger dental problems (in Portuguese, talking about this problem in Brazil)
  73. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WH7narf8Kzc
  75. White-Black babies suffer higher risks of prematurity, low birth weight, neonatal death, and stillbirth.
  76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867623/
  77. https://archive.fo/j1nW1
  79. Adverse perinatal outcomes among interracial couples in the United States.
  80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15994621
  81. https://archive.fo/SKw27
  83. Mixed-race people have the highest mental illness rates:
  84. https://www.unc.edu/news/archives/oct03/udry10302003.html
  85. https://archive.fo/7arWA
  87. Organ donations must be from person with the same race and similar genetics, due to this, mixed-race people for having peculiar genetic combinations face challenges when they try to receive organ donations
  88. http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1993074,00.html
  89. https://archive.fo/l1Qpe
  91. Teenagers who identify as mixed-race have greater health and behavioural risks than those who identify with only one race:
  92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448064/pdf/0931865.pdf
  93. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223151716/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448064/pdf/0931865.pdf
  95. Mulatto teenagers show much more anti-social behaviour than both black and whites teenagers:
  96. http://www.msu.edu/~renn/RHE-_mixed_race.pdf
  97. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223151745/https://msu.edu/~renn/RHE-_mixed_race.pdf
  99. Hybrid and multi-racial animal offsprings suffer from a decline in their reproductive and adaptive capacity
  100. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1537084
  101. https://archive.fo/4KJg8
  104. Why are there deformities in male hybrid flour beetles while female hybrids are spared? Haldane’s rule: the male beetles have the heteromorphic sex chromosomes
  105. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/haldane-s-rule-the-heterogametic-sex-1144
  106. https://archive.fo/o7Oy6
  109. Haldane's rule
  110. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haldane%27s_rule
  111. https://archive.fo/8Hbug
  113. African-americans are on average 22% european, and due to this they face reproduction problems that africans from africa don't.
  114. https://archive.is/Drwfh
  115. https://web.archive.org/web/20101109024947/http://genomebiology.com/content/10/12/R141
  116. http://genomebiology.com/content/10/12/r141
  118. Study done in Iceland shows that breedings among 3rd cousins are the most fertile and successful. Suggesting that mating within the same ethnic / racial group would be more beneficial than outside it:
  119. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5864/813.abstract
  120. https://archive.fo/99rOe
  123. Challenges face mixed raced children and young people in the UK today
  124. http://www.ncb.org.uk/news/challenges-face-mixed-raced-children-and-young-people-in-the-uk-today
  125. https://archive.fo/ISpHM
  128. Mixed-race children 'are being failed' in treatment of mental health problems
  129. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/feb/23/mixed-race-children-mental-health
  130. https://archive.fo/lQNwf
  133. Biracial Asian Americans and mental health
  134. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-08/uoc--baa081108.php
  135. https://archive.fo/o1SNT
  138. Is Interracial Marriage More Likely to End in Divorce?
  139. http://www.blogher.com/latest-statistics-divorce-rates-among-interracial-marriages
  140. https://archive.fo/vC94L
  142. 1) The highest rate of ADHD, at 15.2%, is in the mixed race category.
  144. 2) The highest rate of 'Learning Disability, at 14.6%, is in the mixed race category.
  146. 3) The highest rate of 'Behavioral Difficulty', at 12.8%, is in the mixed race category.
  147. https://mchb.hrsa.gov/nsch/07main/national/1child/1healthstatus/pages/05adhd.html
  148. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223153201/https://mchb.hrsa.gov/nsch/07main/national/1child/1healthstatus/pages/05adhd.html
  149. **************************************************
  150. anon writes:
  152. “Mixedrace children suffer from more health problems
  153. Racemixing leads to outbreeding depression & pairings of non-complementary traits.
  155. A massively well-funded study of over 100,000 schoolchildren found that “Adolescents who identify themselves as mixed race are at higher health and behavior risk than those of 1 race.” Indeed, even when controlling for education, socioeconomic status, and other factors, there is an across-the board higher rate of health risks amongst mixed race adolescents than mono-racial adolescents.
  156. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448064/
  157. https://archive.fo/inyxQ
  159. One study found that White-Asian mixes had a 2x higher rate of being “diagnosed with a psychological disorder, such as anxiety, depression or substance abuse.”
  160. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-08/uoc--baa081108.php
  161. https://archive.fo/o1SNT
  163. A study on Black-White mixes in agreement found that ”When it comes to engaging in risky/anti-social adolescent behavior, however, mixed race adolescents are stark outliers compared to both blacks and whites.” This holds true despite being raised in similar environments to mono-racial children.
  164. http://www.msu.edu/~renn/RHE-_mixed_race.pdf
  165. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223153201/https://mchb.hrsa.gov/nsch/07main/national/1child/1healthstatus/pages/05adhd.html
  167. Often race-deniers and cultural Marxists will bring up Haldane’s rule, arguing that since races can mix and create fertile offspring, the genetic distance is not too great. Haldane’s rule is “when in the offspring of two different animal races one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterogametic [XY] sex.”
  168. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/haldane-s-rule-the-heterogametic-sex-1144
  169. https://archive.fo/o7Oy6
  171. Indeed, although Black-White mixes are not sterile and males are not absent, males (the heterogametic sex) are more rare than females.
  172. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1537084
  173. https://archive.fo/4KJg8
  175. the argument regarding Haldane’s rule is also meaningless because different species in the animal kingdom can breed and still produce fertile offspring. The wolf (Canis lupus) and the dog (Canis lupus familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the common jackal (Canis aureus) are separate species yet can all interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  176. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3671304?uid=3739600&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=47699085472247
  177. https://archive.fo/LnmVW
  179. Two species of orangutan (Pongo abellii from Sumatra and Pongo pygmaeus from Borneo) can interbreed despite having different chromosomal numbers.
  180. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/28/science/orangutan-hybrid-bred-to-save-species-now-seen-as-pollutant.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
  181. https://archive.fo/7hgav
  183. The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and many species of birds, such as the pintail (Anas acuta) and the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), can interbreed as well.
  184. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070420104723.htm
  185. https://archive.fo/dxeeF
  187. The gibbon and the siamang can also interbreed to produce a hybrid
  188. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/451603
  189. https://archive.fo/gNG4n
  191. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1060807
  192. https://archive.fo/660TM
  194. Some species that aren’t even in the same genus can interbreed.
  195. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/74/2/111.full.pdf
  196. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223153911/https://academic.oup.com/aob/article-abstract/74/2/111/2145891?redirectedFrom=PDF
  198. Black Americans are a hybrid race of around 22% White ancestry
  199. http://genomebiology.com/content/10/12/r141
  200. https://archive.fo/Drwfh
  202. This 22% ancestry is the cause of multiple negative health effects due to genetic incompatibility. Indeed, consistent with Haldane’s rule, unmixed Blacks from Africa and White Americans do not have the same rate of birth problems that hybrid American Blacks have: “In 2005, the mortality rate for black infants was 4.4 times higher than that of white infants… African women who come to the United States and have babies experience the same low rate of infant deaths as white American mothers.”
  203. http://t1nyurl.com/6tr9e6t (docs.google)
  205. “Indiscriminate interbreeding between distinct forms, whether ‘species’ or markedly different races, is not generally beneficial. The defect may show in a change in the sex-ratio of the offspring, probably caused by the early abortion of members of one sex, generally the male in the case of mammals.”
  206. http://www.amazon.com/Race-John-R-Baker/dp/0936396040
  207. https://archive.fo/rtBXE
  209. LTA4H, or “leukotriene A4 hydrolase” is found on chromosome 17. An allele of this gene increases the risk of heart attack (the #1 cause of death in America) in Blacks by more than 250%, but only 16% in Whites. The 30% of Whites with this allele have counteracting genes, while the 6% of Black Americans who obtained it through race mixing do not.
  210. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16282974
  211. https://archive.fo/RtzDl
  213. The average rate of success for mixed race couples is around half that of same race couples, 0.127 compared to 0.213.
  214. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4145377
  215. https://archive.fo/1zdiR
  217. There is evidence that the more similar the two people are, the happier their marriage tends to be.
  218. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/019188699190057I
  219. https://archive.fo/AQkob
  221. A study in Iceland showed that 3rd cousin marriages are the most fertile and successful. Suggesting that mating within one's ethnic/racial group would be more beneficial than outside of one's ethnic/racial group.
  222. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5864/813.abstract
  223. https://archive.fo/99rOe
  225. One study showed that people tend to find their own face when morphed into the opposite sex most attractive, even when he/she doesn't know it's his own face, strongly suggesting that people typically prefer those who look like themselves, in other words their own racial/ethnic group.
  226. http://www.psyc.nott.ac.uk/research/vision/jwp/papers/pentonvoak1999.pdf
  227. https://archive.fo/IlPMr
  229. Hybrid vigor (heterosis) does not seem to apply to humans as we are already very heterozygous, at 0.776 [http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/7/707.full.pdf] Compared to dogs for example at 0.401. [http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/Courses/Ecol406R_506R/Garcia-Moreno1996-Wolf.pdf]
  230. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223170940/http://www.eebweb.arizona.edu/Courses/Ecol406R_506R/Garcia-Moreno1996-Wolf.pdf
  232. However this is fallacious as it assumes we are designed for perfect symmetry, when in fact the magnitude of asymmetry is the correct measurement and this random component fulctuates, also called "fluctuating asymmetry" - so more honestly a lower level of asymmetry correlates with increased attractiveness, not symmetry.
  233. http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/5/864.abstract
  234. https://archive.fo/TCeAF
  236. But does increased heterozygosity cause lower asymmetry? A meta analysis of 118 datasets in 14 studies showed a very weak inverse correlation between the two, showing that increased heterozygosity has no beneficial effect on symmetry or asymmetry
  237. http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v83/n2/full/6885550a.html
  238. https://archive.fo/Cvzy7
  240. One study on the craniofacial morphology in White-Amerindian mixed race individuals found that over half of the 52 shape variables deviated from the mathematical average completely shattering the above argument.
  241. http://majorityrights.com/images/uploads/spanish.indian.pdf
  242. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223171455/https://majorityrights.com/images/uploads/spanish.indian.pdf
  244. The neurotransmitter oxytocin "makes people more co-operative, benevolent, loyal, generous and trusting of others. It is involved in the parent-child bond - new mothers and fathers have raised levels of oxytocin. Production also increases when people hug and when they have sex and, recent research suggests, when they receive psychological warmth." However, oxytocin has been alleged to "foster racism."
  245. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/jan/30/bright-ideas-oxytocin-hormone-racism
  246. https://archive.fo/CcQuL
  248. The study found that "intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence… Which maybe modulated by brain oxytocin." This suggests that the instinctual desire to pursue the interests of one's own ethnic group to further ensure the existence of one's people is linked to racial bias, coinciding with the observation that diversity is a weakness, not a strength.
  249. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/01/06/1015316108
  250. https://archive.fo/2bm3
  252. One study found that during the menstrual cycle when women have a higher likeihood of conception, racial bias is increased, especially when the likeihood of sexual intercourse was increased; "increased conception risk was positively associated with several measures of race bias. This association was particularly strong when perceived vulnerability to sexual coercion was high."
  254. >Although egalitarians suggest that only a racist would consider race when it comes to reproduction and mate choice, this study observed a general, innate tendency to prefer one's own race.
  255. http://www.cdnresearch.net/pubs/2011_McDonald_MinimalGroups_PsychScience.pdf
  256. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223171952/http://www.cdnresearch.net/pubs/2011_McDonald_MinimalGroups_PsychScience.pdf
  258. Race Is A Social Construct?
  259. The Immune System: How Important Is Race?
  260. >"If Nick Glasgow were white, he would have a nearly 90 percent chance of finding a matching bone marrow donor who could cure his leukemia."
  262. The reason that mixed-heritage patients are so hard to match can be found in the immune system. Different races have developed certain proteins, or markers, that are part of the body's natural defenses. These markers help the immune system determine which cells are foreign and should be rejected.
  264. Are cells racist?
  265. A match between two people who share more genetically in common significantly reduces the risk of the donor and recipient cells attacking each other. (READ: cells from people of two different races will attack and fight each other as though they are a virus)
  267. The more people of different backgrounds who produce offspring = the more types that are harder to match.
  268. Multiracial patients have uncommon profiles and since there can be many possible racial and ethnic combinations in multiracial societies, finding a match can still be extremely difficult.
  269. http://m.phys.org/_news162659550.html
  270. https://archive.fo/uJX9b
  272. As an example, a White mother of mixed-race child would have more genetically in common with a random White person on the street than with her own child.
  273. If such a dramatic and fundamental alienation from your own parents if not horrific enough, With a mixed-race child diagnosed with leukaemia, every member of the child's own family becomes an incompatible donor for a bone-marrow transplant, and finding a compatible donor is unlikely:
  275. >One obstacle to finding a matching donor was her mixed ethnic background. Her father is black, with West Indian and Panamanian roots. Her mother is white, with Russian-Jewish roots. In addition, only 5 percent of registered donors are black.
  276. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/18/sports/baseball-rod-carew-s-daughter-dies.html
  277. https://archive.fo/WJBHy
  279. Bone Marrow Transplants: When Race Is an Issue
  280. >''Compared to organ transplants, bone marrow donations need to be even more genetically similar to their recipients. Since all the immune system's cells come from bone marrow, a transplant essentially introduces a new immune system to a person. Without genetic similarity between the donor and the patient, the new white blood cells will attack the host body.
  281. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1993074,00.html
  282. https://archive.fo/H5Kc9
  284. Race matters when a patient needs a stem cell or marrow transplant
  285. >If you become ill with a blood cancer or other disease that requires a stem cell transplant, here's an uncomfortable fact: Your race matters. Diversity is a strength in much of life, [citation needed!] but it's a curse when finding a stem cell donor match.
  286. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-08-05/national/41085742_1_stem-jeffrey-chell-ancestors
  287. https://archive.fo/VZEeQ
  289. The Race for Ancestral Genetics in Clinical Trials
  290. >A seasoned cancer researcher would never set up a study in which all the ill patients were, say, Canadian, and all the healthy controls were Japanese. And yet cancer researchers risk making a similar mistake if they overlook genetic information that fleshes out what many of us like to think of as race or ethnicity, some experts say.
  292. >Fortunately, awareness of how ancestral genetics might contribute to risk of disease and drug response in people has risen over the last several years. Studies that look directly at the problem are on the rapid rise, and this increased interest has biotechnology companies lowering the cost of tests that determine genetic ancestry, thanks to a little competition. However, experts have yet to decide on how to genetically define ancestry, suggesting examining anywhere from a handful to hundreds of gene variants.
  294. >Not including information on the race or ethnicity of study volunteers could skew disease risks as stronger or weaker than they really are.
  296. >"Alzheimer's disease is the poster child for this problem," says pharmacogeneticist Esteban Burchard, M.D., of the University of California in San Francisco. A variant of the gene ApoE4 is a strong genetic risk factor for early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and the characteristic most likely to raise or lower that risk is race.
  298. >"It occurs in about 20% of the African American population, and it means nothing. It occurs in about 6% of the Japanese, and it makes their risk six times higher [than that for white people]," Burchard said. "Something about being Japanese unleashes the wrath of the gene, and something about being African American attenuates it."
  299. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/98/18/1270.full
  300. https://archive.fo/vjomQ
  302. BiDil
  303. >The FDA have approved a heart failure drug called Bidil, but only for blacks, as blacks do not benefit from conventional heart failure drugs.
  304. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116096445875393515.html?mg=com-wsj
  305. https://archive.fo/44SgJ
  307. Sickle-Cell Disease
  308. Sickle cell anaemia is a condition found almost exclusively in blacks, about 1 in 4 west Africans carry the gene for it, almost no whites do. Any whites who carry the gene most likely have a black ancestor.
  310. As a result of population growth in African-Caribbean regions of overseas France and immigration from North and sub-Saharan Africa to mainland France, sickle cell disease has become a major health problem in France. SCD has become the most common genetic disease in this country.
  311. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle_cell_anemia
  312. https://archive.fo/FhiAE
  314. Invasive species: Genes Are Destroyed With Admixture/Racial Mixing
  316. Extinction by hybridization:
  317. >Nonindigenous species can bring about a form of extinction of native flora and fauna by hybridization and introgression either through purposeful introduction by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. These phenomena can be especially problematic for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones. Increased use of molecular techniques focuses attention on the extent of this underappreciated problem that is not always apparent from morphological observations alone. Some degree of gene flow is a normal, evolutionarily constructive process, and all constellations of genes and genotypes cannot be preserved. However, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species' existence.
  318. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83
  319. https://archive.fo/arvo
  321. The Island Model with Stochastic Migration:
  322. >It is supposed that the migration rate and the immigrant gene frequency are independent of each other in each generation, and each of them is independently and identically distributed in every generation. The treatment is confined to a single diallelic locus without mutation. If the diploid population is infinite, selection is absent and the immigrant gene frequency is fixed, then the gene frequency on the island converges to the immigrant frequency, and the logarithm of the absolute value of its deviation from it is asymptotically normally distributed.
  323. The above implies that if you have two genes in some frequency in the immigrant population, under one way migration that frequency becomes the dominant frequency on the island.
  325. >We investigated various cases of the island model with stochastic migration. If the population is infinite, the immigrants have a fixed gene frequency and the alleles are neutral, the gene frequency on the island converges to that of the immigrants.
  327. What this means is that the genes initially on the model island, in effect, disappeared.
  328. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1213928/pdf/163.pdf
  329. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223172545/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1213928/pdf/163.pdf
  331. Evolution with Stochastic Fitness and Stochastic Migration
  332. >Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation.
  334. >A number of studies have shown that when per capita population growth rate is treated as a random variable, rather than a fixed parameter, then directional evolution is influenced not only by the expected fitness of each phenotype, but also by the variance and other moments [23], [28]-[33]. This follows from the fact that, in a closed population, change in mean phenotype is inversely proportional to mean population fitness
  335. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007130
  336. https://archive.fo/KVOv6
  338. Genes Are Destroyed With Admixture/Racial Mixing
  339. Nonindigenous species can bring about a form of extinction of native flora and fauna by hybridization and introgression either through purposeful introduction by humans or through habitat modification, bringing previously isolated species into contact. These phenomena can be especially problematic for rare species coming into contact with more abundant ones. Increased use of molecular techniques focuses attention on the extent of this underappreciated problem that is not always apparent from morphological observations alone. Some degree of gene flow is a normal, evolutionarily constructive process, and all constellations of genes and genotypes cannot be preserved. However, hybridization with or without introgression may, nevertheless, threaten a rare species’ existence.
  340. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83
  341. https://archive.fo/arvo
  343. Allopatric speciation
  344. Allopatric speciation or geographic speciation is speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become vicariant — isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange. This can be the result of population dispersal leading to emigration, or by geographical changes such as mountain formation, island formation, or large scale human activities (for example agricultural and civil engineering developments). The vicariant populations then undergo genotypic or phenotypic divergence as: (a) they become subjected to different selective pressures, (b) they independently undergo genetic drift, and (c) different mutations arise in the populations’ gene pools.[1]
  346. The separate populations over time may evolve distinctly different characteristics. If the geographical barriers are later removed, members of the two populations may be unable to successfully mate with each other, at which point, the genetically isolated groups have emerged as different species. Allopatric isolation is a key factor in speciation and a common process by which new species arise.[2] Adaptive radiation, as observed by Charles Darwin in Galapagos finches, is a consequence of allopatric speciation among island populations.
  348. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allopatric_speciation
  349. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speciation
  350. https://archive.fo/KlRox
  352. Reproductive isolation - Sexual isolation by behavior or conduct
  353. Even where there are minimal morphological differences between species, differences in behavior can be enough to prevent mating. For example, Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which are considered twin species due to their morphological similarity, do not mate even if they are kept together in a laboratory.[3][12]Drosophila ananassae and D. pallidosa are twin species from Melanesia. In the wild they rarely produce hybrids, although in the laboratory it is possible to produce fertile offspring. Studies of their sexual behavior show that the males court the females of both species but the females show a marked preference for mating with males of their own species.
  355. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproductive_isolation
  356. https://archive.fo/I8ov6
  358. >Picture: drosophila fruit flies are popular choices for these types of experiments.
  360. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VBDefiningSpeciation.shtml
  362. Just imagine what a few extra years of separation could have done for certain human populations…
  364. Well…
  366. >"Human races are evolving away from each other," Harpending says. "Genes are evolving fast in Europe, Asia and Africa, but almost all of these are unique to their continent of origin. We are getting less alike, not merging into a single, mixed humanity." He says that is happening because humans dispersed from Africa to other regions 40,000 years ago, "and there has not been much flow of genes between the regions since then."
  368. http://unews.utah.edu/old/p/120607-1.html”
  369. https://archive.fo/DMUne
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