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Water Frankel

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  1. MY APOLOGIES ON THE ABOVE POST... the quotes I had laid out were removed due to html coding.
  2.  
  3.  
  4. Dr. Frankel passed a short paper very similar to this to a patient of his who then passed it along to some other people, including myself.  I decided to investigate Dr. Frankel's sources and conclusions, and I wrote this up.  I quoted from the very sources the Dr. Frankel claimed backed his position.
  5.  
  6. Dr. Frankel's paper: http://imgur.com/a/eAIOb
  7.  
  8. -----------------------------------
  9. ///1) UNFORTUNATE INCORRECT CONCEPTS
  10. A) THE WATER UNDER THE CENTRAL COAST IS NOT A GIANT BATHTUB OR SWIMMING POOL. (BASIN-POOR CHOICE OF WORDING)\\\
  11.  
  12. Let's start with a definition:
  13.  
  14. Basin (geology): A geological basin is a large low-lying area. It is often below sea level.  Geological basins are one of the two most common places inland which collect sediment, the other being lakes.  http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basin_(geology)
  15.  
  16. Basin is a geologic term.  The Paso Robles Basin is classified as such because it is largely a collection of sediments.
  17.  
  18. Quote:
  19. -------------------------------
  20. Paso Robles Formation
  21. The Paso Robles Groundwater Basin is comprised predominantly of Paso Robles
  22. Formation sedimentary layers that extend from the ground surface to more than 2,000 feet below sea level in some areas (resulting in basin sediments with a thickness of more than 2,500 feet; best illustrated on Figure 14). Throughout most of the basin, however, the water-bearing sediments have a thickness of 700 to 1,200 feet (with the base of the sediments more or less at sea level; Figure 10). http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/pdf/geology.pdf
  23.  
  24. The Paso Robles Formation is a Plio-Pleistocene, predominantly nonmarine geologic
  25. unit comprised of relatively thin, often discontinuous sand and gravel layers interbedded with thicker layers of silt and clay. It was deposited in alluvial fan, flood plain, and lake depositional environments. The formation is typically unconsolidated and generlly poorly sorted. It is not usually intensely deformed, except locally near fault zones. The sand and gravel beds within the unit have a high percentage of Monterey shale gravel and generally have moderately lower permeability compared to the shallow, unconsolidated alluvial sand and gravel beds. The formation is typically sufficiently thick such that water wells generally produce several hundred gpm. In the area near Atascadero, the Paso Robles Formation has been folded, exposing the basal gravel beds. With the basal gravel exposed and in direct contact with the shallow alluvium, the Paso Robles Formation is recharged directly from the river alluvium.  http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/pdf/geology.pdf
  26. -------------------------------
  27.  
  28.  
  29.  
  30. ///B) THE WATER IN THE VARIOUS AQUIFERS OR BETTER WORDING, STRATA ARE MOSTLY NOT INTERCONNECTED, SEPARATED BY FAULTS.\\\
  31.  
  32. New terms, new definitions:
  33.  
  34. Stratum: In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum
  35.  
  36. Aquifer: An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquifer
  37.  
  38.  
  39. Faults form the boundary for large sections of the perimeter of the Paso Robles Basin.  The only section of the Paso Robles Basin itself that is divided by a fault is the Atascadero sub-basin which is found to the southwest of the Greater Paso Robles Basin.  The rest of the Basin is considered to be hydrologically connected.
  40.  
  41.  
  42.  
  43. Quotes:
  44. ---------------------------------
  45. The Atascadero Subbasin lies west of the Rinconada fault, which has been identified as a barrier to groundwater flow. Therefore, the Atascadero Subbasin is considered to be hydrologically distinct. The seven subareas are not identified as formal boundaries, but were informally established in Phase I as a practical approach to subdivide the large basin for discussion purposes.  Pg10 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/reports/BasinUpdate-Dec07.pdf
  46.  
  47. The advantage of dividing the basin into subareas for analysis is that local problems can be identified and more effectively managed. However, local water balances are more complex because they include additional terms representing groundwater flows between subareas. Nevertheless, understanding the dependence of yield in one subarea on recharge in another subarea is very useful for planning and management purposes.
  48. The greatest drawback to subarea analysis is that it can undermine political support for
  49. management measures that encompass the entire basin. Water users in subareas with few local groundwater problems may be disinclined to help pay for regional solutions. In reality, the subareas are all hydrologically connected, and solutions with the lowest overall cost may involve the entire basin. It should be emphasized that all users have an interest in maintaining the integrity of the whole basin. Pg 4 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Water%20Forum/pdf/GW%20Basin%20Peer%20Review%20Final%20Sec.pdf
  50.  
  51. The Estrella sub-area is not a hydrologically separate part of the basin as is the
  52. Atascadero Sub-basin. http://www.slocounty.ca.gov/Assets/PL/PR+Groundwater/rcs.pdf
  53.  
  54. There is a practical value for analytical purposes in dividing the 790-square mile Paso Robles Groundwater Basin into informal areas. A single hydrologically distinct subbasin, the Atascadero subbasin, was earlier defined. The remainder of the basin is hydraulically interconnected by thick sedimentary sections, and thus appropriately defined as a single basin. However, for discussion purposes, the basin was informally divided into several study areas, based on water quality, source of recharge, groundwater movement, and contours on the base of permeable sediments. Pg3 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/pdf/hydrolgeology.pdf
  55.  
  56. The Paso Robles Basin is separated from underlying formations by some amount of faulting as well.  These underlying areas are not part of the basin, are deeper than the majority of water wells in the basin area, are not the subject of discussion, and are mostly considered as having limited water bearing capacity.
  57. The bottom of the basin, defined generally as the base of the Paso Robles Formation, is a reflection of the folding, faulting, and erosion that formed the highly variable surface upon which the nonmarine Paso Robles Formation sediments were deposited. The basin boundary and bottom should not be considered as absolute barriers to flow because in most cases the geologic units underlying and adjacent to the basin have limited porosity and permeability. Pg2 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/pdf/geology.pdf
  58.  
  59. Several other geologic formations of low permeability lie adjacent to and beneath the Paso Robles Formation, including the Pancho Rico Formation, an unnamed clastic unit, the Santa Margarita Formation, the Monterey Formation, the Obispo Formation, and the Vaqueros Formation. These formations are considered non-water bearing for modeling purposes and will accordingly not be included in the model; however, it is understood that each of these formations is capable of yielding sufficient water to wells for domestic and other minor uses. Pg 18 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%202/pdf/FINAL%20PhaseII%20GW%20Study%20Final%20Report.pdf
  60.  
  61. The alluvium and Paso Robles Formation rest on older consolidated sediments. Faults have created a conduit to allow water trapped in these older sediments to come to the surface as geothermal water.  -Page 1 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/presentations/AtascaderoSubarea2.25.10.pdf
  62. --------------------------------------------
  63.  
  64.  
  65.  
  66. There are two main types of aquifers surrounding this discussion.  The deeper Paso Robles Basin formation (up to 2500ft deep in some areas) and shallower, looser, alluvial formations that are scattered along the surface of the Paso Robles Basin, mostly along the creeks and rivers.  The alluvium formations are generally no deeper than 100 feet.  
  67.  
  68.  
  69.  
  70. Quotes:
  71. ------------------------------------------
  72. The boundaries of the groundwater basin are defined by the contact between water-bearing aquifer sediments and older geologic units or fault zones. The primary water-bearing formations are the recent alluvium and Paso Robles Formation. The alluvium consists primarily of sand and gravel and is located along stream channels. Thus, the alluvium occurs as a laterally discontinuous layer across the basin (Figure 2). The alluvium is up to 100 feet thick and typically has higher permeability than the adjacent Paso Robles Formation. Wells screened in alluvium have yields that may exceed 1,000 gallons per minute (gpm). The alluvium receives stream recharge as it is in direct contact with stream channels. Groundwater stored within the alluvium provides a ready source of recharge to the adjacent Paso Robles Formation. The Paso Robles Formation is comprised of thin, discontinuous sand and gravel layers interbedded with thicker beds of silt and clay. The Paso Robles Formation is continuous across the basin except where offset occurs along fault zones. The thickness of the Paso Robles Formation typically ranges from 700 to 1,200 feet, although it reaches a maximum thickness of 2,500 feet near the junction of the Estrella and Salinas rivers north of Paso Robles (Figure 3). The Paso Robles Formation is unconsolidated with sufficient permeability and thickness to yield several hundred gpm to wells. Pg 18 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%202/pdf/FINAL%20PhaseII%20GW%20Study%20Final%20Report.pdf
  73.  
  74. Among the alluvial aquifers in the Paso Robles Basin are the Huer Huero Creek, Shedd Creek, San Juan Creek, Camatta/Shell Creek, the Estrella River, and the Salinas River (along with smaller formations). These alluvium formations comprise around 2% of the total groundwater in the Paso Robles Basin.  
  75. Overall, groundwater in storage in the alluvial aquifers within the Basin accounts for only about 2.1 percent of the total groundwater in storage in the entire Basin.  Pg 20 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  76.  
  77. The shallow alluvial aquifers are present along the Salinas River, Estrella River, Huerhuero Creek, and other tributary creeks. Groundwater stored in the alluvial aquifer system accounts for about two percent of the total groundwater storage in the entire Basin. While the amount of total storage may be small, the alluvial aquifers are a significant source of recharge to the Paso Robles Formation, particularly along the western end of the Basin where the Salinas River is located. The coarse-grained deposits of the shallow alluvium act as an unconfined aquifer. -Page 1 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/presentations/AtascaderoSubarea2.25.10.pdf
  78.  
  79. The aquifer system in the Paso Robles Groundwater Basin consists of the Paso Robles Formation and the shallow alluvial aquifers associated with the Salinas River, Estrella River, Huer Huero Creek, and other tributary creeks. Pg19 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  80.  
  81. The actual amount of groundwater in storage in the Paso Robles Formation is
  82. significantly greater than that of the shallow alluvial aquifers. Groundwater in storage within the Paso Robles Formation in the Basin from 1981 to 1997 was estimated to be 30,534,000 AF on an average annual basis. The combined area of alluvium in the Basin (i.e., including the Salinas River, Estrella River, Huer Huero Creek, San Juan Creek, and other small creeks in the Basin) is 49,500 acres. Using the spatial distribution of specific yield and groundwater levels during the water year of 1980 from the Basin groundwater flow model, the volume of groundwater in storage in the combined area of alluvium was estimated to be 681,974 AF.  Pg 20 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  83.  
  84. Due to its large storage capacity, the Paso Robles Formation represents a more robust groundwater reservoir than the shallow alluvial aquifers of the rivers and creeks. Storage changes in the Paso Robles Formation due to annual variations in climate are buffered to a greater degree than those in the alluvial aquifers. By contrast, groundwater storage in the alluvium fluctuates in direct response to annual variations in climate. Consequently, the estimation of a perennial yield for the alluvial aquifers is problematic due to the extreme year-to year fluctuations in annual precipitation, runoff, and streamflow that provide recharge to the alluvial aquifers. Pg 21 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  85. -----------------------------------------
  86.  
  87.  
  88.  
  89. ///C) THE DEEPER 800 FOOT WELLS DO NOT AFFECT THE MORE SUPERFICIAL 200-FOOT WELLS.\\\
  90.  
  91. A 200 foot well located in the Paso Robles Formation will be affected by a 800 foot well also located in the Paso Robles Formation.  Evidence of this would be two wells, one shallow, one deep that are in close proximity and have the same water level altitude.   This may not necessarily be the case if the shallow well was drawing from an alluvial aquifer.  However, alluvial aquifers generally do not reach depths of 200 ft in the Paso Robles Basin.
  92.  
  93.  
  94. Quotes:
  95. ------------------------------------
  96. Another potential source of error in interpreting hydrographs is mixing data for shallow wells tapping younger alluvium with data for deeper wells tapping the Paso Robles Formation. Figure 6 shows hydrographs for two wells located less than 2,000 feet apart along the Estrella River in the Estrella subarea. The well with steady, high water levels(5F1) probably draws from the alluvium, while the well with large, long-term declines (5D2) is deeper and draws from the Paso Robles Formation. Pg 10 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Water%20Forum/pdf/GW%20Basin%20Peer%20Review%20Final%20Sec.pdf
  97.  
  98. The alluvial aquifers are a significant source of recharge to the Paso Robles Formation, particularly along the western region of the Basin and Subbasin where the Salinas River alluvium is located. Although the shallow alluvium and the underlying Paso Robles Formation are distinctly different aquifers, the low permeable layer that separates them varies spatially in terms of thickness and permeability. Consequently, recharge of the Paso Robles Formation from alluvium underflow varies along the stretches of alluvial deposits in the Basin and Subbasin. In addition to the thickness and permeability of the sediments separating the alluvium from the Paso Robles Formation, the rate of recharge is also dependent on the hydraulic head gradient across these sediments (i.e., difference in groundwater levels between the alluvium and the Paso Robles Formation). Pumping in the Paso Robles Formation may result in significant drawdown of groundwater levels in this aquifer, thus increasing the hydraulic gradient and subsequently the recharge rate from the overlying alluvium.  Pg19 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  99.  
  100. Agricultural pumpage, by being more widespread across the basin and comprising much of the pumpage located away from the Salinas River, shows a more direct relationship with groundwater storage and less interaction with the Salinas River. Thus, basin-wide changes in agricultural trends that would result in changes in agricultural pumping would have a more direct effect on groundwater storage than would parallel changes in municipal pumping. Pg 57 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%202/pdf/FINAL%20PhaseII%20GW%20Study%20Final%20Report.pdf
  101. ---------------------------------------
  102.  
  103.  
  104.  
  105.  
  106. ///D) THE CENTRAL COAST AQUIFER IS NOT SMALL.  IT IS HUGE AND PROBABLY THE LARGEST IN THE STATE, COMPRIZING 3-5 STRATA\\\
  107.  
  108. While the Paso Robles Formation is large, the consequences of a drop in the water table may still be worth examining.
  109.  
  110.  
  111. Quotes:
  112. -----------------------------------------
  113. Two of the previous studies mention the total volume of groundwater in storage in the
  114. basin (Fugro and Cleath [2002] p. 143; Fugro [2010] p. 14). In my opinion, this number is of little practical value and can be misleading for lay audiences. It would be physically impossible to pump a basin dry (some saturated thickness is required to convey groundwater to wells), and a host of adverse effects would intervene long before that endpoint were reached (for example: pumping costs, dry wells, elimination of baseflow in rivers, subsidence, mortality of riparian vegetation). A more useful storage volume for management purposes is the volume defined by minimum and maximum desirable water level surfaces. This range of water levels is much smaller than the total basin thickness; perhaps 100 feet in some areas and much less near sensitive habitats. The volume of storage between the upper and lower water level surfaces constrains the calculations of perennial yield because it defines the volume of water that can be borrowed from storage during droughts. Groundwater management should be based on this operable storage range and not on total basin storage.  Pg 14 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Water%20Forum/pdf/GW%20Basin%20Peer%20Review%20Final%20Sec.pdf
  115. -------------------------------------------
  116.  
  117.  
  118. ///E) THE EXAMPLE OF THE JARDIN WELLS, EACH ON 1 ACRE OF LAND, ALL AT 200-275 FEET, COMPETING WITH EACH OTHER, HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH 800-FOOT WELLS IN THE HUERO HUERO, OR SAN JUAN, OR SHANDON, OR ATASCADERO AQUIFERS.\\\
  119.  
  120.  
  121. To begin with, the HuerHuero, San Juan, And Shandon (Estrella River) aquifers are alluvial aquifers, and as such, do not go beyond 100 feet.  An 800 foot well above these aquifers would be tapping the Paso Robles Formation below them.  The Jardin Wells are also tapping the Paso Robles Formation at 200 feet.  The Atascadero Aquifer is a more separate entity, being separated from the rest of the basin by the Rinconda fault.  Wells in the Paso Robles Basin are hydrologically separate from wells in the Atascadero sub-basin, and as such have "nothing to do with each other". It should be noted that the Atascadero sub-basin has it's own alluvial aquifer above the separate formation below (the alienated piece of the Paso Robles formation severed by the fault).
  122.  
  123. Quotes:
  124. ----------------------------------------
  125. The major water-bearing units in the basin include alluvial deposits and the Paso Robles Formation. The alluvial deposits are up to about 100 feet in depth and include recent stream-laid sands and gravels along the Salinas River and its tributaries. Wells in the alluvium typically produce in excess of 1,000 gallons per minute (gpm) (Fugro, et al., 2002). The Paso Robles Formation is the most extensive aquifer and consists of typically unconsolidated sedimentary layers extending to depths of more than 2,000 feet. Wells generally produce several hundred gpm (Fugro, et al., 2002). Pg 8 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/reports/BasinUpdate-Dec07.pdf
  126.  
  127. According to Fugro 2010, pumping of the alluvium does not have the same effect
  128. on groundwater levels as does pumping from the deeper Paso Robles
  129. Formation. Fugro 2010 also recommends that the alluvium’s perennial yield be
  130. established separately from the deeper Paso Robles Formation. Furthermore,
  131. according to expert testimony at a joint hearing on November 9, 2010, municipal
  132. use makes up most of the pumping in the sub -basin. Agencies such as the City
  133. of Paso Robles and large purveyors such as the AMWC can mange their
  134. pumping more effectively than the thousands of individual users in the main
  135. basin. Pg 11 http://www.slocounty.ca.gov/Assets/PL/PR+Groundwater/rcs.pdf
  136.  
  137.  
  138. For example, the City of Paso Robles produces approximately one-half of
  139. their groundwater production from the alluvial aquifer in the Atascadero Subbasin. Such pumping has little to no impact on water levels within the Paso Robles Formation in the Subbasin. Pg3 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  140.  
  141. ---------------------------------------------
  142.  
  143.  
  144.  
  145.  
  146.  
  147. ///2) SCIENTIFIC FACTS
  148. A) THE CENTRAL COAST AQUIFER IS HUGE BUT IT HAS MANY DIFFERENT LEVELS, (STRATA) AFFECTED BY VARIOUS NATURAL PHENOMENON.
  149.  
  150. B) THE 180-250 AQUIFER IS REPLENISHED BY RAINFALL AND IS CURRENTLY IN NEGATIVE BALANCE DUE TO A DROUGHT. IT IS NOT AFFECTED BY 800-FOOT WELLS, AS WATER CANNOT GO UPWARD.\\\
  151.  
  152. The alluvial aquifers are largely replenished by rainfall and runoff from outlying regions and upper elevations into the streambeds. The Paso Robles formation is replenished by rainfall as well.  It is also replenished by the overlying alluvial aquifers.  180-250 foot wells, however, are not located in alluvial aquifers, but the upper part of the Paso Robles Formation.
  153.  
  154. Quotes:
  155. ----------------------------------
  156. The major water-bearing units in the basin include alluvial deposits and the Paso Robles Formation. Precipitation is the ultimate source of recharge to the groundwater basin. Pg4 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/reports/BasinUpdate-Dec07.pdf
  157.  
  158. Changes in recharge are strongly influenced by fluctuations in rainfall, which are considered in the Basin Update’s evaluation of groundwater levels and storage. Changes in discharge, particularly groundwater pumping and use, are not documented in this Basin Update. Pg5 Paso Robles Basin Update.pdf
  159.  
  160. Percolation of precipitation alone accounts for 44 percent of total inflow to the groundwater basin (Fugro, et al., 2002). The remainder comes from streambed percolation (43%), subsurface inflow (8%), wastewater percolation (3%), and irrigation return flow (2%). Pg8 http://www.prcity.com/government/departments/publicworks/water/pdf/GBMP/reports/BasinUpdate-Dec07.pdf
  161.  
  162. Streambed percolation is a major component of basin recharge, with large annual
  163. fluctuations depending on yearly rainfall. Additional monitoring wells in shallow alluvial aquifers associated with the Salinas River, Estrella River, Huer Huero Creek, and other tributary creeks as well as deep monitoring wells in the Paso Robles Formation adjacent to the streams, and monitoring of water level data in those wells, are recommended to develop data to refine estimates of streambed percolation. Pg 23 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  164.  
  165. Due to its large storage capacity, the Paso Robles Formation represents a more robust groundwater reservoir than the shallow alluvial aquifers of the rivers and creeks. Storage changes in the Paso Robles Formation due to annual variations in climate are buffered to a greater degree than those in the alluvial aquifers. By contrast, groundwater storage in the alluvium fluctuates in direct response to annual variations in climate. Consequently, the estimation of a perennial yield for the alluvial aquifers is problematic due to the extreme year-to year fluctuations in annual precipitation, runoff, and streamflow that provide recharge to the
  166. alluvial aquifers. Pg 21 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  167. -----------------------------------
  168.  
  169.  
  170. Water within the Paso Robles Formation at a depth of 800 feet is still hydrologically connected to water within the Paso Robles formation at 200 feet.  Moreover, water can "go upward" in the sense that differences in elevation across the basin can mean water at a 800 foot deep (for example) well may be at a higher altitude (above mean sea level) than a shallow well where the surface is closer to sea level.  This is how Artesian Wells may form.  To be technical, but not necessarily pertinent to the discussion, water can "go upward" if pressure forces it to (e.g. geysers, Osmotic Pressure).  
  171.  
  172. Quotes:
  173. ------------------------------
  174. Groundwater flow between the alluvium and the Paso Robles Formation can occur either in the upward or downward direction. The downward direction of groundwater flow occurs in the form of recharge from the alluvium into the Paso Robles Formation. Recharge occurs when a hydraulic head gradient exists between the shallow alluvium and the underlying formation in the downward direction, in other words, when groundwater levels in the alluvium are greater than levels in the Paso Robles Formation. Upward flows of groundwater from the Paso Robles
  175. Formation into the shallow alluvium can also occur if the hydraulic head gradient between the two aquifers is in the upward direction. This occurs when the groundwater pressure in the Paso Robles Formation is greater than the hydraulic head in the shallow alluvium. The hydraulic head gradient between the aquifers in a particular area can be determined by measuring groundwater levels in wells screened in the alluvium and subtracting those from measured groundwater levels in nearby wells screened in the Paso Robles Formation. Pg 20 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  176.  
  177. Groundwater movement is controlled by differences in water elevations or pressure.
  178. Water at higher elevation or pressure moves to areas of lower elevation or pressure. As shown on Figures 32 and 33, groundwater elevations in the Paso Robles Groundwater Basin range from approximately 1,500 feet in upland areas to less than 600 feet in the northwestern Bradley area. Pg 22 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/pdf/hydrolgeology.pdf
  179. --------------------------------------
  180.  
  181.  
  182.  
  183. ///C) THE DEEPER 800 FOOT WELLS ARE NOT RUNNING DRY, AND ARE NOT REPLENISHED BY RAINFALL.\\\
  184.  
  185. An 800 foot well in the Paso Robles Formation, being hydrologically connected to the rest of the formation, will by necessity be partially replenished by rainfall.  The question is also not "Are 800 foot wells running dry?" but is rather "Are water levels in 800 foot wells dropping?"
  186.  
  187. Quotes:
  188. --------------------------------
  189. Percolation of precipitation is a major source of basin recharge that is accompanied by a large degree of uncertainty. The effect of rainfall recharge may not immediately result in a water level change in wells that are located in areas of highest pumping (that is, in areas of depressed water levels). Pg 23 http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/pdf/Paso%20Robles%20Groundwater%20Basin%20Water%20Balance%20Review%20and%20Update.pdf
  190. -------------------------------
  191.  
  192. ///D) THE MAJORITY OF THE WATER IN THE CENTRAL COAST AQUIFERS IS DEEP.\\\
  193.  
  194. Yes, the majority of the water in the Basin is located within the Paso Robles Formation, rather than the shallow alluvial aquifers.
  195.  
  196. ///E) THE ECONOMY OF THE CENTRAL COAST IS LARGELY DEPENDENT ON TOURISM, CREATED BY THE WINERIES AND VINEYARDS.\\\
  197.  
  198. Whether this is true or not is debatable.  Whether it's relevant to the discussion is debatable. Whether this is a scientific fact is also debatable.
  199.  
  200.  
  201. Conclusion:
  202. There's a lot of name dropping going on here, so it's easy to get confused.  Dr. Frankel seemed to have fallen victim to this when he refers to the Huer Huero and San Juan Aquifers and says there are 800 foot wells in them, obviously not realizing they are shallow, alluvial aquifers.  For those who may need visual representation of this (eg. Dr. Frankel), I can refer you these diagrams:
  203.  
  204. A cross section near Creston, showing the difference between the Alluvium and the lower Basin: http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%201/figures/pdf/Figure-26.pdf
  205.  
  206. A map of Alluvial deposits: http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Water%20Resources/Reports/Paso%20Phase%202/pdf/figure%2002.pdf
  207.  
  208. This was a report on possible places for the State Water Project to recharge the basin.  It delineates the larger Alluvium deposits (such as the Huer Huero and San Juan) in visual form starting on page 31: http://www.slocountywater.org/site/Frequent%20Downloads/Integrated%20Regional%20Water%20Management%20Plan/Groundwater%20Banking/pdf/PRGB%20GBSC%20MTG%204%20050307%20draft.pdf
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