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  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821198?dopt=Abstract
  2. We investigated the effects of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and signs of neuronal damage in rats using a real GSM programmable mobile phone in the 900 MHz band. Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293955
  4. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay.
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18159956
  6. In the present study, we investigated whether continuous-wave (CW) radiofrequency (RF) fields induce neuron apoptosis in vitro. Rat primary neuronal cultures were exposed to a CW 900 MHz RF field with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg for 24 h. During exposure, an increase of 2 degrees C was measured in the medium; control experiments with neurons exposed to 39 degrees C were then performed. Apoptosis was assessed by condensation of nuclei with 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining observed with an epifluorescence microscope and fragmentation of DNA with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analyzed by flow cytometry. A statistically significant difference in the rate of apoptosis was found in the RF-field-exposed neurons compared to the sham-, 37 degrees C- and 39 degrees C-exposed neurons either 0 or 24 h after exposure using both methods. To assess whether the observed apoptosis was caspase-dependent or -independent, assays measuring caspase 3 activity and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) labeling were performed. No increase in the caspase 3 activity was found, whereas the percentage of AIF-positive nuclei in RF-field-exposed neurons was increased by three- to sevenfold compared to other conditions. Our results show that, under the experimental conditions used, exposure of primary rat neurons to CW RF fields may induce a caspase-independent pathway to apoptosis that involves AIF.
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545571
  8. Male and female Swiss albino mice were housed as control and mobile phone-exposed groups. Pregnant animals in the experimental group were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobile phone radiation at 890-915 MHz at 0.95 W/Kg specific absorption rate (SAR). The cerebella were processed by frozen microtome. The sections obtained were stained with Haematoxylin-eosin and cresyl violet. For cell counting by the optical fractionator method, a pilot study was firstly performed. Cerebellar areas were analysed by using Axiovision software running on a personal computer. The optical dissectors were systematically spaced at random, and focused to the widest profile of the neuron cell nucleus.
  9. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the number of Purkinje cells and a tendency for granule cells to increase in cerebellum was found.
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968972
  11. Worldwide expansion of mobile phones and electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has raised question of their possible biological effects on the brain and nervous system. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure. CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates, 1 h/day for 5 days at a specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.6 W/kg, 1 h/day for 5 days at SAR=4.0 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=1.6 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=4.0 W/kg, daily exposure for 1 month at SAR=1.6 W/kg. Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and prominently stained granule cells. CR IR revealed prominently stained pyramidal cells with dendrites running perpendicularly in the CA area. Exposure for 1 month produced almost complete loss of pyramidal cells in the CA1 area. CaBP differences could cause changes in cellular Ca(2+)levels, which could have deleterious effect on normal hippocampal functions concerned with neuronal connectivity and integration.
  12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546709
  13. Exponential interindividual handling in wireless communication system has raised possible doubts in the biological aspects of radiofrequency (RF) exposure on human brain owing to its close proximity to the mobile phone. In the nervous system, calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a critical role in releasing neurotransmitters, generating action potential and membrane integrity. Alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration trigger aberrant synaptic action or cause neuronal apoptosis, which may exert an influence on the cellular pathology for learning and memory in the hippocampus. Calcium binding proteins like calbindin D28-K (CB) is responsible for the maintaining and controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampus at 835 MHz with low energy (specific absorption rate: SAR=1.6 W/kg) for 3 months by using both CB and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) specific antibodies by immunohistochemical method. Decrease in CB immunoreactivity (IR) was noted in exposed (E1.6) group with loss of interneurons and pyramidal cells in CA1 area and loss of granule cells. Also, an overall increase in GFAP IR was observed in the hippocampus of E1.6. By TUNEL assay, apoptotic cells were detected in the CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which reflects that chronic RF exposure may affect the cell viability. In addition, the increase of GFAP IR due to RF exposure could be well suited with the feature of reactive astrocytosis, which is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the loss of nearby neurons. Chronic RF exposure to the rat brain suggested that the decrease of CB IR accompanying apoptosis and increase of GFAP IR might be morphological parameters in the hippocampus damages.
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230827
  15. The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by mobile phones on humans hold special interest due to their use in close proximity to the brain. The current study investigated the number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the 16-week-old female rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. In this study were three groups of 6 rats: control (Cont), sham exposed (Sham), and EMF exposed (EMF). EMF group rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1 h/day for 28 days) in an exposure tube. Sham group was placed in the exposure tube but not exposed to EMF (1 h/day for 28 days). Cont group was not placed into the exposure tube nor were they exposed to EMF during the study period. In EMF group rats, the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) varied between 0.016 (whole body) and 2 W/kg (locally in the head). All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and the number of pyramidal cells in the CA was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Histopathological evaluations were made on sections of the CA region of the hippocampus. Results showed that postnatal EMF exposure caused a significant decrease of the pyramidal cell number in the CA of the EMF group (P<0.05). Additionally, cell loss can be seen in the CA region of EMF group even at qualitative observation. These results may encourage researchers to evaluate the chronic effects of 900 MHz EMF on teenagers' brains.
  16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18761003
  17. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to EMF on the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of 4-week-old rats were investigated. This experiment used a control (Cont) group and an EMF exposed (EMF) group (three pregnant rats each group). The EMF group consisted of six offspring (n=6) of pregnant rats that were exposed to an EMF of up to 900 megahertz (MHz) for 60 min/day between the first and last days of gestation. The control group consisted of five offspring (n=5) of pregnant rats that were not treated at all. The offspring were sacrificed when they were 4 weeks old. The numbers of granule cells in the dentate gyrus were analyzed using the optical fractionator technique. The results showed that prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rats (P<0.01). This suggests that prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz EMF affects the development of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the rat hippocampus. Cell loss might be caused by an inhibition of granule cell neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.
  18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671630
  19. Widespread use of mobile phones which are a major source of electromagnetic fields might affect living organisms. However, there has been no investigation concerning prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields or their roles in the development of the pyramidal cells of the cornu ammonis in postnatal life. Two groups of pregnant rats, a control group and an experimental group, that were exposed to an electromagnetic field were used. For obtaining electromagnetic field offspring, the pregnant rats were exposed to 900 megahertz electromagnetic fields during the 1-19th gestation days. There were no actions performed on the control group during the same period. The offspring rats were spontaneously delivered--control group (n = 6) and electromagnetic field group (n = 6). Offspring were sacrificed for stereological analyses at the end of the 4th week. Pyramidal cell number in rat cornu ammonis was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. It was found that 900 megahertz of electromagnetic field significantly reduced the total pyramidal cell number in the cornu ammonis of the electromagnetic field group (P < 0.001). Therefore, although its exact mechanism is not clear, it is suggested that pyramidal cell loss in the cornu ammonis could be due to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field exposure in the prenatal period.
  20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782486
  21. The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for our society. We have previously shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated whether a pathologic leakage across the blood-brain barrier might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant (p< 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.
  22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20397841
  23. PURPOSE: The rapid development and expansion of mobile communications contributes to the general debate on the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on the nervous system. This study aims at measuring the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in 48 rat brains to evaluate reactive astrocytosis, three and 10 days after long-term head-only sub-chronic exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) signal, in male rats.
  24. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) = 1.5 W/kg or 15 min/day at a SAR = 6 W/kg for five days per week during an eight-week period. GFAP expression was measured by the immunocytochemistry method in the following rat brain areas: Prefrontal cortex, cerebellar cortex, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, lateral globus pallidus of the striatum, and the caudate putamen.
  25. RESULTS: Compared to the sham-treated rats, those exposed to the sub-chronic GSM (Global System for mobile communications) signal at 1.5 or 6 W/kg showed an increase in GFAP levels in the different brain areas, three and ten days after treatment.
  26. CONCLUSION: Our results show that sub-chronic exposures to a 900 MHz EMF signal for two months could adversely affect rat brain (sign of a potential gliosis).
  27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18568936
  28. The present work investigated the behavioral effects of a moderate exposure (1 h per day for 5 consecutive days) to a static magnetic field (SMF, 128 mT) in male rats. SMF effects were evaluated in two sets of control and SMF-exposed rats. One set of animals was used for evaluation of SMF potential effects on emotional behaviors in the elevated plus maze and in the open field. The other set of animals was tested for learning and memory abilities in different procedures of the Morris water maze task. We found no significant difference between control and SMF-exposed rats in anxiety tests. However, the ratio of open arms time in the plus maze was reduced by half in SMF-exposed rats. In the Morris water maze, SMF-exposed rats were partially impaired during the initial learning task as well as in the retention task at one week. We conclude that static magnetic field exposure altered emotional behaviors in the plus maze and led to cognitive impairments, or at least to substantial attention disorders, in the Morris water maze.
  29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16898263
  30. Microwaves (MW) from cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which may enhance lipid peroxidation levels of the brain, thus leading to oxidative damage. Melatonin is synthesized in and secreted by the pineal gland at night and exhibits anti-oxidant properties. Several studies suggest that supplementation with anti-oxidant can influence MW-induced brain damage. The present study was designed to determine the effects of MW on the brain lipid peroxidation system, and the possible protective effects of melatonin on brain degeneration induced by MW. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: (1) sham-operated control group (N = 8); (2) study 900-MHz MW-exposed group (N = 8); and (3) 900-MHz MW-exposed+melatonin (100 microg/kg sc before daily MW exposure treated group) (N = 10). Cortex brain and hippocampus tissues were removed to study the levels of lipid peroxidation as malonyl dialdehyde. The levels of lipid peroxidation in the brain cortex and hippocampus increased in the MW group compared with the control group, although the levels in the hippocampus were decreased by MW+melatonin administration. The brain cortex lipid peroxidation levels were unaffected by melatonin treatment. We conclude that melatonin may prevent MW-induced oxidative changes in the hippocampus by strengthening the anti-oxidant defense system, by reducing oxidative stress products.
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