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  1. M269 Ukraine m269 balkans l23 Middle East l51 Spain z2103 caucasus l51 rhone-rhine z2103 steppe
  3. Los millares l51 links to east e.g. tholoi, importing Near Eastern goods; leyla tepe z2103 links to eastern Anatolia north ubaid period monuments e.g. arslantepe
  5. Mixture of corded long heads and beaker short heads shows community mixing
  7. Too much z2103 in Iraq to be explained by Hittites, and can’t be explained by pred. R1a indo-iranians
  9. Greek meander labyrinth
  11. El portalon
  13. Southern Iberia has copper before northern Iberia
  15. Stelae also in Saudi Arabia
  17. Corded not descended to Yamnaya (different skull morphology, 100% y dna replacement, different archaeology (e.g. Yamnaya open steppe, corded forest steppe), different pigmentation etc.
  19. corded ware gaining chg from maykop immigration to ukraine (wave 2 kurgan hypothesis)
  21. Yamnaya ozera outlier
  23. Piggyback on the farmers hypothesis, e.g. beakers move into existing farmer communities, bring metallurgy, establish themselves as the elites (via war), assimilate into local culture and take local women (so local admixture)
  25. Check where tomenable or gerhard says Bell Beakers separate metallurgical elite because of their secret knowledge
  27. BBs move into and appropriate cultures they come across
  29. Cord in beaker pottery picked up from corded ware in Rhineland in reflux model
  31. Taurid dinaric type amongst BBs originally Middle Eastern
  33. Swastika spread mezin to vinca to halaf/samarra/ubaid
  35. Euphratic
  37. low degree of genetic differentiation between non-IE speaking Iron age Iberians and IE-speaking Iron Age Iberians, support the idea of IE language introduction via migrations during the early Iron Age.
  39. Leila tepe first Caucasian metallurgy, los millares first Western European metallurgy
  41. Where ever metallurgists existed, they isolated themselves as an elite group as metallurgy knowledge gave them social power
  43. Los Millares warlike
  45. Sumerians and Indus Valley Dravidian (word for city in Dravidian is “Ur”). Dravidians = Iranian farmers
  47. Areni 1
  49. Gobekli Tepe and oldest wooden statue (shigir statue) in Steppe similarities
  51. Ubaid social castes r1b=pastoralists
  53. Vinca ubaid similarities - childe thought ubaid to vinca but vinca older
  55. Lots of R1b Balkans iron gates
  57. Copper spread vinca to halaf/samarra/ubaid (and maybe proto writing/figurines)
  59. Red hair mummies (Egypt, Peru, Armenia)
  61. Anthropomorphic “kurgan” stelae in caucasus southern France Saudi Arabia comment origin therefore west asian
  63. M269 diversity Middle Eastern
  65. L51 earliest split subclade southern French
  67. Z2103 earliest split subclade Armenian
  69. Western ie only associated with u152 (Italo celtic, adopted from Hungarian Yamnaya) and germanic (u106, adopted from battle axe). Both adoptions from beaker metallurgical elite domination.
  71. Anatolian expansion also went across the aegean and across the Adriatic with Minoan and Etruscan (language links both to Anatolian too)
  73. Bell beakers metallurgical caste-elite, warlike, shows in los millares
  75. Satemisation took place on the late steppe
  77. R1b developed in the epigravettian, hence villabruna and iron gates
  79. Armenia ChL red hair pale skin blue eyes EHG admix signs of this movement of m269
  81. Why did Western European metallurgy start in southern Spain before e.g. northern spain? Only explainable by mediterranean route
  83. When l51 moved to the Rhine, when corded ware arrived, triggered migration like volkerwanderung
  85. Kura araxes migration of z2103 south of caucasus Anatolian + gutian, migration of z2103 north of caucasus = Yamnaya
  87. Coon brachycephaly Central Europe beaker dolichocephaly Spanish beakers = r1b vs i2 BUT signs of brachycephaly among Spanish elite (i.e. r1b among spanish elite too)
  89. Z2103 one branch spread across Europe, South Asia, west Asia; another branch entirely limited to west Asia. Also, why so much z2103 in west Asia if only from Indo Iranians (which was mainly r1a)?
  91. Euphratic?
  93. m269 two children, l23 and another one that has a mostly balkan presence (i.e. one branch of m269 migrated to Middle East, other remained in balkans)
  95. Yamnaya and corded ware clearly not l51, so where could l51 have come from but the west?
  97. If z2103 Middle Eastern, l23 Middle Eastern surely, and so m269 must have migrated to Middle East
  99. Other similarities between vinca and halaf/samarra/ubaid signs of m269 migration (e.g. figurines)
  101. Yamnaya closest steppe r1b relative, but close is a relative term as there is at least 2000 years of separation based on y dan phylogeny
  103. ATP3 Iberia ChL m269?
  105. Change in brachycephaly from bell beaker to unetice due to admix of corded ware?
  111. Amerindian swastika, red hair, metallurgy, check email to Japanese, Native American R1b subclades still unknown, spread of pyramids
  113. Triskelion =r1b v88? same for megalithic culture? spread of framing into iberia (e.g. la almagra) at same time as spread of megalithic culture (i.e. r1b v88 integrated with farmers, same for I2a1a1-M26, this was resurgence of whg ancestry. spread of cattle as below and fact that el trocs were herders).
  115. The migration of R1b people can be followed archeologically through the presence of domesticated cattle, which appear in central Syria around 8,000-7,500 BCE (late Mureybet period), then in the Southern Levant and Egypt around 7,000-6,500 BCE (e.g. at Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba). Cattle herders subsequently spread across most of northern and eastern Africa. The Sahara desert would have been more humid during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (c. 7250-3250 BCE), and would have been a vast savannah full of grass, an ideal environment for cattle herding.
  116. Evidence of cow herding during the Neolithic has shown up at Uan Muhuggiag in central Libya around 5500 BCE, at the Capeletti Cave in northern Algeria around 4500 BCE. But the most compelling evidence that R1b people related to modern Europeans once roamed the Sahara is to be found at Tassili n'Ajjer in southern Algeria, a site famous pyroglyphs (rock art) dating from the Neolithic era. Some painting dating from around 3000 BCE depict fair-skinned and blond or auburn haired women riding on cows. The oldest known R1b-V88 sample in Europe is a 6,200 year-old farmer/herder from Catalonia tested by Haak et al. (2015). Autosomally this individual was a typical Near Eastern farmer, possessing just a little bit of Mesolithic West European admixture.
  118. Spread of horse, wheel, carts, chariots, cattle
  120. Y dna q spread from Central Asia to Middle East, India and North America related to links between Caucasian(q1a/b) & hattic(q1b1), dene-Yeniseian (q1a), and burushaki languages(q1b2). (Consider whether spread into Middle East was from Indo Iranians; also consider spread of y dna R2; consider link to Malta R* boy and Indo-Uralic)
  122. As for the circumstances, I have explained that pretty well I think - it follows the spread of copper metallurgy and warlike elites. The first copper metallurgy in Western Europe is from Los Millares, which was organised based on caste and often at war with surrounding tribes. Of note too, is that copper metallurgy definitely did not enter SE Spain (the area of Los Millares) from a continental route, as Southern Spain received copper significantly earlier than e.g. Northern Spain. Thus, copper metallurgy necessarily must have made its way to Los Millares across the Mediterranean (the only other alternative being an origin from North Africa, however that seems unlikely as copper metallurgy only existed in the Maghreb much later). And as far as I'm aware without exception, the spread of metallurgy always involves the spread of people, but in any case it is still usually the case, so we have a new people arriving from across the Mediterranean (and as quick evidence of this, Los Millares imported goods from the Middle East and the elites buried themselves in tholoi (West Asian in origin)). The further connections with anthropomorphic stelae, the phylogeny point mentioned, the lack of L51 in Steppe cultures, the fact that L21 and DF27 cannot be clearly associated to any IE language, and the fact that the cultural profile of Los Millares matches what we know of the Beaker folk (warlike, metallurgical elites that readily appropriate pre-existing communities they come across) all add to the theory.
  126. Not because I saw this beforehand, look where the arrow across the Mediterranean (indicating Beaker origins) traces back to - exactly the region I labelled in my map as L23's Urheimat, and exactly the same region where Leyla-Tepe in the Caucasus was thought to be founded from (i.e. from Eastern Anatolia to Leyla Tepe bringing copper metallurgy - another non-coincidence, Leyla-Tepe had the first metallurgy in the Caucasus). If I haven't made it clear, I'm talking about the arrow that enters Cyprus.
  129. This isn't about the overall diversity of L51, it's just about looking at the distribution of the very oldest mutations (well well before the great Beaker migrations, so presumably dating to L51's Urheimat). Genetic drift is a definite possibility of course, but I would counter by saying during the Beaker migrations the population was large and growing (I think at least, from looking at the phylogeny and the fact that e.g. in Britain 90% population replacement occurred), which would make genetic drift causing such a distribution as below unlikely (R-Z2118, the joint-oldest mutation from L51 dating to the early 4th millenium BC):
  132. It's for the same reason (large population) that looking at maps of e.g. Y DNA U106, L21 or U152 actually tell us something, rather than invalidating all of these maps due to the possibility of the distribution just being caused by genetic drift.
  134. If, however, the Beaker population was small during the migrations and only began to grow after "settling down", then genetic drift becomes a real possibility (I still think, though, that the distribution over the large area around Southern France and contrasting absence thereof in places like Britain is too marked to be likely caused by drift, as genetic drift is just a matter of "luck" after all). But I doubt the Beaker population was small and at the same time replaced so many populations in such a short period of time.
  136. On top of this, there is the fact that this point doesn't just stand in isolation - it corroborates with many other points in my hypothesis too (e.g. the large presence of stelae in Southern France and surrounding regions around the West Med., the fact that copper spread to Los Millares from across the Med., the fact that the expansion of Beaker pottery took place from the SW of Europe, the fact that Los Millares is the oldest Western European culture to closely match the cultural traits of the Beaker metallurgical warlike elite folk etc.) So, I think at least, it's unlikely to have come from Eastern Europe. I certainly can't think of a culture to associate it with if it isn't Yamnaya or Corded Ware.
  138. And about the idea that it's unlikely that L51 and Z2103 could have their Urheimats so far apart despite being sibling subclades under L23, to me it's fine, as for example by the Beaker period of expansion their common ancestor with the Yamnaya men would have been 2000 years in the past. That is plenty of time for one branch of an originally Syro-Anatolian L23 to migrate to the Caucasian Leyla-Tepe (and then to the Steppe, maybe via Maykop), and for another branch of this L23 to migrate across the Mediterranean until hitting South-Eastern Spain. Even if we decide not to associate this with R1b-L23+, the spread of copper metallurgy certainly follows such paths as described, so it isn't unreasonable at all. I mean, Z2103 made it all the way to China during early Yamnaya lol, that distance is far greater than island-hopping across the Mediterranean
  140. Dialect continuum between indo-iranian, balto-slavic and germanic
  142. Look at corded ware weapons compared to Yamnaya and Middle East (coon)
  144. Hurro urartian a migration of NE Caucasians to Armenia to Middle East
  146. R1b-L23 initially dispersed as smiths & traders who travelled alone and married local women in each region.
  148. This is why they acquired autosomal DNA of other groups.
  150. iberian ie and non-ie similar despite different languages
  152. sea peoples u152
  154. illyrian related to italo-celtic? same z2103 yamnaya community, perhaps illyrian was the branch of danube yamnaya that become vucedol (likely)
  156. Seima-Turbino n1c
  158. r1a l664 elite ruling over globular amphora
  160. dnieper donets 1 i2a2 WHG from ukraine related to globular amphora increase WHG associated with i2a2? dnieper donets 2 ehg later sredny stog steppe r1a m417 +meshoko proto-corded ware? farmer ancestry I3719 dereivka dnieper donets 2 relevant to globular or to corded? relations of this all to cucuteni tripolye and suvorovo? sredny tripolye GAC transition spread of CW
  162. interaction between steppe and cucuteni mentioned related to m269 in ukraine following copper metallurgy theory?
  164. palmela portugal like los millares copper metallurgy, no coincidence its right next to beaker hypothetical origin and vila nova de san pedro
  166. what was difference between vinca and preceding starcevo?
  168. hamangia culture stelae? clay figurines like ubaid (and like cucuteni etc.) about hamangia: “Its cultural links with Anatolia suggest that it was the result of a settlement by people from Anatolia, unlike the neighbouring cultures, which appear descended from earlier Neolithic settlement”
  170. dudesti culture origin of both hamangia and boian, apparently originated in anatolia (catal huyuk, hacilar)? boain + hamangia apparently formed cucuteni (or karanovo??) links to varna later on
  172. remember to always look for geometric swastika like signs in pottery (e.g. hacilar halaf samarra balkans etc) same link to figurines
  174. durankulak we see the snake people!
  176. hamangia had copper?
  178. hamangia apparently different to neighbouring cultures (see wiki)
  180. catal huyuk (huyuk=tumulus!!!)
  182. swastika motif appears in catalhoyuk too
  184. kamyana mohyla
  186. iron gates and anatolia pre-farmer link
  188. hacilar similarities with halaf, figurines again
  190. pottery red painting (yamnaya too?)
  192. hacilar is chalcolithic anatolia link between balkans and halaf!
  194. snake people olympus mons
  196. about hacilar: “The settlement of level I, dating after 5000 BC, differs significantly from the previous layers, so it is believed that there were newcomers who settled here. The site is now heavily fortified. The pottery is of high quality and is generally painted in red on a cream background.”
  198. but probably wrong dating as:
  200. “The upper occupation levels at Hacilar are referred to as “early chalcolithic” and date to about 5400 to 5000 B.C. The architectural and arti- factual yields are considerable and the quantity and quality of the painted pottery is of special importance. During the later part of this period the community seems to have been arranged into a fortress with a massive exterior wall. After about 5000 B.C. Hacilar was abandoned and never re- occupied. “
  202. Danubian and Linear A script identical!
  204. links between PIE and old testament
  206. boars? spondylus hamangia vinca khyvalynsk
  208. hacilar pottery similar to cucuteni etc.
  210. kosk hoyuk hacilar catal huyuk similarities around 5300-5000 bc
  212. catal huyuk controversy
  214. catal huyuk swastika legit?
  216. bottleneck between r1b p297 and m269
  218. i2a2(a1b) link between sredny stog and GAC
  220. kura-araxes linked to indus valley (and minoan)
  222. ehg in armenia chl
  224. WOW: beaker I1388 (gedmatch T122731) from southern france 2300BC has L151, clusters near Basques (so a farmer, not steppe), and HAS NO ANE SO NO STEPPE!
  226. vucedol z2103 and bell beaker z2103 has most yamnaya signs that yamnaya west was z2103 too, as well as trail of z2103 through danube in modern times
  228. Gordon Childe interpreted the presence of its characteristic artefact as the intrusion of "missionaries" expanding from Iberia along the Atlantic coast, spreading knowledge of copper metallurgy. Stephen Shennan interpreted the artefacts as belonging to a mobile cultural elite imposing itself over the indigenous substrate populations. Similarly, Sangmeister (1972) interpreted the "Beaker folk" (Glockenbecherleute) as small groups of highly mobile traders and artisans.
  230. e.g. hacilar, castro vila nova etc., earlier phase (no r1b) unfortified, then comes fortifications and metallurgy
  232. malta oldest megaliths, also oldest triskelion, reinforces r1b v88 connection
  234. consider spread of megaliths
  236. shaft hole axe single burial corded pottery and horses and wagons are signs of CW
  238. rhine to loire exchange networks grand pressingny flint trade
  240. brachycephalic beaker folk become more dolichocephalic as they migrated east to places like e.g. hungary, from mixing with e.g. hungarian yamnaya
  242. is it perhaps possible that the similarities between beaker pottery in the single grave culture (and also the similarities in iberia) are because of an early departure of U106 to the area of the single grave culture? that would explain why beaker-like pottery was there so early (and also the fact that u106 departed phylogenetically from p312 early, and that germanic is from corded ware). grimm’s law in germanic from funnelbeaker influences
  244. in case it needs mentioning, northern bell beakers (single grave culture) u106, p312 upper rhineland (maybe rhone), l21 goes up rhine and into britain (as per coon), u152 goes east, df27 refluxes back to iberia. volkerwanderung similarity
  246. single grave culture mainly had influences to its SE (so from denmark to poland roughly along the baltic), explains u106 in unetice (which would be u152)
  248. revise los millares to vnsp. l23 travels from northern middle east to southern iberia and past gibraltar, colonising southern iberia in general (rather than just se iberia and a spread overland). anthropomorphic stelae in western iberia and not so much in se, very few bell beakers in los millares and of much later date compared to loads in VNSP in portugal. spread then from vnsp in tagus estuary north to castro of zambujal then through douro and then ebro river to barcelona (where the stelae appear, but not in se iberia so cant have spread from there), before travelling along coast from barcelona to southern france to rhône then same story. also l21 went from rhine to britanny.
  250. for remedello, perhaps it went as follow: southern france to one branch up rhone, another to remedello. then, both converge on upper rhine (rhone through rhone-rhine, remedello through brenner pass) that explains why l51* distribution is heavily in norhtern italy as well as main centre in southern france, but also why there wasnt a big phylogenetic split from a potential splitting of one branch up rhone and another to remedello
  252. y dna z2103 picked up by u152 (as in hungary, as well as italo-celtic), explains why theres comparatively a lot of z2103 in northern italy (route from hungary to italy = italic)
  254. remedello i (3300-2800) normal megalithic, remedello ii (2900-2400) intrusion of l51 beaker folk
  256. dolmens: Most date from the early Neolithic (4000–3000 BC) and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. use as tumulus mirrors kurgan perhaps, sign of pre-beaker folk?
  258. basques on jentil: “The giants were believed to have created the neolithic monuments, such as dolmens, found around the Basque Country.
  259. They also were said to have invented metallurgy and the saw and first grew wheat, teaching humans to farm. However, they were unwilling to move to the valleys from the mountains, with a certain unwillingness to progress.”
  261. this farmer l151 southern french sample cant be a result of dilution of steppe BBs with farmers, as his WHG is way too high. it instead looks like a dilution of WHG with EEF/ANF
  265. mtdna u5a the beaker mtdna compared to mtdna h native megalithic with y dna i2 (paper by roth says not related to corded ware or central euro bell beakers)
  267. tepe Gawra bell shaped bowls
  269. eye idols (in los millares) found across middle east e.g. tell brak
  271. In 1996, Catherine Bréniquet suggested dividing the idols into three types. Type 1, from Tell Brak, known as "eye idols," covers all the small engraved alabaster plaques evoking the upper part of a human body with the face reduced to the eyes and sometimes adorned with jewelry and headdresses. Type 2, the "large idols with spectacles," covers quite large bell- or trumpet-shaped pottery objects with a neck supporting two perforated circles. 
  273. I5757 buried in a dolmen
  275. The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A southern move led to the Mediterranean where 'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southern France around the Golfe du Lion and into the Po Valley in Italy, probably via ancient western Alpine trade routes used to distribute jadeite axes. A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica. The enclave established in southern Brittany was linked closely to the riverine and landward route, via the Loire, and across the Gâtinais Valley to the Seine Valley, and thence to the lower Rhine. This was a long-established route reflected in early stone axe distributions, and via this network, Maritime Bell Beakers first reached the Lower Rhine in about 2600 BCE.[4][18]
  277. ^^ so perhaps route to rhine was from britanny??? or is it rhine to britanny (much better for my hypothesis, fits with y dna l21 perhaps). perhaps related to movement to single grave culture? (like litorid migration map around atlantic)
  279. From the Carpathian Basin, Bell Beaker spread down the Rhine and eastwards into what is now Germany and Poland. By this, the Rhine was on the western edge of the vast Corded Ware zone. 
  281. ^^ so hungary then bell beaker east, consistent with celtic-italic split
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