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  1. resents the speaker's empathetic feeling towards an event / state expressed in the nominalized noun phrase / clause; the latter represents the speaker's relatively anti-empathetic feeling towards an event / state. (=>no3; kenos
  2. Noun Phrase / Clause Particle Predicate Sentence Nominalizer El *ThnAV Nihongo o yomu 0 / z: e no I koto 11 W8 suv‘. muzukashii. (Reading Japanese is difficult.)
  3. The nominalized sentence can be used in any position where an ordinary noun or a noun phrase / clause can be used.
  4. Passive Sentence A sentence which describes an action by someone from the viewpoint of someone else who is affected by that action. (Cf. Active Sentence) (a) and (b) are passive sentences. (a) fkit Watashi wa Situ ni butareta. (I was beaten by Bill.) (b) tnISIIRTI:tiLt‘ittc. Taro wa Akiko ni nakareta. (Lit. Taro was annoyed by the fact that Akiko cried. (=Taro was an-noyed by Akiko's crying.))
  5. Potential Form A verb form that expresses competence in the sense of ' can do s.t.' The formation is as follows: Gr. I Verbs Vcond+ 6 e.g. 3A it c a n talk' 0,1 hanase-ru Cr. 2 Verbs Vstem+ 646 e.g. it -46/16 'can eat' rareru tabe•rareru
  6. Vstem+fl e.g. 'can eat' reru Labe-reru
  7. Irr. Verbs *6 'can come' kuru korareru Ah6 koreru
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