- Oxidation Numbers
- do not have exact physical meaning
- useful for naming compounds, writing formulas, and balancing chem equations
- Assigning Oxidation Numbers
- Shared electrons are assumed to belong to the more electronegative atom.
- 1. Pure elements have oxidation number of 0
- Na, O2, P4, S8
- 2. More electronegative in a binary m-compound is assigned number equal to negative charge
- it would have as ion. less electro is assigned number equal to positive charge as a cation.
- 3. F has oxidation number of -1 in all compounds
- 4. O has o# of -2 in almost all compounds
- exceptions: peroxides (H2O2, O2, o# is -1), compounds with F (OF2, o# is +2)
- 5. H has +1 in all compounds with more electronegative elements. Has -1 in compounds with
- 6. Sum of oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero
- 7. Sum of o# of all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to charge of ion
- 8. Oxidation numbers can also be assigned to atoms in ionic compounds
- 9. Monatomic ion has o# equal to charge of the ion
- Na+ has oxidation number of +1
- Can be used to determine possible compounds but do not prove existence of such compounds/
- +4 and +6 oxidation states of sulfur --> possible SO2 and SO3 compounds
- Stock System (use of roman numerals in nomenclature) is based on oxidation states. It is
- more practical for complicated compounds than prefix-based names.
- phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus(III) chloride
- dinitrogen monoxide, nitrogen(I) oxide
- nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen(II) oxide
- lead dioxide, lead(IV) oxide
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