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  1. Oxidation Numbers
  2.  
  3. do not have exact physical meaning
  4. useful for naming compounds, writing formulas, and balancing chem equations
  5.  
  6.  
  7. Assigning Oxidation Numbers
  8.         Shared electrons are assumed to belong to the more electronegative atom.
  9.  
  10.         1. Pure elements have oxidation number of 0
  11.                 Na, O2, P4, S8
  12.         2. More electronegative in a binary m-compound is assigned number equal to negative charge
  13.  
  14. it would have as ion. less electro is assigned number equal to positive charge as a cation.
  15.         3. F has oxidation number of -1 in all compounds
  16.         4. O has o# of -2 in almost all compounds
  17.                 exceptions: peroxides (H2O2, O2, o# is -1), compounds with F (OF2, o# is +2)
  18.         5. H has +1 in all compounds with more electronegative elements. Has -1 in compounds with
  19.  
  20. metals
  21.         6. Sum of oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero
  22.         7. Sum of o# of all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to charge of ion
  23.         8. Oxidation numbers can also be assigned to atoms in ionic compounds
  24.         9. Monatomic ion has o# equal to charge of the ion
  25.                 Na+ has oxidation number of +1
  26.  
  27.         Can be used to determine possible compounds but do not prove existence of such compounds/
  28.         +4 and +6 oxidation states of sulfur --> possible SO2 and SO3 compounds
  29.  
  30.         Stock System (use of roman numerals in nomenclature) is based on oxidation states. It is
  31.  
  32. more practical for complicated compounds than prefix-based names.
  33.  
  34.         PCl3
  35.                 phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus(III) chloride
  36.         N2O
  37.                 dinitrogen monoxide, nitrogen(I) oxide
  38.         NO
  39.                 nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen(II) oxide
  40.         PbO2
  41.                 lead dioxide, lead(IV) oxide
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