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# Untitled

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1. \documentclass{article}
2. \title{The Nature of Thought}
3. \author{Matthew Brace}
4.
5. \begin{document}
6. \maketitle
7. \tableofcontents
8.
9. \section{Introduction}
10. Many philosphers, scientists, students and doctors have spent
11. countless hours, months and years working to divine the true nature of
12. thought.  While there has been growth and learning, we still have very
13. little understanding of how and why we think.  I will not be solving
14. the mystery, nor will I be providing any radical new insight.
15. Instead, I will explore the most basic interactions that can be
16. considered thought and present a system to model them within a
17. programmable computer.
18. \subsection{Purpose}
19. There are numerous artifical intelligence systems today, from the
20. very specific to as generic as possible.  This is not a way to replace
21. them.  What is explored here is a base system for providing learned
22. behavior from external stimuli.  While overly broad for traditional
23. machine learning applications, and perhaps any directly beneficial
24. uses of artificial intelligence, it should provide a sound basis to
25. begin exploration into developing a system capable of higher level thinking.
26. \subsection{Goals}
27. At conclusion, we will have fully detailed a system capable of
28. mimicking traditional learned behaviors.  It should be sufficiently
29. generic that any task that can be learned through input, response and
30. feedback can be implemented using this system.  It should require the
31. minimum definition of input, output and measurable values to produce a
32. viable system for use.
33. \subsection{Learned behaviors}
34. The focus of this paper is on simulating learned behaviors.  The
35. capability to apply previous results to subsequent situations is a key
36. component of forming higher level thought.  Additionally, it has the
37. most direct applicable benefits for common uses of artificial
38. intelligence today.
39. \subsection{Foundation for AI systems}
40. The system covered is designed to be usable once completed.  It will
41. not fulfill the hopes and dreams of a strong Artificial Intelligence,
42. capable of unbounded learning.  Instead, it forms the necessary base
43. to allow advancement in other areas of simulated thought.
44.
45. \section{Instinct As A Base}
46. According to Merriam-Webster, instinct is defined as
47. \begin{quote}
48. 1 : a natural or inherent aptitude, impulse, or capacity had an
49. instinct for the right word''
50.
51. 2 a : a largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an organism to
52. make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli without
53. involving reason
54.
55. 2 b : behavior that is mediated by reactions below the
56. conscious level
57. \end{quote}
58. For our purposes, definition 2a is the most suitable and is what I
59. will use when referring to instinct.  It is the responses to stimuli
60. that we contain at birth.  It is the responses that are exhibited even
61. if the stimulus had never been encountered before.  It is the
62. recognition that hunger relates to the need to feed, thirst is a need
63. to drink and pain is injury to the body.
64. \subsection{What is instinct?}
65. From this definition of instinct, the actions of an organism are
66. guided by the responses their local system has to stimuli.  It is a
67. physiological response to stimuli.  As an unlearned, untrained and
68. innate reaction, instinct could be qualified as a physiological
69. response.  However, as can be seen in humans, instinct can be
70. overridden by conscious thought.  Religious fasting is one such
71. example of using conscious thought to perform actions counter to
72. instinct.  This means that the reaction is not one of specific action,
73. merely overwhelming desire to perform a specific action.  I will not
74. explore the mechanism by which instinct works within organisms.  I
75. will make an assumption that instincs exist for the purposes of
76. survival of the organism and survival of the organism's species.
77. \subsection{Instinct as a preprogrammed response}
78. When something is said to act on instinct, it is an immediate response
79. that has no signs of conscious thought.  A short-circuit'' response
80. that requires significant effort to not follow.  It provides the base
81. reactions to stimuli that affect the continued existence of the
82. organism and it's species.  Due to the way in which instinct
83. functions, it appears to not be based on some form of intelligence.
84. If you place your hand on a hot stove, immediately you will move your
85. hand away without the appearance of any decisions.  Without instinct
86. to remove your hand from the source of pain, the process would be
87. fast but not nearly as immediate.  Instinct, then, is simply a special
88. case of thought, one with immediate responses.
89. \subsection{Other behaviors built off of instinct}
90. An organism's first experiences are based only on instinct.  If the
91. system is to be unique to each organism, and the experiences of the
92. organism define the system, there must be a base bare-bones'' system
93. that each organism begins with.  This is the framework for all learned
94. behaviors.  With instinct as this base system, it helps elucidate why
95. it is a special case of thought and why each organism within a species
96. appears to have the same instincts.
97. \subsection{Learned behaviors are a result of stimuli}
98. With instinct as merely a special case in thought process, we can
99. naively assume that all thought derives from stimuli.  This is
100. obviously a naive assumption since we are capable of thought
101. independent of stimuli.  However, as a defining, base system, this
102. assumption allows us to accurately model learned behaviors.  Further
103. systems that work in concert with the stimuli, analyze, response
104. system would provide the higher level thought.
105. \section{Thought as analysis of memories}
106. \subsection{Actions determined by previous similar experiences}
107. \subsection{Previous experience retained as memories}
108. \subsection{Each memory includes the thought process}
109. \section{Memories as a weighted graph}
110. \subsection{Memories all contain similar components}
111. \subsection{Stimuli can evoke a memory by familiarity}
112. \subsection{Weighting on edges relates the similarity}
113. \section{Traversing the weighted graph as analysis}
114. \subsection{Entry point}
115. \subsection{Edge determination}
116. \subsection{Nodes saved for processing}
117. \subsection{Processing the nodes}
118. \section{Disambiguation of potential actions}
119. \subsection{Rank against current stimulus}
120. \subsubsection{Similarity}
121. \subsubsection{Favorableness of outcome}
122. \subsection{Highest rank action is executed}
123. \subsection{If there's a tie, select most recent}
124. \section{Memory summarization and memory exclusion}
125. \subsection{Summarization based on similarity}
126. \subsubsection{Creatures don't traverse every memory naturally}
127. \subsubsection{Near-perfect matches reinforce actions}
128. \subsubsection{Near-perfect matches should be deduplicated}
129. \subsubsection{Weighting for deduplicated nodes represent the number summarized}
130. \subsection{Memory exclusion}
131. \subsubsection{Nothing ever truly forgotten}
132. \subsubsection{Use relative threshold of similarity to not follow an edge}
133. \section{System Stimuli}
134. \subsection{Categories of input types}
135. \subsection{Each input is distinct}
136. \subsection{Each stimulus can have different expressive values}
137. \subsection{Each stimulus has a preprogrammed reaction}
138. \subsection{Preprogrammed reactions are strong weighted memories}
139. \subsection{Actions for desirable, undesirable and indifferent qualities of stimulus}
140. \section{System Responses}
141. \subsection{Methods of response preprogrammed}
142. \subsection{Each method of response is a function of the input}
143. \subsection{Methods of response can use any output path}
144. \subsection{Once response is sent, immediate outcome is measured}
145. \section{Arbitrary valuation of outcome}
146. \subsection{Must rank outcome for analysis to have meaning}
147. \subsection{Ranking determines behavior}
148. \subsection{Needs/wants can be programmed}
149. \subsection{Un-needs'' (conditions to avoid) can be programmed}
150. \subsection{To truly approximate organic thought, likes/dislikes must be mutable}
151. \end{document}