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The Mind Has No Firewall by TIMOTHY L. THOMAS

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  1.  
  2. The Mind Has No Firewall by
  3. TIMOTHY L. THOMAS
  4.  
  5. From Parameters, Spring 1998, pp. 84-92.
  6.  
  7. "It is completely clear that the state which is first
  8.  
  9. to create such weapons will achieve incomparable
  10.  
  11. superiority." -- Major I. Chernishev, Russian army
  12.  
  13. [1]
  14.  
  15. The human body, much like a computer, contains
  16.  
  17. myriad data processors. They include, but are not
  18.  
  19. limited to, the chemical-electrical activity of the
  20.  
  21. brain, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the
  22.  
  23. signals sent from the cortex region of the brain to
  24.  
  25. other parts of our body, the tiny hair cells in the
  26.  
  27. inner ear that process auditory signals, and the
  28.  
  29. light-sensitive retina and cornea of the eye that
  30.  
  31. process visual activity.[2] We are on the threshold
  32.  
  33. of an era in which these data processors of the
  34.  
  35. human body may be manipulated or debilitated.
  36.  
  37. Examples of unplanned attacks on the body's
  38.  
  39. data-processing capability are well-documented.
  40.  
  41. Strobe lights have been known to cause epileptic
  42.  
  43. seizures. Not long ago in Japan, children watching
  44.  
  45. television cartoons were subjected to pulsating
  46.  
  47. lights that caused seizures in some and made
  48.  
  49. others very sick.
  50.  
  51. Defending friendly and targeting adversary
  52.  
  53. data-processing capabilities of the body appears
  54.  
  55. to be an area of weakness in the US approach to
  56.  
  57. information warfare theory, a theory oriented
  58.  
  59. heavily toward systems data-processing and
  60.  
  61. designed to attain information dominance on the
  62.  
  63. battlefield. Or so it would appear from information
  64.  
  65. in the open, unclassified press. This US
  66.  
  67. shortcoming may be a serious one, since the
  68.  
  69. capabilities to alter the data- processing systems
  70.  
  71. of the body already exist. A recent edition of U.S.
  72.  
  73. News and World Report highlighted several of
  74.  
  75. these "wonder weapons" (acoustics, microwaves,
  76.  
  77. lasers) and noted that scientists are "searching the
  78.  
  79. electromagnetic and sonic spectrums for
  80.  
  81. wavelengths that can affect human behavior."[3] A
  82.  
  83. recent Russian military article offered a slightly
  84.  
  85. different slant to the problem, declaring that
  86.  
  87. "humanity stands on the brink of a psychotronic
  88.  
  89. war" with the mind and body as the focus. That
  90.  
  91. article discussed Russian and international
  92.  
  93. attempts to control the psycho-physical condition
  94.  
  95. of man and his decisionmaking processes by the
  96.  
  97. use of VHF-generators, "noiseless cassettes," and
  98.  
  99. other technologies.
  100.  
  101. An entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on
  102.  
  103. devices designed to introduce subliminal
  104.  
  105. messages or to alter the body's psychological and
  106.  
  107. data-processing capabilities, might be used to
  108.  
  109. incapacitate individuals. These weapons aim to
  110.  
  111. control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various
  112.  
  113. sensory and data-processing systems of the
  114.  
  115. human organism. In both cases, the goal is to
  116.  
  117. confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep
  118.  
  119. the body in equilibrium.
  120.  
  121. This article examines energy-based weapons,
  122.  
  123. psychotronic weapons, and other developments
  124.  
  125. designed to alter the ability of the human body to
  126.  
  127. process stimuli. One consequence of this
  128.  
  129. assessment is that the way we commonly use the
  130.  
  131. term "information warfare" falls short when the
  132.  
  133. individual soldier, not his equipment, becomes
  134.  
  135. the target of attack.
  136.  
  137. Information Warfare Theory and the Data-
  138.  
  139. Processing Element of Humans
  140.  
  141. In the United States the common conception of
  142.  
  143. information warfare focuses primarily on the
  144.  
  145. capabilities of hardware systems such as
  146.  
  147. computers, satellites, and military equipment
  148.  
  149. which process data in its various forms. According
  150.  
  151. to Department of Defense Directive S-3600.1 of 9
  152.  
  153. December 1996, information warfare is defined as
  154.  
  155. "an information operation conducted during time
  156.  
  157. of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific
  158.  
  159. objectives over a specific adversary or
  160.  
  161. adversaries." An information operation is defined
  162.  
  163. in the same directive as "actions taken to affect
  164.  
  165. adversary information and information systems
  166.  
  167. while defending one's own information and
  168.  
  169. information systems." These "information systems"
  170.  
  171. lie at the heart of the modernization effort of the
  172.  
  173. US armed forces and other countries, and manifest
  174.  
  175. themselves as hardware, software,
  176.  
  177. communications capabilities, and highly trained
  178.  
  179. individuals. Recently, the US Army conducted a
  180.  
  181. mock battle that tested these systems under
  182.  
  183. simulated combat conditions.
  184.  
  185. US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, Operational Terms
  186.  
  187. and Graphics (released 30 September 1997),
  188.  
  189. defines information warfare as "actions taken to
  190.  
  191. achieve information superiority by affecting a
  192.  
  193. hostile's information, information based-
  194.  
  195. processes, and information systems, while
  196.  
  197. defending one's own information, information
  198.  
  199. processes, and information systems." The same
  200.  
  201. manual defines information operations as a
  202.  
  203. "continuous military operation within the military
  204.  
  205. information environment that enables, enhances,
  206.  
  207. and protects friendly forces' ability to collect,
  208.  
  209. process, and act on information to achieve an
  210.  
  211. advantage across the full range of military
  212.  
  213. operations. [Information operations include]
  214.  
  215. interacting with the Global Information
  216.  
  217. Environment . . . and exploiting or denying an
  218.  
  219. adversary's information and decision
  220.  
  221. capabilities."[4]
  222.  
  223. This "systems" approach to the study of
  224.  
  225. information warfare emphasizes the use of data,
  226.  
  227. referred to as information, to penetrate an
  228.  
  229. adversary's physical defenses that protect data
  230.  
  231. (information) in order to obtain operational or
  232.  
  233. strategic advantage. It has tended to ignore the
  234.  
  235. role of the human body as an information- or
  236.  
  237. data-processor in this quest for dominance except
  238.  
  239. in those cases where an individual's logic or
  240.  
  241. rational thought may be upset via disinformation
  242.  
  243. or deception. As a consequence little attention is
  244.  
  245. directed toward protecting the mind and body
  246.  
  247. with a firewall as we have done with hardware
  248.  
  249. systems. Nor have any techniques for doing so
  250.  
  251. been prescribed. Yet the body is capable not only
  252.  
  253. of being deceived, manipulated, or misinformed
  254.  
  255. but also shut down or destroyed--just as any other
  256.  
  257. data-processing system. The "data" the body
  258.  
  259. receives from external sources--such as
  260.  
  261. electromagnetic, vortex, or acoustic energy
  262.  
  263. waves--or creates through its own electrical or
  264.  
  265. chemical stimuli can be manipulated or changed
  266.  
  267. just as the data (information) in any hardware
  268.  
  269. system can be altered.
  270.  
  271. The only body-related information warfare
  272.  
  273. element considered by the United States is
  274.  
  275. psychological operations (PSYOP). In Joint
  276.  
  277. Publication 3-13.1, for example, PSYOP is listed as
  278.  
  279. one of the elements of command and control
  280.  
  281. warfare. The publication notes that "the ultimate
  282.  
  283. target of [information warfare] is the information
  284.  
  285. dependent process, whether human or automated
  286.  
  287. . . . . Command and control warfare (C2W) is an
  288.  
  289. application of information warfare in military
  290.  
  291. operations. . . . C2W is the integrated use of
  292.  
  293. PSYOP, military deception, operations security,
  294.  
  295. electronic warfare and physical destruction."[5]
  296.  
  297. One source defines information as a
  298.  
  299. "nonaccidental signal used as an input to a
  300.  
  301. computer or communications system."[6] The
  302.  
  303. human body is a complex communication system
  304.  
  305. constantly receiving nonaccidental and accidental
  306.  
  307. signal inputs, both external and internal. If the
  308.  
  309. ultimate target of information warfare is the
  310.  
  311. information-dependent process, "whether human
  312.  
  313. or automated," then the definition in the joint
  314.  
  315. publication implies that human data-processing of
  316.  
  317. internal and external signals can clearly be
  318.  
  319. considered an aspect of information warfare.
  320.  
  321. Foreign researchers have noted the link between
  322.  
  323. humans as data processors and the conduct of
  324.  
  325. information warfare. While some study only the
  326.  
  327. PSYOP link, others go beyond it. As an example of
  328.  
  329. the former, one recent Russian article described
  330.  
  331. offensive information warfare as designed to "use
  332.  
  333. the Internet channels for the purpose of
  334.  
  335. organizing PSYOP as well as for `early political
  336.  
  337. warning' of threats to American interests."[7] The
  338.  
  339. author's assertion was based on the fact that "all
  340.  
  341. mass media are used for PSYOP . . . [and] today
  342.  
  343. this must include the Internet." The author
  344.  
  345. asserted that the Pentagon wanted to use the
  346.  
  347. Internet to "reinforce psychological influences"
  348.  
  349. during special operations conducted outside of US
  350.  
  351. borders to enlist sympathizers, who would
  352.  
  353. accomplish many of the tasks previously entrusted
  354.  
  355. to special units of the US armed forces.
  356.  
  357. Others, however, look beyond simple PSYOP ties
  358.  
  359. to consider other aspects of the body's data-
  360.  
  361. processing capability. One of the principal open
  362.  
  363. source researchers on the relationship of
  364.  
  365. information warfare to the body's data-processing
  366.  
  367. capability is Russian Dr. Victor Solntsev of the
  368.  
  369. Baumann Technical Institute in Moscow. Solntsev
  370.  
  371. is a young, well-intentioned researcher striving to
  372.  
  373. point out to the world the potential dangers of the
  374.  
  375. computer operator interface. Supported by a
  376.  
  377. network of institutes and academies, Solntsev has
  378.  
  379. produced some interesting concepts.[8] He insists
  380.  
  381. that man must be viewed as an open system
  382.  
  383. instead of simply as an organism or closed
  384.  
  385. system. As an open system, man communicates
  386.  
  387. with his environment through information flows
  388.  
  389. and communications media. One's physical
  390.  
  391. environment, whether through electromagnetic,
  392.  
  393. gravitational, acoustic, or other effects, can cause
  394.  
  395. a change in the psycho-physiological condition of
  396.  
  397. an organism, in Solntsev's opinion. Change of this
  398.  
  399. sort could directly affect the mental state and
  400.  
  401. consciousness of a computer operator. This would
  402.  
  403. not be electronic war or information warfare in the
  404.  
  405. traditional sense, but rather in a nontraditional
  406.  
  407. and non-US sense. It might encompass, for
  408.  
  409. example, a computer modified to become a
  410.  
  411. weapon by using its energy output to emit
  412.  
  413. acoustics that debilitate the operator. It also might
  414.  
  415. encompass, as indicated below, futuristic
  416.  
  417. weapons aimed against man's "open system."
  418.  
  419. Solntsev also examined the problem of
  420.  
  421. "information noise," which creates a dense shield
  422.  
  423. between a person and external reality. This noise
  424.  
  425. may manifest itself in the form of signals,
  426.  
  427. messages, images, or other items of information.
  428.  
  429. The main target of this noise would be the
  430.  
  431. consciousness of a person or a group of people.
  432.  
  433. Behavior modification could be one objective of
  434.  
  435. information noise; another could be to upset an
  436.  
  437. individual's mental capacity to such an extent as to
  438.  
  439. prevent reaction to any stimulus. Solntsev
  440.  
  441. concludes that all levels of a person's psyche
  442.  
  443. (subconscious, conscious, and "superconscious")
  444.  
  445. are potential targets for destabilization.
  446.  
  447. According to Solntsev, one computer virus
  448.  
  449. capable of affecting a person's psyche is Russian
  450.  
  451. Virus 666. It manifests itself in every 25th frame of
  452.  
  453. a visual display, where it produces a combination
  454.  
  455. of colors that allegedly put computer operators
  456.  
  457. into a trance. The subconscious perception of the
  458.  
  459. new pattern eventually results in arrhythmia of the
  460.  
  461. heart. Other Russian computer specialists, not just
  462.  
  463. Solntsev, talk openly about this "25th frame effect"
  464.  
  465. and its ability to subtly manage a computer user's
  466.  
  467. perceptions. The purpose of this technique is to
  468.  
  469. inject a thought into the viewer's subconscious. It
  470.  
  471. may remind some of the subliminal advertising
  472.  
  473. controversy in the United States in the late 1950s.
  474.  
  475. US Views on "Wonder Weapons": Altering the
  476.  
  477. Data-Processing Ability of the Body
  478.  
  479. What technologies have been examined by the
  480.  
  481. United States that possess the potential to disrupt
  482.  
  483. the data-processing capabilities of the human
  484.  
  485. organism? The 7 July 1997 issue of U.S. News and
  486.  
  487. World Report described several of them
  488.  
  489. designed, among other things, to vibrate the
  490.  
  491. insides of humans, stun or nauseate them, put
  492.  
  493. them to sleep, heat them up, or knock them down
  494.  
  495. with a shock wave.[9] The technologies include
  496.  
  497. dazzling lasers that can force the pupils to close;
  498.  
  499. acoustic or sonic frequencies that cause the hair
  500.  
  501. cells in the inner ear to vibrate and cause motion
  502.  
  503. sickness, vertigo, and nausea, or frequencies that
  504.  
  505. resonate the internal organs causing pain and
  506.  
  507. spasms; and shock waves with the potential to
  508.  
  509. knock down humans or airplanes and which can
  510.  
  511. be mixed with pepper spray or chemicals.[10]
  512.  
  513. With modification, these technological
  514.  
  515. applications can have many uses. Acoustic
  516.  
  517. weapons, for example, could be adapted for use
  518.  
  519. as acoustic rifles or as acoustic fields that, once
  520.  
  521. established, might protect facilities, assist in
  522.  
  523. hostage rescues, control riots, or clear paths for
  524.  
  525. convoys. These waves, which can penetrate
  526.  
  527. buildings, offer a host of opportunities for military
  528.  
  529. and law enforcement officials. Microwave
  530.  
  531. weapons, by stimulating the peripheral nervous
  532.  
  533. system, can heat up the body, induce epileptic-
  534.  
  535. like seizures, or cause cardiac arrest. Low-
  536.  
  537. frequency radiation affects the electrical activity
  538.  
  539. of the brain and can cause flu-like symptoms and
  540.  
  541. nausea. Other projects sought to induce or
  542.  
  543. prevent sleep, or to affect the signal from the
  544.  
  545. motor cortex portion of the brain, overriding
  546.  
  547. voluntary muscle movements. The latter are
  548.  
  549. referred to as pulse wave weapons, and the
  550.  
  551. Russian government has reportedly bought over
  552.  
  553. 100,000 copies of the "Black Widow" version of
  554.  
  555. them.[11]
  556.  
  557. However, this view of "wonder weapons" was
  558.  
  559. contested by someone who should understand
  560.  
  561. them. Brigadier General Larry Dodgen, Deputy
  562.  
  563. Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Policy
  564.  
  565. and Missions, wrote a letter to the editor about the
  566.  
  567. "numerous inaccuracies" in the U.S. News and
  568.  
  569. World Report article that "misrepresent the
  570.  
  571. Department of Defense's views."[12] Dodgen's
  572.  
  573. primary complaint seemed to have been that the
  574.  
  575. magazine misrepresented the use of these
  576.  
  577. technologies and their value to the armed forces.
  578.  
  579. He also underscored the US intent to work within
  580.  
  581. the scope of any international treaty concerning
  582.  
  583. their application, as well as plans to abandon (or
  584.  
  585. at least redesign) any weapon for which
  586.  
  587. countermeasures are known. One is left with the
  588.  
  589. feeling, however, that research in this area is
  590.  
  591. intense. A concern not mentioned by Dodgen is
  592.  
  593. that other countries or non-state actors may not be
  594.  
  595. bound by the same constraints. It is hard to
  596.  
  597. imagine someone with a greater desire than
  598.  
  599. terrorists to get their hands on these technologies.
  600.  
  601. "Psycho-terrorism" could be the next buzzword.
  602.  
  603. Russian Views on "Psychotronic War"
  604.  
  605. The term "psycho-terrorism" was coined by
  606.  
  607. Russian writer N. Anisimov of the Moscow Anti-
  608.  
  609. Psychotronic Center. According to Anisimov,
  610.  
  611. psychotronic weapons are those that act to "take
  612.  
  613. away a part of the information which is stored in a
  614.  
  615. man's brain. It is sent to a computer, which
  616.  
  617. reworks it to the level needed for those who need
  618.  
  619. to control the man, and the modified information is
  620.  
  621. then reinserted into the brain." These weapons
  622.  
  623. are used against the mind to induce
  624.  
  625. hallucinations, sickness, mutations in human cells,
  626.  
  627. "zombification," or even death. Included in the
  628.  
  629. arsenal are VHF generators, X-rays, ultrasound,
  630.  
  631. and radio waves. Russian army Major I.
  632.  
  633. Chernishev, writing in the military journal
  634.  
  635. Orienteer in February 1997, asserted that "psy"
  636.  
  637. weapons are under development all over the
  638.  
  639. globe. Specific types of weapons noted by
  640.  
  641. Chernishev (not all of which have prototypes)
  642.  
  643. were:
  644.  
  645. A psychotronic generator, which produces a
  646.  
  647. powerful electromagnetic emanation capable of
  648.  
  649. being sent through telephone lines, TV, radio
  650.  
  651. networks, supply pipes, and incandescent lamps.
  652. An autonomous generator, a device that operates
  653.  
  654. in the 10-150 Hertz band, which at the 10-20 Hertz
  655.  
  656. band forms an infrasonic oscillation that is
  657.  
  658. destructive to all living creatures.
  659. A nervous system generator, designed to paralyze
  660.  
  661. the central nervous systems of insects, which
  662.  
  663. could have the same applicability to humans.
  664. Ultrasound emanations, which one institute claims
  665.  
  666. to have developed. Devices using ultrasound
  667.  
  668. emanations are supposedly capable of carrying
  669.  
  670. out bloodless internal operations without leaving
  671.  
  672. a mark on the skin. They can also, according to
  673.  
  674. Chernishev, be used to kill.
  675. Noiseless cassettes. Chernishev claims that the
  676.  
  677. Japanese have developed the ability to place
  678.  
  679. infra-low frequency voice patterns over music,
  680.  
  681. patterns that are detected by the subconscious.
  682.  
  683. Russians claim to be using similar
  684.  
  685. "bombardments" with computer programming to
  686.  
  687. treat alcoholism or smoking.
  688. The 25th-frame effect, alluded to above, a
  689.  
  690. technique wherein each 25th frame of a movie reel
  691.  
  692. or film footage contains a message that is picked
  693.  
  694. up by the subconscious. This technique, if it
  695.  
  696. works, could possibly be used to curb smoking
  697.  
  698. and alcoholism, but it has wider, more sinister
  699.  
  700. applications if used on a TV audience or a
  701.  
  702. computer operator.
  703. Psychotropics, defined as medical preparations
  704.  
  705. used to induce a trance, euphoria, or depression.
  706.  
  707. Referred to as "slow-acting mines," they could be
  708.  
  709. slipped into the food of a politician or into the
  710.  
  711. water supply of an entire city. Symptoms include
  712.  
  713. headaches, noises, voices or commands in the
  714.  
  715. brain, dizziness, pain in the abdominal cavities,
  716.  
  717. cardiac arrhythmia, or even the destruction of the
  718.  
  719. cardiovascular system.
  720. There is confirmation from US researchers that this
  721.  
  722. type of study is going on. Dr. Janet Morris,
  723.  
  724. coauthor of The Warrior's Edge, reportedly went
  725.  
  726. to the Moscow Institute of Psychocorrelations in
  727.  
  728. 1991. There she was shown a technique pioneered
  729.  
  730. by the Russian Department of Psycho-Correction
  731.  
  732. at Moscow Medical Academy in which researchers
  733.  
  734. electronically analyze the human mind in order to
  735.  
  736. influence it. They input subliminal command
  737.  
  738. messages, using key words transmitted in "white
  739.  
  740. noise" or music. Using an infra-sound, very low
  741.  
  742. frequency transmission, the acoustic psycho-
  743.  
  744. correction message is transmitted via bone
  745.  
  746. conduction.[13]
  747.  
  748. In summary, Chernishev noted that some of the
  749.  
  750. militarily significant aspects of the "psy"
  751.  
  752. weaponry deserve closer research, including the
  753.  
  754. following nontraditional methods for disrupting
  755.  
  756. the psyche of an individual:
  757.  
  758. ESP research: determining the properties and
  759.  
  760. condition of objects without ever making contact
  761.  
  762. with them and "reading" peoples' thoughts
  763. Clairvoyance research: observing objects that are
  764.  
  765. located just beyond the world of the visible--used
  766.  
  767. for intelligence purposes
  768. Telepathy research: transmitting thoughts over a
  769.  
  770. distance--used for covert operations
  771. Telekinesis research: actions involving the
  772.  
  773. manipulation of physical objects using thought
  774.  
  775. power, causing them to move or break apart--used
  776.  
  777. against command and control systems, or to
  778.  
  779. disrupt the functioning of weapons of mass
  780.  
  781. destruction
  782. Psychokinesis research: interfering with the
  783.  
  784. thoughts of individuals, on either the strategic or
  785.  
  786. tactical level
  787. While many US scientists undoubtedly question
  788.  
  789. this research, it receives strong support in
  790.  
  791. Moscow. The point to underscore is that
  792.  
  793. individuals in Russia (and other countries as well)
  794.  
  795. believe these means can be used to attack or steal
  796.  
  797. from the data-processing unit of the human body.
  798.  
  799. Solntsev's research, mentioned above, differs
  800.  
  801. slightly from that of Chernishev. For example,
  802.  
  803. Solntsev is more interested in hardware
  804.  
  805. capabilities, specifically the study of the
  806.  
  807. information-energy source associated with the
  808.  
  809. computer-operator interface. He stresses that if
  810.  
  811. these energy sources can be captured and
  812.  
  813. integrated into the modern computer, the result
  814.  
  815. will be a network worth more than "a simple sum
  816.  
  817. of its components." Other researchers are
  818.  
  819. studying high-frequency generators (those
  820.  
  821. designed to stun the psyche with high frequency
  822.  
  823. waves such as electromagnetic, acoustic, and
  824.  
  825. gravitational); the manipulation or reconstruction
  826.  
  827. of someone's thinking through planned measures
  828.  
  829. such as reflexive control processes; the use of
  830.  
  831. psychotronics, parapsychology, bioenergy, bio
  832.  
  833. fields, and psychoenergy;[14] and unspecified
  834.  
  835. "special operations" or anti-ESP training.
  836.  
  837. The last item is of particular interest. According to
  838.  
  839. a Russian TV broadcast, the strategic rocket forces
  840.  
  841. have begun anti-ESP training to ensure that no
  842.  
  843. outside force can take over command and control
  844.  
  845. functions of the force. That is, they are trying to
  846.  
  847. construct a firewall around the heads of the
  848.  
  849. operators.
  850.  
  851. Conclusions
  852.  
  853. At the end of July 1997, planners for Joint Warrior
  854.  
  855. Interoperability Demonstration '97 "focused on
  856.  
  857. technologies that enhance real-time collaborative
  858.  
  859. planning in a multinational task force of the type
  860.  
  861. used in Bosnia and in Operation Desert Storm. The
  862.  
  863. JWID '97 network, called the Coalition Wide-Area
  864.  
  865. Network (CWAN), is the first military network that
  866.  
  867. allows allied nations to participate as full and
  868.  
  869. equal partners."[15] The demonstration in effect
  870.  
  871. was a trade fair for private companies to
  872.  
  873. demonstrate their goods; defense ministries got to
  874.  
  875. decide where and how to spend their money
  876.  
  877. wiser, in many cases without incurring the cost of
  878.  
  879. prototypes. It is a good example of doing business
  880.  
  881. better with less. Technologies demonstrated
  882.  
  883. included:[16]
  884.  
  885. Soldiers using laptop computers to drag cross-
  886.  
  887. hairs over maps to call in airstrikes
  888. Soldiers carrying beepers and mobile phones
  889.  
  890. rather than guns
  891. Generals tracking movements of every unit,
  892.  
  893. counting the precise number of shells fired
  894.  
  895. around the globe, and inspecting real-time
  896.  
  897. damage inflicted on an enemy, all with
  898.  
  899. multicolored graphics[17]
  900. Every account of this exercise emphasized the
  901.  
  902. ability of systems to process data and provide
  903.  
  904. information feedback via the power invested in
  905.  
  906. their microprocessors. The ability to affect or
  907.  
  908. defend the data-processing capability of the
  909.  
  910. human operators of these systems was never
  911.  
  912. mentioned during the exercise; it has received
  913.  
  914. only slight attention during countless exercises
  915.  
  916. over the past several years. The time has come to
  917.  
  918. ask why we appear to be ignoring the operators of
  919.  
  920. our systems. Clearly the information operator,
  921.  
  922. exposed before a vast array of potentially
  923.  
  924. immobilizing weapons, is the weak spot in any
  925.  
  926. nation's military assets. There are few
  927.  
  928. international agreements protecting the individual
  929.  
  930. soldier, and these rely on the good will of the
  931.  
  932. combatants. Some nations, and terrorists of every
  933.  
  934. stripe, don't care about such agreements.
  935.  
  936. This article has used the term data-processing to
  937.  
  938. demonstrate its importance to ascertaining what
  939.  
  940. so-called information warfare and information
  941.  
  942. operations are all about. Data-processing is the
  943.  
  944. action this nation and others need to protect.
  945.  
  946. Information is nothing more than the output of this
  947.  
  948. activity. As a result, the emphasis on information-
  949.  
  950. related warfare terminology ("information
  951.  
  952. dominance," "information carousel") that has
  953.  
  954. proliferated for a decade does not seem to fit the
  955.  
  956. situation before us. In some cases the battle to
  957.  
  958. affect or protect data-processing elements pits
  959.  
  960. one mechanical system against another. In other
  961.  
  962. cases, mechanical systems may be confronted by
  963.  
  964. the human organism, or vice versa, since humans
  965.  
  966. can usually shut down any mechanical system with
  967.  
  968. the flip of a switch. In reality, the game is about
  969.  
  970. protecting or affecting signals, waves, and
  971.  
  972. impulses that can influence the data-processing
  973.  
  974. elements of systems, computers, or people. We
  975.  
  976. are potentially the biggest victims of information
  977.  
  978. warfare, because we have neglected to protect
  979.  
  980. ourselves.
  981.  
  982. Our obsession with a "system of systems,"
  983.  
  984. "information dominance," and other such
  985.  
  986. terminology is most likely a leading cause of our
  987.  
  988. neglect of the human factor in our theories of
  989.  
  990. information warfare. It is time to change our
  991.  
  992. terminology and our conceptual paradigm. Our
  993.  
  994. terminology is confusing us and sending us in
  995.  
  996. directions that deal primarily with the hardware,
  997.  
  998. software, and communications components of the
  999.  
  1000. data-processing spectrum. We need to spend
  1001.  
  1002. more time researching how to protect the humans
  1003.  
  1004. in our data management structures. Nothing in
  1005.  
  1006. those structures can be sustained if our operators
  1007.  
  1008. have been debilitated by potential adversaries or
  1009.  
  1010. terrorists who--right now--may be designing the
  1011.  
  1012. means to disrupt the human component of our
  1013.  
  1014. carefully constructed notion of a system of
  1015.  
  1016. systems.
  1017.  
  1018. NOTES
  1019.  
  1020. 1. I. Chernishev, "Can Rulers Make `Zombies' and
  1021.  
  1022. Control the World?" Orienteer, February 1997, pp.
  1023.  
  1024. 58-62.
  1025.  
  1026. 2. Douglas Pasternak, "Wonder Weapons," U.S.
  1027.  
  1028. News and World Report, 7 July 1997, pp. 38-46.
  1029.  
  1030. 3. Ibid., p. 38.
  1031.  
  1032. 4. FM 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, 30
  1033.  
  1034. September 1997, p. 1-82.
  1035.  
  1036. 5. Joint Pub 3-13.1, Joint Doctrine for Command
  1037.  
  1038. and Control Warfare (C2W), 7 February 1996, p. v.
  1039.  
  1040. 6. The American Heritage Dictionary (2d College
  1041.  
  1042. Ed.; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 660,
  1043.  
  1044. definition 4.
  1045.  
  1046. 7. Denis Snezhnyy, "Cybernetic Battlefield &
  1047.  
  1048. National Security," Nezavisimoye Voyennoye
  1049.  
  1050. Obozreniye, No. 10, 15-21 March 1997, p. 2.
  1051.  
  1052. 8. Victor I. Solntsev, "Information War and Some
  1053.  
  1054. Aspects of a Computer Operator's Defense," talk
  1055.  
  1056. given at an Infowar Conference in Washington,
  1057.  
  1058. D.C., September 1996, sponsored by the National
  1059.  
  1060. Computer Security Association. Information in this
  1061.  
  1062. section is based on notes from Dr. Solntsev's talk.
  1063.  
  1064. 9. Pasternak, p. 40.
  1065.  
  1066. 10. Ibid., pp. 40-46.
  1067.  
  1068. 11. Ibid.
  1069.  
  1070. 12. Larry Dodgen, "Nonlethal Weapons," U.S.
  1071.  
  1072. News and World Report, 4 August 1997, p. 5.
  1073.  
  1074. 13. "Background on the Aviary," Nexus Magazine,
  1075.  
  1076. downloaded from the Internet on 13 July 1997 from
  1077.  
  1078. www.execpc.com/vjentpr/nexusavi.html, p.7.
  1079.  
  1080. 14. Aleksandr Cherkasov, "The Front Where Shots
  1081.  
  1082. Aren't Fired," Orienteer, May 1995, p. 45. This
  1083.  
  1084. article was based on information in the foreign
  1085.  
  1086. and Russian press, according to the author,
  1087.  
  1088. making it impossible to pinpoint what his source
  1089.  
  1090. was for this reference.
  1091.  
  1092. 15. Bob Brewin, "DOD looks for IT `golden
  1093.  
  1094. nuggets,'" Federal Computer Week, 28 July 1997,
  1095.  
  1096. p. 31, as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4
  1097.  
  1098. August 1997, p. B 17.
  1099.  
  1100. 16. Oliver August, "Zap! Hard day at the office for
  1101.  
  1102. NATO's laptop warriors," The Times, 28 July 1997,
  1103.  
  1104. as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4 August
  1105.  
  1106. 1997, p. B 16.
  1107.  
  1108. 17. Ibid.
  1109.  
  1110. Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas (USA Ret.)
  1111.  
  1112. is an analyst at the Foreign Military Studies Office,
  1113.  
  1114. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Recently he has written
  1115.  
  1116. extensively on the Russian view of information
  1117.  
  1118. operations and on current Russian military-
  1119.  
  1120. political issues. During his military career he
  1121.  
  1122. served in the 82d Airborne Division and was the
  1123.  
  1124. Department Head of Soviet Military-Political
  1125.  
  1126. Affairs at the US Army's Russian Institute in
  1127.  
  1128. Garmisch, Germany.
  1129.  
  1130. Reviewed 25 February 1998. Please send
  1131.  
  1132. comments or corrections to
  1133.  
  1134. usarmy.carlisle.awc.mbx.parameters@mail.mil