SHARE
TWEET

CHRISTIANITY 1

TheZOG May 11th, 2014 (edited) 926 Never
Not a member of Pastebin yet? Sign Up, it unlocks many cool features!
  1. Ten Dangers Christianity Poses to the West
  2. http://jewishracism.blogspot.com/2013/02/ten-of-many-dangers-christianity-poses.html
  3.  
  4. Nietzsche and the Origins of Christianity, Part 1
  5. http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2010/01/nietzsche-and-the-origins-of-christianity/
  6.  
  7. Nietzsche and the Origins of Christianity, Part 2
  8. http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2010/01/nietzsche-and-the-origins-of-christianity-part-2/
  9.  
  10. Christianity
  11. http://www.heretical.com/oliver/js12.html
  12.  
  13. The Might of the West
  14. http://nationalvanguard.org/2010/10/the-might-of-the-west/
  15.  
  16. Reflections on the Christ Myth
  17. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/Reflections.html
  18.  
  19. By Their Fruits Ye Shall Know Them
  20. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/By_Their_Fruits.html
  21.  
  22. The Last Stand
  23. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/The_Last_Stand.html
  24.  
  25. The Lost Ten Tribes
  26. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/Lost_Ten_Tribes.html
  27.  
  28. New Hoaxes for Old
  29. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/news/1985/11/new-hoaxes-for-old/
  30.  
  31. The Businessmen of God
  32. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/Businessmen_of_God.html
  33.  
  34. How they Stole the Church
  35. http://www.revilo-oliver.com/rpo/church.htm
  36.  
  37. Christianity Examined
  38. http://www.solargeneral.com/library/christianity-examined-wayne-macleod.pdf
  39.  
  40. Christianity - By Stealth and Steel
  41. http://www.solargeneral.com/library/christianity-by-stealth-and-steel.pdf
  42.  
  43. Paul of Tarsus, or Christianity and Jewry
  44. http://www.solargeneral.com/library/paul-of-tarsus-or-christianity-and-jewry-savitri-devi-translated-r-g-fowler.pdf
  45.  
  46. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  47.  
  48. God-fearer
  49. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God-fearer
  50.  
  51. Gate Proselyte
  52. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gate_Proselytes
  53.  
  54. Hellenistic Judaism
  55. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenistic_Judaism
  56.  
  57. Second Temple Judaism
  58. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Temple_Judaism
  59.  
  60. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  61.  
  62. Jewish Christian
  63. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Christian
  64.  
  65. Jewish Christianity
  66. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Christianity
  67.  
  68. Origins of Christianity
  69. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origins_of_Christianity
  70.  
  71. Split of Early Christianity and Judaism
  72. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_of_early_Christianity_and_Judaism
  73.  
  74. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  75.  
  76. Paul and Judaism
  77. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus_and_Judaism
  78.  
  79. Peter and Judaism
  80. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Peter_and_Judaism
  81.  
  82. Jude
  83. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jude_%28brother_of_Jesus%29
  84.  
  85. James the Just
  86. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_the_Just
  87.  
  88. John the Baptist
  89. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_the_Baptist
  90.  
  91. Simeon of Jerusalem
  92. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simeon_of_Jerusalem
  93.  
  94. Early Jewish Christians
  95. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Early_Jewish_Christians
  96.  
  97. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  98.  
  99. Yeshua
  100. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeshua_%28name%29
  101.  
  102. Judaizers
  103. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaizers
  104.  
  105. Marcionism
  106. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcionism
  107.  
  108. Aramaic of Jesus
  109. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramaic_of_Jesus
  110.  
  111. Quartodecimanism
  112. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartodecimanism
  113.  
  114. Incident at Antioch
  115. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incident_at_Antioch
  116.  
  117. Council of Jerusalem
  118. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Jerusalem
  119.  
  120. Sabbath in Christianity
  121. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabbath_in_Christianity
  122.  
  123. Circumcision Controversy in Early Christianity
  124. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumcision_controversy_in_early_Christianity
  125.  
  126. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  127.  
  128. Essenes
  129. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essenes
  130.  
  131. Ebionites
  132. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebionites
  133.  
  134. Elcesaites
  135. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elcesaites
  136.  
  137. Nazarenes
  138. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazarene_%28sect%29
  139.  
  140. Jewish-Christian Gospels
  141. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish-Christian_gospels
  142.  
  143. Hebrew Gospel Hypothesis
  144. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Gospel_hypothesis
  145.  
  146. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  147.  
  148. Holy Land
  149. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Land
  150.  
  151. Old Testament
  152. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Testament
  153.  
  154. Books of the Bible
  155. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_books_of_Judeo-Christian_Scripture
  156.  
  157. Abrahamic Religions
  158. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions
  159.  
  160. God in Abrahamic Religions
  161. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God_in_Abrahamic_religions
  162.  
  163. Development of the Old Testament Canon
  164. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_of_the_Old_Testament_canon
  165.  
  166. Table of Prophets of Abrahamic Religions
  167. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_prophets_of_Abrahamic_religions
  168.  
  169. Names for Books of Judeo-Christian Scripture
  170. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_for_books_of_Judeo-Christian_scripture
  171.  
  172. Quotations from the Hebrew Bible in the New Testament
  173. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotations_from_the_Hebrew_Bible_in_the_New_Testament
  174.  
  175. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  176.  
  177. Christian–Jewish Reconciliation
  178. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian%E2%80%93Jewish_reconciliation
  179.  
  180. Relations between Catholicism and Judaism
  181. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Catholicism_and_Judaism
  182.  
  183. Relations between Protestantism and Judaism
  184. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Protestantism_and_Judaism
  185.  
  186. Relations between Eastern Orthodoxy and Judaism
  187. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Eastern_Orthodoxy_and_Judaism
  188.  
  189. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  190.  
  191. Judeo-Christian
  192. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judeo-Christian
  193.  
  194. Hebrew Catholics
  195. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Catholics
  196.  
  197. Messianic Judaism
  198. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messianic_Judaism
  199.  
  200. Sacred Name Movement
  201. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_Name_Movement
  202.  
  203. Hebrew Roots Movement
  204. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Roots
  205.  
  206. Hebrew Christian Movement
  207. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Christian_movement
  208.  
  209. Subbotniks
  210. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subbotniks
  211.  
  212. Mormonism and Judaism
  213. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mormonism_and_Judaism
  214.  
  215. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  216.  
  217. List of Messianic Jewish Organizations
  218. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Messianic_Jewish_organizations
  219.  
  220. Jews for Jesus
  221. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_for_Jesus
  222.  
  223. Council of Christians and Jews
  224. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Christians_and_Jews
  225.  
  226. Church's Ministry Among Jewish People
  227. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church%27s_Ministry_Among_Jewish_People
  228.  
  229. Christian Observances of Jewish Holidays
  230. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_observances_of_Jewish_holidays
  231.  
  232. International Council of Christians and Jews
  233. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Council_of_Christians_and_Jews
  234.  
  235. International Fellowship of Christians and Jews
  236. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Fellowship_of_Christians_and_Jews
  237.  
  238. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  239.  
  240. British Israelism
  241. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Israelism
  242.  
  243. Dutch Israelism
  244. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Israelism
  245.  
  246. French Israelism
  247. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Israelism
  248.  
  249. Nordic Israelism
  250. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordic_Israelism
  251.  
  252. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  253.  
  254. Christian Zionism
  255. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Zionism
  256.  
  257. Anglican Friends of Israel
  258. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglican_Friends_of_Israel
  259.  
  260. Christians United for Israel
  261. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christians_United_for_Israel
  262.  
  263. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  264.  
  265. Christians for Israel
  266. http://www.c4i.ca/
  267.  
  268. Christians for Israel
  269. http://christiansforisrael.net/
  270.  
  271. Christians United for Israel
  272. http://www.cufi.org/site/PageServer
  273.  
  274. Christian Action for Israel
  275. http://www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/
  276.  
  277. Christian Friends of Israel
  278. http://cfijerusalem.net/
  279.  
  280. Christians for Israel International
  281. http://www.c4israel.org/c4i/
  282.  
  283. Christians for Israel - Australia
  284. http://www.c4israel.com.au/
  285.  
  286. Christian Friends of Israel - UK
  287. http://www.cfi.org.uk/
  288.  
  289. CIPAC Online
  290. http://cipaconline.org/
  291.  
  292. Christians Standing with Israel
  293. http://christiansstandingwithisrael.blogspot.com/
  294.  
  295. Why Evangelical Christians Support Israel
  296. http://www.patrobertson.com/Speeches/IsraelLauder.asp
  297.  
  298. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  299.  
  300. Marrano
  301. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrano
  302.  
  303. Converso
  304. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Converso
  305.  
  306. New Christian
  307. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Christian
  308.  
  309. Crypto-Judaism
  310. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crypto-Jew
  311.  
  312. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  313.  
  314. Christians of Jewish Descent
  315. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Christians_of_Jewish_descent
  316.  
  317. Converts to Christianity from Judaism
  318. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Christianity_from_Judaism
  319.  
  320. Modern Converts to Christianity from Judaism
  321. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_converts_to_Christianity_from_Judaism
  322.  
  323. List of Converts to Christianity from Judaism
  324. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_converts_to_Christianity_from_Judaism
  325.  
  326. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  327.  
  328. Converts to Mormonism from Judaism
  329. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Mormonism_from_Judaism
  330.  
  331. Converts to Anglicanism from Judaism
  332. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Anglicanism_from_Judaism
  333.  
  334. Converts to Protestantism from Judaism
  335. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Protestantism_from_Judaism
  336.  
  337. Converts to Roman Catholicism from Judaism
  338. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Roman_Catholicism_from_Judaism
  339.  
  340. Converts to Eastern Orthodoxy from Judaism
  341. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Converts_to_Eastern_Orthodoxy_from_Judaism
  342.  
  343. Conversion of Jews to Catholicism During the Holocaust
  344. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_of_Jews_to_Catholicism_during_the_Holocaust
  345.  
  346. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  347.  
  348. Statements and Documents Pertinent to Jewish-Christian Relations
  349.  
  350. Jewish
  351. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/jewish
  352.  
  353. Catholic
  354. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/roman-catholic
  355.  
  356. Orthodox
  357. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/e-orthodox
  358.  
  359. Protestant
  360. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/protestant-churches
  361.  
  362. Ecumenical
  363. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/ecumenical-christian
  364.  
  365. Inter-religious
  366. http://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/documents-and-statements/interreligious
  367.  
  368. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  369.  
  370. New Testament Judaism
  371. http://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/robbins/pdf/NTJ.pdf
  372.  
  373. Is the New Testament Jewish?
  374. http://www.jewsforjesus.org/publications/issues/v10-n05/newtestament
  375.  
  376. The New Testament: A Pro-Jewish Book
  377. http://moriel.org/MorielArchive/index.php/discernment/israel/the-new-testament-a-pro-jewish-book
  378.  
  379. 'Jews,' 'Judeans,' and the Gospel of John
  380. http://www.tikkun.org/tikkundaily/2014/07/01/jews-judeans-and-the-gospel-of-john-a-response-to-adele-reinhartz/
  381.  
  382. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  383.  
  384. The Sermon on the Mount
  385. http://jdstone.org/cr/files/thesermononthemount.html
  386.  
  387. The Talmud and the Gospels
  388. http://www.jewsforjesus.org/publications/issues/v01-n02/talmud
  389.  
  390. The Gospels and the Talmud
  391. http://www.yashanet.com/studies/matstudy/mat3a.htm
  392.  
  393. Oral Tradition in the New Testament
  394. http://www.ewtn.com/library/ANSWERS/ORALTRAD.htm
  395.  
  396. Talmudic Parallels to New Testament Teachings
  397. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/rio/rio10.htm
  398.  
  399. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewishness of the Gospels
  400. http://www.craigaevans.com/Scrolls_Gospels.pdf
  401.  
  402. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  403.  
  404. Holy Prepuce
  405. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Prepuce
  406.  
  407. Circumcision of Jesus
  408. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumcision_of_Jesus
  409.  
  410. Feast of the Circumcision of Christ
  411. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feast_of_the_Circumcision_of_Christ
  412.  
  413. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  414.  
  415. Jesus was a Jew
  416. http://jesusisajew.org/Jesus_is_a_Jew.php
  417.  
  418. Saint Paul was a Jew
  419. http://jesusisajew.org/Saint_Paul_was_a_Jew.php
  420.  
  421. Why Jesus was a Zionist
  422. http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2013/12/why_jesus_was_a_zionist.html
  423.  
  424. How 'Yeshua' became 'Jesus'
  425. http://jesusisajew.org/YESHUA.php
  426.  
  427. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  428.  
  429. Hillel and Jesus
  430. http://ljohns.ambs.edu/Hillel&Jesus.htm#1
  431.  
  432. Jesus the Hillelite Jew
  433. http://www.moshereiss.org/christianity/03_hillel/03_hillel.htm
  434.  
  435. Was Jesus a Hillelite Pharisee?
  436. http://www.british-israel.us/11.html
  437.  
  438. Jesus, the Oral Torah, and the Talmud
  439. http://www.yashanet.com/library/articles/yeshua.htm
  440.  
  441. Historical Reality Concerning what Jesus and his Followers Believed
  442. http://www.yashanet.com/library/under7.htm
  443.  
  444. Jesus Through Jewish Eyes: A Rabbi Examines the Life and Teachings of Jesus
  445. http://www.menorahministries.com/Scriptorium/JesusThruJewishEyes.htm
  446.  
  447. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  448.  
  449. Jesus and the Zealots: A Study of the Political Factor in Primitive Christianity
  450. http://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Zealots-Political-Primitive-Christianity/dp/068413361X/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1430154771&sr=1-1&keywords=jesus+and+the+zealots
  451.  
  452. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  453.  
  454. Jesus the Terrorist
  455. http://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Terrorist-Peter-Cresswell/dp/1846942748
  456.  
  457. Jesus, Executed Terrorist
  458. http://www.patheos.com/blogs/unfundamentalistchristians/2015/04/jesus-executed-terrorist/
  459.  
  460. Jesus the Terrorist: An Awkward but Obvious Reading of the New Testament
  461. http://pointofcontention.wordpress.com/2014/01/21/jesus-the-terrorist-an-awkward-but-obvious-reading-of-the-new-testament/
  462.  
  463. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  464.  
  465. Essenes, Zealots, and Trouble with Rome
  466. http://www.jesusandtheprofessor.com/2010/05/essenes-zealots-and-trouble-with-rome.html
  467.  
  468. The Problem with Jesus' Arrest and Trial
  469. http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/james_still/jesus_trial.html
  470.  
  471. Trial of Jesus: Rome and Warrior Messiahs
  472. http://www.jesusandtheprofessor.com/2010/08/trial-of-jesus-rome-and-warrior-messiahs.html
  473.  
  474. The Gospel of Peter: from Jesus the Zealot to Jesus Christ
  475. http://www.eclectica.org/v7n3/rogers.html
  476.  
  477. Trial of Jesus: Jews, Maccabees, Zealots, and Judas Iscariot
  478. http://www.jesusandtheprofessor.com/2010/08/trial-of-jesus-jews-maccabees-zealots-and-judas-iscariot.html
  479.  
  480. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  481.  
  482. United Order
  483. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Order
  484.  
  485. Christians on the Left
  486. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christians_on_the_Left
  487.  
  488. Catholic Worker Movement
  489. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Worker_Movement
  490.  
  491. International League of Religious Socialists
  492. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_League_of_Religious_Socialists
  493.  
  494. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  495.  
  496. Social Gospel
  497. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Gospel
  498.  
  499. Christian Left
  500. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_left
  501.  
  502. Christian Anarchism
  503. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_anarchism
  504.  
  505. Christian Communism
  506. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_communism
  507.  
  508. Christian Socialism
  509. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_socialism
  510.  
  511. Liberation Theology
  512. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberation_theology
  513.  
  514. Communalism in Religion
  515. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communalism#Communalism_in_religion
  516.  
  517. Catholic Social Teaching
  518. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_social_teaching
  519.  
  520. Black Liberation Theology
  521. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_liberation_theology
  522.  
  523. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  524.  
  525. Communism's Christian Roots
  526. http://www.makingmyway.org/?p=449
  527.  
  528. The Seed of Communism was Christian
  529. http://dailyatheist.blogspot.com/2008/03/seed-of-communism-was-christian-seed.html
  530.  
  531. Friedrich Engels and Early Christianity
  532. http://dissidentvoice.org/2009/01/frederick-engels-and-early-christianity/
  533.  
  534. Karl Kautsky - Foundations of Christianity
  535. http://www.marxists.org/archive/kautsky/1908/christ/index.htm
  536.  
  537. Friedrich Engels - On the History of Early Christianity
  538. http://marxistsfr.org/archive/marx/works/1894/early-christianity/
  539.  
  540. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  541.  
  542. The history of early Christianity has notable points of resemblance with the modern working-class movement. Like the latter, Christianity was originally a movement of oppressed people: it first appeared as the religion of slaves and emancipated slaves, of poor people deprived of all rights, of peoples subjugated or dispersed by Rome. Both Christianity and the workers' socialism preach forthcoming salvation from bondage and misery; Christianity places this salvation in a life beyond, after death, in heaven; socialism places it in this world, in a transformation of society. Both are persecuted and baited, their adherents are despised and made the objects of exclusive laws, the former as enemies of the human race, the latter as enemies of the state, enemies of religion, the family, social order. And in spite of all persecution, nay, even spurred on by it, they forge victoriously, irresistibly ahead. Three hundred years after its appearance Christianity was the recognized state religion in the Roman World Empire, and in barely sixty years socialism has won itself a position which makes its victory absolutely certain.
  543.  
  544. — Friedrich Engels, On The History Of Early Christianity, Die Neue Zeit, Vol. 1, 1894-95
  545.  
  546. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  547.  
  548. Black / African Saints
  549. http://www.catholic.org/saints/black.php
  550.  
  551. The history of the Church is full of many black / African Catholic saints, who received recognition for great deeds or meritorious conduct. Many lost their lives in defense of the faith. Many were also honored for their contributions to the Church and their community.
  552.  
  553. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  554.  
  555. Simeon Niger
  556. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simeon_Niger
  557.  
  558. Simeon Niger is a person in the Book of Acts in the New Testament. He is mentioned in Acts 13:1 as being one of the "prophets and teachers" in the church of Antioch:
  559.  
  560. "Now there were at Antioch, in the church that was there, prophets and teachers: Barnabas, and Simeon who was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul."
  561. - Acts 13:1, NASB
  562.  
  563. The nickname Niger means "black", which is usually taken to mean a dark complexion and/or African descent.
  564.  
  565. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  566.  
  567. Ethiopian Eunuch
  568. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_eunuch
  569.  
  570. The Ethiopian eunuch is a figure in the New Testament of the Bible. The story of his conversion to Christianity is recounted in Acts chapter 8.
  571.  
  572. Philip the Evangelist was told by an angel to go to the road from Jerusalem to Gaza, and there he met the Ethiopian eunuch. He had been to Jerusalem to worship (Acts 8:27), and was returning home. The eunuch was sitting in his chariot reading the Book of Isaiah, and had come to Isaiah 53:7-8. Philip asked the Ethiopian, "Do you understand what you are reading?" He said he did not ("How can I understand unless I have a teacher to teach me?"), and asked Philip to explain the text to him. Philip told him the Gospel of Jesus, and the Ethiopian asked to be baptized. They went down into some water and Philip baptized him. After this, Philip is suddenly taken away by the Spirit of the Lord, and the eunuch "went on his way rejoicing" (verse 39).
  573.  
  574. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  575.  
  576. The Next Christianity
  577. http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/facts/fm0018.html
  578.  
  579. The Rise Of Non-Western Christianity
  580. http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/4693
  581.  
  582. Rise of Christianity in the Third World
  583. http://www.ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=5739
  584.  
  585. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  586.  
  587. Conference of European Churches
  588. European Churches Responding to Migration
  589. http://migration.ceceurope.org/
  590.  
  591. National Council of Churches
  592. "Racism is a Sin," Declares Ecumenical Caucus at the U.N. World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance
  593. http://www.ncccusa.org/publicwitness/ecumenicalcaucus.html
  594.  
  595. World Council of Churches
  596. Churches Overcoming Racism
  597. http://www.oikoumene.org/en/what-we-do/racism
  598.  
  599. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  600.  
  601. American Baptist Churches USA
  602. Policy Statement on Racial Justice
  603. http://www.abc-usa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/RACIAL-JUSTICE.pdf
  604.  
  605. Anglican Church of Canada
  606. A Charter for Racial Justice
  607. http://www.anglican.ca/about/ccc/cogs/arwg/charter/
  608.  
  609. Assemblies of God
  610. What is our Position on Racism?
  611. http://ag.org/top/Beliefs/topics/contempissues_04_racism.cfm
  612.  
  613. Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
  614. Becoming a Pro-Reconciling/Anti-Racist Church
  615. http://www.disciples.org/AboutTheDisciples/TheFourPrioritiesoftheChurch/tabid/273/Default.aspx
  616.  
  617. Church of England
  618. Affirming our Common Humanity
  619. http://www.churchofengland.org/media/1165806/gs%20misc%20972.doc
  620.  
  621. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
  622. Race and the Priesthood
  623. http://www.lds.org/topics/race-and-the-priesthood
  624.  
  625. Episcopal Church
  626. The Sin of Racism
  627. http://www.episcopalarchives.org/Afro-Anglican_history/exhibit/awakening/sin_of_racism.php
  628.  
  629. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  630. Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
  631. http://www.elca.org/en/Faith/Faith-and-Society/Social-Statements/Race-Ethnicity-and-Culture
  632.  
  633. Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod
  634. Racism and the Church - Overcoming the Idolatry
  635. http://www.lcms.org/Document.fdoc?src=lcm&id=1052
  636.  
  637. Orthodox Church
  638. Ethnophyletism
  639. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyletism
  640.  
  641. Presbyterian Church in America
  642. Pastoral Letter on Racism
  643. http://pcahistory.org/pca/racism.pdf
  644.  
  645. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
  646. Facing Racism: A Vision of the Beloved Community
  647. http://www.pcusa.org/resource/facing-racism-vision-beloved-community/
  648.  
  649. Roman Catholic Church
  650. Catholic Social Teaching and Racism
  651. http://www.loyno.edu/jsri/sites/loyno.edu.jsri/files/CSTandRacism-Fall2009jsq.pdf
  652.  
  653. Roman Catholic Church
  654. The Church and Racism: Toward a more Fraternal Society
  655. http://www.ewtn.com/library/curia/pcjpraci.htm
  656.  
  657. Roman Catholic Church
  658. Contribution to World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance
  659. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/justpeace/documents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_20010829_comunicato-razzismo_en.html
  660.  
  661. Seventh-Day Adventist Church
  662. Official Statement on Racism
  663. http://www.adventist.org/en/information/official-statements/statements/article/go/0/racism/
  664.  
  665. Southern Baptist Convention
  666. Resolution On Racial Reconciliation
  667. http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/899
  668.  
  669. United Church of Canada
  670. That All May Be One: Anti-Racism Policy
  671. http://www.united-church.ca/beliefs/policies/2000/t314
  672.  
  673. United Church of Christ
  674. Called to be an Anti-Racist Church
  675. http://www.ucc.org/justice/racism/anti-racist-church.html
  676.  
  677. United Methodist Church
  678. Eradication of Racism in The United Methodist Church
  679. http://archives.umc.org/interior_print.asp?ptid=4&mid=1005
  680.  
  681. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  682.  
  683. Churches' Commission for Migrants in Europe
  684. http://www.ccme.be/
  685.  
  686. Church World Service
  687. Syrian Refugee Crisis
  688. http://cwsglobal.org/our-work/you-can-help-syrian-refugees/
  689.  
  690. Conference of European Churches
  691. Refugee Crisis: Ecumenical Organizations Respond
  692. http://www.ceceurope.org/index.php?id=1825
  693.  
  694. National Council of Churches
  695. The Syria Refugee Crisis and the Churches
  696. http://nationalcouncilofchurches.us/news/2015-9_Syria_Refugees.php
  697.  
  698. World Council of Churches
  699. Statement on Responses to Migrant Crises
  700. http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/executive-committee/etchmiadzin-june-2015/statement-on-responses-to-migrant-crises-doc-no-29-rev
  701.  
  702. World Council of Churches, Conference of European Churches, and the Churches' Commission for Migrants in Europe
  703. European Refugee Situation: Churches' Initiatives for Refugees and other Migrants - Priority for Safe Passage
  704. http://www.ceceurope.org/fileadmin/filer/cec/15_9_WCC-CEC-CCME_refugee_crisis_letter_FINAL.pdf
  705.  
  706. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  707.  
  708. American Baptist Churches USA
  709. The International Ministries Resolution on Syrian Refugees
  710. http://www.abc-usa.org/2015/09/17/im-issues-resolution-on-syrian-refugee-crisis/
  711.  
  712. Anglican Church of Canada
  713. Welcoming the Stranger: On the Plight of Refugees
  714. http://www.anglican.ca/news/welcoming-the-stranger-on-the-plight-of-refugees/30012292/
  715.  
  716. Assemblies of God
  717. Immigration Influx
  718. http://penews.org/news/immigration-influx
  719.  
  720. Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
  721. Not Terrorists; Not Tourists: Refugees are Human Beings
  722. http://disciples.org/ecumenical/disciples-ucc-make-joint-statement-on-refugees/
  723.  
  724. Church of England
  725. Responses to the Refugee Crisis
  726. http://www.churchofengland.org/our-views/home-and-community-affairs/asylum-and-immigration/refugee-crisis-statements-and-responses.aspx
  727.  
  728. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
  729. Viewpoint: Help the Refugees among Us
  730. http://www.lds.org/church/news/viewpoint-help-the-refugees-among-us?lang=eng
  731.  
  732. Episcopal Church
  733. Episcopal Migration Ministries
  734. http://www.episcopalchurch.org/page/episcopal-migration-ministries
  735.  
  736. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  737. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service
  738. http://www.elca.org/Our-Work/Relief-and-Development/Lutheran-Immigration-and-Refugee-Services
  739.  
  740. Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod
  741. Lutherans to provide Help for Persecuted Christians, Refugees
  742. http://blogs.lcms.org/2015/persecuted-christians-refugees
  743.  
  744. Orthodox Church
  745. Helping to Resettle Refugees
  746. http://oca.org/parish-ministry/commservice/helping-to-resettle-refugees
  747.  
  748. Presbyterian Church in America
  749. Refugee and Immigrant Ministry
  750. http://pcamna.org/refugee-and-immigrant-ministry/
  751.  
  752. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
  753. Refugee Ministry
  754. http://pda.pcusa.org/page/refugee/
  755.  
  756. Roman Catholic Church
  757. Catholic Relief Services - Syrian Refugee Crisis
  758. http://www.crs.org/media-center/current-issues/syrian-refugee-crisis
  759.  
  760. Roman Catholic Church
  761. Migration and Refugee Services
  762. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-and-refugee-services/index.cfm
  763.  
  764. Roman Catholic Church
  765. The Church and the Syrian Refugees
  766. http://www.catholicworldreport.com/Item/2539/the_church_and_the_syrian_refugees.aspx
  767.  
  768. Seventh-Day Adventist Church
  769. Adventist Refugee & Immigrant Ministries
  770. http://www.refugeeministries.org/
  771.  
  772. Southern Baptist Convention
  773. 10 Ways You can help with the Syrian Refugee Crisis
  774. http://imb.org/updates/storyview-2934.aspx
  775.  
  776. United Church of Canada
  777. Refugees and Migration
  778. http://www.united-church.ca/humanrights/refugees
  779.  
  780. United Church of Christ
  781. Responding to Refugee Emergencies Worldwide
  782. http://www.ucc.org/refugees_index
  783.  
  784. United Methodist Church
  785. Welcoming the Stranger: Difficult and Necessary
  786. http://www.umcmission.org/learn-about-us/news-and-stories/2015/september/0911welcomingthestranger
  787.  
  788. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  789.  
  790. The Bible and Racism
  791. http://www.rsrevision.com/GCSE/shortcourse/equality/racism.htm
  792.  
  793. Christians Against Racism
  794. http://www.facebook.com/respectothers?hc_location=timeline
  795.  
  796. Why Diversity and Anti-Racism?
  797. http://www2.crcna.org/pages/crwm_resources_antiracism.cfm
  798.  
  799. The Biblical Offense of Racism
  800. http://www.reformed.org/webfiles/antithesis/index.html?mainframe=/webfiles/antithesis/v1n1/ant_v1n1_racism.html
  801.  
  802. Christianity Can Defeat Racism!
  803. http://www.bible.ca/s-racism.htm
  804.  
  805. Racism Has No Place in Christianity
  806. http://www.thetimesnews.com/news/local-columnists/mark-fox/racism-has-no-place-in-christianity-1.137233
  807.  
  808. Does God Approve of Racism in the Bible?
  809. http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/racism.html
  810.  
  811. The Impossibility of Racism in Christianity
  812. http://www.doesgodexist.org/MayJun98/TheImpossibilityOfRacismInChristianity.html
  813.  
  814. Accidentally Racist and Intentionally Ignorant
  815. http://www.christianitytoday.com/women/2013/april/accidentally-racist-and-intentionally-ignorant.html
  816.  
  817. What Does the Bible say about Racism, Prejudice, and Discrimination?
  818. http://www.gotquestions.org/racism-Bible.html
  819.  
  820. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  821.  
  822. When it comes to early Christianity, it is clear that the religious influences are Jewish rather than Hellenistic paganism. The essence of the Christian Gospel is nothing more nor less than the fulfillment of all the Old Testament covenantal promises through the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. It is the climax of the history of Yahweh-God’s dealings with the Jewish people through a series of covenants, culminating in the New Covenant of Jesus Christ. It is a Jewish worldview that dominates the Gospel, not that of paganism. Gregory Dix’s conclusions on the question of the Hellenization of the Gospel confirm this claim: the central core of the Gospel consists of “a Jewish Monotheism and a Jewish Messianism and a Jewish Eschatology; which is expressed in a particular pattern of worship and morality.”
  823.  
  824. This conclusion does conflict with what used to be a popular view of Christian origins in the early twentieth-century. This view, held by a group, of critical scholars known as the ‘History of Religions School,’ claimed that many early Christian beliefs and practices were actually borrowed from Hellenistic pagan ‘mystery cults.’ In recent years, however, this view has largely been abandoned by the scholarly world. The evidence now demonstrates that early Christianity is best understood as arising from the Jewish thought world.
  825.  
  826. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  827.  
  828. Judaism and Christianity have not only a book in common, the Hebrew Bible, but also a common set of traditions about what that book means. For although these two religions ultimately diverged on many issues — including the interpretation of Scripture — Christianity at its origin was a Jewish sect, and from the beginning it had adopted a number of Jewish assumptions about how to go about interpreting the Bible, as well as a substantial body of Jewish traditions about the meaning of specific biblical passages. This common store of biblical interpretations and the assumptions that underlie them are a subject of no small importance; perhaps even more than the words of the Bible itself, they have helped to shape the very character of Judaism and Christianity.
  829.  
  830. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  831.  
  832. Egalitarianism, “human rights,” and the universal basis of morality underpin both secular and Christian morality in the modern world.  The moral positions of an Episcopalian bishop and an Ethnic Studies professor are essentially indistinguishable.  Even the more conservative denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church or evangelical parishes challenge secular humanism only from the Left, with the former claiming that progressives need to be more concerned about the unegalitarian implications of abortion and the latter worried about the racist consequences of evolution.
  833.  
  834. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  835.  
  836. Before you draw conclusions about the usefulness of Christianity as a vehicle for White racial preservation, you need to read the Breivik manifesto.
  837.  
  838. First, in the name of Christian Universalism, for instance, he advocates treating all Christians as Europeans, no matter what their race, and even bringing non-White Christians into his Templar Crusade.
  839.  
  840. Basically, Breivik’s concern for preserving Nordics is trumped by his Christian universalism. If all the Muslims in Norway converted to Christianity, he would have no objection to them.
  841.  
  842. Second, in the name of Christian universalism, Breivik envisions crusades into the Middle East to help the local Middle Eastern Christians. So Europeans will spill their blood to help the genetic first cousins to Europe’s Muslim invaders, so long as the beneficiaries are Christians.
  843.  
  844. This is the logic of Christian universalism at work. Blood is particular. But Christianity is universal. Blood is natural. But Christianity aims higher than nature. Thus Christian brotherhood always trumps and undermines blood brotherhood.
  845. ...
  846. It is possible to hold conflicting values without problems as long as they are merely in one’s mind, as abstractions never tested in the real world. The problems emerge when you try to live by them, then they actually do come into conflict, and you actually do have to decide which value trumps which.
  847.  
  848. Say that you are a devout Christian, and your daughter wants to marry a devout Black Nigerian Christian. You now have a conflict between blood-based values and Christian universal values.
  849.  
  850. Which is more important to you: maintaining genetic distinctness or honoring the universal community of the church? If a Black man is worthy of sharing heaven with you, through accepting Jesus Christ as his savior, then why should he not be worthy of sharing the same neighborhood with you, the same public transportation, the same church, the same water fountain—or holy wedlock with your sister? Or do you think that there will be Jim Crow in heaven?
  851. ...
  852. You can’t refute theological-philosophical arguments about principles by citing historical facts about the beliefs of confused people who did not grapple with the theological and philosophical points I am making either. It is just an attempt to change the subject in the guise of answering an objection. But you know better than that.
  853.  
  854. Christianity will not be dead until its secular offspring, liberal universalism, is dead as well. But you know that, don’t you?
  855.  
  856. Christian fanatics are precisely the ones who believe that blood differences don’t matter. One can work with lukewarm or confused Christians, or people who are racists first and Christians second. But you can’t work with real Christians, because they take their supernatural universalism seriously, which pits them against blood brotherhood wherever and whenever it conflicts with the supernatural brotherhood in Christ which is the Church.
  857. ...
  858. Judaism is an ethnocentric religion. Racism is just a form of ethnocentrism. Christianity is a universalistic religion. Paul, who is part of the Bible and therefore part of Christianity, makes it clear that the differences of blood and nation make no difference once one enters into the universal brotherhood of the Church. Christianity is therefore anti-ethnocentric, anti-xenophobic, and anti-racist—even if “racism” was not a word at the time.
  859.  
  860. This means that all kinds of men can share heaven. Now, if a black Christian is good enough to share heaven with, on what grounds is he not good enough to share your neighborhood, water fountain, or city bus? On what grounds can you deny that he can enter holy matrimony, one of the sacraments of the church, with your sister or daughter?
  861. ...
  862. Good luck to you. There is nothing we need more than a Racial Reformation of the Church, and only practicing Christians can provide it.
  863.  
  864. The Churches have always been willing to compromise with the Zeitgeist because ultimately their kingdom is not of this world. Once a racialist Zeitgeist re-emerges, we will hear less and less about Christian anti-racism.
  865.  
  866. But if we get that genie back in the bottle, we will always have to be eternally vigilant, lest it escape again. Because Christian universalism is, in fact, opposed to racialism and thus will always pose a danger.
  867.  
  868. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  869.  
  870. Christianity did undermine racial exclusivity for nearly 2,000 years. Racial and subracial differences were no bar to marriage, as long as both parties were Christian. Christianity spread in the racially and culturally mixed seaports around the Mediterranean, to the lowest strata of society, which included slaves and freedmen of all races. Of course we do not have records of these people’s marriages, but surely the church blessed many miscegenating matches from the very beginning.
  871.  
  872. We have better records from later times, when Christianity was the dominant religion of Europe. Here are just a couple of random examples. In the 8th century, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine the V married Irene of Khazaria, a daugher of the Khazar Khagan. Their son, Leo IV, also called Leo the Khazar, ruled the empire from 775 to 780. But Constantine himself was no Greek or Roman. His family were from Syria, but they married into the Byzantine ruling class. Because of Christianity, the Byzantine Empire had lost its ethnically Roman and Greek character by the early 8th century, taking on instead a heavily near-Eastern (Armenian and Syrian ethnic composition). The later Phyrigian and Macedonian dynasties were actually Armenian, and they married their sons and daughters to the Frankish and Russian aristocracies. Indeed, Grand Duke Vladimir of Kiev Christianized himself and the Rus in order to marry Anna, the daughter of Romanos II, in the late 10th century.
  873.  
  874. Race mixing has, of course, increased with the greater mobility of populations. But wherever Christians of different races and subraces existed together in the past, the Church has been willing to bless their matches.
  875.  
  876. Jews, of course, are not Europeans, yet the Church has blessed marriages between Jewish converts to Christianity and European Christians, and these sorts of matches must have been quite common in the early years of the Church.
  877.  
  878. And of course the Crusades, in which Europe spilled the blood of generations of its finest and fairest Frankish nobles for the freedom of Near Eastern Christians, could hardly be said to be in the genetic interests of Europeans.
  879.  
  880. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  881.  
  882. The belief that the image of a donkey, or at least of a donkey's head, was venerated in the inner shrine of the Jewish Temple is attested elsewhere.
  883.  
  884. Apion of Alexandria {ca. A.D. 30) asserted that the Jews kept a gold donkey's head in their sanctuary: it was discovered there, he said, when Antiochus Epiphanes plundered the temple {Contra Apionem, 2.80). Another writer, Mnaseas, tells how an Idumaean named Zabidus stole the gold head from the sanctuary by a trick {Contra Apionem, 2.112-14).
  885.  
  886. According to Diodorus {History, 34, fragment), what Antiochus discovered was the statue of a bearded man (presumably Moses) mounted on a donkey. These tales were at least less sinister than another retailed by Apion, how Antiochus discovered in the temple a Greek, who was being fattened for a cannibalistic rite which the Jews celebrated annually {Contra Apionem, 2.89-96).
  887.  
  888. As for the donkey-god legend, it was in due course transferred from the Jews to the Christians, as we know from Tertullian - "for in fact, with other people, you have imagined that our god is a donkey's head" {Apology, 16.1) - and also from the well-known Palatine graffito of a crucified man with a donkey's head, with the Greek caption: "Alexamenos worships his god".
  889.  
  890. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  891.  
  892. “Revelation” is from the Latin translation of the Greek word apocalypsis, which can designate any unveiling or revealing, fantastic or ordinary. Scholars also refer to the document as the Apocalypse of John. And that same Greek word provides the label for all sorts of ancient literature that scholars call “apocalyptic.” The biblical text purports to relate a real vision experienced by an otherwise unknown Jew named John — not the Apostle John, nor the same person as the anonymous author of what we call the Gospel of John. But we have no reason to doubt that his name was really John. It wasn’t an unusual name for a Jew.
  893.  
  894. John wrote his vision, prefaced with messages to seven churches in Asia Minor (modern western Turkey), from the island of Patmos in the Aegean Sea. We may imagine John as an old Jew who had lived through the Jewish war with Rome, during which Jerusalem was decimated and the Temple destroyed in the year 70. He may have seen the thousands of Jews killed and thousands of others carried to Rome as slaves. Bitter about the dominating imperial power, he may have wandered through Syria and Asia Minor, along the way meeting other followers of the crucified prophet Jesus, other “cells” of worshipers of the Jewish Messiah who was killed and mysteriously raised from the dead.
  895.  
  896. But when he gets to western Asia Minor, he comes across many gentile Christians, quite possibly in churches founded by the now dead Apostle Paul. Unlike John, they seem to be relatively well off. They usually get along fine with their non-Christian neighbors. They may be prospering from the Pax Romana, the “peace” sustained by Roman domination. They are marrying and having children, running their small businesses, ignoring the statues, temples and worship of other gods that surround them.
  897.  
  898. For John, this Christian toleration of Rome and its idols is offensive. This is not a benign governmental power. It is the Whore of Babylon, arrogantly destroying the earth. John writes (in this theory) to warn the churches, and he relates his vision to provoke alarm at the Evil Empire. That vision predicts the destruction of Rome by angelic armies, followed by the salvation of faithful disciples of the bloody, horned warrior-lamb Jesus. Those who resist will, in the end, be rewarded.
  899.  
  900. Revelation and other apocalyptic writings stoked Jewish fear and hatred of gentile ruling powers, if not so often armed revolt. Revelation was originally anti-Roman propaganda. Two centuries earlier, around 164 B.C., a Jew wrote down another series of visions in order to incite resistance against Hellenizing Jewish leaders in Jerusalem and their patron king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, ruler of the Greco-Syrian Seleucid empire. That book, published in the Old Testament under the pseudonym Daniel, is one of the earliest ancient apocalypses, and it influenced Jewish and Christian literature thereafter. Around A.D. 100, another Jew, not a Christian, recorded his own visions, nowadays known as 4 Ezra, also stoking the fires of anti-Roman hatred and prophesying Rome’s destruction.
  901.  
  902. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  903.  
  904. The writer of Revelation may have been called John – the book is sometimes called “Book of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine” but he was not the disciple who accompanied Jesus. He was a devout Jew and mystic exiled on the island of Patmos, off the coast of present-day Greece. The author of Revelation had experienced a catastrophe. He wrote his book not long after 60,000 Roman soldiers had stormed Jerusalem in 70 A.D., burned down its great temple and left the city in ruins after putting down an armed Jewish revolt. For some of the earliest Jewish followers of Jesus, the destruction of Jerusalem was incomprehensible. They had expected Jesus to return “with power” and conquer Rome before inaugurating a new Jewish golden age. But Rome had conquered Jesus’ homeland instead. The author of Revelation was trying to encourage the followers of Jesus at a time when their world seemed doomed. Revelation was an anti-Roman tract and a piece of war propaganda wrapped in one. The message: Yahweh would return and destroy the Romans who had destroyed Jerusalem.
  905.  
  906. The author of Revelation was like an activist crusading for traditional values. In his case, he was a devout Jew who saw Jesus as the messiah. But he didn’t like the message that the apostle Paul and other followers of Jesus were preaching. This new message insisted that gentiles could become followers of Jesus without adopting the requirements of the Torah. It accepted women leaders, and intermarriage with gentiles. The new message was a lot like what we call Christianity today. That was too much for the author of Revelation. At one point, he calls a woman leader in an early church community a “Jezebel.” He calls one of those gentile-accepting churches a “synagogue of Satan.” John was defending a form of Christianity that would be eclipsed by the Christians he attacked. What John of Patmos preached would have looked old-fashioned – and simply wrong to Paul’s converts. The author of Revelation was a follower of Jesus, but he wasn’t what some people would call a Christian today. There’s no indication that he read Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount or that he read the gospels or Paul’s letters.
  907.  
  908. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  909.  
  910. THE JEWISH APOCALYPTIC GENRE
  911.  
  912. Not all Jewish apocalypse literature exhibits the exact same traits, but they are mostly consistent in their similarities:
  913.  
  914. - Dualism: there is demonic evil and there is divine good, and they are in combat. There will be an era of intense divine warfare, manifesting as conflict between Yahweh's chosen people and the wicked gentile rulers of the world, but this era will be replaced by a future era of Jewish righteousness.
  915.  
  916. - Determinism: Yahweh is in control of history, so despite all the evil in the world, everything happens according to his will. Yahweh is in charge, and he is bringing history toward its goal.
  917.  
  918. - Judgment: there will be sudden intervention by Yahweh in the history of the world, bringing all gentile evil to an end. All humanity, or at least the people alive at the time this happens, will be held accountable for their actions. Righteous Jews will inherit the coming age, while wicked gentiles will suffer punishment.
  919.  
  920. - Visions: the revelation of all this information comes in the shape of visions or dreams, filled with intense symbolism. Consequently, the seer himself often requires the help of an angel to explain the meaning of the symbols. (Hence why scholars have come to call this genre "apocalypse"; this is a Greek word that describes the "revealing" of this new information.)
  921.  
  922. - Pseudepigraphical: all Jewish and Christian apocalypses are attributed to an authoritative Jewish figure of the past, in order to lend credibility to the revelations described. Examples include: Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Baruch, Ezra, Daniel, etc. Later Christians would attribute their visions to: Peter, Paul, James, John, Thomas, etc.
  923.  
  924. - Sealing: because the Jewish apocalyptic revelations are always about events in the immediate future, the pseudonymous author needs an explanation for why the book is only just now being published. It was, many Jewish apocalypses inform their readers, because the seer received his visions centuries or millennia ahead of time, and he was told to seal up and hide the scroll he wrote on. Only when the time was right would the scroll be rediscovered (i.e. the time when the author wrote the book).
  925.  
  926. With all of the above drawn together, we see that the general thrust of the Jewish apocalyptic genre is that its subject matter is primarily concerned with a Jewish crisis in the author's present time. For Ezekiel and Zechariah, the crisis was the Babylonian exile. For the earlier swath of Jewish apocalypses, it was the Maccabean Revolt. For later Jewish apocalypses, it was the Roman conquest of Jerusalem and its aftermath; Revelation was written in this latter time period, as were 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch).
  927.  
  928. Revelation hits all of the major points of a Jewish apocalypse, except for two.
  929.  
  930. First, while all other known Jewish apocalypses are pseudepigraphical, the general consensus of scholars and critics is that Revelation is an extremely rare exception, perhaps the only exception: the seer is exactly who he claims to be (a Jewish-Christian named John, probably living in the final decade of the first-century AD).
  931.  
  932. Second, because Revelation is not pseudepigraphical, the author has no reason to allege that he was told to seal up his visions until some distant future date. Instead, the author admits to living during the very time his visions are concerned with, and in the last chapter his angelic guide forbids him from sealing his scroll 'because the time is near' and the events 'must soon happen'.
  933.  
  934. THE JEWISH SYMBOLISM OF REVELATION
  935.  
  936. Revelation exhibits exactly the sort of symbolism we would expect from any ancient Jewish apocalypse. So while Revelation's symbols are intense and cryptic, this was common for the genre as a whole. In that case, we should be asking, "Why does the Jewish apocalyptic genre use so much symbolism at all?"
  937.  
  938. In Jewish apocalyptic literature in general, many of the symbols are drawn from the Hebrew scriptures and broader Jewish and Christian traditions. When we come to Revelation, this is the case with the absolute majority of the symbols. Revelation 5, for example, portrays the messiah (Jesus, in this case) as 'the lion of the tribe of Judah' who is the 'root of David'. Right around the same time as Revelation, another Jewish apocalypse, 4 Ezra, was written. The Jewish author of this book, who was not a Christian, also symbolizes the Davidic messiah as a lion. In this case, Revelation and 4 Ezra were both drawing on a by-then traditional combination of Genesis 49.9 and Jeremiah 23.5. The intention wasn't to hide the true meaning behind obscure pictures, but to show the intended recipients of the text something they would understand in an evocative manner.
  939.  
  940. But other symbols in Jewish apocalypses were drawn from popular cross-cultural traditions and myths. For example, the sequence of four metals in Daniel 2 is found in many cultures even before the sixth century, including Greece and Persia. Or the general picture of a cloud-riding ruler triumphing over sea-monster(s) in Daniel 7 is loosely influenced by the ancient story of Baal slaying the sea-monster Yam. Although it was typical for Jewish apocalypses to use heavy symbolism, their (probable) meanings would have been easy to discover for anyone who knew the sources being used. The absolute majority of the symbols in Revelation came from Jewish and Christian traditions.  Let's suppose some sort of Roman imperial authority got his hands on a copy of Revelation; would he have been able to detect the anti-Roman message of the book? Even if the Jewish and Christian symbols fly over his head, he's not going to miss the message when he sees the book calling Rome, the personification of the city on seven hills, a "whore".
  941.  
  942. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  943.  
  944. Credulity is a virtue:  (Romans 8:24, 2 Corinthians 4:18, 2 Corinthians 5:7, Hebrews 11:1)
  945. Evidence is useless:  (Luke 16:27-31)
  946. Asking for evidence is evil:  (Mark 8:12, Matthew 12:39, Luke 11:29)
  947. Anything that disagrees with what we say is evil:  (Galatians 1:8-9)
  948. Anything with our stamp of approval on it is true by definition:  (1 John 4:1-3)
  949. You are either for us or against us with no shades of gray:  (Mark 9:40, Matthew 12:30, Luke 9:50, Luke 11:23, John 3:18-21, John 18:37)
  950. Anything wrong is your fault:  (Romans 9:20)
  951. Everyone secretly knows our core doctrines are true:  (Romans 1:20)
  952. Miracles confirm our message, but false prophets can do those miracles, too:  (Matthew 24:24, Mark 13:22)
  953. Good behavior is the hallmark of being correct about theological views:  (Matthew 7:15-20)
  954. Ancient holy hearsay is the litmus test for reality claims:  (Acts 17:11)
  955. Religious visions, intuitions, and other mysticism trump everything else:  (1 John 2:27, 1 John 5: 6-12)
  956. Shun the intellectualism of the world:  (1 Corinthians 1:20, 1 Corinthians 3:19, 2 Corinthians 1:12)
  957. Some powerful invisible enemy is at work behind the scenes trying to destroy your faith in our belief system:  (2 Corinthians 2:11)
  958. Out-group rejects your beliefs not because you are mistaken, credulous, stupid, or ignorant, but because they hate good things:  (John 15:19)
  959. Here’s your get-out-of-making-sense free card:  (1 Corinthians 2:14, Matthew 7:6)
  960. Story characters supposedly get amazing evidence and you don’t:  (John 20:29)
  961.  
  962. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  963.  
  964. Pro-Semitism in the New Testament
  965.  
  966. In the Gospels:
  967. Matthew 1:1-17 and Luke 3:23-38 emphasize that Jesus was Jewish and a descendent of David.
  968. Matthew 10:5-6 - Jesus instructs the disciples to take the Gospel to the Jews first, not the Gentiles.
  969. Matthew 15:21-28 - Jesus tells a Gentile woman that he was sent to save the Jews first.
  970. The Jews are far from being the only ones involved in Christ's persecution and crucifixion. Pilate let Jesus be crucified despite realizing his innocence (Mk 15:9-15) and the Roman soldiers mocked and persecuted Jesus, as well as doing the actual crucifying (Mt 27:27-31, Lk 23:11, 35-37).
  971. John 4:22 - "Salvation is from the Jews" (i.e. from Jesus, David's descendant).
  972.  
  973. In Acts:
  974. 4:27 - Herod, Pilate and the Gentiles in Jerusalem (not just the Jews) conspired against Jesus.
  975. 11:1-18 - In the account of Peter and Cornelius, the Jews are amazed that God is merciful enough to save "even the (unclean) Gentiles."
  976. 14:1, 17:10-12 - Paul follows Jesus' model of going to the Jews first, and many Jews accept Jesus as the Messiah.
  977.  
  978. In the Pauline Epistles:
  979. Romans 1:16 - Salvation is "first for the Jew, then for the Gentile".
  980. Romans 9:1-5 - Paul (who is Jewish) describes his desire for the Israelites to receive Christ and the honors the Israelites have received, including that Jesus' human ancestry was through them.
  981. Romans 11:1-24 - Paul warns the Gentiles against boasting, comparing them to wild olive branches and the Jews to cultivated olive branches.
  982. Romans 11:28 - Even those Jews who reject Christ are to be "loved on account of the patriarchs."
  983. Romans 15:27 - "For if the Gentiles have shared in the Jews' spiritual blessings, they owe it to the Jews to share with them their material blessings."
  984. Galatians 2:7-9 - At least three of the apostles had a specific ministry to the Jews.
  985. Galatians 2:11-13 - Rather than an anti-Semitic prejudice, the early church had if anything a pro-Semitic prejudice, as evidenced by Peter and others discriminating against Gentiles.
  986.  
  987. In Revelation:
  988. 7:2-8 - 144,000 Jewish male virgins (12,000 from each of the twelve tribes of Israel) are sealed with God's seal.
  989. 21:12 - The names of the twelve tribes of Israel are written on the gates of the new Jerusalem.
RAW Paste Data
Top