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  1. 8.     List six stages of the development of thinking:
  2. Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker
  3. Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker
  4. Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker
  5. Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker
  6. Stage Five: The Advanced Thinker
  7. Stage Six: The Master Thinker
  8.  
  9. 9.     Shortly describe characteristics of parents of highly creative children: Encourages children to have an oppion gives time for thinking daydreaming and loafing, Lets children make decisions, has a close warm relationship with the child, and encourages them to be courious.
  10. 10.  List characteristics of highly creative children according to Alvino:
  11. 1.     A tendency to seek out older children and adults;
  12. 2.     An early fascination with explanations and problem solving;
  13. 3.     Talking in complete sentences as early as 2 or 3 years of age;
  14. 4.     An unusually good memory;
  15. 5.     Precocious talent in art, music, or number skills;
  16. 6.     An early interest in books, along with early reading (often by age 3);
  17. 7.     Showing of kindness, understanding, and cooperation toward others.
  18.  
  19. 11.  List characteristics of highly creative children according to Whelan (1965):
  20. 1. Energy: few illnesses, avid reader, early physical development, good grades, active in organizations
  21. 2.     Autonomy: values privacy, independent, early to leave home
  22. 3.     Confidence
  23. 4.     Openness to new experience
  24. 5.     Preference for complexity
  25. 6.     Lack of close emotional ties
  26. 7.     Permissive value structure.
  27. 12.  What is a temperament? the physical core of personality, including sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood
  28. 13.  Provide definition of environment: refers to the sum of all external conditions affecting development, especially the effects of learning
  29. 14.  Describe a critical period of child development: represent a narrow window of time during which a specific part of the body is most vulnerable to the absence of stimulation or to environmental influences. Example is vision the child need light in the first 6 month or they lose sight.
  30. 15.  How does a child's ability to reason change over time? They go from the sensorimotor statge to the , preoperational, to the concrete operations, to the formal operations.
  31. 16.  How do gender and ethnic background affect moral development? Gender doesn’t effect it at all and though cultures shape the development.
  32. 17.  How does a child develop language skills? Some psychologists believe that childhood is a critical period for acquiring language, during which it is much easier to build a vocabulary, master the rules of grammar, and form intelligible sentences. If so, this would explain why learning a second language is also easier for children than for adults.
  33. 18.  What are the consequences of going through puberty early or late? Very early maturing girls face both advantages and disadvantages. They may like the admiration they get from other girls but dislike the embarrassing sexual attention given to them by boys. Boys who mature early do better in sports and in social activities and receive greater respect from their peers, so it may seem that early maturation is preferable in males. Many late-maturing boys, however, may eventually develop a stronger sense of self-identity, perhaps because they don't feel pressured to 'grow up' too quickly.
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